Science.gov

Sample records for clinical review memo

  1. Review of Stem-Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Older Patients in the Context of the Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome Emanating From the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

    PubMed Central

    Giralt, Sergio A.; Horowitz, Mary; Weisdorf, Daniel; Cutler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders that result in varying degrees of cytopenia and risk of transformation into acute leukemia. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) is the only known cure for this disease. The treatment is routinely used for younger patients, but only a minority of patients older than the age of 60 undergo this procedure. The overall MDS incidence is 3.3 per 100,000, but the incidence in patients older than age 70 is between 15 and 50 per 100,000. The median age at presentation is 76 years. Medicare-age patients 65 or older represent 80% of the total population receiving an MDS diagnosis. In the United States, one of the obstacles to SCT for older patients with MDS has been lack of third party reimbursement. On August 4, 2010, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released their Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Myelodysplastic Syndrome. This memo states: “Allogeneic HSCT for MDS is covered by Medicare only for beneficiaries with MDS participating in an approved clinical study that meets the criteria below…. ” In this review, we will summarize what is known regarding the role of allogeneic SCT in older patients as well as other elements that should be included within clinical trials that can provide the evidence necessary to demonstrate that allogeneic SCT should be a covered benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:21220586

  2. Illustrations of the Analytic Memo as Reflexivity for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Donna Kalmbach; Carr, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of analytic memos during the action research process as a space to support preservice teachers' emerging teacher identity and construction of practice through critical reflexivity. The authors reviewed 34 sets of analytic memos written by graduate preservice teachers by asking, "How are preservice teachers using the…

  3. MTA: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Tawil, Peter Z; Duggan, Derek J.; Galicia, Johnah C.

    2016-01-01

    MTA has been a revolutionary material in endodontics. Since it’s introduction in the 1990’s several studies have demonstrated its use in several clinical applications. MTA has been extensively studied and is currently used for perforation repairs, apexifications, regenerative procedures, apexogenesis, pulpotomies & pulp capping. This article will review the history, composition, research findings and clinical applications of this versatile material. PMID:25821936

  4. Narcolepsy: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Leschziner, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Despite the classic tetrad of clinical features that typify it, narcolepsy remains much under-diagnosed, in part, because of the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, but also because of its insidious onset, usually in a young person. The median time to diagnosis from first symptoms remains very long, around 10 years in the UK. Conversely, in the specialist setting, it is likely over-diagnosed, largely because of failure to exclude other causes of hypersomnia. There is an over-reliance on a biological marker of the condition, the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), which, like many tests, has a significant false-positive and false-negative rate. This review aims to discuss some of the difficulties in achieving a diagnosis, interpretation of investigations, differential diagnosis, and appropriate management of patients with narcolepsy. PMID:24830461

  5. SuperMemo; XIA LI BA REN (Macintosh Version 1.0).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Charlotte; Bourgerie, Dana S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes "SuperMemo," a memorization tool that uses an automated flashcard scheme that can include sound and graphics in the database of study items. Based on the learner's performance, "SuperMemo" schedules items to appear for review. Xia Li Ba Ren ("common person" in Chinese) is the name of a Chinese word processor that runs with a standard…

  6. Enophthalmos: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Cline, R A; Rootman, J

    1984-03-01

    Twenty-six cases of enophthalmos were reviewed. The causes in order of frequency were: orbital asymmetry (8); trauma (5); orbital metastasis (4); microphthalmos (2); orbital varix (2); maxillary mucocele (2); localized scleroderma (1); absence of sphenoid wing (neurofibromatosis) (1); post irradiation atrophy (1). Only six of the patients (23%) were referred with the diagnosis of enophthalmos, suggesting the sign maybe subtle and is frequently missed or misdiagnosed. The nature of the causes underscore the need for careful and thorough diagnosis. In particular, the therapeutic implications of diagnosing metastatic disease, maxillary mucocele, and orbital varices is noted. A review of etiology and mechanisms of enophthalmos point to the diversity, importance and conditions causing this sign. PMID:6717910

  7. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Ronald A.; Froese, Colleen

    1990-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined. PMID:21233984

  8. Memos trace routine radiation overexposures

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-09

    Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant routinely received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be routine overexposures of workers.

  9. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  10. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The

  11. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  12. [How to write a good clinical review?].

    PubMed

    Krause, B J; Khan, C; Antoch, G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reviews are an important part of the medical literature offering the reader condensed information on a specific topic. In radiology and nuclear medicine most clinical reviews have a subjective character as they have been written in a rather narrative way. Based on their low level of evidence these narrative reviews are frequently not being considered for establishment of clinical guidelines. The aim of this paper is to aid the reader in writing a good clinical review by highlighting the different aspects of a systematic review. PMID:25774019

  13. Myopic foveoschisis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Gohil, R; Sivaprasad, S; Han, L T; Mathew, R; Kiousis, G; Yang, Y

    2015-05-01

    To review the literature on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic imaging, natural history, management, therapeutic approaches, and prognosis of myopic foveoschisis. A systematic Pubmed search was conducted using search terms: myopia, myopic, staphyloma, foveoschisis, and myopic foveoschisis. The evidence base for each section was organised and reviewed. Where possible an authors' interpretation or conclusion is provided for each section. The term myopic foveoschisis was first coined in 1999. It is associated with posterior staphyloma in high myopia, and is often asymptomatic initially but progresses slowly, leading to loss of central vision from foveal detachment or macular hole formation. Optical coherence tomography is used to diagnose the splitting of the neural retina into a thicker inner layer and a thinner outer layer, but compound variants of the splits have been identified. Vitrectomy with an internal limiting membrane peel and gas tamponade is the preferred approach for eyes with vision decline. There has been a surge of new information on myopic foveoschisis. Advances in optical coherence tomography will continually improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of retinal splitting, and the mechanisms that lead to macular damage and visual loss. Currently, there is a good level of consensus that surgical intervention should be considered when there is progressive visual decline from myopic foveoschisis. PMID:25744445

  14. Clinical and administrative review in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stott, N. C. H.; Davis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical and administrative review in primary medical care can be an enjoyable and creative part of group-practice life. A series of such reviews are described which improve internal or external communication for the primary care team. PMID:1223278

  15. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  16. Thymomas: Review of Current Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszek, Sandra; Wigle, Dennis A.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Fischer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. The introduction of multimodality treatment strategies, as well as novel approaches to the diagnosis of these tumors, has led to changes in the clinical management of thymomas. Here we review the literature for current clinical practice in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of thymomas. PMID:19463649

  17. [A review of international clinical trial registration].

    PubMed

    Yu, He; Liu, Jian-ping

    2007-05-01

    Clinical trials play a critical role in medical research. However, only a few clinical trials conducted at present have been registered at various clinical trial registries. Clinical trial registration can prevent bias in these registered trials effectively and avoid unnecessary waste of resources due to meaningless repeats. Moreover, it will benefit the development of evidence-based medicine, and promote human welfare. Great attention has been paid to the importance and necessity of clinical trial registration. This review briefly introduced the definition, justification, contents, history, current status of clinical trial registration, and introduced the information regarding important international clinical trial registries in detail. Clinical trial registration should be developed toward a transparent, compulsory and comprehensive stage. PMID:17498477

  18. Huntington's disease: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Roos, Raymund A C

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients

  19. Human Schistosomiasis: Clinical Perspective: Review

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Rashad S.; Esmat, Gamal; El-Baz, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis pass by acute, sub acute and chronic stages that mirror the immune response to infection. The later includes in succession innate, TH1 and TH2 adaptive stages, with an ultimate establishment of concomitant immunity. Some patients may also develop late complications, or suffer the sequelae of co-infection with other parasites, bacteria or viruses. Acute manifestations are species-independent; occur during the early stages of invasion and migration, where infection-naivety and the host’s racial and genetic setting play a major role. Sub acute manifestations occur after maturity of the parasite and settlement in target organs. They are related to the formation of granulomata around eggs or dead worms, primarily in the lower urinary tract with Schistosoma haematobium, and the colon and rectum with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mekongi infection. Secondary manifestations during this stage may occur in the kidneys, liver, lungs or other ectopic sites. Chronic morbidity is attributed to the healing of granulomata by fibrosis and calcification at the sites of oval entrapment, deposition of schistosomal antigen-antibody complexes in the renal glomeruli or the development of secondary amyloidosis. Malignancy may complicate the chronic lesions in the urinary bladder or colon. Co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis viruses B or C may confound the clinical picture of schistosomiasis, while the latter may have a negative impact on the course of other co-infections as malaria, leishmaniasis and HIV. Prevention of schistosomiasis is basically geared around education and periodic mass treatment, an effective vaccine being still experimental. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of active infection by any species, with a cure rate of 80%. Other antischistosomal drugs include metrifonate for S. haematobium, oxamniquine for S. mansoni and Artemether and, possibly

  20. Huntington's disease: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients

  1. MEMO: Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Chassefiere, E.; Sotin, C.; Barabash, S.; Dehant, V.; Dougherty, M.; Lammer, H.; Mandea, M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2007-03-01

    MEMO is a new orbiter devoted to the characterization of present atmospheric escape and of the fossile magnetic field. The low periapsis (~130 km) is required to detect and quantify atoms and molecules involved in the escape, and to measure the magnetic f

  2. TUTOR User's Memo Using AUTHOR MODE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    While a PLATO station is normally used to present lessons (STUDENT MODE), a station can also be used by a teacher to produce or alter lessons or to control lesson presentation (AUTHOR MODE). This memo describes the manner in which student records and lesson material are stored in the computer memory, prescribes the method of entry to AUTHOR MODE,…

  3. Memo to: Ambulatory Health Care Planners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Planning for changing types of health professions and a changing clientele necessitates designing flexible facilities. Findings from a recently completed analysis of ambulatory care facilities are directed to planners in the form of 16 memos. Approaches to planning and design considerations are made that attempt to humanize these facilities.…

  4. Clinical and fiscal outcomes of utilization review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mary Ellen; Darmody, Julie V

    2004-01-01

    Concurrent utilization review (UR) is both a quality improvement tool and a cost containment strategy used by managed care organizations. The UR process requires that providers (hospital staff) communicate clinical information about hospitalized patients to payers who evaluate the appropriateness and medical necessity of the planned care. Payers then make a decision whether to certify the care for reimbursement. This study provides data to indicate that denials of certification have little impact on clinical and fiscal outcomes of patient care. PMID:14740580

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex disorder of heterogeneous etiologies characterized by a consistent, recognizable pattern of lung injury. Extensive epidemiologic studies and clinical intervention trials have been conducted to address the high mortality of this disorder and have provided significant insight into the complexity of studying new therapies for this condition. The existing clinical investigations in ARDS will be highlighted in this review. The limitations to current definitions, patient selection, and outcome assessment will be considered. While significant attention has been focused on the parenchymal injury that characterizes this disorder and the clinical support of gas exchange function, relatively limited focus has been directed to hemodynamic and pulmonary vascular dysfunction equally prominent in the disease. The limited available clinical information in this area will also be reviewed. The current standards for cardiopulmonary management of the condition will be outlined. Current gaps in our understanding of the clinical condition will be highlighted with the expectation that continued progress will contribute to a decline in disease mortality. PMID:22034606

  6. Integration of radiologist peer review into clinical review workstation.

    PubMed

    McEnery, K W; Suitor, C T; Hildebrand, S; Downs, R L

    2000-05-01

    Professional peer review of random prior radiologist's interpretations is mandated by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The JCAHO expects documentation of 5% rate of random peer-review cases. Countless hours are spent in departments fulfilling these requirements. The integration of the peer-review process into the radiologist's interpretation workflow was expected to increase the percentage of documented peer review, yet decrease the time and effort for this documentation. radStation clinical review workstations are deployed at every reading station. When a requisition is bar-coded, radStation retrieves the patient's clinical information and automatically displays the prior comparison report. If the radiologist agrees with the prior report, a single click on a "quality assurance' agree box documents the agreement. In the case of a discordance, an additional dialog box automatically appears and the radiologist enters the reason for disagreement and then submits the case as a discrepancy. The system holds the discordance for 3 to 5 working days, then notifies the original radiologist via E-mail that a prior interpretation has been submitted for peer review, lists the submitted discrepancy reason, and provides a link to display the discordant report. The peer-review database is separate from the existing radiology information system (RIS). At the end of every month, summary reports of all peer-review activity are generated automatically. Initial benchmarks of our deployed system anticipate documentation of long-term random peer-review rate at greater than 50% of interpreted cases. The system enhances the peer-review process by integrating it with the normal interpretation workflow. The time to complete peer review using radStation is less than 1 second per normal case and less than 60 seconds for a discordant case. The E-mail notification system is fully automated, eliminating the need for secretarial involvement in the data

  7. Review of clinical medicine and religious practice.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Adams, Michelle P; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose was to evaluate faith-based studies within the medical literature to determine whether there are ways to help physicians understand how religion affects patients’ lives and diseases. We reviewed articles that assessed the influence of religious practices on medicine as a primary or secondary variable in clinical practice. This review evaluated 49 articles and found that religious faith is important to many patients, particularly those with serious disease, and patients depend on it as a positive coping mechanism. The findings of this review can suggest that patients frequently practice religion and interact with God about their disease state. This spiritual interaction may benefit the patient by providing comfort, increasing knowledge about their disease, greater treatment adherence, and quality of life. The results of prayer on specific disease states appear inconsistent with cardiovascular disease but stronger in other disease states. PMID:23484213

  8. Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements.

    PubMed

    DuVal, G

    2004-02-01

    Clinical Study Agreements (CSAs) can have profound effects both on the protection of human subjects and on the independence of investigators to conduct research with scientific integrity. Sponsors, institutions, and even investigators may fail to give adequate attention to these issues in the negotiation of CSAs. Despite the key role of CSAs in structuring ethically important aspects of research, they remain largely unregulated and unreviewed for adherence to ethical norms. Academic institutions routinely enter into research contracts that fail to meet adequate ethical standards. This is a failing that can have serious consequences. Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review. PMID:14872068

  9. Clinical review of genetic epileptic encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Grace J.; Asher, Y. Jane Tavyev; Graham, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are a frequently encountered finding in patients seen for clinical genetics evaluations. The differential diagnosis for the cause of seizures is quite diverse and complex, and more than half of all epilepsies have been attributed to a genetic cause. Given the complexity of such evaluations, we highlight the more common causes of genetic epileptic encephalopathies and emphasize the usefulness of recent technological advances. The purpose of this review is to serve as a practical guide for clinical geneticists in the evaluation and counseling of patients with genetic epileptic encephalopathies. Common syndromes will be discussed, in addition to specific seizure phenotypes, many of which are refractory to anti-epileptic agents. Divided by etiology, we overview the more common causes of infantile epileptic encephalopathies, channelopathies, syndromic, metabolic, and chromosomal entities. For each condition, we will outline the diagnostic evaluation and discuss effective treatment strategies that should be considered. PMID:22342633

  10. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats. PMID:23202500

  11. The reading memo: Listening to our students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boys, Donald W.

    1997-03-01

    Traditional large lecture instruction leaves little room for the instructor to gain a running sense of how the students perceive the material. Exam feedback comes with a high price to the student who has experienced difficulty learning the material. Following a suggestion of Edwin Taylor (1), I have adopted the Reading Memo for my calculus-based introductory mechanics class as a way to improve my knowledge of student difficulties without any grade penalty. My students are entirely commuter students and spend most of their time off-campus.

  12. MEMO: multi-experiment mixture model analysis of censored data

    PubMed Central

    Geissen, Eva-Maria; Hasenauer, Jan; Heinrich, Stephanie; Hauf, Silke; Theis, Fabian J.; Radde, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The statistical analysis of single-cell data is a challenge in cell biological studies. Tailored statistical models and computational methods are required to resolve the subpopulation structure, i.e. to correctly identify and characterize subpopulations. These approaches also support the unraveling of sources of cell-to-cell variability. Finite mixture models have shown promise, but the available approaches are ill suited to the simultaneous consideration of data from multiple experimental conditions and to censored data. The prevalence and relevance of single-cell data and the lack of suitable computational analytics make automated methods, that are able to deal with the requirements posed by these data, necessary. Results: We present MEMO, a flexible mixture modeling framework that enables the simultaneous, automated analysis of censored and uncensored data acquired under multiple experimental conditions. MEMO is based on maximum-likelihood inference and allows for testing competing hypotheses. MEMO can be applied to a variety of different single-cell data types. We demonstrate the advantages of MEMO by analyzing right and interval censored single-cell microscopy data. Our results show that an examination of censoring and the simultaneous consideration of different experimental conditions are necessary to reveal biologically meaningful subpopulation structures. MEMO allows for a stringent analysis of single-cell data and enables researchers to avoid misinterpretation of censored data. Therefore, MEMO is a valuable asset for all fields that infer the characteristics of populations by looking at single individuals such as cell biology and medicine. Availability and Implementation: MEMO is implemented in MATLAB and freely available via github (https://github.com/MEMO-toolbox/MEMO). Contacts: eva-maria.geissen@ist.uni-stuttgart.de or nicole.radde@ist.uni-stuttgart.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online

  13. Clinical Management of Priapism: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-04-01

    Priapism is defined as a persistent and painful erection lasting longer than four hours without sexual stimulation. Based on episode history and pathophysiology, priapism is classified into three subtypes: ischemic (low-flow), non-ischemic (high-flow), and stuttering priapism. Ischemic priapism is characterized by a persistent, painful erection with remarkable rigidity of the corpora cavernosa caused by a disorder of venous blood outflow from this tissue mass, and is similar to penile compartment syndrome. Stuttering priapism is characterized by a self-limited, recurrent, and intermittent erection, frequently occurring in patients with sickle cell disease. Non-ischemic priapism is characterized by a painless, persistent nonsexual erection that is not fully rigid and is caused by excess arterial blood flow into the corpora cavernosa. Because ischemic and non-ischemic priapism differ based on emergency status and treatment options, appropriate discrimination of each type of priapism is required to initiate adequate clinical management. The goal of management of priapism is to achieve detumescence of the persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapism. To achieve successful management, urologists should address this emergency clinical condition. In the present article, we review the diagnosis and clinical management of the three types of priapism. PMID:27169123

  14. Clinical Management of Priapism: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Priapism is defined as a persistent and painful erection lasting longer than four hours without sexual stimulation. Based on episode history and pathophysiology, priapism is classified into three subtypes: ischemic (low-flow), non-ischemic (high-flow), and stuttering priapism. Ischemic priapism is characterized by a persistent, painful erection with remarkable rigidity of the corpora cavernosa caused by a disorder of venous blood outflow from this tissue mass, and is similar to penile compartment syndrome. Stuttering priapism is characterized by a self-limited, recurrent, and intermittent erection, frequently occurring in patients with sickle cell disease. Non-ischemic priapism is characterized by a painless, persistent nonsexual erection that is not fully rigid and is caused by excess arterial blood flow into the corpora cavernosa. Because ischemic and non-ischemic priapism differ based on emergency status and treatment options, appropriate discrimination of each type of priapism is required to initiate adequate clinical management. The goal of management of priapism is to achieve detumescence of the persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapism. To achieve successful management, urologists should address this emergency clinical condition. In the present article, we review the diagnosis and clinical management of the three types of priapism. PMID:27169123

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosa LS

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a clinical challenge in the 21st century. It’s the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal condition and also the most common reason for referral to gastroenterology clinics. Its can affect up to one in five people at some point in their lives, and has a significantly impact of life quality and health care utilization. The prevalence varies according to country and criteria used to define IBS. Various mechanisms and theories have been proposed about its etiology, but the biopsychosocial model is the most currently accepted for IBS. The complex of symptoms would be the result of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, psychosocial and environmental factors. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria III is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Secure positive evidence of IBS by means of specific disease marker is currently not possible and cannot be currently recommended for routine diagnosis. There is still no clinical evidence to recommend the use of biomarkers in blood to diagnose IBS. However, a number of different changes in IBS patients were demonstrated in recent years, some of which can be used in the future as a diagnostic support. IBS has no definitive treatment but could be controlled by non-pharmacologic management eliminating of some exacerbating factors such certain drugs, stressor conditions and changes in dietary habits.The traditional pharmacologic management of IBS has been symptom based and several drugs have been used. However, the cornerstone of its therapy is a solid patient physician relationship. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and current and emerging therapies for IBS. PMID:25232249

  16. Developmental intervention: a pediatric clinical review.

    PubMed

    Casey, P H; Bradley, R H; Caldwell, B M; Edwards, D R

    1986-08-01

    We have attempted to review developmental intervention for pediatricians in a way that is of clinical relevance to primary care pediatricians. In so doing, we chose not to evaluate certain topics such as therapeutic intervention for handicapped children or center-based educational programs because these have been adequately addressed elsewhere. It is clear that pediatricians have a unique and important role to play in developmental intervention for the following reasons: pediatricians have easy and routinely accepted access to infants and families in the prenatal, perinatal, and preschool periods: pediatricians possess a socially accepted role of authority; and pediatricians can integrate understanding of the child's health and developmental status within the context of the family and social environment to make clinical interpretation regarding the child's developmental status and prognosis. Pediatricians are thus in the best position to convince parents of their impact on their child's development. The following general roles have been identified for pediatricians. First, pediatricians should be aware of the child's biologic status and family environmental situation and the relative degree of risk for developmental problems. This clinical awareness, in combination with the use of appropriate screening instruments of the child's development and family environment, will allow clinical judgment regarding the frequency and type of child health supervision, the need for further diagnostic evaluation, and the need for referral to intervention programs and other resources. Second, the pediatrician should develop an approach for developmental intervention for all children, whatever their degree of biological risk. This review of medical, educational, and psychological literature demonstrate the following recurring important themes as goals for primary intervention: Improve parental understanding of normal child development and developmental expectations. Assist parent

  17. Clinical review: The management of hypertensive crises

    PubMed Central

    Varon, Joseph; Marik, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    Hypertension is an extremely common clinical problem, affecting approximately 50 million people in the USA and approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Approximately 1% of these patients will develop acute elevations in blood pressure at some point in their lifetime. A number of terms have been applied to severe hypertension, including hypertensive crises, emergencies, and urgencies. By definition, acute elevations in blood pressure that are associated with end-organ damage are called hypertensive crises. Immediate reduction in blood pressure is required only in patients with acute end-organ damage. This article reviews current concepts, and common misconceptions and pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of patients with acutely elevated blood pressure. PMID:12974970

  18. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants. PMID:26412275

  19. Clinical applications of hallucinogens: A review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Kersgaard, Brennan; Addy, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Hallucinogens fall into several different classes, as broadly defined by pharmacological mechanism of action, and chemical structure. These include psychedelics, entactogens, dissociatives, and other atypical hallucinogens. Although these classes do not share a common primary mechanism of action, they do exhibit important similarities in their ability to occasion temporary but profound alterations of consciousness, involving acute changes in somatic, perceptual, cognitive, and affective processes. Such effects likely contribute to their recreational use. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that these drugs may have therapeutic applications beyond their potential for abuse. This review will present data on several classes of hallucinogens with a particular focus on psychedelics, entactogens, and dissociatives, for which clinical utility has been most extensively documented. Information on each class is presented in turn, tracing relevant historical insights, highlighting similarities and differences between the classes from the molecular to the behavioral level, and presenting the most up-to-date information on clinically oriented research with these substances, with important ramifications for their potential therapeutic value. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454674

  20. Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: clinical.

    PubMed

    Sharma, L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight clinical research in osteoarthritis (OA). A literature search was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) with the search terms "osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND treatment [All Fields]" and the following limits activated: humans, English language, all adult 19+ years, published between April 1, 2014 and April 1, 2015. A second literature search was then conducted with the search terms "osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND epidemiology [All Fields]", with the same limits. Reports of surgical outcome, case series, surgical technique, tissue sample or culture studies, trial protocols, and pilot studies were excluded. Of 1523, 150 were considered relevant. Among epidemiologic and observational clinical studies, themes included physical activity, early knee OA, and confidence/instability/falls. Symptom outcomes of pharmacologic treatments were reported for methotrexate, adalimumab, anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibodies, strontium ranelate, bisphosphonates, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate, and structural outcomes of pharmacologic treatments for strontium ranelate, recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18, and glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Symptom outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for: neuromuscular exercise, quadriceps strengthening, weight reduction and maintenance, TENS, therapeutic ultrasound, stepped care strategies, cognitive behavior therapy for sleep disturbance, acupuncture, gait modification, booster physical therapy, a web-based therapeutic exercise resource center for knee OA; hip physical therapy for hip OA; and joint protection and hand exercises for hand OA. Structure outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for patellofemoral bracing. PMID:26707991

  1. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  2. Reviewing for clinical orthopaedics and related research.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2012-09-01

    Peer review in science was established in the 17th Century and while not without detractors and some controversy, has been a mainstay of high-quality scientific publications ever since. Most believe peer review adds substantially to the value of papers that achieve publication. However, in practice, peer review can be practiced with varying degrees of rigor and the value of the review depends on rigor. The two primary tasks of a reviewer are to determine whether the manuscript makes a substantial contribution (in an age of information overload) and to determine whether there are any "fatal" flaws. If the reviewer recommends rejection, then he or she need only note the major flaws. If, however, the material is sufficiently novel and would substantially add to the literature, the reviewer's secondary task is to ensure completeness and clarity by noting information that should be added and identifying unclear points; in these cases more detailed reviews are merited. To achieve this task, the reviewer must ask numerous questions related to the background and rationale, questions or purposes, study design and methods, findings, and synthesis with the literature. In this brief review I outline such key questions. An invitation to review is an honor and reflects the confidence of the editor in the reviewer's expertise and accomplishments. Given proper reviews and recommendations, the majority of authors believe peer review adds great value to their papers and the reviewer makes contributions to the community and their own knowledge. PMID:22752799

  3. MEMO1 drives cranial endochondral ossification and palatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Feng, Weiguo; Jones, Kenneth L; Hynes, Nancy E; Clouthier, David E; Niswander, Lee; Williams, Trevor

    2016-07-15

    The cranial base is a component of the neurocranium and has a central role in the structural integration of the face, brain and vertebral column. Consequently, alteration in the shape of the human cranial base has been intimately linked with primate evolution and defective development is associated with numerous human facial abnormalities. Here we describe a novel recessive mutant mouse strain that presented with a domed head and fully penetrant cleft secondary palate coupled with defects in the formation of the underlying cranial base. Mapping and non-complementation studies revealed a specific mutation in Memo1 - a gene originally associated with cell migration. Expression analysis of Memo1 identified robust expression in the perichondrium and periosteum of the developing cranial base, but only modest expression in the palatal shelves. Fittingly, although the palatal shelves failed to elevate in Memo1 mutants, expression changes were modest within the shelves themselves. In contrast, the cranial base, which forms via endochondral ossification had major reductions in the expression of genes responsible for bone formation, notably matrix metalloproteinases and markers of the osteoblast lineage, mirrored by an increase in markers of cartilage and extracellular matrix development. Concomitant with these changes, mutant cranial bases showed an increased zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes accompanied by a reduction in both vascular invasion and mineralization. Finally, neural crest cell-specific deletion of Memo1 caused a failure of anterior cranial base ossification indicating a cell autonomous role for MEMO1 in the development of these neural crest cell derived structures. However, palate formation was largely normal in these conditional mutants, suggesting a non-autonomous role for MEMO1 in palatal closure. Overall, these findings assign a new function to MEMO1 in driving endochondral ossification in the cranium, and also link abnormal development of the cranial base

  4. Developing Problem Solving and Communication Skills through Memo Assignments in a Management Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Reid, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe how to structure a memo format for homework assignments in which a manager requests analysis of a particular issue from the student. The student must respond with a memo stating a recommendation and describing the solution approach. The results from using the memo format include improved student performance and professional…

  5. Clinical review: Statins and trauma--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan O; Lord, Janet M; Thickett, David R; Midwinter, Mark J; McAuley, Daniel F; Gao, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Statins, in addition to their lipid-lowering properties, have anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of pre-injury statin use, and statin treatment following injury. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched to January 2012 for randomised and observational studies of statins in trauma patients in general, and in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury, burns, and fractures. Of 985 identified citations, 7 (4 observational studies and 3 randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) met the inclusion criteria. Two studies (both observational) were concerned with trauma patients in general, two with patients who had suffered traumatic brain injury (one observational, one RCT), two with burns patients (one observational, one RCT), and one with fracture healing (RCT). Two of the RCTs relied on surrogate outcome measures. The observational studies were deemed to be at high risk of confounding, and the RCTs at high risk of bias. Three of the observational studies suggested improvements in a number of clinical outcomes in patients taking statins prior to injury (mortality, infection, and septic shock in burns patients; mortality in trauma patients in general; mortality in brain injured patients) whereas one, also of trauma patients in general, showed no difference in mortality or infection, and an increased risk of multi-organ failure. Two of three RCTs on statin treatment in burns patients and brain injured patients showed improvements in E-selectin levels and cognitive function. The third, of patients with radial fractures, showed no acceleration in fracture union. In conclusion, there is some evidence that pre-injury statin use and post-injury statin treatment may have a beneficial effect in patients who have suffered general trauma, traumatic brain injury, and burns. However, these studies are at high risk of confounding and bias, and should be regarded as 'hypothesisgenerating'. A well-designed RCT is required to

  6. MEMO: Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Langlais, B.; Leblanc, F.; Sotin, C.; Barabash, S.; Dehant, V.; Dougherty, M.; Lammer, H.; Mandea, M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    There are several reasons to believe that Mars could have become an Earth like planet rather than the present dry and cold planet. In particular, many elements suggest the presence of liquid water at the Martian surface during a relatively short period at an early stage of its history. Since liquid water may have been the birthplace for life on Earth, the fate of Martian water is one of the major key and yet unanswered question to be solved. Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) is a low periapsis orbiter of Mars devoted to the measurement of present escape and the characterization of the fossil magnetic field of Mars. The use of a low periapsis altitude orbit (120-150 km) is required to detect and quantify all populations of atoms and molecules involved in escape. It is also required to measure the magnetic field of Mars with an unprecedented spatial resolution that would allow getting a more precise timing of the dynamo and its disappearance. Achieving a full characterization of atmospheric escape, and extrapolating it back to the past requires: (i) to measure escape fluxes of neutral and ion species, and characterize the dynamics and chemistry of the regions of the atmosphere where escape occurs (thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere), as well as their responses to solar activity, and (ii) to characterize the lateral variations of the magnetic field of lithospheric origin, and by extension, the timing of the Martian dynamo. Of particular interest is the extinction of the dynamo that is thought to have enhanced the atmospheric escape processes still operating today. The proposed low-periapsis orbiter will consist of the following elements: • An "Escape Package" to characterize by both in-situ and remote measurements the thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere and solar wind interaction regions (from one hundred to several thousand km), including thermal, suprathermal 1 and energetic particles. • A "Magnetic Field Package", to characterize the magnetization of the

  7. Consistency between Peer Reviewers for a Clinical Specialty Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, David J.; Macaulay, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of reliability among peer reviews of 422 unsolicited articles for the "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia" found that most articles' reviews were consistent or near consistent. However, articles reviewed by two of the editorial board members were much less likely to be accepted than those read by two nonmembers. (Author/MSE)

  8. Attributes of clinical leadership in contemporary nursing: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Judy; Wilkes, Lesley; Daly, John

    2013-08-01

    Effective clinical leadership is offered as the key to healthy, functional and supportive work environments for nurses and other health professionals. However, as a concept it lacks a standard definition and is poorly understood. This paper reports on an integrative review undertaken to uncover current understandings of defining attributes of contemporary clinical leadership in nursing. Data collection involved a search of relevant electronic databases for a 10-year period. Keywords for the search were 'clinical leadership' and 'nursing'. Ten research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. Analysis of these studies indicated clinical leadership attributes had a clinical focus, a follower/team focus or a personal qualities focus; attributes necessary to sustain supportive workplaces and build the capacity and resilience of nursing workforces. The small number of research-based studies yielded for the review indicates the need for further research in the area of clinical leadership. PMID:24099222

  9. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  10. Clinical assessment of retinal elevations: a review of methods and a novel clinical technique.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, G E

    1988-01-01

    A new clinical test for the detection of retinal elevation is described. The test, based on alterations of retinal surface light reflexes during indirect ophthalmoscopy, is extremely sensitive to very shallow detachments. The optics, the degree of sensitivity, and the limitations of the new clinical technique are examined and other clinical methods are reviewed. PMID:3052573

  11. A Review of the Clinical Education in Podiatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baerg, Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    Contemporary clinical educational programs at five colleges of podiatric medicine are reviewed. Both classroom contact hours and clinical experience are examined and compared among institutions. Course offerings in podiatric medicine, radiology, surgery, othopedics, community health, etc., are listed by college. (MLW)

  12. [Data quality in clinical trials: the role of blind review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-pei; Yao, Chen

    2015-11-01

    Blind review is one of the most important milestones in clinical trials, which connects data management process to statistical analysis. During blind review, data quality should be reviewed and assessed on both data management and statistical aspects. The primary work of data managers in blind review is to ensure the accuracy of data before it is handed over to biostatistics group. Database auditing, listing data reviewing and reconciliation should become a good clinical data management practice. Statisticians, on the other hand, will focus on quality findings related to protocol deviations or protocol violations. To investigate the protocol deviations and/or violations and relevant impacts on data outcomes, it is important to provide the essential basis of data quality through the blind review, and to assess the reliability of study outcomes. PMID:26911051

  13. Researching Teacher Education for Inclusion: Using a Methodological Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn S.; Florian, Lani

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a methodological memo (MM) was used in a research and development project designed to reform initial teacher education (ITE). A MM was used to explore what often remains an opaque part of the research process--the relationships between theory and practice that underpin many research studies. Yet, without detailed…

  14. [Clinical Research Progress on Transformed Lymphoma -Review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Jie; Cen, Xi-Nan; Ren, Han-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Histologic transformation (HT) is a frequent event in the clinical course of patients with indolent lymphoma with dismal outcome. The diagnosis of HT is based on clinical manifestation, PET-CT and pathologic biopsy, and the latter is a golden standard for HT. There are contradictory data about the impact of initial management on the risk of transformation. Patients who present with HT did not receive R-CHOP or chemotherapy-naive, should receive this regimen. For the subset of patients received R-CHOP prior to HT, the second line chemotherapy for DLBCL should be adopted. Consolidation with HDT-ASCT should be considered for the suitable young patients. The radio-immunotherapy and novel drugs showed a bright perspective for the patients with HT. PMID:27531806

  15. Clinical review: Medication errors in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Moyen, Eric; Camiré, Eric; Stelfox, Henry Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU, identify risk factors for medication errors, and suggest strategies to prevent errors and manage their consequences. PMID:18373883

  16. Male contraception: a clinically-oriented review.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, George A; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of available female contraceptive methods, many pregnancies (~50%) are still undesired. Many men (>60%) want to participate equally with their partner in family planning; however, male contraceptive methods (MCMs) account for only 14% of those used worldwide and no pharmaceutical MCM is available so far. The only two MCMs currently available are condoms, which despite protecting against sexually transmitted diseases have high failure rates (~19%), and vasectomy, which though very efficient (99%) is poorly reversible (<50%). Among MCMs under investigation, male hormonal contraceptives (MHCs) are those that have come closest to commercialization. The action of MHCs relies on the disruption of spermatogenesis that exogenous androgen administration evokes by suppressing the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Various regimens of androgens as monotherapy or in combination with progestins have been tested in clinical trials achieving a Pearl Index <1.0 (equal to that of the female oral contraceptive pill); however, concerns regarding the variable response rates observed (non-responders: 5-20%), the impracticality of parenteral administration and long-term prostate-associated or cardiovascular morbidity have deflected the interest of the pharmaceutical industry from further research. Non-hormonal contraception methods may be, at least theoretically, more specific by selectively disrupting spermatogenesis and sperm transport or fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, only a few have been tested in clinical trials (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance, RISUG, and Intra Vas Plugs); most of them are still in pre-clinical development or have been abandoned due to toxicity (gossypol). Consequently, until a reliable, safe and practical MCM is developed, women will continue to bear most of the contraception burden. PMID:26732151

  17. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but relapse is common without chronic suppressive therapy. Improvements in treatment are needed in coccidioidomycosis. Research is needed to identify preventive strategies for patients at risk. These strategies may include use of prophylactic antifungal therapy or vaccination. PMID:7704892

  18. Clinical experience with Angiojet: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, A M; Xhepa, G; Piffaretti, G; Bacuzzi, A; Tozzi, M; Carbone, M; Barile, A; Squillaci, E; Fonio, P; Brunese, L; Carrafiello, G

    2015-12-01

    The development of various sophisticated mechanical thrombectomy devices and the amassed experience of physicians in minimal invasive therapy produced a paradigm shift in vascular access management toward percutaneous declotting procedures, using pharmaceutical thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, balloon thrombectomy, and a combination of the above techniques. In this setting, in the last years, AngioJet™ (Possis, Minneapolis, MN, USA) rheolytic thrombectomy (RT) showed an increasing use in emergency and election patients. The purpose of this review is to present the current status of percutaneous rheolytic thrombectomy in different fields of applications. PMID:26498886

  19. Clinical review: A systematic review of corticosteroid use in infections

    PubMed Central

    Aberdein, Jody; Singer, Mervyn

    2006-01-01

    Traditional teaching suggests that corticosteroids should be avoided during acute infectious episodes for fear of compromising the immune response. However, the outcome benefit shown through steroid administration in early septic shock implies this paranoia may be misplaced. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to identify the current strength of evidence for the use of corticosteroids in specified infections, and to make appropriate graded recommendations. PMID:16356204

  20. Adoption of Clinical Decision Support in Multimorbidity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with multiple conditions have complex needs and are increasing in number as populations age. This multimorbidity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care. Having more than 1 condition generates (1) interactions between pathologies, (2) duplication of tests, (3) difficulties in adhering to often conflicting clinical practice guidelines, (4) obstacles in the continuity of care, (5) confusing self-management information, and (6) medication errors. In this context, clinical decision support (CDS) systems need to be able to handle realistic complexity and minimize iatrogenic risks. Objective The aim of this review was to identify to what extent CDS is adopted in multimorbidity. Methods This review followed PRISMA guidance and adopted a multidisciplinary approach. Scopus and PubMed searches were performed by combining terms from 3 different thesauri containing synonyms for (1) multimorbidity and comorbidity, (2) polypharmacy, and (3) CDS. The relevant articles were identified by examining the titles and abstracts. The full text of selected/relevant articles was analyzed in-depth. For articles appropriate for this review, data were collected on clinical tasks, diseases, decision maker, methods, data input context, user interface considerations, and evaluation of effectiveness. Results A total of 50 articles were selected for the full in-depth analysis and 20 studies were included in the final review. Medication (n=10) and clinical guidance (n=8) were the predominant clinical tasks. Four studies focused on merging concurrent clinical practice guidelines. A total of 17 articles reported their CDS systems were knowledge-based. Most articles reviewed considered patients’ clinical records (n=19), clinical practice guidelines (n=12), and clinicians’ knowledge (n=10) as contextual input data. The most frequent diseases mentioned were cardiovascular (n=9) and diabetes mellitus (n=5). In all, 12 articles mentioned generalist doctor(s) as the

  1. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review*

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ana Carolina; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin, characterized by irregular brown macules symmetrically distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly on the face. It is a common cause of demand for dermatological care that affects mainly women (especially during the menacme), and more pigmented phenotypes (Fitzpatrick skin types III-V). Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Its pathogeny is not yet completely understood, although there are some known triggering factors such as sun exposure, pregnancy, sexual hormones, inflammatory processes of the skin, use of cosmetics, steroids, and photosensitizing drugs. There is also a clear genetic predisposition, since over 40% of patients reported having relatives affected with the disease. In this manuscript, the authors discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of melasma. PMID:25184917

  2. Dengue in China: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, F. X.; Gubler, D. J.; Liu, J. C.; Chen, Q. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Three etiologically proven outbreaks of dengue fever and one etiologically confirmed epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever have occurred in south China since 1978. The first of these, an epidemic of dengue due to virus type 4 took place in Shiwan town, Foshan city, Guangdong Province, in 1978; the epidemic began in May and ended in November. The clinical manifestations of 583 hospitalized patients were observed from August to October. The majority (81.3%) of patients were aged 21-50 years (male:female = 1.2:1). The course of illness was about 1 week in most cases; three patients (0.5%) died. A local outbreak of dengue due to virus type 1 occurred in Shiqi town, Zhongshan County, Guangdong Province, from September to November 1979. The majority of patients were older children and adolescents. There was no marked difference between males and females in terms of the course of the illness, and there were no complications or deaths. A large epidemic of dengue due to virus type 3 occurred on Hainan Island in 1980. The clinical manifestations of 510 hospitalized patients (mostly adolescents and adults) were observed from April to September. Some patients developed rare complications, such as loss of hair, acute intravascular haemolysis, and multiple peripheral paralysis; there were four deaths (0.78%). The first known epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever in China occurred among 10-29-year-olds on Hainan Island in 1985 and 1986. There were no essential differences between males and females. Some cases had rare complications such as acute intravascular haemolysis, while others had diffuse intravascular coagulation and altered mental status; 10 patients (6.5%) died. PMID:8324854

  3. Pediatric Acupuncture: A Review of Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Colette D.; Belmont, Katharine A.; Katz, Aaron R.; Benaron, Daniel M.; Yu, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Practiced in China for more than 2000 years, acupuncture has recently gained increased attention in the United States as an alternative treatment approach for a variety of medical conditions. Despite its growing prevalence and anecdotal reports of success among pediatric populations, few empirically based studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture for children and adolescents. This article presents a review of the current literature, including a systematic appraisal of the methodological value of each study and a discussion of potential benefits and adverse effects of acupuncture. While acupuncture holds great promise as a treatment modality for diverse pediatric conditions, a significant amount of additional research is necessary to establish an empirical basis for the incorporation of acupuncture into standard care. PMID:18955306

  4. Project Management of Randomized Clinical Trials: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    Context: A well-structured protocol for a clinical trial may be able to answer clinical questions, but it cannot be deemed enough to ensure success in the face of incompetent management of time as well as human and economic resources. To address this problem, in this article, we present our literature review on evidence as to how a good knowledge of proper management among researchers can enhance the likelihood of the success of clinical trial projects. Evidence Acquisition: Using multiple search strategies, we conducted a literature review on published studies in the English language from 2002 to 2012 by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EMBASE. Results: Our review suggests that a successful trial requires a work plan or work scope as well as a timeline. The trial manager should subsequently manage the study in accordance with the plan and the timeline. Many research units have called for a clinical project manager with scientific background and regulatory skills to effect coordination among various aspects of a clinical trial. Conclusions: Project management may benefit both the managerial and scientific aspects of medical projects and reduce fund waste. However, little has been written to date on project management in the context of clinical research. The suggestions represent the views of the individual authors. To provide a high level of evidence in this regard, we recommend that a randomized controlled trial be performed to compare trial projects progressed with and without the use of project management. PMID:26430517

  5. Characteristics of leadership that influence clinical learning: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2011-11-01

    Leadership has been consistently implied in fostering clinical learning. However there is a lack of clarity about the form leadership should take. Limited quantitative research indicated a narrative approach to review literature from a broad perspective. A framework to guide the synthesis was developed to ensure a rigorous review process. Preliminary reading and review of papers using search terms nursing and leadership and clinical learning and learning culture narrowed the inclusion criteria to 245 papers published between 2000 and 2010. Given the diversity of the papers' focus, aim and context, a refined screening process justified the inclusion of twenty-six papers in the review. A critical appraisal of these peer-reviewed quantitative, qualitative and commentary papers identified factors/elements integral to effective leadership. Across the literature leadership was discussed in relation to two broad themes: influence of leadership on organisational learning and development and; influence of leadership on undergraduate clinical education. The factors central to leadership emerged as transformative principles, the role of the nurse unit/ward manager, collaboration and relationship building and role-modelling. The review has raised some suggestions for future research aimed at examining the impact of a leadership capacity building intervention that supports clinical learning. PMID:21255881

  6. Key concepts of clinical trials: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Umscheid, Craig A; Margolis, David J; Grossman, Craig E

    2011-09-01

    The recent focus of federal funding on comparative effectiveness research underscores the importance of clinical trials in the practice of evidence-based medicine and health care reform. The impact of clinical trials not only extends to the individual patient by establishing a broader selection of effective therapies, but also to society as a whole by enhancing the value of health care provided. However, clinical trials also have the potential to pose unknown risks to their participants, and biased knowledge extracted from flawed clinical trials may lead to the inadvertent harm of patients. Although conducting a well-designed clinical trial may appear straightforward, it is founded on rigorous methodology and oversight governed by key ethical principles. In this review, we provide an overview of the ethical foundations of trial design, trial oversight, and the process of obtaining approval of a therapeutic, from its pre-clinical phase to post-marketing surveillance. This narrative review is based on a course in clinical trials developed by one of the authors (DJM), and is supplemented by a PubMed search predating January 2011 using the keywords "randomized controlled trial," "patient/clinical research," "ethics," "phase IV," "data and safety monitoring board," and "surrogate endpoint." With an understanding of the key principles in designing and implementing clinical trials, health care providers can partner with the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory bodies to effectively compare medical therapies and thereby meet one of the essential goals of health care reform. PMID:21904102

  7. Review of splanchnic oximetry in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sean M; Mally, Pradeep V

    2016-09-01

    Global tissue perfusion and oxygenation are important indicators of physiologic function in humans. The monitoring of splanchnic oximetry through the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging method used to assess tissue oxygenation status. Splanchnic tissue oxygenation (SrSO2) is thought to be potentially of high value in critically ill patients because gastrointestinal organs can often be the first to suffer ischemic injury. During conditions of hypovolemia, cardiac dysfunction, or decreased oxygen-carrying capacity, blood flow is diverted toward vital organs, such as the brain and the heart at the expense of the splanchnic circulation. While monitoring SrSO2 has great potential benefit, there are limitations to the technology and techniques. SrSO2 has been found to have a relatively high degree of variability that can potentially make it difficult to interpret. In addition, because splanchnic organs only lie near the skin surface in children and infants, and energy from currently available sensors only penetrates a few centimeters deep, it can be difficult to use clinically in a noninvasive manner in adults. Research thus far is showing that splanchnic oximetry holds great promise in the ability to monitor patient oxygenation status and detect disease states in humans, especially in pediatric populations. PMID:27165703

  8. Periosteal osteosarcoma: a review of clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Han, Tian-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Periosteal osteosarcoma (PO) is a rare primary malignant bone tumor and a variant of osteosarcoma. It is a surface lesion without evidence of medullary involvement. The radiologic appearance of periosteal osteosarcoma is a broad-based surface soft-tissue mass that causes extrinsic erosion of thickened underlying diaphyseal cortex and perpendicular periosteal reaction extending into the soft-tissue component. The tumour presents as non-homogeneous masses of speculated osteoid matrix progressively denser from the periphery to their cortical base. The average age is around 28 and the most common location is the proximal third of the femur; with all the lesions diaphyseal in location. The treatment usually indicated is amputation, but in selected cases, radical segmental resection is appropriate. Long-term disease-free survival is possible after resection of the local recurrence. Limb-salvage therapy seems to offer survival equivalent to amputation, and there does not seem to be a substantial risk of late recurrence, dedifferentiation, or disease progression. The current review also highlights on various rare occurrences of periosteal osteosarcoma including the one of calcaneum, fifth metatarsal, mandible cranium, jaws, clavicle, maxilla, sphenoid bone with extensive periosteal extension, metacarpal in a paediatric age group and bilateral metachronous periosteal osteosarcoma. Recent findings relating to genetic factors governing the pathogenesis of PO is also presented. PMID:25784972

  9. Feline heartworm disease: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L; Atwell, Richard B

    2008-04-01

    Feline heartworm disease is caused by the filarial nematode Dirofilaria immitis, and is transmitted by mosquitoes in heartworm-endemic areas worldwide. While dogs are the definitive hosts for this parasite, cats can also be infected, and the overall prevalence in cats is between 5% and 10% of that in dogs in any given area. The spectrum of feline presentations varies from asymptomatic infections to chronic respiratory signs, sometimes accompanied by chronic vomiting to acute death with no premonitory signs. Ante-mortem diagnosis can be challenging and relies on a combination of tests, including antigen and antibody serology, thoracic radiography and echocardiography. As treatment with heartworm adulticidal drugs can be life-threatening and heartworm infection in cats is often self-limiting, infected cats are frequently managed with supportive treatment (corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and anti-emetics). Surgical removal of filariae using extraction devices may be considered in some acute cases where immediate curative treatment is necessary, but filarial breakage during the procedure may result in an acute fatal shock-like reaction. Necropsy findings are mainly pulmonary and include muscular hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteries and arterioles on histopathology. A number of safe and effective macrocytic lactone drugs are available for prophylaxis in cats. These drugs can kill a range of larval and adult life-cycle stage heartworms, which may be advantageous in cases of owner compliance failure or when heartworm infection status is undetermined at the time prophylaxis is commenced. An index of suspicion for feline heartworm disease is warranted in unprotected cats with respiratory signs, and perhaps chronic vomiting, in areas where canine heartworm disease is endemic. Many cats, once diagnosed and with appropriate supportive care and monitoring, will resolve their infection and be free of clinical signs. PMID:18042416

  10. Open circuit mouthpiece ventilation: Concise clinical review.

    PubMed

    Garuti, G; Nicolini, A; Grecchi, B; Lusuardi, M; Winck, J C; Bach, J R

    2014-01-01

    technique is now warranted. This review highlights the indications, techniques, advantages and disadvantages of mouthpiece NIV. PMID:24841239

  11. Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has expanded tremendously in the past few decades and consequently there has been growing interest in the ethical guidelines that are being followed for the protection of human subjects. This review summarizes historical scandals and social responses chronologically from World War II to the Death of Ellen Roche (2001) to emphasize the lessons we must learn from history. International ethical guidelines for studies with human subjects are also briefly described in order to understand the circumstances of clinical research. The tasks and responsibilities of the institutions and investigators in human subject research to preserve the safety and welfare of research subjects are summarized. Next, several debated ethical issues and insights are arranged as controversial topics. This brief review and summary seeks to highlight important arguments and make suggestions to institutional review boards (IRBs) to contribute to the future evolution of ethics in clinical research as we advance forward. PMID:22323947

  12. Nutrition Informatics Applications in Clinical Practice: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    North, Jennifer C.; Jordan, Kristine C.; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended. PMID:26958233

  13. Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Oak

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has expanded tremendously in the past few decades and consequently there has been growing interest in the ethical guidelines that are being followed for the protection of human subjects. This review summarizes historical scandals and social responses chronologically from World War II to the Death of Ellen Roche (2001) to emphasize the lessons we must learn from history. International ethical guidelines for studies with human subjects are also briefly described in order to understand the circumstances of clinical research. The tasks and responsibilities of the institutions and investigators in human subject research to preserve the safety and welfare of research subjects are summarized. Next, several debated ethical issues and insights are arranged as controversial topics. This brief review and summary seeks to highlight important arguments and make suggestions to institutional review boards (IRBs) to contribute to the future evolution of ethics in clinical research as we advance forward. PMID:22323947

  14. Concurrent clinical review: using microcomputer-based DRG-software.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Portocarrero, D; Ruiz, P P; Marmol, J P

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Prospective Payment System based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in the U.S.A., important information technologies are arising. We discuss how Professional Review Organizations, (PROS) are forcing a better control of appropriateness and quality of medical care. Hospitals should have the internal capabilities to perform, at least, the same reviews as performed by the PROs. Concurrent Clinical Review Systems based on DRGs are a special type of information technology that take place during and even before patient hospitalization, therefore allowing an 'on line' monitoring information. Low-cost microcomputers are playing a major role in the popularization of this technology. 'Clinical Review System' is a microcomputer-based software that renders easy and feasible and otherwise complex task. An effort should be made in order to adapt the philosophy underlying this or other similar software to the European needs. PMID:10312511

  15. Effects of feedback of information on clinical practice: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, M; Banfield, P; O'Hanlon, M

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish what is known about the role of feedback of statistical information in changing clinical practice. DESIGN--Review of 36 studies of interventions entailing the use of statistical information for audit or practice review, which used a formal research design. SUBJECTS--Papers identified from computer searches of medical and health service management publications, of which 36 describing studies of interventions designed to influence clinical care and including information feedback from clinical or administrative data systems were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Evidence for effect of information feedback on change in clinical practice. RESULTS--Information feedback was most likely to influence clinical practice if it was part of strategy to target decision makers who had already agreed to review their practice. A more direct effect was discernable if the information was presented close to the time of decision making. The questions of the optimum layout and quantity of information were not addressed; the 36 papers were insufficient for defining good formats for information to be used for audit or quality assurance. CONCLUSIONS--Given the cost of information processing and the current emphasis on closing the audit loop in the health services, it is important that the use of information in the audit process should be critically evaluated. PMID:1912809

  16. Concise Review of Optical Coherence Tomography in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min-I; Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Hung-I; Wang, Kuang-Te

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel image modality with higher resolution in the catheterization laboratory. It can differentiate tissue characteristics and provide detailed information, including dissection, tissue prolapse, thrombi, and stent apposition. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed the current pros and cons of OCT clinical applications and presented our clinical experiences associated with the advantages and limitations of this new imaging modality. PMID:27471350

  17. Clinical Excellence in Psychiatry: A Review of the Psychiatric Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Margaret S.; Peters, Matthew E.; Burkhart, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The provision of excellent patient care is a goal that physicians would like to achieve in caring for all patients, all of the time. Until recently, clinical excellence had not been defined, and the extent to which this recently published definition applies to the care of patients with psychiatric illness is not known. This article sets out to consider how the paradigm for clinical excellence applies to the field of psychiatry. Data Source: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched (1962 through December 2010) combining the keywords psychiatry (or psychiatrist) and clinical excellence, limiting the output to English-language case reports. In subsequent searches, the term clinical excellence was replaced by each of the components of the definition: communication and interpersonal skills, professionalism and humanism, diagnostic acumen, skillful negotiation of the health care system, knowledge, scholarly approach to clinical practice, exhibiting a passion for patient care, explicitly modeling mastery to medical trainees, and collaborating with investigators to advance science and discovery. Study Selection: The search yielded 218 case reports. All of the case reports were reviewed, and a consensus was reached on the 8 exemplars and 1 teaching model to be presented in the article. Careful consideration was given as to whether any aspects of the framework for clinical excellence were missing or not applicable for psychiatry. Results Every case report reviewed touched on 1 or more of the domains of clinical excellence. None of the case reports uncovered new aspects of clinical excellence that were not described in the existing definition. Conclusions: This review of the case reports published in psychiatry reveals that the definition of clinical excellence described in this article may be highly applicable to those caring for patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:22943033

  18. PicSafe Medi: a clinical photography app review.

    PubMed

    Lo, Michelle Chin I; Brinkworth, Simon; Knights, Christina; Mackie, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Medical photographs are used in many clinical settings; however, there are significant risks associated with using the camera feature on mobile devices, namely, breaches of security. PicSafe Medi is an app that allows healthcare professionals to take clinical photographs using smart devices whilst addressing the concerns of patient confidentiality. We review the app to assess its functionality in a UK clinical setting, taking into account UK guidelines such as those offered by the General Medical Council, UK legislation, the Institute of Medical Illustrators and the Department of Health. PMID:26828558

  19. End points in dermatologic clinical trials: A review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wei, Erin X; Kirsner, Robert S; Eaglstein, William H

    2016-07-01

    Clinical trials are critical for the development of new therapies in dermatology, and their results help determine US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and guide care. Of special relevance is the clinical trial efficacy end point, the metric from which statistically significant outcome is derived. Clinicians' understanding of a clinical trial's end point is necessary for critical analysis of the trial results and for applying those results to daily practice. This review provides practical knowledge and critical evaluation of end points used in treatment approvals by the FDA. The end points for actinic keratosis, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and cutaneous ulcer serve as examples. PMID:26936300

  20. Clinical use of Skype: a review of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Nigel R; Gray, Leonard C; Smith, Anthony C

    2012-04-01

    Skype is a popular and free software application that allows PCs and mobile devices to be used for video communication over the Internet. We reviewed the literature to determine whether the clinical use of Skype is supported by evidence. One small (n = 7) controlled clinical trial had assessed the effect of nursing communication using Skype on elderly patients with dementia and their carers. However, we were unable to identify any large, well-designed studies which had formally evaluated the safety, clinical effectiveness, security and privacy of Skype for the routine delivery of patient care. While there were many case reports and small studies, no firm evidence either in favour of, or against the use of Skype for clinical telehealth was found. The risks and benefits of using Skype for clinical purposes are not known. PMID:22362829

  1. Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

  2. LaT/sub E/X memos and letters

    SciTech Connect

    Sydoriak, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Letters and memos at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are formatted in accordance with rules established in the Laboratory's Office Procedures Manual. LaT/sub E/X style files were written to let people produce letters and memos without worrying about a complicated set of rules. Macro and template files are distributed through the Laboratory's Change Control system for use on VAX/UNIX, VAX/VMS, Sun, Apollo, and IBMPC. A testbed of several hundred test files is used to minimize bugs in the distributed versions. There is a choice of Computer Modern fonts or PostScript fonts. Memos and letters can be printed in Roman or typewriter typefaces. When called for, classification labels will be printed on every page. Headers on pages following the first page are compiled from information found on the first page. Letters can handle multiple addresses. Default options are provided where applicable, and error messages warn users about missing information fields. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Public titles of clinical trials should have ethics review.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects. PMID:26279403

  4. Teaching of clinical anatomy in rheumatology: a review of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Torralba, Karina D; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Evelyn, Christine M; Koolaee, R Michelle; Kalish, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Clinical anatomy may be defined as anatomy that is applied to the care of the patient. It is the foundation of a well-informed physical examination that is so important in rheumatologic practice. Unfortunately, there is both documented and observed evidence of a significant deficiency in the teaching and performance of a competent musculoskeletal examination at multiple levels of medical education including in rheumatology trainees. At the Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston, MA, that took place in November 2014, a Clinical Anatomy Study Group met to share techniques of teaching clinical anatomy to rheumatology fellows, residents, and students. Techniques that were reviewed included traditional anatomic diagrams, hands-on cross-examination, cadaver study, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. The proceedings of the Study Group section are described in this review. PMID:26037454

  5. Clinical Presentation of Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sara G; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Ready, Emily A; Jenkins, Mary E; Johnson, Andrew M

    2016-07-01

    Up to 40% of all individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are estimated to experience anxiety that interferes with daily functioning. This article describes research regarding the presentation of anxiety in PD and the influence anxiety has on participation in this population. A scoping review identified 1,635 articles, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria. This review identified that anxiety in PD is often associated with a range of clinical correlates related to demographic and clinical characteristics (age, gender, disease stage, duration, progression), motor symptoms (tremor, bradykinesia, dystonia, freezing of gait, symptom severity), treatment-related complications (on/off fluctuations, on with dyskinesia, unpredictable off), and non-motor symptoms (sleep abnormalities, fatigue, cognitive impairment, depression). These findings can be used to increase clinicians' awareness toward the specific clinical correlates linked to anxiety in PD so that mental health concerns can be detected and addressed more readily in practice. PMID:27618849

  6. Key Concepts of Clinical Trials: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Umscheid, Craig A.; Margolis, David J.; Grossman, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent focus of federal funding on comparative effectiveness research underscores the importance of clinical trials in the practice of evidence-based medicine and health care reform. The impact of clinical trials not only extends to the individual patient by establishing a broader selection of effective therapies, but also to society as a whole by enhancing the value of health care provided. However, clinical trials also have the potential to pose unknown risks to their participants, and biased knowledge extracted from flawed clinical trials may lead to the inadvertent harm of patients. Although conducting a well-designed clinical trial may appear straightforward, it is founded on rigorous methodology and oversight governed by key ethical principles. In this review, we provide an overview of the ethical foundations of trial design, trial oversight, and the process of obtaining approval of a therapeutic, from its pre-clinical phase to post-marketing surveillance. This narrative review is based on a course in clinical trials developed by one of the authors (DJM), and is supplemented by a PubMed search predating January 2011 using the keywords “randomized controlled trial,” “patient/clinical research,” “ethics,” “phase IV,” “data and safety monitoring board,” and “surrogate endpoint.” With an understanding of the key principles in designing and implementing clinical trials, health care providers can partner with the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory bodies to effectively compare medical therapies and thereby meet one of the essential goals of health care reform. PMID:21904102

  7. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  8. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  9. Using clinical audit in practice: a pilot peer review project.

    PubMed

    Holt, V P; Earp, D P

    1996-09-01

    A well-established study group undertook a pilot peer review project testing the use of clinical audit in members' practices. Two peer review groups were formed involving a total of 16 practices. Practice visits were undertaken and a series of meetings were held to prepare and discuss the various projects. The progress of the groups was monitored by questionnaires. All practitioners reported benefits from the project (specifically, from the practice visits) and made changes in areas of their practice other than those specifically chosen for their project. The benefits of carrying out audit projects in a peer review setting are stressed as are the benefits of reciprocal practice visits. The importance of prior establishment of mutual trust and confidence in the peer review group is emphasised. PMID:10332335

  10. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  11. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica: A review

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, N; Apiwattanakul, M; Palace, J; Paul, F; Leite, MI; Kleiter, I; Chitnis, T

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southern Asia, the Caribbean, and Cuba suggest that the incidence and prevalence of NMO ranges from 0.05–0.4 and 0.52–4.4 per 100,000, respectively. Mean age at onset (32.6–45.7) and median time to first relapse (8–12 months) was similar. Most studies reported an excess of disease in women and a relapsing course, particularly in anti-aquaporin 4 antibody (anti AQP4-IgG)-positive patients. Ethnicity may have a bearing on disease phenotype and clinical outcome. Despite limitations inherent to the review process, themes noted in clinical and demographic features of NMO among different populations promote a more global understanding of NMO and strategies to address it. PMID:25921037

  12. Clinical assessment of the scapula: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo; Mottram, Sarah; Roussel, Nathalie A; Cools, Ann M J; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-06-01

    Scientific evidence supporting a role for faulty scapular positioning in patients with various shoulder disorders is cumulating. Clinicians who manage patients with shoulder pain and athletes at risk of developing shoulder pain need to have the skills to assess static and dynamic scapular positioning and dynamic control. Several methods for the assessment of scapular positioning are described in scientific literature. However, the majority uses expensive and specialised equipment (laboratory methods), making their use in clinical practice nearly impossible. On the basis of biometric and kinematic studies, guidelines for interpreting the observation of static and dynamic scapular positioning pattern in patients with shoulder pain are provided. At this point, clinicians can use reliable clinical tests for the assessment of both static and dynamic scapular positioning in patients with shoulder pain. However, this review also provides clinicians several possible pitfalls when performing clinical scapular evaluation. On the basis of its clinical relevance, its proven reliability, its relation to body length and its applicability in a clinical setting, this review recommends to assess the scapula both static (visual observation and acromial distance or Baylor/double square method for shoulder protraction) and semidynamic (visual observation and inclinometry for scapular upward rotation). In addition, when the patient demonstrates with shoulder impingement symptoms, the scapular repositioning test and scapular assistant test are recommended for relating the patients' symptoms to the position or movement of the scapula. PMID:22821720

  13. Bach flower remedies: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Bach flower remedies continue to be popular and its proponents make a range of medicinal claims for them. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence for these claims. Five electronic databases were searched without restrictions on time or language. All randomised clinical trials of flower remedies were included. Seven such studies were located. All but one were placebo-controlled. All placebo-controlled trials failed to demonstrate efficacy. It is concluded that the most reliable clinical trials do not show any differences between flower remedies and placebos. PMID:20734279

  14. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Comprehensive Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Salter, Benjamin S; Weiner, Menachem M; Trinh, Muoi A; Heller, Joshua; Evans, Adam S; Adams, David H; Fischer, Gregory W

    2016-05-31

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a profoundly dangerous, potentially lethal, immunologically mediated adverse drug reaction to unfractionated heparin or, less commonly, to low-molecular weight heparin. In this comprehensive review, the authors highlight heparin-induced thrombocytopenia's risk factors, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and treatment. The authors place special emphasis on the management of patients requiring procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass or interventions in the catheterization laboratory. Clinical vigilance of this disease process is important to ensure its recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Misdiagnosis of the syndrome, as well as misunderstanding of the disease process, continues to contribute to its morbidity and mortality. PMID:27230048

  15. Review of current and evolving clinical indications for endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Anjuli K; Evans, John A

    2016-01-01

    For the first several years after its development, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was primarily limited to identification of pancreatic malignancies. Since this time, the field of EUS has advanced at a tremendous speed in terms of additional clinical diagnostic and therapeutic uses. The combination of ultrasound with endoscopy provides a unique interventional modality that is a minimally invasive alternative to various surgical interventions. Given the expanding recommended indications for EUS, this article will serve to review the most common uses with supporting evidence, while also exploring innovative endeavors that may soon become common clinical practice. PMID:26862365

  16. Semantic Interoperability in Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2015-01-01

    The interoperability of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems with other health information systems has become one of the main limitations to their broad adoption. Semantic interoperability must be granted in order to share CDS modules across different health information systems. Currently, numerous standards for different purposes are available to enable the interoperability of CDS systems. We performed a literature review to identify and provide an overview of the available standards that enable CDS interoperability in the areas of clinical information, decision logic, terminology, and web service interfaces. PMID:26262260

  17. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Zayed, Amira A; Salem, Hamdy; Elkhanany, Ahmed E; Hussein, Heba; Abd El-Baky, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new blood and lymph vessels (neovascularization), leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization (CNV) by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis, contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatments available so far. PMID:25709930

  18. Clinical placements in mental health: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Byrne, Louise; Welch, Anthony; Gellion, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Gaining experience in clinical mental health settings is central to the education of health practitioners. To facilitate the ongoing development of knowledge and practice in this area, we performed a review of the literature on clinical placements in mental health settings. Searches in Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO databases returned 244 records, of which 36 met the selection criteria for this review. Five additional papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those papers included from the initial search. The evidence suggests that clinical placements may have multiple benefits (e.g. improving students' skills, knowledge, attitudes towards people with mental health issues and confidence, as well as reducing their fears and anxieties about working in mental health). The location and structure of placements may affect outcomes, with mental health placements in non-mental health settings appearing to have minimal impact on key outcomes. The availability of clinical placements in mental health settings varies considerably among education providers, with some students completing their training without undertaking such structured clinical experiences. Students have generally reported that their placements in mental health settings have been positive and valuable experiences, but have raised concerns about the amount of support they received from education providers and healthcare staff. Several strategies have been shown to enhance clinical placement experiences (e.g. providing students with adequate preparation in the classroom, implementing learning contracts and providing clinical supervision). Educators and healthcare staff need to work together for the betterment of student learning and the healthcare professions. PMID:25397660

  19. [Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: critical review of the clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, H A; Passos, J D; Barbosa, M B; Do Amorim, E A

    1991-09-01

    The authors report three cases of persistence of primitive trigeminal artery with no evidence of a relationship between its presence and any specific clinical syndrome. They discuss embryological aspects and establish the correlation between the presence of this malformation and other intracranial pathologies, such as "tic douloureux" and morphologic alteration of the circle of Willis. A critical review of the literature is also presented. PMID:1807233

  20. Pineal cyst: a review of clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Choy, Winward; Kim, Won; Spasic, Marko; Voth, Brittany; Yew, Andrew; Yang, Isaac

    2011-07-01

    Pineal cysts (PCs) are benign and often asymptomatic lesions of the pineal region that are typically small and do not change in size over time. PCs appear as small, well circumscribed, unilocular masses that either reside within or completely replace the pineal gland. This article reviews and discusses the characteristic features of PCs-clinical, histological, and identifiable by various imaging modalities-which assist clinicians in narrowing the differential diagnosis for pineal lesions. PMID:21801982

  1. A clinical review of Lyme disease in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naveen; Bariola, J Ryan; Saccente, Michael; Vyas, Keyur S; Bradsher, Robert W

    2010-02-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Since it was first described more than 30 years ago, Lyme disease has generated a great deal of controversy. Lyme disease is not endemic in Arkansas, and testing for Borrelia burgdorferi can lead to clinical confusion, unnecessary treatment and excess cost. This article will present a brief review of Lyme disease, with an emphasis on what is known regarding Lyme disease in Arkansas. PMID:20218039

  2. Review of rank-based procedures for multicenter clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M Mushfiqur; McKean, Joseph W; Kloke, John D

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews nonparametric alternatives to the mixed model normal theory analysis for the analyses of multicenter clinical trials. Under a mixed model, the traditional analysis is based on maximum likelihood theory under normal errors. This analysis, though, is not robust to outliers. Robust, rank-based, Wilcoxon-type procedures are reviewed for a multicenter clinical trial for the mixed model but without the assumption of normality. These procedures retain the high efficiency of Wilcoxon methods for simple location problems and are based on a fitting criterion which is robust to outliers in response space. A simple weighting scheme can be employed so that the procedures are robust to outliers in factor (design) space as well as response space. These rank-based analyses offer a complete analysis, including estimation of fixed effects and their standard errors, and tests of linear hypotheses. Both rank-based estimates of contrasts and individual treatment effects are reviewed. We illustrate the analyses using real data from a clinical trial. PMID:24138428

  3. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

  4. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review.

    PubMed

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-02-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician's understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

  5. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications. PMID:26939036

  6. Statistical challenges for central monitoring in clinical trials: a review.

    PubMed

    Oba, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the complexity and costs of clinical trials have increased dramatically, especially in the area of new drug development. Risk-based monitoring (RBM) has been attracting attention as an efficient and effective trial monitoring approach, which can be applied irrespectively of the trial sponsor, i.e., academic institution or pharmaceutical company. In the RBM paradigm, it is expected that a statistical approach to central monitoring can help improve the effectiveness of on-site monitoring by prioritizing and guiding site visits according to central statistical data checks, as evidenced by examples of actual trial datasets. In this review, several statistical methods for central monitoring are presented. It is important to share knowledge about the role and performance capabilities of statistical methodology among clinical trial team members (i.e., sponsors, investigators, data managers, monitors, and biostatisticians) in order to adopt central statistical monitoring for assessing data quality in the actual clinical trial. PMID:26499195

  7. Use of handheld computers in clinical practice: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many healthcare professionals use smartphones and tablets to inform patient care. Contemporary research suggests that handheld computers may support aspects of clinical diagnosis and management. This systematic review was designed to synthesise high quality evidence to answer the question; Does healthcare professionals’ use of handheld computers improve their access to information and support clinical decision making at the point of care? Methods A detailed search was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science and Social Science Citation Indices since 2001. Interventions promoting healthcare professionals seeking information or making clinical decisions using handheld computers were included. Classroom learning and the use of laptop computers were excluded. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and extracted data. High levels of data heterogeneity negated statistical synthesis. Instead, evidence for effectiveness was summarised narratively, according to each study’s aim for assessing the impact of handheld computer use. Results We included seven randomised trials investigating medical or nursing staffs’ use of Personal Digital Assistants. Effectiveness was demonstrated across three distinct functions that emerged from the data: accessing information for clinical knowledge, adherence to guidelines and diagnostic decision making. When healthcare professionals used handheld computers to access clinical information, their knowledge improved significantly more than peers who used paper resources. When clinical guideline recommendations were presented on handheld computers, clinicians made significantly safer prescribing decisions and adhered more closely to recommendations than peers using paper resources. Finally, healthcare professionals made significantly more appropriate diagnostic decisions using clinical decision making tools on handheld computers compared to colleagues

  8. The wish to hasten death: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Balaguer, Albert

    2011-08-01

    It is common for patients who are faced with physical or psychological suffering, particularly those in the advanced stages of a disease, to have some kind of wish to hasten death (WTHD). This paper reviews and summarises the current state of knowledge about the WTHD among people with end-stage disease, doing so from a clinical perspective and on the basis of published clinical research. Studies were identified through a search strategy applied to the main scientific databases. Clinical studies show that the WTHD has a multi-factor aetiology. The literature review suggests-perhaps in line with better management of physical pain-that psychological and spiritual aspects, including social factors, are the most important cause of such a wish. One of the difficulties facing clinical research is the lack of terminological and conceptual precision in defining the construct. Indeed, studies frequently blur the distinction between a generic wish to die, a WTDH (whether sporadic or persistent over time), the explicit expression of a wish to die, and a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. A notable contribution to knowledge in this field has been made by scales designed to evaluate the WTHD, although the problems of conceptual definition may once again limit the conclusions, which can be drawn from the results. Studies using qualitative methodology have also provided new information that can help in understanding such wishes. Further clinical research is needed to provide a complete understanding of this phenomenon and to foster the development of suitable care plans. PMID:20821377

  9. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  10. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    PubMed

    Tauch, Andreas; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Soriano, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring) lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories. PMID:27155209

  11. Orofacial pain of cardiac origin: Review literature and clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Vicente, Laia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Roca-Elias, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The most common types of orofacial pain originate at the dental or periodontal level or in the musculoskeletal structures. However, the patient may present pain in this region even though the source is located elsewhere in the body. One possible source of heterotopic pain is of cardiac origin. Objectives: Report two cases of orofacial pain of cardiac origin and review the clinical cases described in the literature. Study Design: Description of clinical cases and review of clinical cases. Results and conclusions: Nine cases of atypical pain of cardiac origin are recorded, which include 5 females and 4 males. In craniofacial structures, pain of cardiac origin is usually bilateral. At the craniofacial level, the most frequent location described is in the throat and jaw. Pain of cardiac origin is considered atypical due to its location, although roughly 10% of the cases of cardiac ischemia manifest primarily in craniofacial structures. Finally, the differential diagnosis of pain of odontogenic origin must be taken into account with pain of non-odontogenic origin (muscle, psychogenic, neuronal, cardiac, sinus and neurovascular pain) in order to avoid diagnostic errors in the dental practice as well as unnecessary treatments. Key words:Orofacial pain, ischemic heart disease, heterotopic pain, odontalgia. PMID:22322488

  12. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research. PMID:27618122

  13. Adenomyosis: A Clinical Review of a Challenging Gynecologic Condition.

    PubMed

    Struble, Jennifer; Reid, Shannon; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Adenomyosis is a heterogenous gynecologic condition. Patients with adenomyosis can have a range of clinical presentations. The most common presentation of adenomyosis is heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea; however, patients can also be asymptomatic. Currently, there are no standard diagnostic imaging criteria, and choosing the optimal treatment for patients is challenging. Women with adenomyosis often have other associated gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis or leiomyomas, therefore making the diagnosis and evaluating response to treatment challenging. The objective of this review was to highlight current clinical information regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, imaging findings, and treatment of adenomyosis. Several studies support the theory that adenomyosis results from invasion of the endometrium into the myometrium, causing alterations in the junctional zone. These changes are commonly seen on imaging studies such as transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second most common theory is that adenomyosis results from embryologic-misplaced pluripotent mullerian remnants. Traditionally, adenomyosis was only diagnosed after hysterectomy; however, studies have shown that a diagnosis can be made with biopsies at hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Noninvasive imaging can be used to help guide the differential diagnosis. The most common findings on 2-dimensional/3-dimensional TVUS and MRI are reviewed. Two-dimensional TVUS and MRI have a respectable sensitivity and specificity; however, recent studies indicate that 3-dimensional TVUS is superior to 2-dimensional TVUS for the diagnosis of adenomyosis and may allow for the diagnosis of early-stage disease. Management options for adenomyosis, both medical and surgical, are reviewed. Currently, the only definitive management option for patients is hysterectomy. PMID:26427702

  14. Microwave tomography: review of the progress towards clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Serguei

    2009-01-01

    Microwave tomography (MWT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality with great potential for non-invasive assessment of functional and pathological conditions of soft tissues. This paper presents a review of research results obtained by the author and his colleagues and focuses on various potential clinical applications of MWT. Most clinical applications of MWT imaging have complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problems of three-dimensional diffraction tomography. There is a very high dielectric contrast between bones and fatty areas compared with soft tissues. In most cases, the contrast between soft-tissue abnormalities (the target imaging areas) is less pronounced than between bone (fat) and soft tissue. This additionally complicates the imaging problem. In spite of the difficulties mentioned, it has been demonstrated that MWT is applicable for extremities imaging, breast cancer detection, diagnostics of lung cancer, brain imaging and cardiac imaging. PMID:19581253

  15. The sperm chromatin structure assay: a review of clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Love, Charles C

    2005-10-01

    The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was introduced by as a method to determine the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and how those results related to fertility. This initial study used human sperm and was followed by studies in bulls and boars . This assay was one of the first to introduce the technique of flow cytometry, which has the ability to evaluate specific sperm compartments of large numbers of sperm in a short time, as a methodology to evaluate sperm quality and further define the relationship of sperm quality to fertility. For any assay to be of use clinically, it must not only be validated and adapted for the species of interest, but guidelines that associate specific levels of fertility with assay results must be defined. This review will describe how our laboratory uses the SCSA for clinical diagnosis of reduced fertility in the stallion. PMID:16140481

  16. Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Sebastian; Halpern, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. We review the preclinical and clinical data on cannabinoids and four neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD). Numerous studies have demonstrated an involvement of the cannabinoid system in neurotransmission, neuropathology and neurobiology of dementias. In addition, several candidate compounds have demonstrated efficacy in vitro. However, some of the substances produced inconclusive results in vivo. Therefore, only few trials have aimed to replicate the effects seen in animal studies in patients. Indeed, the literature on cannabinoid administration in patients is scarce. While preclinical findings suggest causal treatment strategies involving cannabinoids, clinical trials have only assessed the suitability of cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists and cannabidiol for the symptomatic treatment of dementia. Further research is needed, including in vivo models of dementia and human studies.

  17. Clinical research regulation: challenges to the institutional review board system.

    PubMed

    Straight, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    The system in place to ensure the ethical conduct of human subject research in accordance with federal regulations has drawn great criticism from all sides, to include clinical investigators, administrators, research subjects, and legislators. The administrative requirements associated with clinical trials has changed dramatically in the last several decades, as has the complexity of the science being regulated. The institutional review board (IRB) system, however, appears to be struggling to keep pace, and has even been labeled a "system in jeopardy" by a national committee of experts. This contribution outlines the current obstacles and critique of IRBs, providing a discussion of the structure of the IRB system and strategies to meet these challenges. PMID:19539166

  18. Establishing guidelines for peer review of the clinical dietitian.

    PubMed

    Weed, J E; Molleson, A L

    1977-02-01

    Guidelines for peer review of clinical dietitians are needed. In this study, two areas relevant to such guidelines, i.e., data useful in assessing nutritional status of patients and written communications of the dietary staff with other health care staff, were explored. Admission height and weight and blood chemistries, as found on dietary cards for 119 randomly selected patients during 1973, were tabulated. In addition, pertinent information on dietary cards and in the medical records was compared. The findings indicated that the biochemical and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were available in the medical records but were not being utilized by dietitians to the degree expected. The dietary card is the logical focus for peer review, but better documentation is needed in areas of dietary history recording, computation of ideal weights, utilization of laboratory data, and development of nutritional care plans. PMID:839025

  19. A clinical review of the management of frostbite.

    PubMed

    Grieve, A W; Davis, P; Dhillon, S; Richards, P; Hillebrandt, D; Imray, C H E

    2011-03-01

    Frostbite is a thermal injury that can occur when temperatures drop low enough for tissue to freeze. On rewarming the tissues, an inflammatory process develops which is often associated with tissue loss. The extent of the tissue loss reflects the severity of the cold exposure and includes factors such as temperature, duration, wind chill, altitude, and systemic hypothermia. This review discusses the epidemiology, the pathophysiological processes involved, and the clinical management of frostbite injuries. Practical advice is given on both the field and hospital management and how to seek expert advice from remote situations. The review also discusses newer developments in frostbite treatment such as intra-vascular thrombolysis and adjunctive treatments such as the use of intravenous vasodilators. PMID:21465915

  20. [Financial conflict of interest in clinical psychiatry studies: a review].

    PubMed

    Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Alptekin, Köksal

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry revenues from global pharmaceutical sales have increased 7% to $602 billion in 2005. Approximately 15% of these revenues were spent on clinical research and drug development studies. Because of the huge budget allocated to research and development studies the number of studies being conducted by pharmaceutical companies has increased. The impact of the pharmaceutical industry on clinical trials has been affected by financial conflicts of interest between researchers and the industry. Conflict of interest refers to a situation in which it appears that a researcher's personal financial interest could significantly affect the design, conduct, and/or reporting of such research. Financial conflict of interest has been reported to be frequent in clinical trials in general medicine. It is estimated that 89%-98% of comparative drug treatment studies are funded by pharmaceutical companies. It was reported that favorable outcomes for the firms conducting these studies were significantly more common in industry-funded studies than in non-industry funded ones. These biased outcomes were due to conscious or unconscious decisions about the design, data analysis, and publishing of the studies. Biased outcomes of industry-funded studies have diminished the integrity of academic institutions, pharmaceutical companies, researchers, and scientific journals; therefore, various precautions have been taken in order to reduce the effect of conflict of interest on study outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of conflict of interest on outcomes in clinical psychiatry studies. PMID:19110984

  1. The immediate provisional restoration: a review of clinical techniques.

    PubMed

    Hannon, S M; Breault, L G; Kim, A C

    1998-03-01

    For each patient who requires removal of anterior teeth, there are a multitude of treatment considerations. Cosmetic demands, functional needs, treatment sequencing, timeliness, and affordability are some primary concerns that must be addressed on an individual basis. A patient will generally want a cosmetic and functional prosthesis at the earliest possible opportunity. Providing the most appropriate interim prosthesis for a given patient is both challenging and rewarding. The numerous clinical techniques for immediate interim tooth replacement are reviewed, and previously unreported methods are presented to assist the clinician in the selection of interim prosthesis design. PMID:9643251

  2. MR tractography: a review of its clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kei; Sakai, Koji; Akazawa, Kentaro; Yuen, Sachiko; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance tractography based on diffusion-tensor imaging was first introduced to the medical imaging community a decade ago. It has been successfully applied to a number of neurological conditions and most commonly used for preoperative planning for brain tumors and vascular malformations. Areas of active research include stroke, and dementia, where it provides valuable information not available through other imaging techniques. This technique was first introduced using the deterministic streamline algorithm and has evolved to use more sophisticated probabilistic approaches. We will review the past, present, and future of tractography, focusing primarily on its clinical applications. PMID:20035125

  3. Anthroposophical medicine: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2004-02-28

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and critically evaluate all randomised clinical trials testing the effectiveness of the whole system of anthroposophical medicine either as a sole or as an adjunctive form of treatment. Seven independent literature searches were conducted to locate all such studies. Trials of single remedies within the wider anthroposophical approach were excluded. No language restrictions were applied. Unfortunately not a single study was located which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. It was therefore concluded that, at present, the question whether the anthroposophical concept of healing generates more good than harm cannot be answered. PMID:15038403

  4. Perfusion CT imaging of the liver: review of clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Oğul, Hayri; Kantarcı, Mecit; Genç, Berhan; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Çullu, Neşat; Kızrak, Yeşim; Yılmaz, Ömer; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2014-01-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (CT) has a great potential for determining hepatic and portal blood flow; it offers the advantages of quantitative determination of lesion hemodynamics, distinguishing malignant and benign processes, as well as providing morphological data. Many studies have reported the use of this method in the assessment of hepatic tumors, hepatic fibrosis associated with chronic liver disease, treatment response following radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and hepatic perfusion changes after radiological or surgical interventions. The main goal of liver perfusion imaging is to improve the accuracy in the characterization of liver disorders. In this study, we reviewed the clinical application of perfusion CT in various hepatic diseases. PMID:24834487

  5. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Lorenzo; Carboni, Nicola; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases. PMID:27529282

  6. Study designs in dermatology: A review for the clinical dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A working knowledge of common research study designs and their advantages and disadvantages is necessary for critical reading of the literature by clinicians. However, understanding study designs and related statistical methodologies may be perceived as being complex and difficult to execute. This review aims to provide a practical foundation for basic study designs and to help physicians identify pitfalls that commonly occur in clinical studies and their level of evidence. Topics covered include the pros and cons of observational versus prospectively controlled studies, case-control, cohort, randomized controlled studies, adaptive controlled trials and metaanalyses, and the role of matching in studies. PMID:26475532

  7. A Review of the Clinical Implications of Breast Cancer Biology

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Yekta; Mirmalek, Seyed Abbas; Kani, Fatemeh Elham; Aidun, Amir; Salimi-Tabatabaee, Seyed Alireza; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Parsa, Tina; Shahverdi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background Histologically similar tumors may have different prognoses and responses to treatment. These differences are due to molecular differences. Hence, in this review, the biological interaction of breast cancer in several different areas is discussed. In addition, the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from a biological perspective and current global advances in these areas are addressed. Objective This review provides the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from the biological perspective and current global advances in these areas. Methods PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched comprehensively with combinations of the following keywords: “breast cancer,” “biological markers,” and “clinical.” The definition of breast cancer, diagnostic methods, biological markers, and available treatment approaches were extracted from the literature. Results Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and Ki-67 are the most well-known biological markers that have important roles in prognosis and response to therapeutic methods. Some studies showed the response of ER-positive and PR-negative tumors to anti-estrogenic treatment to be lower than ER-positive and PR-positive tumors. Patients with high expression of HER-2 and Ki-67 had a poor prognosis. In addition, recent investigations indicated the roles of new biomarkers, such as VEGF, IGF, P53 and P21, which are associated with many factors, such as age, race, and histological features. Conclusion The objective of scientists, from establishing a relationship between cancer biology infrastructures with clinical manifestations, is to find new ways of prevention and progression inhibition and then possible introduction of less dangerous and better treatments to resolve this dilemma of human society. PMID

  8. Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sarah J; Wade, Tracey D; Shafran, Roz

    2011-03-01

    Perfectionism is a risk and maintaining factor for eating disorders, anxiety disorders and depression. The objective of this paper is to review the four bodies of evidence supporting the notion that perfectionism is a transdiagnostic process. First, a review of the literature was conducted that demonstrates the elevation of perfectionism across numerous anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders compared to healthy controls. Data is presented that shows perfectionism increases vulnerability for eating disorders, and that it maintains obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety and depression as it predicts treatment outcome in these disorders. Second, evidence is examined showing that elevated perfectionism is associated with co-occurrence of psychopathology. Third, the different conceptualisations of perfectionism are reviewed, including a cognitive-behavioural conceptualisation of clinical perfectionism that can be utilised to understand this transdiagnostic process. Fourth, evidence that treatment of perfectionism results in reductions in anxiety, depression and eating pathology is reviewed. Finally, the importance of clinicians considering the routine assessment and treatment of perfectionism is outlined. PMID:20488598

  9. Effects of healing touch in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-09-01

    Hands-on healing and energy-based interventions have been found in cultures throughout history around the world. These complementary therapies, rooted in ancient Eastern healing practices, are becoming mainstream. Healing Touch, a biofield therapy that arose in the nursing field in the late 1980s, is used in a variety of settings (i.e., pain centers, surgical settings, and private practices) with reported benefits (i.e., decreased anxiety, pain, and depressive behaviors; increased relaxation and a sense of well-being). However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of Healing Touch have not been evaluated using a systematic, evidence-based approach. Thus, this systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from randomized clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of Healing Touch as a supportive care modality for any medical condition. PMID:21228402

  10. Cannabis and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009). Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. Data sources included reviews published in core clinical journals, cohort studies, interventional studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional analyses and epidemiological data. Results are discussed under 2 topics. Firstly, evidence related to biochemical functioning of cannabinoids and their relationship to endocannabinoid system is discussed briefly. Secondly, the evidence from clinical studies on cannabis, psychosis proneness and SSD are discussed in detail. The discussion is structured to fit in the evidence from results section to 3 plausible hypotheses on cannabis use and SSD. The evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. Despite new evidence, the exact relationship between cannabis and SSD is unclear. There is no firm evidence that cannabis causes SSD. The evidence for the argument that schizophrenic patients are attracted to cannabis is also not strong. The most plausible explanation is that cannabis use and psychosis proneness may have synergistic effects in a vulnerable minority. PMID:21938097

  11. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    PubMed Central

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top–down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research. PMID:25852607

  12. Systematic literature review for clinical practice guideline development.

    PubMed

    O'Day, D M; Steinberg, E P; Dickersin, K

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality and scope of the published literature on functional impairment due to cataract in adults as reviewed for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline. We examined the method of literature retrieved and analysis performed in the course of development of literature-based recommendations for the guideline panel. To collect data, we reviewed the process of literature acquisition and identification and the quality assessments made by reviewers of 14 individual topics composed of 77 issues related to the guideline. We collated this information to provide an assessment of the quality and scope of the relevant literature. Less than 4% (310) of the approximately 8,000 articles initially identified as potentially relevant to the guideline were ultimately used. The majority covered three topics (surgery and complication, 100; Nd:YAG capsulotomy, 77; and potential vision testing, 40). Three other topics--indications for surgery, preoperative medical evaluation, and rehabilitation--were devoid of articles meeting inclusion criteria. For 43 issues, there was no identifiable relevant literature. With few exceptions, the quality of the literature was rated fair to poor owing to major flaws in experimental design. Case series (256 reports) of one type or another accounted for the majority of the included literature. There were 17 random controlled trials. This review revealed a sparse and generally low-quality literature relevant to the management of functional impairment due to cataract, despite a relatively large data base in reputable peer-reviewed journals. PMID:8140702

  13. A systematic review of clinical decision rules for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Colin B; Sandy, Sherry; Jette, Nathalie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Marshall, Deborah; Wiebe, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been empirically demonstrated to improve patient satisfaction and enhance cost-effective care. The use of CDRs has not yet been robustly explored for epilepsy. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE (from 1946) and Embase (from 1947) using Medical Subject Headings and keywords related to CDRs and epilepsy. We included original research of any language deriving, validating, or implementing a CDR using standardized definitions. Study quality was determined using a modified version of previously published criteria. A bivariate model was used to meta-analyze studies undergoing sequential derivation and validation studies. Of 2445 unique articles, 5 were determined to be relevant to this review. Three were derivation studies (three diagnostic and one therapeutic), one validation study, and one combined derivation and validation study. No implementation studies were identified. Study quality varied but was primarily of a moderate level. Two CDRs were validated and, thus, able to be meta-analyzed. Although initial measures of accuracy were high (sensitivity ~80% or above), they tended to diminish significantly in the validation studies. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity both exhibited wide 95% confidence and prediction intervals that may limit their utility in routine practice. Despite the advances in therapeutic and diagnostic interventions for epilepsy, few CDRs have been developed to guide their use. Future CDRs should address common clinical scenarios such as efficient use of diagnostic tools and optimal clinical treatment decisions. Given their potential for advancing efficient, evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare, CDR development should be a priority in epilepsy. PMID:26922491

  14. Unconventional Anticancer Agents: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kuo, Joyce; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose A substantial number of cancer patients turn to treatments other than those recommended by mainstream oncologists in an effort to sustain tumor remission or halt the spread of cancer. These unconventional approaches include botanicals, high-dose nutritional supplementation, off-label pharmaceuticals, and animal products. The objective of this study was to review systematically the methodologies applied in clinical trials of unconventional treatments specifically for cancer. Methods MEDLINE 1966 to 2005 was searched using approximately 200 different medical subject heading terms (eg, alternative medicine) and free text words (eg, laetrile). We sought prospective clinical trials of unconventional treatments in cancer patients, excluding studies with only symptom control or nonclinical (eg, immune) end points. Trial data were extracted by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. Results We identified 14,735 articles, of which 214, describing 198 different clinical trials, were included. Twenty trials were phase I, three were phase I and II, 70 were phase II, and 105 were phase III. Approximately half of the trials investigated fungal products, 20% investigated other botanicals, 10% investigated vitamins and supplements, and 10% investigated off-label pharmaceuticals. Only eight of the phase I trials were dose-finding trials, and a mere 20% of phase II trials reported a statistical design. Of the 27 different agents tested in phase III, only one agent had a prior dose-finding trial, and only for three agents was the definitive study initiated after the publication of phase II data. Conclusion Unconventional cancer treatments have not been subject to appropriate early-phase trial development. Future research on unconventional therapies should involve dose-finding and phase II studies to determine the suitability of definitive trials. PMID:16382123

  15. Systematic review of clinical outcomes after prophylactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, C R; Trevatt, Aej; Dixit, A; Datta, V

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Prophylactic appendicectomy is performed prior to military, polar and space expeditions to prevent acute appendicitis in the field. However, the risk-benefit ratio of prophylactic surgery is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for prophylactic appendicectomy. It is supplemented by a clinical example of prophylactic surgery resulting in life-threatening complications. Methods A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE(®) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Keyword variants of 'prophylaxis' and 'appendicectomy' were combined to identify potential papers for inclusion. Papers related to prophylactic appendicectomy risks and benefits were reviewed. Results Overall, 511 papers were identified, with 37 papers satisfying the inclusion criteria. Nine reported outcomes after incidental appendicectomy during concurrent surgical procedures. No papers focused explicitly on prophylactic appendicectomy in asymptomatic patients. The clinical example outlined acute obstruction secondary to adhesions from a prophylactic appendicectomy. Complications after elective appendicectomy versus the natural history of acute appendicitis in scenarios such as polar expeditions or covert operations suggest prophylactic appendicectomy may be appropriate prior to extreme situations. Nevertheless, the long-term risk of adhesion related complications render prophylactic appendicectomy feasible only when the short-term risk of acute appendicitis outweighs the long-term risks of surgery. Conclusions Prophylactic appendicectomy is rarely performed and not without risk. This is the first documented evidence of long-term complications following prophylactic appendicectomy. Surgery should be considered on an individual basis by balancing the risks of acute appendicitis in the field with the potential consequences of an otherwise unnecessary surgical procedure in a healthy patient. PMID:27023639

  16. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Neurocysticercosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Ndimubanzi, Patrick Cyaga; Budke, Christine M.; Nguyen, Hai; Qian, Yingjun; Cowan, Linda Demetry; Stoner, Julie Ann; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are poorly understood. This systematic review aims to estimate the frequencies of different manifestations, complications and disabilities associated with NCC. Methods A systematic search of the literature published from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2008, in 24 different electronic databases and 8 languages was conducted. Meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate. Results A total of 1569 documents were identified, and 21 included in the analysis. Among patients seen in neurology clinics, seizures/epilepsy were the most common manifestations (78.8%, 95%CI: 65.1%–89.7%) followed by headaches (37.9%, 95%CI: 23.3%–53.7%), focal deficits (16.0%, 95%CI: 9.7%–23.6%) and signs of increased intracranial pressure (11.7%, 95%CI: 6.0%–18.9%). All other manifestations occurred in less than 10% of symptomatic NCC patients. Only four studies reported on the mortality rate of NCC. Conclusions NCC is a pleomorphic disease linked to a range of manifestations. Although definitions of manifestations were very rarely provided, and varied from study to study, the proportion of NCC cases with seizures/epilepsy and the proportion of headaches were consistent across studies. These estimates are only applicable to patients who are ill enough to seek care in neurology clinics and likely over estimate the frequency of manifestations among all NCC cases. PMID:21629722

  17. Clinical Outcomes Associated with Home Mechanical Ventilation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Erika J; Asadi, Leyla; Mckim, Doug A; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of patients supported with home mechanical ventilation (HMV) for chronic respiratory failure has increased. However, the clinical outcomes associated with HMV are largely unknown. Methods. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating patients receiving HMV for indications other than obstructive lung disease, reporting at least one clinically relevant outcome including health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by validated tools; hospitalization requirements; caregiver burden; and health service utilization. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane library, clinical trial registries, proceedings from selected scientific meetings, and bibliographies of retrieved citations. Results. We included 1 randomized control trial (RCT) and 25 observational studies of mixed methodological quality involving 4425 patients; neuromuscular disorders (NMD) (n = 1687); restrictive thoracic diseases (RTD) (n = 481); obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (n = 293); and others (n = 748). HRQL was generally described as good for HMV users. Mental rather than physical HRQL domains were rated higher, particularly where physical assessment was limited. Hospitalization rates and days in hospital appear to decrease with implementation of HMV. Caregiver burden associated with HMV was generally high; however, it is poorly described. Conclusion. HRQL and need for hospitalization may improve after establishment of HMV. These inferences are based on relatively few studies of marked heterogeneity and variable quality. PMID:27445559

  18. Clinical Outcomes Associated with Home Mechanical Ventilation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Erika J.; Asadi, Leyla; Mckim, Doug A.; Bagshaw, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of patients supported with home mechanical ventilation (HMV) for chronic respiratory failure has increased. However, the clinical outcomes associated with HMV are largely unknown. Methods. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating patients receiving HMV for indications other than obstructive lung disease, reporting at least one clinically relevant outcome including health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by validated tools; hospitalization requirements; caregiver burden; and health service utilization. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane library, clinical trial registries, proceedings from selected scientific meetings, and bibliographies of retrieved citations. Results. We included 1 randomized control trial (RCT) and 25 observational studies of mixed methodological quality involving 4425 patients; neuromuscular disorders (NMD) (n = 1687); restrictive thoracic diseases (RTD) (n = 481); obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (n = 293); and others (n = 748). HRQL was generally described as good for HMV users. Mental rather than physical HRQL domains were rated higher, particularly where physical assessment was limited. Hospitalization rates and days in hospital appear to decrease with implementation of HMV. Caregiver burden associated with HMV was generally high; however, it is poorly described. Conclusion. HRQL and need for hospitalization may improve after establishment of HMV. These inferences are based on relatively few studies of marked heterogeneity and variable quality. PMID:27445559

  19. A Review of Update Clinical Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Among various types of ion species, carbon ions are considered to have the most balanced, optimal properties in terms of possessing physically and biologically effective dose localization in the body. This is due to the fact that when compared with photon beams, carbon ion beams offer improved dose distribution, leading to the concentration of the sufficient dose within a target volume while minimizing the dose in the surrounding normal tissues. In addition, carbon ions, being heavier than protons, provide a higher biological effectiveness, which increases with depth, reaching the maximum at the end of the beam's range. This is practically an ideal property from the standpoint of cancer radiotherapy. Clinical studies have been carried out in the world to confirm the efficacy of carbon ions against a variety of tumors as well as to develop effective techniques for delivering an efficient dose to the tumor. Through clinical experiences of carbon ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, a significant reduction in the overall treatment time with acceptable toxicities has been obtained in almost all types of tumors. This means that carbon ion radiotherapy has meanwhile achieved for itself a solid place in general practice. This review describes clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy together with physical, biological and technological aspects of carbon ions. PMID:22798685

  20. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  1. Pharmacists' interventions on clinical asthma outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cardenas, Victoria; Armour, Carol; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando; Rotta, Inajara; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of pharmacists' interventions on clinical asthma outcomes on adult patients and to identify the outcome indicators used.PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Scielo were searched. Studies addressing pharmacists' interventions on adult asthma patients reporting clinical asthma outcomes were incorporated.11 clinical outcomes were identified in 21 studies. 10 studies measured the impact of the intervention on asthma control. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCTs found positive results in percentages of controlled patients and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores. Discordant results were found for Asthma Control Test results. Asthma severity was assessed in four studies. One RCT found a significant decrease in the percentage of severe patients; two non-RCTs found significant improvements in severity scores. 11 studies reported pulmonary function indicators, showing inconsistent results. Eight studies measured asthma symptoms; three RCTs and four non-RCTs showed significant improvements.RCTs and non-RCTs generated similar results for most outcomes. Based on the evidence generated by RCTs, pharmacists' have a positive impact on the percentage of controlled patients, ACQ scores, severity and symptoms. Future research should report using the core outcome set of indicators established for asthma (PROSPERO CRD42014007019). PMID:26677937

  2. A review of the clinical diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denghua; Kunam, Vamsi Krishna; Li, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy worldwide. The incidence of intrahepatic CCA is increasing, whereas that of extrahepatic CCA is decreasing. This review looks at the new advances that have been made in the management of CCA, based on a PubMed and Science Citation Index search of results from randomized controlled trials, reviews, and cohort, prospective and retrospective studies. Aggressive interventional approaches and new histopathological techniques have been developed to make a histological diagnosis in patients with high risk factors or suspected CCA. Resectability of the tumour can now be assessed using multiple radiological imaging studies; the main prognostic factor after surgery is a histologically negative resection margin. Biliary drainage and/or portal vein embolization may be performed before extended radical resection, or liver transplantation may be undertaken in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Though many advances have been made in the management of CCA, the standard modality of treatment has not yet been established. This review focuses on the clinical options for different stages of CCA. PMID:24366497

  3. Managing Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Landry, Bradford W; Fischer, Philip R; Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Koch, Krista M; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Mack, Kenneth J; Wilder, Robert T; Bauer, Brent A; Brandenburg, Joline E

    2015-11-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be difficult for a single provider to manage in a busy clinical setting. Part of this difficulty is that pediatric chronic pain not only impacts the child but also the families of these children. In this review article, we discuss etiology and pathophysiology of chronic pain, along with variables that impact the severity of chronic pain and functional loss. We review diagnosis and management of selected chronic pain conditions in pediatric patients, including headache, low back pain, hypermobility, chronic fatigue, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and complex regional pain syndrome. For each condition, we create a road map that contains therapy prescriptions, exercise recommendations, and variables that may influence pain severity. Potential medications for these pain conditions and associated symptoms are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach for managing children with these conditions, including pediatric pain rehabilitation programs, is emphasized. Lastly, we discuss psychological factors and interventions for pediatric chronic pain and potential complementary and alternative natural products and interventions. PMID:26568508

  4. Clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal dementia: a review.

    PubMed

    Seelaar, Harro; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Fox, Nick C; van Swieten, John C

    2011-05-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common young-onset dementia and is clinically characterised by progressive behavioural change, executive dysfunction and language difficulties. Three clinical syndromes, behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia, form part of a clinicopathological spectrum named frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The classical neuropsychological phenotype of FTD has been enriched by tests exploring Theory of Mind, social cognition and emotional processing. Imaging studies have detailed the patterns of atrophy associated with different clinical and pathological subtypes. These patterns offer some diagnostic utility, while measures of progression of atrophy may be of use in future trials. 30-50% of FTD is familial, and mutations in two genes, microtubule associated protein tau and Progranulin (GRN), account for about half of these cases. Rare defects in VCP, CHMP2B, TARDP and FUS genes have been found in a small number of families. Linkage to chromosome 9p13.2-21.3 has been established in familial FTD with motor neuron disease, although the causative gene is yet to be identified. Recent developments in the immunohistochemistry of FTLD, and also in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have led to a new pathological nomenclature. The two major groups are those with tau-positive inclusions (FTLD-tau) and those with ubiquitin-positive and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). Recently, a new protein involved in familial ALS, fused in sarcoma (FUS), has been found in FTLD patients with ubiquitin-positive and TDP-43-negative inclusions. In this review, the authors discuss recent clinical, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic and pathological developments that have changed our understanding of FTD, its classification and criteria. The potential to establish an early diagnosis, predict underlying pathology during life and quantify disease progression will

  5. Review of clinical trials for mitochondrial disorders: 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, some 16 open and controlled clinical trials for potential treatments of mitochondrial diseases have been reported or are in progress, and are summarized and reviewed herein. These include trials of administering dichloroacetate (an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), arginine or citrulline (precursors of nitric oxide), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; part of the electron transport chain and an antioxidant), idebenone (a synthetic analogue of CoQ10), EPI-743 (a novel oral potent 2-electron redox cycling agent), creatine (a precursor of phosphocreatine), combined administration (of creatine, α-lipoate, and CoQ10), and exercise training (to increase muscle mitochondria). These trials have included patients with various mitochondrial disorders, a selected subcategory of mitochondrial disorders, or specific mitochondrial disorders (Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). The trial designs have varied from open-label/uncontrolled, open-label/controlled, or double-blind/placebo-controlled/crossover. Primary outcomes have ranged from single, clinically-relevant scores to multiple measures. Eight of these trials have been well-controlled, completed trials. Of these only 1 (treatment with creatine) showed a significant change in primary outcomes, but this was not reproduced in 2 subsequent trials with creatine with different patients. One trial (idebenone treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy) did not show significant improvement in the primary outcome, but there was significant improvement in a subgroup of patients. Despite the paucity of benefits found so far, well-controlled clinical trials are essential building blocks in the continuing search for more effective treatment of mitochondrial disease, and current trials based on information gained from these prior experiences are in progress. Because of difficulties in recruiting sufficient mitochondrial disease patients

  6. The Clinical Features of Sarcoidosis: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Judson, Marc A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcoidosis has innumerable clinical manifestations, as the disease may affect every body organ. Furthermore, the severity of sarcoidosis involvement may range from an asymptomatic state to a life-threatening condition. This manuscript reviews a wide variety of common and less common clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis. These manifestations are presented organ by organ, although additional sections describe systemic and multiorgan presentations of sarcoidosis. The lung is the organ most commonly involved with sarcoidosis with at least 90 % of sarcoidosis patients demonstrating lung involvement in most series. The skin, eye, liver, and peripheral lymph node are the next most commonly clinically involved organs in most series, with the frequency of involvement ranging from 10 to 30 %. The actual frequency of sarcoidosis organ involvement is probably much higher as it is frequently asymptomatic and may avoid detection. This is particularly common with lung, liver, cardiac, and bone involvement. Cardiac sarcoidosis is present in 25 % of all sarcoidosis but only causes clinical problems in 5 % of them. Nevertheless, unlike sarcoidosis involvement of most other organs, it may be suddenly fatal. Therefore, it is important to screen for cardiac sarcoidosis in all sarcoidosis patients. All sarcoidosis patients should also be screened for eye involvement as asymptomatic patients may have eye involvement that may cause permanent vision impairment. Pulmonary fibrosis from sarcoidosis is usually slowly progressive but may be life-threatening because of the development of respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, or hemoptysis related to a mycetoma or bronchiectasis. Some manifestations of sarcoidosis are not organ-specific and probably are the result of a release of mediators from the sarcoid granuloma. Two such manifestations include small fiber neuropathy and fatigue syndromes, and they are observed in a large percentage of patients. PMID:25274450

  7. Clinical review: Clinical management of new oral anticoagulants: a structured review with emphasis on the reversal of bleeding complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    New oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, have been recently approved for primary and secondary prophylaxis of thromboembolic conditions. However, there is no clear strategy for managing and reversing their anticoagulant effects. We aimed to summarize the available evidence for clinical management and reversal of bleeding associated with new oral anticoagulants. Using a systematic review approach, we aimed to identify studies describing reversal strategies for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. The search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, and grey literature. We included laboratory and human studies. We included 23 studies reported in 37 out of 106 potentially relevant references. Four studies were conducted in humans and the rest were in vitro and in vivo studies. The majority of the studies evaluated the use of prothrombinase complex concentrate (PCC), either activated or inactivated, and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Other interventions were also identified. Laboratory studies suggest that hemostatic parameters and bleeding might be partially or completely corrected by PCC for rivaroxaban better than dabigatran. Studies in humans suggest that PCC might reverse the effects of rivaroxaban better than dabigatran assessed by hemostatic tests. We were not able to locate studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of these agents. The best available evidence suggests that PCC (activated or inactivated) might be the best option for reversing new anticoagulants. Evidence for rFVIIa is less compelling. There might be differences in the efficacy of reversing agents for different anticoagulants. Studies assessing the clinical efficacy of these reversal agents are urgently needed. PMID:23806169

  8. A review of clinical trials of lithium in medicine.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    Since the approval of lithium use in treatment of acute mania, there have been numerous clinical trials of lithium in medical and psychiatric disorders. This paper gives a brief review of the literature on lithium trials in approximately fourteen medical conditions. These are: hyperthyroidism, metabolizing thyroid cancer, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, premenstrual tension syndrome, anorexia nervosa, Felty's syndrome, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, aplastic anemia, seborrheic dermatitis, eczematoid dermatitis, cyclic vomiting, diabetes mellitus and asthma. Most of the case reports cited showed the efficacy of the side effects from lithium salt in the management of the symptoms and signs of these disorders, however, well-designed and controlled studies give negative results. The positive results are reported in the group of disorders having an underlying subdromal affective syndrome such as premenstrual tension syndrome and anorexia nervosa. Other encouraging reports include the effect of lithium to induce leucocytosis in Felty's syndrome and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. PMID:6395135

  9. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  10. Lyme borreliosis: reviewing potential vaccines, clinical aspects and health economics.

    PubMed

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem infectious disease with a growing burden in many parts of North America, Asia and Europe. Persistent infection of LB can usually be treated effectively with antibiotic therapy, but it may be followed by post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Therefore, it is important to begin with treatment in the early phase of the disease. Vaccination shows potential as the most effective way of preventing LB and reducing its burden in these continents. It is concluded that there is a need for continuous effort in research from all perspectives on LB, especially regarding prevention with novel vaccines, their development, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. This review may help to further develop (cost-) effective strategies for prevention and control of the disease to reduce its burden and achieve population-wide health benefits. PMID:26414102

  11. Clinical trials in irritable bowel syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Claire M; Mangel, Allen W

    2013-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders and it is characterized by episodes of abdominal pain and altered bowel functions. The specific bowel disturbances of diarrhea, constipation or an alternation between the two defines the IBS subtypes of diarrhea-predominant, constipation-predominant, and mixed or alternating IBS. Because of the abnormalities in bowel states associated with each IBS subtype, it is not likely that one agent would successfully treat all three subtypes. As a result, clinical trials have focused, for the most part, on one IBS subtype. Over the past 2 decades very few agents have achieved regulatory approval for the treatment of IBS. In the present article we review publications reporting on phase 2 and phase 3 studies evaluating agents to potentially be used in the treatment of patients with IBS. PMID:23130604

  12. Clinical review: Respiratory mechanics in spontaneous and assisted ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Grinnan, Daniel C; Truwit, Jonathon Dean

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary disease changes the physiology of the lungs, which manifests as changes in respiratory mechanics. Therefore, measurement of respiratory mechanics allows a clinician to monitor closely the course of pulmonary disease. Here we review the principles of respiratory mechanics and their clinical applications. These principles include compliance, elastance, resistance, impedance, flow, and work of breathing. We discuss these principles in normal conditions and in disease states. As the severity of pulmonary disease increases, mechanical ventilation can become necessary. We discuss the use of pressure–volume curves in assisting with poorly compliant lungs while on mechanical ventilation. In addition, we discuss physiologic parameters that assist with ventilator weaning as the disease process abates. PMID:16277736

  13. Medical Wikis Dedicated to Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, Guy; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikis may give clinician communities the opportunity to build knowledge relevant to their practice. The only previous study reviewing a set of health-related wikis, without specification of purpose or audience, globally showed a poor reliability. Objective Our aim was to review medical wiki websites dedicated to clinical practices. Methods We used Google in ten languages, PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and Web of Science to identify websites. The review included wiki sites, accessible and operating, having a topic relevant for clinical medicine, targeting physicians or medical students. Wikis were described according to their purposes, platform, management, information framework, contributions, content, and activity. Purposes were classified as “encyclopedic” or “non-encyclopedic”. The information framework quality was assessed based on the Health On the Net (HONcode) principles for collaborative websites, with additional criteria related to users’ transparency and editorial policy. From a sample of five articles per wikis, we assessed the readability using the Flesch test and compared articles according to the wikis’ main purpose. Annual editorial activities were estimated using the Google engine. Results Among 25 wikis included, 11 aimed at building an encyclopedia, five a textbook, three lessons, two oncology protocols, one a single article, and three at reporting clinical cases. Sixteen wikis were specialized with specific themes or disciplines. Fifteen wikis were using MediaWiki software as-is, three were hosted by online wiki farms, and seven were purpose-built. Except for one MediaWiki-based site, only purpose-built platforms managed detailed user disclosures. The owners were ten organizations, six individuals, four private companies, two universities, two scientific societies, and one unknown. Among 21 open communities, 10 required users’ credentials to give editing rights. The median information framework quality score was 6 out of 16

  14. Ponticles of the atlas: a review and clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Buna, M; Coghlan, W; deGruchy, M; Williams, D; Zmiywsky, O

    1984-12-01

    The condition of ponticles of the atlas was reviewed in relation to their development, anatomy, incidence and diagnosis with an objective directed toward assessment of their clinical significance. The ponticles are commonly encountered radiographic anomalies characterized by osseous bridging of the posterior margin of the superior articular facet and the posterior arch of the atlas. They are present to a variable degree in about 35% of dissections and a complete osseous ring enclosing the vertebral arteries is identifiable in up to 15% of cases. The ponticles have been considered a significant factor in transient vertebro-basilar insufficiency, Barre-Lieou syndrome and chronic upper cervical syndrome. The presence of atlantic ponticulus should be considered to some degree as a contraindication to forceful manipulation of the cervical spine. PMID:6520551

  15. Clinical experience with aurora kinase inhibitors: a review.

    PubMed

    Boss, David S; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2009-08-01

    The aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases comprises three members, designated auroras A, B, and C. Auroras A and B are essential components of the mitotic pathway, ensuring proper chromosome assembly, formation of the mitotic spindle, and cytokinesis. The role of aurora C is less clear. Overexpression of aurora A and B has been observed in several tumor types, and has been linked with a poor prognosis of cancer patients. Several small molecules targeting aurora kinases A and B or both have been evaluated preclinically and in early phase I trials. In this review we aim to summarize the most recent advances in the development of aurora kinase inhibitors, with a focus on the clinical data. PMID:19684075

  16. Acute high-altitude illness: a clinically orientated review

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Acute high-altitude illness is an encompassing term for the range of pathology that the unacclimatised individual can develop at increased altitude. This includes acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. These conditions represent an increasing clinical problem as more individuals are exposed to the hypobaric hypoxic environment of high altitude for both work and leisure. In this review of acute high-altitude illness, the epidemiology, risk factors and pathophysiology are explored, before their prevention and treatment are discussed. Appropriate ascent rate remains the most effective acute high-altitude illness prevention, with pharmacological prophylaxis indicated in selected individuals. Descent is the definitive treatment for acute high-altitude illness, with the adjuncts of oxygen and specific drug therapies. PMID:26516505

  17. Clinical Year in Review 2014: Critical Care Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Moon

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is the most common cause of death among critically ill patients in non-coronary intensive care units. In 2002, the guideline titled "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" was published by American and European Critical Care Medicine to decrease the mortality of severe sepsis and septic shock patients, which has been the basis of the treatment for those patients. After the first revised guidelines were published on 2008, the most current version was published in 2013 based on the updated literature of until fall 2012. Other important revised guidelines in critical care field such as 'Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium in Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit' were revised in 2013. This article will review the revised guidelines and several additional interesting published papers of until March 2014, including the part of ventilator-induced lung injury and the preventive strategies. PMID:25114697

  18. Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics. PMID:24895576

  19. Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

  20. Practical Clinical Trials in Psychopharmacology: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Practical clinical trials (PCT) are randomized experiments under typical practice conditions with the aim of testing the “real life” benefits and risks of therapeutic interventions. Influential PCTs have been conducted in cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine. Psychotropic medications are widely and increasingly used in medical practice. This review examines recent progress in conducting PCTs in psychopharmacology. The January 2000 – October 2014 MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications of PCTs with at least 100 subjects per treatment arm. Most PCTs in psychiatry evaluated mental health services or psychosocial interventions rather than specific pharmacotherapies. Of 157 PCTs in psychiatry, 30 (19%) were in psychopharmacology, with a median of 2 publications per year and no increase over the period of observation. Sample size ranged from 200 to 18,154; only 11 studies randomized 500 patients or more. Psychopharmacology PCTs were equally likely to be funded by industry as by public agencies. There were 10 PCTs of antidepressants, for a total of 4,206 patients (in comparison with at least 46 PCT of antihypertensive medications, for a total of 208,014 patients). Some psychopharmacology PCTs used suicidal behavior, treatment discontinuation, or mortality as primary outcome, and produced effectiveness and safety data that have influenced both practice guidelines and regulatory decisions. PCTs can constitute an important source of information for clinicians, patients, regulators, and policy makers, but have been relatively underutilized in psychopharmacology. Electronic medical records and integrated practice research networks offer promising platforms for a more efficient conduct of PCTs. PMID:25679131

  1. MEMO: Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter: a Cosmic Vision proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Fouchet, T.; Chassefière, E.; Sotin, C.; Barabash, S.; Dehant, V.; Lammer, H.; Mandea, M.; Vennerstrom, S.; Coates, A.; D, Breuer; Paetzold, M.; Forget, F.; Tarits, P.; Menvielle, M.; Read, P.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; S., Lewis; Pais, A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent observations by the ESA spacecraft Mars Express, the two NASA Rovers Opportunity and Spirit, as well as by the NASA probe Mars Global Surveyor, have changed our view on the evolution of Mars. The most dramatic results are the limited amount of visible minerals related to the action of water at its surface, the very intense lithospheric magnetic fields, and the current weak ion escape driven by the solar wind. These observations suggest that the period of a "wet Mars" was short and that Mars lost its water before 3.5 Gyr ago, when the magnetic field of Mars died out. Among the different questions that are raised by existing results, the role of the superficial magnetic field shielding Mars' surface and lower atmosphere from the high-energy ions and the dependency of the escape rate on solar conditions are first order questions that cannot be addressed without new measurements by a dedicated mission. However, these questions cannot be fully solved without understanding how carbon dioxide, water and chemical species are cycled through atmosphere, clouds, polar caps and other reservoirs. An integrated view of Martian matter and energy cycles, from the surface up to solar wind interaction regions and beyond, is the next step toward deciphering past climate. The Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter mission (MEMO) is devoted: (1) to measure temperature, wind and chemical composition in order to characterize processes coupling low, middle and high atmospheric layers, (2) to describe atmospheric oxidation processes and to search for organic chemical compounds, (3) to measure water isotopic fractionation in the low atmosphere in order to characterize water sources, sinks and transport, with a focus on polar processes, (4) to investigate the dependency of atmospheric and neutral and ion escape dynamics on short and long timescales versus solar wind and radiation variabilities, (5) to map the crustal magnetic field with an unprecedented spatial resolution that would

  2. [Invasive Pasteurella multocida infections: Two clinical cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    Smíšková, Dita; Džupová, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a common commensal of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of animals, especially cats and dogs. It is transmitted to humans through contact with animals. Bite wound infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Systemic infections are unusual and mainly affect immunocompromised individuals. The article presents two cases of Pasteurella infection. Wound infection in a 75-year-old female following a bite from her pet cat was associated with bacteremia. The disease course was favorable with the initial clindamycin treatment despite in vitro resistance. The other patient was a 62-year-old female diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis with multiple brain abscesses and transient expressive aphasia. She reported frequent contacts with pets and domestic animals without a recent bite. Hematogenous dissemination of the infection was suspected. Because of poor therapeutic response, cefotaxime was switched to chloramphenicol which was later switched to a combination of cefotaxime with ciprofloxacin due to anemia. Following 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and another 10 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results and the neurological defect resolved. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Pasteurella infection are discussed and literature is reviewed. PMID:26312375

  3. Use of procalcitonin in clinical oncology: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Andrea; Torchio, Martina; Comolli, Giuditta; Antonuzzo, Andrea; Danova, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The use of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker of infectious episodes in cancer patients is still controversial. We performed a MEDLINE search of peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2015, and finally we analysed 15 articles. PCT seems to have a good diagnostic value of infectious episodes in cancer patients and its accuracy seems greater if we consider major events, such as bloodstream infections and sepsis. Serial evaluations of this protein seem to be more accurate in the diagnostic phase and useful to predict outcome and response to antibacterial treatment. On the other hand, some issues have yet to be solved, such as the use of a validated method of determination, the definition of a standard cut-off, and the heterogeneity among different settings of patients (e.g. early versus advanced-stage cancer, or haematological versus solid tumours). However, it is credible to think that PCT use in everyday clinical practice, preferably in combination with other clinical or laboratory tests, might be of help in finding and detecting early infectious complications in cancer patients. PMID:27602414

  4. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Review from a Clinically Oriented Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lurdes; Barr, Alasdair M.; Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening sideeffect that can occur in response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Symptoms commonly include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction and altered mental status. In the current review we provide an overview on past and current developments in understanding the causes and treatment of NMS. Studies on the epidemiological incidence of NMS are evaluated, and we provide new data from the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Online database to elaborate on drug-specific and antipsychotic drug polypharmacy instances of NMS reported between 1965 and 2012. Established risk factors are summarized with an emphasis on pharmacological and environmental causes. Leading theories about the etiopathology of NMS are discussed, including the potential contribution of the impact of dopamine receptor blockade and musculoskeletal fiber toxicity. A clinical perspective is provided whereby the clinical presentation and phenomenology of NMS is detailed, while the diagnosis of NMS and its differential is expounded. Current therapeutic strategies are outlined and the role for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies in alleviating the symptoms of NMS are discussed. PMID:26411967

  5. Marrow Fat and Bone: Review of Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ann V.

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in the connection between fat and bone, there has been increased investigation of the relationship with marrow fat in particular. Clinical research has been facilitated by the development of non-invasive methods to measure bone marrow fat content and composition. Studies in different populations using different measurement techniques have established that higher marrow fat is associated with lower bone density and prevalent vertebral fracture. The degree of unsaturation in marrow fat may also affect bone health. Although other fat depots tend to be strongly correlated, marrow fat has a distinct pattern, suggesting separate mechanisms of control. Longitudinal studies are limited, but are crucial to understand the direct and indirect roles of marrow fat as an influence on skeletal health. With greater appreciation of the links between bone and energy metabolism, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between marrow fat and bone. It is well established that levels of marrow fat are higher in older adults with osteoporosis, defined by either low bone density or vertebral fracture. However, the reasons for and implications of this association are not clear. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship to bone. PMID:25870585

  6. Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: A review.

    PubMed

    Dent, Elsa; Kowal, Paul; Hoogendijk, Emiel O

    2016-06-01

    One of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in older people is frailty. Frailty occurs when multiple physiological systems decline, to the extent that an individual's cellular repair mechanisms cannot maintain system homeostasis. This review gives an overview of the definitions and measurement of frailty in research and clinical practice, including: Fried's frailty phenotype; Rockwood and Mitnitski's Frailty Index (FI); the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) Index; Edmonton Frailty Scale (EFS); the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness and Loss of weight (FRAIL) Index; Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI); Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI); PRISMA-7; Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), Sherbrooke Postal Questionnaire (SPQ); the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST) and the Kihon Checklist (KCL), among others. We summarise the main strengths and limitations of existing frailty measurements, and examine how well these measurements operationalise frailty according to Clegg's guidelines for frailty classification - that is: their accuracy in identifying frailty; their basis on biological causative theory; and their ability to reliably predict patient outcomes and response to potential therapies. PMID:27039014

  7. Clinical Applications of Metabolomics in Oncology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Spratlin, Jennifer L.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Gail Eckhardt, S.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics, an omic science in systems biology, is the global quantitative assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biological system. Either individually or grouped as a metabolomic profile, detection of metabolites is carried out in cells, tissues, or biofluids by either nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. There is potential for the metabolome to have a multitude of uses in oncology, including the early detection and diagnosis of cancer and as both a predictive and pharmacodynamic marker of drug effect. Despite this, there is lack of knowledge in the oncology community regarding metabolomics and confusion about its methodologic processes, technical challenges, and clinical applications. Metabolomics, when used as a translational research tool, can provide a link between the laboratory and clinic, particularly because metabolic and molecular imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, enable the discrimination of metabolic markers noninvasively in vivo. Here, we review the current and potential applications of metabolomics, focusing on its use as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic evaluation. PMID:19147747

  8. A Review of Nebivolol Pharmacology and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Fongemie, Justin; Felix-Getzik, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Nebivolol is a highly selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a pharmacologic profile that differs from those of other drugs in its class. In addition to cardioselectivity mediated via β1 receptor blockade, nebivolol induces nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase via β3 agonism. This vasodilatory mechanism is distinct from those of other vasodilatory β-blockers (carvedilol, labetalol), which are mediated via α-adrenergic receptor blockade. Nebivolol is approved for the treatment of hypertension in the US, and for hypertension and heart failure in Europe. While β-blockers are not recommended within the current US guidelines as first-line therapy for treatment of essential hypertension, nebivolol has shown comparable efficacy to currently recommended therapies in lowering peripheral blood pressure in adults with hypertension with a very low rate of side effects. Nebivolol also has beneficial effects on central blood pressure compared with other β-blockers. Clinical data also suggest that nebivolol may be useful in patients who have experienced erectile dysfunction while on other β-blockers. Here we review the pharmacological profile of nebivolol, the clinical evidence supporting its use in hypertension as monotherapy, add-on, and combination therapy, and the data demonstrating its positive effects on heart failure and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26177892

  9. The management of hypertensive crises: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Pergolini, M S

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is an exceedingly common disorder in Western societies; but, thanks to improved management of chronic hypertension, the number of patients who present with hypertensive crisis (HC) is less than 1%. However, critical elevation of blood pressure (BP) obliges to a proper and immediate management in order to prevent serious injury to organ target of hypertension (brain, heart, kidney and vessels). Moreover, the so called hypertensive emergencies (HE) and the hypertensive urgencies (HU) expect a several therapeutic approach. The HE warrant both prompt admission to an intensive care unit, where it is available a continuous monitoring of BP, and a prompt starting of a therapy with parenteral anti-hypertensive drugs. The treatment of HU can be managed choosing oral anti-hypertensive agents followed by a tight observation of the patient also in ambulatory system, lowering the BP more gradually over 12 to 24-48 hours. The present clinical review is aimed at reporting the current opinions on the management of HC, examining as well the drugs of largest use. Any drug that lowers BP precipitously should be avoided. Choice of the appropriate agent should be based on the underlying pathophysiological and clinical findings, on the mechanism of action, and on its potential side effects. PMID:19452106

  10. Clinical exercise interventions in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beulertz, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Studies in pediatric oncology have shown a positive effect of physical activity on disease- and treatment-related side effects. Although several reviews have approved the benefits of therapeutic exercise for adult cancer patients, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of physical activity in pediatric oncology. We identified a total of 17 studies using the PubMed database and Cochrane library. To evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2001. The findings confirm that clinical exercise interventions are feasible and safe, especially with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and during medical treatment. No adverse effects have been reported. Positive effects were found on fatigue, strength, and quality of life. Single studies present positive effects on the immune system, body composition, sleep, activity levels, and various aspects of physical functioning. Child-specific aspects such as cognitive abilities, growth, adolescence, and reintegration into peer-groups, school, and sports have barely been taken into consideration. The evidence for exercise interventions in pediatric oncology is rated level "3." Although the results are very promising, future research of high methodological quality and focusing on child-specific aspects is needed to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations, particularly for childhood cancer patients. PMID:23857296

  11. Occupational contact urticaria caused by food - a systematic clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Judit; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Food industry workers are at increased risk for occupational contact urticaria (CU). There are many foodstuffs that have been reported to cause occupational CU, including seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits. The aim of this review is to summarize all reported occupational cases of CU in the food industry. This is a systematic review based on a MEDLINE search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1990 and 2014, to summarize the case reports and case series of occupational CU in the food industry. Many different foodstuffs have been implicated in CU. Occupational CU has been reported in many different occupations, mostly in individuals dealing with seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits, such as chefs, cooks, bakers, butchers, slaughterhouse workers, and fish-factory workers. Foodstuffs that commonly induce occupational protein contact dermatitis include fish, seafood, meats, vegetables, and fruits. Food handlers may acquire CU resulting from occupational exposures. The prognosis varies widely. The diagnosis of immunological CU is based on the clinical history and on a positive prick test with the suspected substance and/or measurement of specific IgE. PMID:27425004

  12. Clinical Features and Treatment of Penile Schwannoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Smith, Megan L; Maranda, Eric L; Punnen, Sanoj

    2016-06-01

    Schwannomas, although common in the head and limbs, are an exceedingly rare tumor of the penis. We conducted a systematic review to include 33 patients with schwannoma of the penile shaft or glans penis. Most patients presented with a single painless nodule on the dorsal aspect of the penile shaft. These nodules were slow growing, with an average of 62 months from the onset to presentation. Several cases were accompanied by sexual dysfunction. Most histologic studies were consistent, with a benign schwannoma that showed a palisading Antoni A and Antoni B pattern without malignant changes in cell morphology. Of the 14 studies in which a history of genetic disease was investigated, only 2 reported a connection to neurofibromatosis. These tumors were treated with surgical excision, and 4 malignant cases received additional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. All the patients had achieved full remission by the final follow-up examination. Given the rarity of this tumor, the present review of available case studies serves to comprehensively describe the clinical presentation and treatment approaches to penile schwannoma. PMID:26797586

  13. Airsickness: Etiology, Treatment, and Clinical Importance-A Review.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Orit; Tal, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Airsickness is one of the forms of motion sickness, and is of significance in both commercial and military flight. Whereas commercial airline passengers may simply feel poorly, the effect of airsickness on military aircrew may lead to a decrement in performance and adversely affect the mission. This is of major importance in the case of flight safety, when a pilot who is incapacitated may endanger the aircraft. The problem is particularly evident in pilot training, because of the high incidence of airsickness at this stage in the pilot's career. The majority of aircrew undergo habituation to airsickness during their service, with a reduction in symptoms and improved function. Although airsickness is a wellknown problem in aviation, we were unable to locate a review of this topic in the literature. This review focuses on the characteristics, clinical evaluation, and treatment of airsickness. It also presents the experience of the Israeli flight academy, and our solution for Navy pilots who have to contend with the risk of seasickness before taking to the air. PMID:26540704

  14. Asynclitism: a literature review of an often forgotten clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Barbera, Antonio; Di Vagno, Giovanni; Gimovsky, Alexis; Berghella, Vincenzo; Ghi, Tullio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Tinelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Asynclitism is defined as the "oblique malpresentation of the fetal head in labor". Asynclitism is a clinical diagnosis that may be difficult to make; it may be found during vaginal examination. It is significant because it may cause failure of progress operative or cesarean delivery. We reviewed all literature for asynclitism by performing an extensive electronic search of studies from 1959 to 2013. All studies were first reviewed by a single author and discussed with co-authors. The following studies were identified: 8 book chapters, 14 studies on asynclitism alone and 10 papers on both fetal occiput posterior position and asynclitism. The fetal head in a laboring patient may be associated with some degree of asynclitism; this is seen as usual way of the fetal head to adjust to maternal pelvic diameters. However, marked asynclitism is often detected in presence of a co-existing fetal head malposition, especially the transverse and occipital posterior positions. Digital diagnosis of asynclitism is enhanced by intrapartum ultrasound with transabdominal or transperineal approach. The accurate diagnosis of asynclitism, in an objective way, may provide a better assessment of the fetal head position that will help in the correct application of vacuum and forceps, allowing the prevention of unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25283847

  15. Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Review

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luísa; Correia, Ana Sofia A.; Miguel, Rita; Alegria, Paulo; Bugalho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Investigation in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, has been very active in recent years and it may be difficult for the clinician to keep up with all the innovations and to be aware of the implications they have in clinical practice. The authors, thus, reviewed recent literature on the theme in order to provide the clinician with an updated overview, intended to support decision-making on aspects of diagnosis and management. This article begins to focus on the concept of AD and on its pathogenesis. Afterward, epidemiology and non-genetic risk factors are approached. Genetics, including genetic risk factors and guidelines for genetic testing, are mentioned next. Recommendations for diagnosis of AD, including recently proposed criteria, are then reviewed. Data on the variants of AD is presented. First approach to the patient is dealt with next, followed by neuropsychological evaluation. Biomarkers, namely magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, FDG PET, PiB PET, CSF tau, and Aβ analysis, as well as available data on their diagnostic accuracy, are also discussed. Factors predicting rate of disease progression are briefly mentioned. Finally, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including established and emerging drugs, are addressed. PMID:22529838

  16. Citalopram--a review of pharmacological and clinical effects.

    PubMed Central

    Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K; Aleksic, I; Kennedy, S H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide clinicians with a critical evaluation of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has been available in Canada since March 1999. DATA SOURCES: Commercial searches (MEDLINE and BiblioTech) and an "in-house" search (InfoDrug) were used to find published English-language references for clinical and preclinical publications. There was no restriction of publication dates. Primary index terms used were: pharmacological properties, receptors, pharmacological selectivity, pharmacokinetics, age-related pharmacokinetics, sex-related pharmacokinetics, renal dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction, cytochrome activity, drug interactions, adverse reactions, antidepressant switching, precautions, overdose, drug discontinuation, children, geriatric, depression, combination therapy, placebo control, refractory depression, anxiety disorders and medical disorders. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 74 studies were reviewed. Twenty-one of these studies specifically examined the clinical efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in depressive disorders as well as other disorders. In depressive disorders, clinical studies were required to have either placebo or active comparison controls for a minimum of 3 weeks. For other disorders, in the absence of double-blind trials, open-label studies were included. Pharmacological studies were limited to animal studies focusing on citalopram's selectivity and receptor specificity, and positron emission tomography studies were incorporated to include human pharmacological data. Pharmacokinetic studies focused on the metabolism, safety and tolerability of citalopram, specifically with reference to adverse reactions, drug interactions and overdose in addition to citalopram's effect on vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on clinical studies were summarized according to test measures, study duration and outcome of study. Pharmacokinetic and

  17. A critical review on the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trials of ceftaroline.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Tony K L; Wilby, Kyle J; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-09-01

    Only a parenteral formulation of ceftaroline is commercially available, and the prodrug, ceftaroline fosamil, is hydrolyzed quickly and completely upon intravenous administration. Ceftaroline is relatively minimally bound to plasma proteins (15-28 %), with a volume of distribution of 30-40 L. Ceftaroline undergoes minimal metabolism and does not appear to be a cytochrome P450 substrate. Its renal clearance (e.g. 4-7 L/h after multiple dosing) approximates glomerular filtration rate, with a terminal half-life of ~2.6 h in healthy subjects. The pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline have been described thoroughly in clinical investigations primarily conducted by the manufacturer. Despite its indications for treating skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), some studies that contributed data to the final drug labelling were conducted only in healthy volunteers. A significant amount of data have been contributed by the drug maker, and the overall quality of the pharmacodynamics and clinical data, based on our critical analysis provided in this review, is strong. Ceftaroline can be considered as a therapeutic alternative for complicated SSSI and CAP (Pneumonia Outcome Research Team Class III-IV). The current dosing regimen of ceftaroline 600 mg intravenously every 12 h appears sufficient to establish pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships and achieve optimal clinical efficacy. More clinical studies are needed to define the place of ceftaroline in therapy for SSSI, CAP, and other indications such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and other types of pneumonia. Moreover, continued development in population modelling incorporating more patient-specific data would allow further analysis to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in humans. PMID:25940827

  18. History, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Zika: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Florisneide; da Glória Teixeira, Maria; da Conceição N. Costa, Maria; Rodrigues, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. Results. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. Conclusions. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was “strongly suspected.” However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge. PMID:26959260

  19. Clinical trials of improved oral rehydration salt formulations: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bhan, M. K.; Mahalanabis, D.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1994-01-01

    Reviewed are all the published clinical trials of glycine-based oral rehydration salts (ORS), L-alanine-based ORS, L-glutamine-based ORS, maltodextrin-based ORS, and rice-based ORS, as well as the results of several recently completed, but unpublished, studies of these formulations that were supported by WHO. All experimental ORS formulations contained the same concentrations of salts as citrate-based WHO-ORS; all trials were randomized comparisons with WHO-ORS, and all except those with rice-based ORS were double-blind studies. The rate of stool loss and, less frequently, the duration of diarrhoea were used as indicators of clinical performance to compare ORS formulations. The following conclusions were reached concerning the efficacy and use of modified ORS formulations. Rice-based ORS (50 g/l) is superior to WHO-ORS for patients with cholera, and for such patients it can be recommended in any situation where its preparation and use are practical. Rice-based (50 g/l) and WHO-ORS solutions are equally effective for treating children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea, when feeding is resumed promptly following initial rehydration, as has been consistently recommended by WHO. Since rice-based ORS is not superior to WHO-ORS for such children, there is no apparent reason to advise a change from glucose to pre-cooked rice in the recommended formulation for WHO-ORS. Maltodextrin-based ORS formulations (50 g/l) and WHO-ORS appear to be equally effective for treating children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea; there is no reason to advise a change from glucose to maltodextrin in the recommended formulation for WHO-ORS. Amino-acid-containing ORS formulations are not recommended for either non-cholera or cholera diarrhoea, since they are more costly and have no clinical advantage over WHO-ORS for children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea or over rice-based ORS for persons with cholera. PMID:7867142

  20. Effect of Memo®, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Salem, Amel; Helmy, Sherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng), have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo®) combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively) by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001). This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001). Conclusion This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger-sized studies with longer treatment durations are needed to confirm this. PMID:23950642

  1. Flowable Resin Composites: A Systematic Review and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about flowable composite materials. Most literature mentions conventional composite materials at large, giving minimal emphasis to flowables in particular. This paper briefly gives an in depth insight to the multiple facets of this versatile material. Aim To exclusively review the most salient features of flowable composite materials in comparison to conventional composites and to give clinicians a detailed understanding of the advantages, drawbacks, indications and contraindications based on composition and physical/mechanical properties. Methodology Data Sources: A thorough literature search from the year 1996 up to January 2015 was done on PubMed Central, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, and Google Scholar. Grey literature (pending patents, technical reports etc.) was also screened. The search terms used were “dental flowable resin composites”. Search Strategy After omitting the duplicates/repetitions, a total of 491 full text articles were assessed. As including all articles were out of the scope of this paper. Only relevant articles that fulfilled the reviewer’s objectives {mentioning indications, contraindications, applications, assessment of physical/mechanical/biological properties (in vitro/ in vivo /ex vivo)} were considered. A total of 92 full text articles were selected. Conclusion Flowable composites exhibit a variable composition and consequently variable mechanical/ physical properties. Clinicians must be aware of this aspect to make a proper material selection based on specific properties and indications of each material relevant to a particular clinical situation. PMID:26266238

  2. Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stevinson; Ernst

    2000-04-01

    Objective: To systematically review the evidence for the effects of the herb valerian (Valeriana officinalis) on insomnia, based on randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials.Background: Valerian has long been advocated and used for promoting sleep but until quite recently evidence was solely anecdotal. However, during the last two decades a number of clinical trials have been conducted.Materials and methods: Systematic literature searches were performed to locate randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials measuring the effect of valerian monopreparations on sleep in human participants. Data were extracted in a standardized manner and methodological quality was assessed by the Jadad score.Results: Nine trials were located meeting the selection criteria. The findings of the studies were contradictory and there was great inconsistency between trials in terms of patients, experimental design and procedures and methodological quality.Conclusion: The evidence for valerian as a treatment for insomnia is inconclusive. There is a need for rigorous trials to determine its efficacy. PMID:10767649

  3. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moureau, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Needleless connectors (NC) are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction). Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection. PMID:26075093

  4. Clinical pharmacology of fentanyl in preterm infants. A review.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Gian Maria

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is very important in anesthetic practice because of its relatively short time to peak analgesic effect and the rapid termination of action after small bolus doses. The objective of this survey is to review the clinical pharmacology of fentanyl in preterm infants. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases as search engines. In addition, the books Neofax: A manual of drugs used in neonatal care and Neonatal formulary were consulted. Fentanyl is N-dealkylated by CYP3A4 into the inactive norfentanyl. Fentanyl may be administered as bolus doses or as a continuous infusion. In neonates, there is a remarkable interindividual variability in the kinetic parameters. In neonates, fentanyl half-life ranges from 317 minutes to 1266 minutes and in adults it is 222 minutes. Respiratory depression occurs when fentanyl doses are >5 μg/kg. Chest wall rigidity may occur in neonates and occasionally is associated with laryngospasm. Tolerance to fentanyl may develop after prolonged use of this drug. Significant withdrawal symptoms have been reported in infants treated with continuous infusion for 5 days or longer. Fentanyl is an extremely potent analgesic and is the opioid analgesic most frequently used in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:25176283

  5. Practical management of irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Ellinor; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, frequently managed by general practitioners and gastroenterologists. It is a complex condition, characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits, and it affects 11% of the population worldwide. It has a profound effect on quality of life for many patients and poses a substantial cost to society. Due to the complexity and diversity of IBS, diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. Common drawbacks in diagnosing and treating this disorder include unnecessary tests, failure to establish trust in the physician-patient relationship and difficulties in explaining the diagnosis. Research in recent years has however refined the diagnostic criteria and improved our ability to safely identify IBS with a limited number of investigations. A concise diagnostic evaluation, guided adequate information, prompt initiation of symptom-guided treatment and consistency in the patient-doctor relationship can help relieve the suffering experienced by patients with IBS. For patients with mild symptoms, reassurance, education, lifestyle changes and dietary advice are often sufficient. Patients with moderate to severe symptoms might need symptom modifying drugs, and psychological treatments such as CBT or hypnotherapy may be offered at this stage. For patients with severe and incapacitating symptoms, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended and psychotropic drugs are often used. This clinical review offers suggestions for a diagnostic approach as well as a treatment strategy, based on the current evidence on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment in IBS. PMID:26448307

  6. A Review of Glass-Ionomer Cements for Clinical Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Sharanbir K; Nicholson, John W

    2016-01-01

    This article is an updated review of the published literature on glass-ionomer cements and covers their structure, properties and clinical uses within dentistry, with an emphasis on findings from the last five years or so. Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base reaction within 2-3 min and to form hard, reasonably strong materials with acceptable appearance. They release fluoride and are bioactive, so that they gradually develop a strong, durable interfacial ion-exchange layer at the interface with the tooth, which is responsible for their adhesion. Modified forms of glass-ionomers, namely resin-modified glass-ionomers and glass carbomer, are also described and their properties and applications covered. Physical properties of the resin-modified glass-ionomers are shown to be good, and comparable with those of conventional glass-ionomers, but biocompatibility is somewhat compromised by the presence of the resin component, 2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Properties of glass carbomer appear to be slightly inferior to those of the best modern conventional glass-ionomers, and there is not yet sufficient information to determine how their bioactivity compares, although they have been formulated to enhance this particular feature. PMID:27367737

  7. Epidemiology of periodontal disease: a review and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Irfan, U M; Dawson, D V; Bissada, N F

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assimilate epidemiological evidence for the prevalence of periodontal disease in human populations, and for comprehensive understanding of the disease for health care providers. Periodontal disease is a pathological condition affecting the supporting structures of teeth. It is characterised by a bacterial challenge that can instigate a destructive host response leading to periodontal attachment loss, bone loss and ultimately, possible tooth loss. The specifics of the disease process are obscured by our incomplete understanding of the role of various risk factors. Periodontal epidemiology literature lacks consistency in methodology of research, which includes various definitions for periodontal disease and health; different approaches to measuring periodontal indices of pocket depth, and attachment loss; inconsistent study designs and lack of adjustments to known risk factors. These inconsistencies do not allow for effective comparison of epidemiological studies, which is essential to find strong associations of risk factors with periodontal disease, which in turn is necessary for the interpretation of risk and causality. This paper will address several areas within the topic of periodontal disease epidemiology, including definitions of periodontal disease instituted by researchers, approaches to epidemiological studies in periodontitis, and risk factors in periodontal disease. Consideration is given to aspects of design and analyses relevant to evaluation of reports in the literature. For the clinical practitioner this review provides a theoretical framework to approach patients with comprehensive knowledge of not only the disease presentation, but also the environmental factors that govern past history, present condition and future response to treatments and interventions. PMID:12666973

  8. Clinical review: early patient mobilization in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Carol L; Berney, Sue; Harrold, Megan; Saxena, Manoj; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Early mobilization (EM) of ICU patients is a physiologically logical intervention to attenuate critical illness-associated muscle weakness. However, its long-term value remains controversial. We performed a detailed analytical review of the literature using multiple relevant key terms in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of current knowledge on EM in critically ill patients. We found that the term EM remains undefined and encompasses a range of heterogeneous interventions that have been used alone or in combination. Nonetheless, several studies suggest that different forms of EM may be both safe and feasible in ICU patients, including those receiving mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, these studies of EM are mostly single center in design, have limited external validity and have highly variable control treatments. In addition, new technology to facilitate EM such as cycle ergometry, transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation and video therapy are increasingly being used to achieve such EM despite limited evidence of efficacy. We conclude that although preliminary low-level evidence suggests that EM in the ICU is safe, feasible and may yield clinical benefits, EM is also labor-intensive and requires appropriate staffing models and equipment. More research is thus required to identify current standard practice, optimal EM techniques and appropriate outcome measures before EM can be introduced into the routine care of critically ill patients. PMID:23672747

  9. Towards combinatorial targeted therapy in melanoma: From pre-clinical evidence to clinical application (Review)

    PubMed Central

    GRAZIA, GIULIA; PENNA, ILARIA; PEROTTI, VALENTINA; ANICHINI, ANDREA; TASSI, ELENA

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, clinical trials with BRAF and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors have shown significant clinical activity in melanoma, but only a fraction of patients respond to these therapies, and development of resistance is frequent. This has prompted a large set of preclinical studies looking at several new combinatorial approaches of pathway- or target-specific inhibitors. At least five main drug association strategies have been verified in vitro and in preclinical models. The most promising include: i) vertical targeting of either MEK or phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, or their combined blockade; ii) association of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) inhibitors with other pro-apoptotic strategies; iii) engagement of death receptors in combination with MEK-, mTOR/PI3K-, histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors, or with anti-apoptotic molecules modulators; iv) strategies aimed at blocking anti-apoptotic proteins belonging to B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) or inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) families associated with MEK/BRAF/p38 inhibition; v) co-inhibition of other molecules important for survival [proteasome, HDAC and Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat)3] and the major pathways activated in melanoma; vi) simultaneous targeting of multiple anti-apoptotic molecules. Here we review the anti-melanoma efficacy and mechanism of action of the above-mentioned combinatorial strategies, together with the potential clinical application of the most promising studies that may eventually lead to therapeutic benefit. PMID:24920406

  10. Clinical determinants of calcineurin inhibitor disposition: a mechanistic review.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Thomas; Annaert, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2016-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) tacrolimus and cyclosporine are widely used immunosuppressive drugs characterized by high pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability, both between and within patients. CNIs are highly lipophilic, poorly soluble, undergo extensive first-pass metabolism and are cleared by the liver. In both gut and liver, CNIs are substrates for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 3A4 and 3A5 as well as the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, whose functions are determined by a complex interplay between genetic polymorphisms, the inductive or inhibitory effects of many drugs, herbs, food constituents and endogenous substances such as uremic toxins in case of end-stage renal disease. The current literature is reviewed for all common clinical determinants of variability in CNI disposition such as food intake, diarrhea and other intestinal pathology, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney disease, aging, ethnicity, formulation and time post-transplant, focusing on the underlying mechanisms. Drugs and herb- and food constituents mainly interact with CNIs at the gut level by affecting bioavailability, with interactions generally being much more pronounced in case of oral compared with intravenous co-administration. Cyclosporine disposition is less susceptible to these interactions compared with tacrolimus, possibly because cyclosporine is itself a moderately strong CYP3A4- and strong P-gp inhibitor, blunting the effect of additional inhibitors. P-gp also has a major role in limiting distribution of CNI to tissues such as the brain, placenta, lymphocytes and kidney. Inactivating polymorphisms and inhibition of P-gp have the potential to significantly increase CNI exposure in these tissues with possible implications for toxicity and efficacy. PMID:26912097

  11. Electronic medical records and physician stress in primary care: results from the MEMO Study

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, Stewart; Manwell, Linda Baier; Brown, Roger; Montague, Enid; Williams, Eric; Schwartz, Mark; Hess, Erik; Linzer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Little has been written about physician stress that may be associated with electronic medical records (EMR). Objective We assessed relationships between the number of EMR functions, primary care work conditions, and physician satisfaction, stress and burnout. Design and participants 379 primary care physicians and 92 managers at 92 clinics from New York City and the upper Midwest participating in the 2001–5 Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome (MEMO) Study. A latent class analysis identified clusters of physicians within clinics with low, medium and high EMR functions. Main measures We assessed physician-reported stress, burnout, satisfaction, and intent to leave the practice, and predictors including time pressure during visits. We used a two-level regression model to estimate the mean response for each physician cluster to each outcome, adjusting for physician age, sex, specialty, work hours and years using the EMR. Effect sizes (ES) of these relationships were considered small (0.14), moderate (0.39), and large (0.61). Key results Compared to the low EMR cluster, physicians in the moderate EMR cluster reported more stress (ES 0.35, p=0.03) and lower satisfaction (ES −0.45, p=0.006). Physicians in the high EMR cluster indicated lower satisfaction than low EMR cluster physicians (ES −0.39, p=0.01). Time pressure was associated with significantly more burnout, dissatisfaction and intent to leave only within the high EMR cluster. Conclusions Stress may rise for physicians with a moderate number of EMR functions. Time pressure was associated with poor physician outcomes mainly in the high EMR cluster. Work redesign may address these stressors. PMID:24005796

  12. 75 FR 4827 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Database (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... while CTRP is not directly related to the conduct of a clinical trial, the NCI hopes to use the... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Clinical Trials... purpose and safety of clinical trials conducted outside of the United States. An e-mail response was...

  13. Clinical Instructor Characteristics, Behaviors and Skills in Allied Health Care Settings: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…

  14. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  15. MemoPA: Intelligent Personal Assistant Agents with a Case Memory Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jia; Barthès, Jean-Paul

    A Personal Assistant (PA) agent is a software agent capable of helping people to handle tasks in their workplace. The paper proposes a memory mechanism for personal assistant agents in order to enhance agent intelligence while working with the user or with other agents. Inspired by a case memory model in the domain of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), this paper endows PA agents with a case memory mechanism, which results in improved PA agents: MemoPAs. We present the memory mechanism of MemoPA in detail, and report a first implementation of the method. Finally, future work is outlined for improving the memory mechanism.

  16. Review of the Registration in the Clinical Research Information Service

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research registration is required in many countries to improve transparency of clinical research and to ensure subject safety. Developed in February 2010, the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) is an online registration system for clinical studies in Korea and one of the primary registries of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The present analysis investigated the characteristics of studies registered in the CRIS between February 2010 and December 2014. Data for the analysis were extracted from the CRIS database. As of December 31, 2014, 1,323 clinical studies were registered. Of these, 938 (70.9%) were interventional studies and 385 (29.1%) were observational studies. A total of 248 (18.7%) studies were funded by government sources, 1,051 (79.4%) by non-government sources, and 24 (1.8%) by both. The most frequently studied disease category based on the ICD-10 classification was the digestive system (13.1%), followed by the nervous system (9.4%) and musculoskeletal system (9.1%). Only 17.8% of the studies were registered prior to enrollment of the first subject. Comparing the number of registered or approved clinical studies between the CRIS, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, and ClinicalTrials.gov suggests that a considerable number of clinical studies are not registered with the CRIS; therefore, we would suggest that such registration should be the mandatory legal requirement. PMID:26770030

  17. Insights from a Review of Medical Cannabis Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Tom

    2015-06-01

    The Minnesota Legislature passed a law establishing a medical cannabis program in 2014. One of the first tasks of staff in the new Office of Medical Cannabis at the Minnesota Department of Health was to review scientific literature on medical cannabis. The review was limited to studies involving products similar to those allowed in Minnesota. This article explains how the review was conducted and presents three themes that emerged from it. PMID:26168662

  18. Clinical trial design issues raised during recombinant DNA advisory committee review of gene transfer protocols.

    PubMed

    Scharschmidt, Tiffany; Lo, Bernard

    2006-04-01

    Gene transfer clinical trial protocols are reviewed by the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC). Identifying the design concerns and suggestions commonly raised during RAC review may help investigators and sponsors shorten the process of protocol development and improve the quality of gene transfer trials. We therefore examined 53 full public reviews of gene transfer clinical trial protocols performed by the RAC between December 2000 and June 2004 to determine what trial design concerns or suggestions RAC members raised during written review or public discussion or in the formal letter to investigators after the review was completed. We also determined how frequently these concerns were raised. We found that RAC members raised issues regarding selection of subjects in 89% of reviews, dose escalation in 77%, selection of safety end points in 76%, biological activity measures in 66%, and overall design in 60% of reviews. The most common issue raised by RAC reviewers was the need to exclude subjects at increased risk for adverse events. Furthermore, in 89% of reviews, at least one design issue pertaining to safety of participants was raised. In 91% of reviews, at least one design concern was presented as a written RAC recommendation or concern to the investigator after the public review. When submitting protocols for RAC review, investigators and sponsors might devote more attention to issues that RAC reviewers commonly raise. Such attention might help strengthen clinical trial protocols, shorten the protocol development process, and enhance the protection of research participants. PMID:16610932

  19. Chart Review Skills: A Dimension of Clinical Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Axel A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A study of undergraduate medical students' abilities to identify salient information in reviewing patient charts was conducted at Southern Illinois University. Specific goals were to develop and test a method for assessing chart skills and to test several hypotheses that examine the effect of certain factors on chart review performance.…

  20. Flavonoids – Clinical effects and applications in dentistry: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sankari, S. Leena; Babu, N. Aravindha; Rani, Vidya; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds. It is found in a large variety of plants including fruits, seeds, grains, tea vegetables, nuts, and wine. Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality. It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects. This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry. PMID:25210379

  1. Letter to Secretary of Education Arne Duncan Concerning Evaluation of Teachers and Principals. NEPC Policy Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Welner, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    This NEPC Policy Memo presents the text of a letter from Drs. Burris and Welner to Secretary of Education Arne Duncan. The letter was invited by Secretary Duncan during a phone conversation with Dr. Burris. It offers concrete guiding principles for evaluation of educators and suggestions for a way forward. (Contains 11 notes.)

  2. Transforming and Improving American Education: A Memo to President-elect Obama. No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan; Marshall, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this memo to President-elect Barack Obama state that many in Congress are now proposing that the federal government intervene to address a range of problems in education by creating new programs and federal subsidies, including public school infrastructure and construction, funding for runaway college tuition costs, and the costs of…

  3. How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

  4. Electronic cigarettes: a review of safety and clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael; Breland, Alison; Spindle, Tory; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case conference discusses 3 cases of patients using electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes, also referred to as electronic nicotine delivery systems or "e-cigarettes," generally consist of a power source (usually a battery) and a heating element (commonly referred to as an atomizer) that vaporize a solution (e-liquid). The user inhales the resulting vapor. E-liquids contain humectants such as propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorings, and usually, but not always, nicotine. Each patient's information is an amalgamation of actual patients and is presented and then followed by a discussion of clinical issues. PMID:25089953

  5. Clinical review: The critical care management of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 4 and 22% of burn patients presenting to the emergency department are admitted to critical care. Burn injury is characterised by a hypermetabolic response with physiologic, catabolic and immune effects. Burn care has seen renewed interest in colloid resuscitation, a change in transfusion practice and the development of anti-catabolic therapies. A literature search was conducted with priority given to review articles, meta-analyses and well-designed large trials; paediatric studies were included where adult studies were lacking with the aim to review the advances in adult intensive care burn management and place them in the general context of day-to-day practical burn management. PMID:24093225

  6. Peer Assisted Learning in Clinical Education: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Jolene M.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Marty, Melissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, benefits, and preferences for peer assisted learning (PAL) in medical and allied health clinical education, and to identify areas in athletic training which need further research. Data Sources: Using relevant terms, five databases were searched for the period 1980-2006 regarding literature on the use of PAL in…

  7. Understanding Pica Behavior: A Review for Clinical and Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Lillian N.

    2005-01-01

    Pica is defined as the compulsive, recurrent consumption of nonnutritive items. Pica behavior often occurs in individuals with developmental disabilities; therefore, education and clinical professionals may be required to participate in various aspects of management, including identification, assessment, and treatment. This article will discuss…

  8. Assessing Violence Risk: A Review and Clinical Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard-Grann, Ulrika

    2007-01-01

    Guidance to identify and manage clients with a perceived high risk for future violence is of great importance for mental health professionals. In the past decade, several structured instruments have been developed to assess risk of future violence. Awareness of the limits and abilities of such instruments is required. This article reviews the most…

  9. The clinical significance of loneliness: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Liesl M; Gullone, Eleonora

    2006-10-01

    Satisfying social relationships are vital for good mental and physical health. Accordingly, we recommend that the alleviation and prevention of social relationship deficits be a key focus of clinicians. In this review, we focus on loneliness as a crucial marker of social relationship deficits and contend that loneliness should command clinicians' attention in its own right--not just as an adjunct to the treatment of other problems such as depression. With a particular focus on the adolescent developmental period, this review is organized into five sections: Drawing on developmental and evolutionary psychology theories, the nature of social relationships and the function they serve is first discussed. In the second section, loneliness is introduced as an exemplar of social relationship deficits. Here a definition of loneliness is provided, as well as an explanation of why it may pose a situation of concern. This is followed by a review of the prototypic features of loneliness through examination of its affective, cognitive, and behavioral correlates. The fourth section includes a review of theories related to the antecedent and maintenance factors involved in loneliness. Finally, methodological and theoretical considerations are addressed, and conclusions and proposals for future research directions are put forth. PMID:16952717

  10. A Review of the Pharmacology and Clinical Uses of Ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Barragry, Thomas B.

    1987-01-01

    The avermectins were introduced in 1981 and constitute a potent new class of anthelmintic agents. They are naturally-derived products of microbial action displaying an exceptionally wide range of antiparasitic efficacy against internal and external parasites of domestic animals. This paper reviews their isolation and chemistry, mechanism of action, chemical efficacy and safety in cattle, sheep, swine, horses and dogs. PMID:17422843

  11. Origins and Clinical Relevance of Child Death Review Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the origins, makeup, and activities of child death review teams (CDRTs) used in 21 states in the states' quest to solve cases involving the suspicious death of a child. Advocates the creation of CDRTs in states which do not have them. (MDM)

  12. Clinical Judgement in Context: A Review of Situational Factors in Person Perception during Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Tony

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the basic psychological processes involved in clinical judgment can be compared with those involved in everyday social judgment. Summarizes evidence on the sophistication and complexity of clinical judgment and on the likely impact on it of several factors. (Author/RH)

  13. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  14. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  15. Clinical Peer Review: Description of a Comprehensive Model in Behavioral Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Russo, Dennis C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive model of clinical peer review that was established at a large behavioral healthcare organization serving children, adolescents, and adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of peer review is to provide routine evaluation of practice standards that will produce the highest quality of habilitative…

  16. The clinical utility of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): a review.

    PubMed

    Harianto, Harry; Valente, Michael; Hoetomo, Soenarno; Anpalahan, Mahesan

    2014-01-01

    The current evidence suggests that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) should be an integral part of the diagnosis and management of hypertension. However, its uptake in routine clinical practice has been variable. This paper reviews the current evidence for the role of ABPM in clinical practice, including in hypotensive disorders and in specific comorbidities. It further discusses the clinical significance of abnormal ambulatory blood pressure patterns and hypertensive syndromes such as white coat, masked and resistant hypertension. PMID:25801624

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  18. LEPROSY NEPHROPATHY: A REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Pires, Roberto da Justa; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Meneses, Gdayllon Cavalcante; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Barros, Elvino José Guardão

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, highly incapacitating, and with systemic involvement in some cases. Renal involvement has been reported in all forms of the disease, and it is more frequent in multibacillary forms. The clinical presentation is variable and is determined by the host immunologic system reaction to the bacilli. During the course of the disease there are the so called reactional states, in which the immune system reacts against the bacilli, exacerbating the clinical manifestations. Different renal lesions have been described in leprosy, including acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, secondary amyloidosis and pyelonephritis. The exact mechanism that leads to glomerulonephritis in leprosy is not completely understood. Leprosy treatment includes rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Prednisone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to control acute immunological episodes. PMID:25651321

  19. Clinical characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Namvar, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh; Bastarahang, Sara; Abbasi, Niloufar; Ghehi, Ghazaleh Sheikhi; Farhadbakhtiarian, Sara; Arezi, Parastoo; Hosseini, Mahsa; Baravati, Sholeh Zaeemi; Jokar, Zahra; Chermahin, Sara Ganji

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococci are known as clustering Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, non-spore forming facultatively anaerobic that classified in two main groups, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative. Staphylococcus epidermidis with the highest percentage has the prominent role among coagulase-negative Staphylococci that is the most important reason of clinical infections. Due to various virulence factors and unique features, this microorganism is respected as a common cause of nosocomial infections. Because of potential ability in biofilm formation and colonization in different surfaces, also using of medical implant devices in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients the related infections have been increased. In recent decades the clinical importance and the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains have created many challenges in the treatment process. PMID:25285267

  20. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  1. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

  2. A Clinical Review of the Treatment of Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Sienaert, Pascal; Dhossche, Dirk M.; Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is a severe motor syndrome with an estimated prevalence among psychiatric inpatients of about 10%. At times, it is life-threatening especially in its malignant form when complicated by fever and autonomic disturbances. Catatonia can accompany many different psychiatric illnesses and somatic diseases. In order to recognize the catatonic syndrome, apart from thorough and repeated observation, a clinical examination is needed. A screening instrument, such as the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, can guide the clinician through the neuropsychiatric examination. Although severe and life-threatening, catatonia has a good prognosis. Research on the treatment of catatonia is scarce, but there is overwhelming clinical evidence of the efficacy of benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, and electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:25538636

  3. Evidenced-based review of clinical studies on endodontic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    The practice of endodontics requires excellence in diagnostic skills. The importance of this topic has been underscored by a recent 2008 AAE-sponsored symposium on endodontic diagnosis, which will be highlighted in a special issue of the Journal of Endodontics. In this minireview, we focus on recent clinical studies that emphasize different aspects related to the diagnosis of disorders of the pulp-dentin complex. PMID:19631854

  4. Almotriptan: a review of 10 years' clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline C

    2010-10-01

    Almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT 1B/1D agonist, was developed for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura and has been available for 10 years. This article evaluates the wealth of experience that has been obtained with almotriptan, including large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and post-marketing studies that more closely reflect everyday clinical practice. Initial RCTs required patients to take almotriptan when migraine pain was of moderate or severe intensity, and found that 12.5 mg provided optimal outcomes for both pain relief and tolerability. Almotriptan effectively improved 2-h pain-relief, reduced migraine-associated symptoms and demonstrated low recurrence rates. These findings were also shown in patient subgroups, such as adolescents and menstrual migraineurs. A secondary finding in these trials was that patients who took almotriptan early, when the pain was still mild, achieved better outcomes. This prompted the initiation of studies designed to assess the effect of almotriptan in early intervention. Open-label trials reported improvements in pain-free end points (2 h, 24 h), and subsequent RCTs confirmed these findings. Pharmacovigilance data from more than 100 million tablets dispensed worldwide have confirmed that almotriptan is associated with a low occurrence of adverse effects, which, in clinical trials, has been shown to be similar to that observed with placebo. The clinical evidence obtained and comparisons made over a decade of use have demonstrated that almotriptan is one of the more effective and fast-acting triptans available, with a placebo-like tolerability profile. This suggests that almotriptan is an excellent choice for patients requiring specific acute migraine treatment. PMID:20945537

  5. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, B K; Ernst, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know less than their patients about its alleged benefits. AIM: To define the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera, a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Four independent literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Library. Only controlled clinical trials (on any indication) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. All trials were read by both authors and data were extracted in a standardized, pre-defined manner. RESULTS: Ten studies were located. They suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries. It might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear. There are major caveats associated with all of these statements. CONCLUSION: Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present. PMID:10885091

  6. Paranasal sinuses malignancies: A 12-year review of clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sarafraz, Alireza; Chamani, Mojtaba; Derakhshandeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate epidemiologic investigations of the paranasal sinuses malignancies prompted this retrospective study with special emphasis on a major group of 111 tumors. Material and Methods Clinical records of 111 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were investigated retrospectively from April 2000 to January 2012. Collection of data included demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment plans, and histopathology of the tumor. Results There were 69 (62.16%) male and 42 (37.83%) female patients (male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1), with a median age of 49±12.2 years (range 21 to 88 years). A high level of occurrence was noticed in the fifth (26.3%) decade of life. The most frequent histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (43.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (19%). Among clinical manifestations, nasal obstruction was the most frequent followed by diplopia, and facial swelling. Fifty three patients (47.74%) were treated with combined approach of surgery and radiation therapy. Conclusions Paranasal sinuses malignancies are rare conditions with nonspecific symptoms which make early diagnosis of the lesions more challenging. The optimal therapeutic protocol for patients suffering from these tumors is still a somewhat controversial entity and requires further studies. Key words:Paranasal sinuses, malignancy, surgery,radiotherapy. PMID:27475693

  7. Clinical review: Vascular access for fluid infusion in children

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Nikolaus A

    2004-01-01

    The current literature on venous access in infants and children for acute intravascular access in the routine situation and in emergency or intensive care settings is reviewed. The various techniques for facilitating venous cannulation, such as application of local warmth, transillumination techniques and epidermal nitroglycerine, are described. Preferred sites for central venous access in infants and children are the external and internal jugular veins, the subclavian and axillary veins, and the femoral vein. The femoral venous cannulation appears to be the most safe and reliable technique in children of all ages, with a high success and low complication rates. Evidence from the reviewed literature strongly supports the use of real-time ultrasound techniques for venous cannulation in infants and children. Additionally, in emergency situations the intraosseous access has almost completly replaced saphenous cutdown procedures in children and has decreased the need for immediate central venous access. PMID:15566619

  8. Decision analysis in the clinical neurosciences: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dippel, D W; Habbema, J D

    1995-12-01

    Clinical decision analysis can be a useful scientific tool for individual patient management, for planning of clinical research and for reaching consensus about clinical problems. We systematically reviewed the decision analytic studies in the clinical neurosciences that were published between 1975 and July 1994. All studies were assessed on aspects of clinical applicability: presence of case and context description, completeness of the analysed strategies from a clinical point of view, extendibility of the analyses to different patient profiles, and up-to-date-ness. Fifty-nine decision analyses of twenty-eight different clinical problems were identified. Twenty-eight analyses were based on the theory of subjective expected utility, twelve on cost-effectiveness analysis. Four studies used ROC analysis, and fifteen were risk-, or risk-benefit analyses. At least six studies could have been improved by more elaborately disclosing the context of the clinical problem that was addressed. In eleven studies, the effect of different, yet plausible assumptions was not explored, and in eighteen studies the reader was not informed how to extend the results of the analysis to patients with (slightly) different clinical characterisitics. All studies had, by nature, the potential to promote insight into the clinical problem and focus the discussion on clinically important aspects, and gave clinically useful advice. We conclude that clinical decision analysis, as an explicit, quantitative approach to uncertainty in decision making in the clinical neurosciences will fulfill a growing need in the near future. PMID:24283779

  9. A comprehensive clinical review of maxillary sinus floor elevation: anatomy, techniques, biomaterials and complications.

    PubMed

    Danesh-Sani, Seyed Amir; Loomer, Peter M; Wallace, Stephen S

    2016-09-01

    Several systematic reviews have shown that maxillary sinus augmentation is a predictable and effective procedure for augmentation of an atrophic posterior maxilla. However, we know of no reviews that have covered all the clinical aspects. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cinhal, and Cochrane databases up to January 2015 to select relevant studies that cover the different objectives of this review, including the anatomy of the maxillary sinus, surgical techniques, biomaterials used in the sinus augmentation, and potential complications. PMID:27235382

  10. Ameloblastoma: a clinical review and trends in management.

    PubMed

    McClary, Andrew C; West, Robert B; McClary, Ashley C; Pollack, Jonathan R; Fischbein, Nancy J; Holsinger, Christopher F; Sunwoo, John; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Sirjani, Davud

    2016-07-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the mandible and maxilla, with multiple histologic variants, and high recurrence rates if improperly treated. The current mainstay of treatment is wide local excision with appropriate margins and immediate reconstruction. Here we review the ameloblastoma literature, using the available evidence to highlight the change in management over the past several decades. In addition, we explore the recent molecular characterization of these tumors which may point towards new potential avenues of personalized treatment. PMID:25926124

  11. The clinical effects of Synsepalum dulcificum: a review.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Kaki B; Hadi, Suwaibah Abd; Sekaran, Muniandy; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-11-01

    Synsepalum dulcificum or the "miracle fruit" is well known for its taste-modifying ability. The aim of this review was to assess the published medically beneficial as well as potential characteristics of this fruit. A search in three databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, was made with appropriate keywords. The resulting articles were screened in different stages based on the title, abstract, and content. A total of nine articles were included in this review. This review summarized the findings of previously published studies on the effects of miracle fruit. The main studied characteristic of the fruit was its effect on the taste receptors, resulting in the sweet sensation when substances with acidic content were ingested. This effect was shown to be related to a glycoprotein called "miraculin." Other beneficial characteristics of this fruit were its antioxidant and anticancer abilities that are due to the various amides existing in the miracle fruit. Apart from the above, the other observed effect of this fruit was its antidiabetic effect that was tested in rats. Further studies should be conducted to establish the findings. The miracle fruit can be a healthy additive due to its unique characteristics, including sour taste sensation modification as well as its antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. PMID:25314134

  12. Clinical review: The Israeli experience: conventional terrorism and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Aschkenasy-Steuer, Gabriella; Shamir, Micha; Rivkind, Avraham; Mosheiff, Rami; Shushan, Yigal; Rosenthal, Guy; Mintz, Yoav; Weissman, Charles; Sprung, Charles L; Weiss, Yoram G

    2005-01-01

    Over the past four years there have been 93 multiple-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel, 33 of them in Jerusalem. The Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center is the only Level I trauma center in Jerusalem and has therefore gained important experience in caring for critically injured patients. To do so we have developed a highly flexible operational system for managing the general intensive care unit (GICU). The focus of this review will be on the organizational steps needed to provide operational flexibility, emphasizing the importance of forward deployment of intensive care unit personnel to the trauma bay and emergency room and the existence of a chain of command to limit chaos. A retrospective review of the hospital's response to multiple-casualty terror incidents occurring between 1 October 2000 and 1 September 2004 was performed. Information was assembled from the medical center's trauma registry and from GICU patient admission and discharge records. Patients are described with regard to the severity and type of injury. The organizational work within intensive care is described. Finally, specific issues related to the diagnosis and management of lung, brain, orthopedic and abdominal injuries, caused by bomb blast events associated with shrapnel, are described. This review emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in caring for these patients. PMID:16277738

  13. Depression and Exercise: A Clinical Review and Management Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Elaheh; Memari, Amir Hossein; Hafizi, Sina; Shayestehfar, Monir; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Eshghi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is an increasing interest to detect how exercise affects depression symptoms. Although recent findings confirm the positive effect of exercise on depression, there is no clear guideline regarding advice on exercise for patients with depression. The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the nature of depression, exercise, the underlying mechanisms and the management of an exercise program in individuals with depression. Evidence Acquisition: We searched electronic databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI web of knowledge and PsychInfo (from January 2000 to October 2014). We reviewed the systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large-scale randomized control trials on effects of exercise on depression. Results: Recent evidence has emerged on characteristics of effective exercise programs and those patients with depression that will most benefit from the exercise programs. However due to the methodological weaknesses and inconsistencies of studies, conclusions must be made with caution. Conclusions: We have provided a number of recommendations for clinicians and researchers who plan to use exercise protocols in depression. PMID:26448838

  14. Clinical, Agricultural, and Evolutionary Biology of Myostatin: A Comparative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Buel D.; Garikipati, Dilip K.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of myostatin and our introduction to the “Mighty Mouse” over a decade ago spurred both basic and applied research and impacted popular culture as well. The myostatin-null genotype produces “double muscling” in mice and livestock and was recently described in a child. The field’s rapid growth is by no means surprising considering the potential benefits of enhancing muscle growth in clinical and agricultural settings. Indeed, several recent studies suggest that blocking myostatin’s inhibitory effects could improve the clinical treatment of several muscle growth disorders, whereas comparative studies suggest that these actions are at least partly conserved. Thus, neutralizing myostatin’s effects could also have agricultural significance. Extrapolating between studies that use different vertebrate models, particularly fish and mammals, is somewhat confusing because whole genome duplication events have resulted in the production and retention of up to four unique myostatin genes in some fish species. Such comparisons, however, suggest that myostatin’s actions may not be limited to skeletal muscle per se, but may additionally influence other tissues including cardiac muscle, adipocytes, and the brain. Thus, therapeutic intervention in the clinic or on the farm must consider the potential of alternative side effects that could impact these or other tissues. In addition, the presence of multiple and actively diversifying myostatin genes in most fish species provides a unique opportunity to study adaptive molecular evolution. It may also provide insight into myostatin’s nonmuscle actions as results from these and other comparative studies gain visibility in biomedical fields. PMID:18591260

  15. Desloratadine for chronic idiopathic urticaria: a review of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    DuBuske, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a disabling affliction that considerably limits patients' daily activities and interferes with sleep. Clinical studies have shown that histamine H1-receptor antagonists (antihistamines) are highly effective for inhibiting the hives/wheals and pruritus associated with CIU, as well as improving patients' quality of life. Desloratadine is a rapid-acting, once-daily, nonsedating selective H1-receptor antagonist/inverse receptor agonist with proven clinical efficacy in patients with CIU. It has 10-20 times the in vivo H1 receptor-binding affinity of loratadine, its parent compound, and 52-194 times the H1 receptor-binding affinity of cetirizine, ebastine, loratadine, and fexofenadine. Desloratadine displays linear pharmacokinetics after oral administration. Age and sex have no apparent effect on the drug's metabolism and elimination, and food does not affect its bioavailability or absorption. Desloratadine also exerts anti-inflammatory effects via mechanisms that are independent of H1-receptor antagonism. Results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 6 weeks' duration in adults and adolescents with moderate-to-severe CIU indicate that desloratadine significantly minimizes the severity of pruritus, reduces the number and size of hives, and improves disease-impaired sleep and daily activities. Improvements were noted after a single dose of desloratadine and were maintained over 6 weeks of treatment. Desloratadine was safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of patients with CIU. The adverse effect profile of desloratadine in adults, as well as in children aged from 6 months to 11 years, is comparable to that of placebo. Evaluations of cognitive and psychomotor performance in adults indicate no impairment of function with dosages of desloratadine 5 mg/day. In conclusion, desloratadine is an important therapeutic option for prompt and enduring symptom relief in patients with moderate-to-severe CIU. In addition

  16. Clinical exercise interventions in alcohol use disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Esther S; Deimel, Hubertus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2015-05-01

    The therapeutic impact of exercise interventions in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia has already been proven through several reviews whereas substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorders (AUD) have so far less frequently been a matter of investigation. Although several publications have summarized studies focusing on physical activities in substance use disorders, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of exercise interventions in AUD. A total of 14 studies using the Medline Database, CCMed, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In order to evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2011). Due to methodological flaws the overall evidence of the studies is rated level "3" but primarily findings confirm that exercise interventions as a complementary treatment component in AUD are feasible and safe. No adverse events were reported. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on certain domains of physical functioning including VO2max, basal heart rate, physical activity level and strength. Inconsistent effects with a slight trend towards a positive effect on anxiety, mood management, craving, and drinking behavior have been shown and need to be verified. Results must be interpreted cautiously due to the numerous methodological flaws and the heterogeneity of the interventions and measures. However, according to preclinical studies several mechanisms of action are conceivable, especially as to alcohol-related outcomes and additionally seem to be promising. RCTs with high methodological quality are urgently needed in future research to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations for the treatment of AUD. PMID:25641736

  17. SSRI-induced apathy syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, W Jason; Makela, Eugene H; Latocha, Melissa J

    2004-05-01

    The authors review the literature pertaining to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced apathy syndrome. A literature search of Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1970 to the present was performed for relevant articles. Twelve relevant case reports and one open-label treatment trial were identified. An amotivational, or apathy, syndrome has been reported in a number of patients receiving SSRI treatment over the last decade. This adverse effect has been noted to be dose-dependent and reversible, but is often unrecognized. This phenomenon has caused significant negative consequences for adults as well as social and academic difficulties in adolescents. PMID:15330228

  18. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2016-02-01

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:26746812

  19. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  20. Clinical evolutional aspects of chronic subdural haematomas – literature review

    PubMed Central

    Iliescu, IA; Constantinescu, AI

    2015-01-01

    Apparently trivial, one of the most frequent pathologies in neurosurgical practice, chronic subdural haematoma, continues to be a challenge for the neurosurgeons both from the therapeutic and postoperatory complications point of view, taking into account that it is frequently met in elders, who usually present a complex pathology. The fact that, by definition, there is a latent period between the moment the brain injury, usually minor, occurs and the appearance of clinical symptomatology, frequently makes the trauma be ignored, this complicating the diagnosis and most of the times delaying the application of the adequate treatment. Developing slowly in time, in weeks or months, the aspect that chronic subdural haematoma usually occurs in elders should not be neglected, its clinical symptomatology often debuting with memory and attention disorders, so that the patient is usually referred to psychiatrists or neurologists, only a paraclinical investigation (CT scan or MRI) being able to establish the diagnosis. Even the appearance of the lateral signs is subjected to many diagnosis confusions because patients deny the existence of a trauma in over 50% of the cases. Abbreviations: CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, CSDH = chronic subdural haematoma, HMW = high molecular weight, F = frontal, T = temporal, P = parietal PMID:26361507

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  2. Reviewing birth control methods for new clinic patients.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The DHEW guidelines governing funding for family planning services specify that each new patient be educated about the commonly used birth control methods on the first visit. Pills, IUDs, the diaphragm, condoms, foam, natural family planning, and sterilization plus any additional methods offered by the clinic should be explained in terms of how it is used, effectiveness, contraindications, and side effects. Patients need to be able to compare effectiveness rates for the the methods. The 2 rates should include the level of effectiveness to be expected if you used the method right all the time and the level of effectiveness if you make the average number of mistakes. Suggestions for setting the tone of a group discussion are minimimize interruptions; maximize physical comfort; watch body language; encourage questions and reading. A patient who has made up her mind to a method and finds she has a contraindication to a method may be upset and have difficulty choosing another method. Other first visit topics which should be explained either in discussion or literature are why family planning is important; reproductive anatomy and physiology; locations for emergency medical care; clinic procedures, including fees; vaginities and sexually transmitted infections; pregnancy options; and, list of services available. PMID:12336138

  3. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-05-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL's clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients' group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  4. Consensus-based recommendations for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Critics of systematic reviews have argued that these studies often fail to inform clinical decision making because their results are far too general, that the data are sparse, such that findings cannot be applied to individual patients or for other decision making. While there is some consensus on methods for investigating statistical and methodological heterogeneity, little attention has been paid to clinical aspects of heterogeneity. Clinical heterogeneity, true effect heterogeneity, can be defined as variability among studies in the participants, the types or timing of outcome measurements, and the intervention characteristics. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews. Methods We used a modified Delphi technique with three phases: (1) pre-meeting item generation; (2) face-to-face consensus meeting in the form of a modified Delphi process; and (3) post-meeting feedback. We identified and invited potential participants with expertise in systematic review methodology, systematic review reporting, or statistical aspects of meta-analyses, or those who published papers on clinical heterogeneity. Results Between April and June of 2011, we conducted phone calls with participants. In June 2011 we held the face-to-face focus group meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan. First, we agreed upon a definition of clinical heterogeneity: Variations in the treatment effect that are due to differences in clinically related characteristics. Next, we discussed and generated recommendations in the following 12 categories related to investigating clinical heterogeneity: the systematic review team, planning investigations, rationale for choice of variables, types of clinical variables, the role of statistical heterogeneity, the use of plotting and visual aids, dealing with outlier studies, the number of investigations or variables, the role of the best evidence synthesis, types of statistical methods

  5. Cadmium Exposure and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722

  6. Review: development of clinically relevant scaffolds for vascularised bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchun; Lim, Jing; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2013-01-01

    Clinical translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapy still faces many challenges despite intense investigations and advancement over the years. To address these clinical barriers, it is important to analyse the current technical challenges in constructing a clinically relevant scaffold and subsequent clinical issues relating to bone repair. This review highlights the key challenges hampering widespread clinical translation of scaffold-based vascularised BTE, with a focus on the repair of large non-union defects. The main limitations of current scaffolds include the lack of sufficient vascularisation, insufficient mechanical strength as well as issues relating to the osseointegration of the bioresorbable scaffold and bone infection management. Critical insights on the current trends of scaffold technologies and future directions for advancing next-generation BTE scaffolds into the clinical realm are discussed. Considerations concerning regulatory approval and the route towards commercialisation of the scaffolds for widespread clinical utility will also be introduced. PMID:23142624

  7. A Systematic Review of Studies Comparing Diagnostic Clinical Prediction Rules with Clinical Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sharon; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic clinical prediction rules (CPRs) are developed to improve diagnosis or decrease diagnostic testing. Whether, and in what situations diagnostic CPRs improve upon clinical judgment is unclear. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL, with supplementary citation and reference checking for studies comparing CPRs and clinical judgment against a current objective reference standard. We report 1) the proportion of study participants classified as not having disease who hence may avoid further testing and or treatment and 2) the proportion, among those classified as not having disease, who do (missed diagnoses) by both approaches. 31 studies of 13 medical conditions were included, with 46 comparisons between CPRs and clinical judgment. In 2 comparisons (4%), CPRs reduced the proportion of missed diagnoses, but this was offset by classifying a larger proportion of study participants as having disease (more false positives). In 36 comparisons (78%) the proportion of diagnoses missed by CPRs and clinical judgment was similar, and in 9 of these, the CPRs classified a larger proportion of participants as not having disease (fewer false positives). In 8 comparisons (17%) the proportion of diagnoses missed by the CPRs was greater. This was offset by classifying a smaller proportion of participants as having the disease (fewer false positives) in 2 comparisons. There were no comparisons where the CPR missed a smaller proportion of diagnoses than clinical judgment and classified more participants as not having the disease. The design of the included studies allows evaluation of CPRs when their results are applied independently of clinical judgment. The performance of CPRs, when implemented by clinicians as a support to their judgment may be different. Conclusions In the limited studies to date, CPRs are rarely superior to clinical judgment and there is generally a trade-off between the proportion classified as not having disease and the

  8. A Review of Clinical Data for Currently Approved Hysteroscopic Sterilization Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Basinski, Cindy M

    2010-01-01

    Two hysteroscopic permanent sterilization procedures are approved for use in the United States: Essure® Permanent Birth Control System (Conceptus Incorporated, Mountain View, CA) and Adiana® Permanent Contraception (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA). This review compares the clinical trial data for these procedures. A notable difference is the resultant clinical pregnancy risk. The clinical trials for the Essure procedure have reported no pregnancies in 643 relying women in the 9 years since initiation of the studies. The clinical trial for the Adiana procedure has reported 12 pregnancies in 570 relying women in nearly 5 years of collected data. Other clinical outcome parameters concerning Essure and Adiana are examined in this review. PMID:21364861

  9. New graduate nurses, new graduate nurse transition programs, and clinical leadership skill: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Kathy B; Richards, Kathy C

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the relationship between new graduate nurses and clinical leadership skill, and between new graduate nurse transition programs and clinical leadership skill. New graduate nurse transition programs have been cited as one strategy to improve clinical leadership skill, but to our knowledge, no one has synthesized the evidence on new graduate nurse transition programs and clinical leadership skill. Results of this review showed that new graduate nurse transition programs that were at least 24 weeks in length had a positive impact on clinical leadership skill. New graduate nurse transition programs using the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing Nurse Residency curriculum had the greatest impact, followed by curriculum developed by the Versant New Graduate RN Residency, an important finding for nursing professional development specialists. PMID:25993451

  10. Summary measures for clinical gait analysis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Instrumented 3D-gait analysis (3D-GA) is an important method used to obtain information that is crucial for establishing the level of functional limitation due to pathology, observing its evolution over time and evaluating rehabilitative intervention effects. However, a typical 3D-GA evaluation produces a vast amount of data, and despite its objectivity, its use is complicated, and the data interpretation is difficult. It is even more difficult to obtain an overview on patient cohorts for a comparison. Moreover, there is a growing awareness of the need for a concise index, specifically, a single measure of the 'quality' of a particular gait pattern. Several gait summary measures, which have been used in conjunction with 3D-GA, have been proposed to objectify clinical impression, quantify the degree of gait deviation from normal, stratify the severity of pathology, document the changes in gait patterns over time and evaluate interventions. PMID:24613461

  11. The year in review of clinical cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gregory M; Keung, Edmund; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2013-02-19

    This past year saw multiple important advances in the field clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Seminal articles describing new anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation were published. New results that raise questions regarding the safety of dronedarone and several new promising techniques in AF ablation were described. Important articles that refine our understanding of the risk of sudden death among Wolff-Parkinson-White patients were published. In the basic and translational sciences, the application of gene therapy to the study and potential treatment of arrhythmias was described, whereas genetic determinants important to the optimal treatment of inherited arrhythmia syndromes were further elucidated. Issues relevant to cardiac rhythm device therapy included investigations into the St. Jude Riata lead, new applications of device monitoring, predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy, and the use of pacemakers for vasovagal syncope. PMID:23312706

  12. Primary bone lymphomas—Clinical cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshu; Alam, Kiran; Maheshwari, Veena; Khan, Roobina; Nobin, Hage; Narula, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon clinical entity and a rare presentation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PBL accounts for less than 5% of malignant bone tumors, 4–5% of extra nodal lymphoma and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for the majority of cases of PBL. The incidence of PBL is so rare that many of its aspects remain unknown. A number of studies have been reported from western countries but only a few reports are available from Asia. Out of 20,000 bone lesions received in our department over 5 years, only 5 cases were primary bone lymphoma; all of which were DLBCL. We report our experience on PBLs with main emphasis on two unusual presentations of this rare tumor. PMID:26909283

  13. Trimetazidine in Practice: Review of the Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dézsi, Csaba A.

    2016-01-01

    All of the following traditional agents for the management of stable angina pectoris include the symptomatic treatment with heart rate–lowering agents such as β-blockers or non-dihydropyridine Ca-channel blockers, or ivabradine—the first selective sinus node If channel inhibitor—vasodilatators and preventive use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the parameters of circulation directly. Trimetazidine exerts its anti-ischemic action by modulating cardiac metabolism without altering the hemodynamic functions, therefore represents an excellent complementary potential to the conventional angina treatment. It has a beneficial effect on the inflammatory profile and endothelial function and shows diverse benefits by reducing the number and the intensity of angina attacks and improving the clinical signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia given as monotherapy as well as combined with other antianginal agents. Patients undergoing coronary revascularization procedures or with comorbid left ventricular dysfunction and diabetes mellitus also benefit from the protective effects of trimetazidine. PMID:25756467

  14. Anthrax threat: a review of clinical and diagnostic measures.

    PubMed

    Alqurashi, Abdelrahman Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Anthrax is the plague of the ancient world and its existence is confirmed by the Roman poet Virgil. Also it is a threat in the modern world as it can be used in biological wars and bioterrorism. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis an unmovable, aerobic, gram-positive rod. It forms spores, which can survive for years in the environment. Three clinical forms result after exposure to anthrax spores: cutaneous, respiratory, and gastro- intestinal. The cutaneous anthrax commonly prevails among humans. The respiratory form occurs most likely due to inhalation of the bacterial spores, whereas the gastrointestinal form happens after spores' ingestion. Prophylactic, early diagnosis and proper treatment will reduce mortalities of anthrax. Thus, the physicians, senior nurses and individuals at risk should be aware of the danger of this disease. PMID:23697023

  15. Trimetazidine in Practice: Review of the Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Dézsi, Csaba A

    2016-01-01

    All of the following traditional agents for the management of stable angina pectoris include the symptomatic treatment with heart rate-lowering agents such as β-blockers or non-dihydropyridine Ca-channel blockers, or ivabradine-the first selective sinus node If channel inhibitor-vasodilatators and preventive use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the parameters of circulation directly. Trimetazidine exerts its anti-ischemic action by modulating cardiac metabolism without altering the hemodynamic functions, therefore represents an excellent complementary potential to the conventional angina treatment. It has a beneficial effect on the inflammatory profile and endothelial function and shows diverse benefits by reducing the number and the intensity of angina attacks and improving the clinical signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia given as monotherapy as well as combined with other antianginal agents. Patients undergoing coronary revascularization procedures or with comorbid left ventricular dysfunction and diabetes mellitus also benefit from the protective effects of trimetazidine. PMID:25756467

  16. A Clinical Review of Tick-Borne Diseases in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Beebe, Alexandria; Chaudhury, Arun; Haselow, Dirk; Patil, Sowmya; Weinstein, Sue; Taffner, Richard; Patil, Naveen

    2016-05-01

    Tick-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted by ticks harboring wide variety of pathogens. Arkansas is reported as one of the states with a high incidence of tick-borne diseases. In Arkansas the four most frequently occurring tick-borne diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, also known as Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis), Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia and Anaplasmosis. Lyme disease, on the other hand, is not acquired in Arkansas and is only acquired by traveling to states where Lyme disease is endemic. The majority of tick-borne diseases are diagnosed based on a history of tick bite or exposure and the individual's clinical presentation. The recognition of specific symptoms requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term sequelae. Hence, knowledge of tick-borne diseases and preventive measures can help reduce the risks associated with the infection. PMID:27263175

  17. Newer endovascular tools: a review of experimental and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Thomas; Brinjikji, Waleed; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The history of treatment of intracranial aneurysms dates back to the late 18th century. These early physicians largely based their crude techniques around "wire insertion alone, galvanopuncture (electrothrombosis), and fili-galvanopuncture (wire insertion together with electrothrombosis)," albeit with overwhelmingly unfavorable outcomes. By the end of the 20th century, treatment options progressed to include two highly effective, and safe, procedures: surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. These methods have been found to be effective treatments for a large portion of aneurysms, but there still exists a subset of patients that do not respond well to these therapies. While much progress has been made in stent-assisted coiling including the development of newer stents aimed at keep the coil ball from protruding into the parent vessel, the introduction of flow diverters has characterized a new phase in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This treatment paradigm is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for large and complex aneurysms internal carotid artery. Intrasaccular flow diverters such as the Woven EndoBridge device (WEB) and Luna device are showing promise in the treatment of wide neck bifurcation aneurysms. Other newer devices including the pCONus Bifurcating Aneurysm Implant and Endovascular Clip Systems (eCLIPs) are showing promise in small clinical and preclinical studies. As technology improves, newer devices with ingenious designs are constantly being introduced into the clinical arena. Most of these devices try to address the limitations of traditional endovascular methods in regard to providing a safe and effective treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. Several large prospective studies are underway and once completed, the role of these newer devices will be better defined. It is easy to anticipate that with advances in 3D techniques and printing, a future in which customized devices are designed based on the individual

  18. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas; Majorek, Magdalena; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT) which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. Results We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study), and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Conclusion Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended. PMID:18377647

  19. Edoxaban: a focused review of its clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2014-07-21

    Long-term anticoagulation treatment with warfarin has been associated with a number of limitations in clinical practice and there is a need for more convenient long-term anticoagulation treatment. One of the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in development is edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor that is administered once daily. The pharmacological properties of edoxaban have various advantages in anticoagulant therapy. Edoxaban quickly reaches peak plasma concentrations in 1.5 h, has a half-life of 10-14 h, has relatively high bioavailability of 62% and exhibits highly selective, competitive, concentration-dependent inhibition of human factor Xa. The plasma concentrations of edoxaban are also closely correlated with suppression of thrombin generation and a range of platelet activation parameters (fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and β-thromboglobulin), which edoxaban has been shown to rapidly inhibit. The anticoagulant activity of edoxaban is not affected by food intake or ethnicity and a number of drug-drug interaction studies have been performed. Co-administration of edoxaban with strong P-glycoprotein inhibitors, such as dronedarone, quinidine, and verapamil requires edoxaban dose-reduction by 50% to avoid the risk of over-exposure. The exposure of edoxaban may also increase in patients with a body weight ≤60 kg and moderate renal impairment. This meant a dose-reduction strategy in patients at risk of over-exposure was utilized in Phase III clinical studies. In conclusion, the pharmacological properties of edoxaban provide rapid and specific inhibition of factor Xa, which is closely related to plasma concentrations. Given the limitations with long-term warfarin therapy, once-daily edoxaban may provide a convenient long-term alternative for patients. PMID:24810388

  20. Radium-223 dichloride in clinical practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Florimonte, Luigia; Dellavedova, Luca; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The onset of skeletal metastases is typical of advanced-stage prostate cancer and requires a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate bone pain and try to delay disease progression. The current therapeutic armamentarium includes conventional analgesics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunotherapy, androgen-deprivation therapy, osteoclast inhibitors (bisphosphonates, denosumab), surgical interventions, external-beam radiotherapy and radionuclide metabolic therapy. Many studies in recent decades have demonstrated the efficacy of various radiopharmaceuticals, including strontium-89 and samarium-153, for palliation of pain from diffuse skeletal metastases, but no significant benefit in terms of disease progression and overall survival has been shown. The therapeutic landscape of metastatic skeletal cancer significantly changed after the introduction of radium-223, the first bone-homing radiopharmaceutical with disease-modifying properties. In this paper we extensively review the literature on the use of radium-223 dichloride in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:27121689

  1. Hypodermoclysis: a literature review to assist in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Vanessa Galuppo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the information available in the literature about the drugs that can be administered through hypodermoclysis and the resulting impact that this information may have on the routine of the pharmacist working at a hospital. The study was based on a review of the literature. The results showed positive points of the procedure, but little specific information about medications such as routes of administration, standard dilutions, optimal doses, etc. Thus, it was possible to verify that there is no definite information as to the correct way to administer the drugs in this route, even though this is an effective and safe option, according to the literature. The lack of information has a negative impact on the support provided by the pharmacist to the nursing staff to ensure that the drug actually reaches its therapeutic goals safely. PMID:25807246

  2. Clinical and Oral Implications of Dengue Fever: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Roopashri, G; Vaishali, M R; David, Maria Priscilla; Baig, Muqeet; Navneetham, Anuradha; Venkataraghavan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a viral infection with fatal potential complications. It is also called as break-bone fever. Worldwide dengue infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease. It is caused by vector Aedesa egypti and represents a major public health issue in more than 100 tropical countries. The word dengue is obtained from Swahili phrase Ka-dinga pepo meaning “cramplikeseizure.” Dengue viral infections are characterized by abrupt febrile illness, but can also lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, it requires an early and correct diagnosis. Gingival bleeding is the most common oral manifestation of dengue infection. Although oral lesions are uncommon in dengue infections and if manifested, may be mistaken for bleeding disorders. This review emphasizes the significance of oral lesions as it may be the early indicators of dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:25859113

  3. Mandibular third molar autotransplantation--literature review with clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rui Amaral; Rocha, Germano

    2004-12-01

    Autotransplantation of mandibular third molars in a precocious phase of development is indicated when a substitute for adjacent compromised or missing molars is needed, and when mesial movements of the posterior teeth, the resultant loss of space, and overeruption of opposing teeth and consequent changes in the occlusion must be avoided. Provided that the apices of the mandibular third molar are immature, the immediate replacement of a lost or compromised tooth usually ensures a good outcome. Transplantation of third molars helps to maintain alveolar bone and enables endosseous implantation without requiring bone regeneration. We present examples of transplantation of mandibular third molars and review the factors that affect the success or failure of this procedure, such as atraumatic extraction and adequate immobilization of the transplanted tooth and root development after transplantation. Sex or age seem to have no effect on the final outcome. PMID:15588551

  4. Musical obsessions: a comprehensive review of neglected clinical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Miguel, Euripedes C; De Mathis, Maria Alice; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Ahuja, Niraj; Sookman, Debbie; Kwon, Jun Soo; Huh, Min Jung; Riemann, Bradley C; Cottraux, Jean; O'Connor, Kieron; Hale, Lisa R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Storch, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    Intrusive musical imagery (IMI) consists of involuntarily recalled, short, looping fragments of melodies. Musical obsessions are distressing, impairing forms of IMI that merit investigation in their own right and, more generally, research into these phenomena may broaden our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is phenomenologically and etiologically heterogeneous. We present the first comprehensive review of musical obsessions, based on the largest set of case descriptions ever assembled (N=96). Characteristics of musical obsessions are described and compared with normal IMI, musical hallucinations, and visual obsessional imagery. Assessment, differential diagnosis, comorbidity, etiologic hypotheses, and treatments are described. Musical obsessions may be under-diagnosed because they are not adequately assessed by current measures of OCD. Musical obsessions have been misdiagnosed as psychotic phenomena, which has led to ineffective treatment. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment. Musical obsessions may respond to treatments that are not recommended for prototypic OCD symptoms. PMID:24997394

  5. Bortezomib in multiple myeloma: systematic review and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kouroukis, T.C.; Baldassarre, F.G.; Haynes, A.E.; Imrie, K.; Reece, D.E.; Cheung, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the appropriate use of bortezomib alone or in combination with other agents in patients with multiple myeloma (mm). We searched medline, embase, the Cochrane Library, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of included studies. We analyzed randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews if they involved adult mm patients treated with bortezomib and if they reported on survival, disease control, response, quality of life, or adverse effects. Twenty-six unique studies met the inclusion criteria. For patients with previously untreated mm and for candidates for transplantation, we found a statistically significant benefit in time to progression [hazard ratio (hr): 0.48, p < 0.001; and hr: 0.63, p = 0.006, respectively] and a better response with a bortezomib than with a non-bortezomib regimen (p < 0.001). Progression-free survival was longer with bortezomib and thalidomide than with thalidomide alone (p = 0.01). In non-candidates for transplantation, a significant benefit in overall survival was observed with a bortezomib regimen (hr compared with a non-bortezomib regimen: 0.61; p = 0.008), and in transplantation candidates receiving bortezomib, the response rate was improved after induction (p = 0.004) and after a first transplant (p = 0.016). In relapsed or refractory mm, overall survival (p = 0.03), time to progression (hr: 1.82; p = 0.000004), and progression-free survival (hr: 1.69; p = 0.000026) were significantly improved with bortezomib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (compared with bortezomib alone), and bortezomib monotherapy was better than dexamethasone alone (hr: 0.77; p = 0.027). Bortezomib combined with thalidomide and dexamethasone was better than either bortezomib monotherapy or thalidomide with dexamethasone (p < 0.001). In previously untreated or in relapsed or refractory mm patients, bortezomib-based therapy has improved disease control and, in some patients, overall survival. PMID

  6. Perchlorate Clinical Pharmacology and Human Health: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie Porat; Braverman, Lewis E.; Lamm, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Potassium perchlorate has been used at various times during the last 50 years to treat hyperthyroidism. Since World War II ammonium perchlorate has been used as a propellant for rockets. In 1997, the assay sensitivity for perchlorate in water was improved from 0.4 mg/L (ppm) to 4 µg/L (ppb). As a result, public water supplies in Southern California were found to contain perchlorate ions in the range of 5 to 8 ppb, and those in Southern Nevada were found to contain 5 to 24 ppb. Research programs have been developed to assess the safety or risk from these exposures and to assist state and regulatory agencies in setting a reasonable safe level for perchlorate in drinking water. This report reviews the evidence on the human health effects of perchlorate exposure. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of iodine uptake. All of its pharmacologic effects at current therapeutic levels or lower are associated with inhibition of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) on the thyroid follicular cell membrane. A review of the medical and occupational studies has been undertaken to identify perchlorate exposure levels at which thyroid hormone levels may be reduced or thyrotropin levels increased. This exposure level may begin in the 35 to 100 mg/d range. Volunteer studies have been designed to determine the exposure levels at which perchlorate begins to affect iodine uptake in humans. Such effects may begin at levels of approximately 1 mg/d. Environmental studies have assessed the thyroidal health of newborns and adults at current environmental exposures to perchlorate and have concluded that the present levels appear to be safe. Whereas additional studies are underway both in laboratory animals and in the field, it appears that a safe level can be established for perchlorate in water and that regulatory agencies and others are now trying to determine that level. PMID:11477312

  7. A systematic review of measures used to assess chronic musculoskeletal pain in clinical and randomized controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Litcher-Kelly, Leighann; Martino, Sharon A.; Broderick, Joan E.; Stone, Arthur A.

    2009-01-01

    There are many types of pain assessments available to researchers conducting clinical trials, ranging from simple, single-item Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questions through extensive, multidimensional inventories. The primary question addressed in this survey of top-tier medical journals was: Which pain assessments are most commonly used in trials? Articles addressing chronic musculoskeletal pain in clinical trials were identified in seven major medical journals for the year 2003. A total of 50 studies (total original research articles reviewed: 1,476) met selection criteria, and from these we identified 28 types of pain assessments. Selected studies were classified according to the dimensions of pain assessed, the type of scale and descriptors/anchors used, and the reporting period specified. The most frequently used assessments were the single-item VAS scale and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS); multidimensional inventories were used infrequently. There was considerable variability in the instructions patients received about the period to consider when evaluating their pain, and many studies provided only cursory information about their assessments in the methods. Overall, it appears that clinical trials utilize simple measures of pain and that there is no widely accepted standard for clinical pain assessment that would facilitate comparison of outcomes across trials. Perspective This review highlights the heterogeneity of pain outcome measures used and the abundance of single-item measures in clinical trials. While there are many pain outcome measures available to clinical researchers, more consistency in the field should be encouraged so that results between studies can be compared. PMID:17690014

  8. Clinical review: Critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Fred; Mayer, Stephan A

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is by far the most destructive form of stroke. The clinical presentation is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating neurological exam coupled with signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. The diagnosis is easily established by the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Ventilatory support, blood pressure control, reversal of any preexisting coagulopathy, intracranial pressure monitoring, osmotherapy, fever control, seizure prophylaxis, treatment of hyerglycemia, and nutritional supplementation are the cornerstones of supportive care in the intensive care unit. Dexamethasone and other glucocorticoids should be avoided. Ventricular drainage should be performed urgently in all stuporous or comatose patients with intraventricular blood and acute hydrocephalus. Emergent surgical evacuation or hemicraniectomy should be considered for patients with large (>3 cm) cerebellar hemorrhages, and in those with large lobar hemorrhages, significant mass effect, and a deteriorating neurological exam. Apart from management in a specialized stroke or neurological intensive care unit, no specific medical therapies have been shown to consistently improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:19108704

  9. Angelman syndrome: a review of the clinical and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Clayton-Smith, J; Laan, L

    2003-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe learning difficulties, ataxia, a seizure disorder with a characteristic EEG, subtle dysmorphic facial features, and a happy, sociable disposition. Most children present with delay in developmental milestones and slowing of head growth during the first year of life. In the majority of cases speech does not develop. Patients with AS have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with jerky movements, frequent and sometimes inappropriate laughter, a love of water, and sleep disorder. The facial features are subtle and include a wide, smiling mouth, prominent chin, and deep set eyes. It is caused by a variety of genetic abnormalities involving the chromosome 15q11-13 region, which is subject to genomic imprinting. These include maternal deletion, paternal uniparental disomy, imprinting defects, and point mutations or small deletions within the UBE3A gene, which lies within this region. UBE3A shows tissue specific imprinting, being expressed exclusively from the maternal allele in brain. The genetic mechanisms identified so far in AS are found in 85-90% of those with the clinical phenotype and all interfere with UBE3A expression. PMID:12566516

  10. Cerebral Microbleeds: A Review of Clinical, Genetic, and Neuroimaging Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Paul A.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Desmond, Patricia M.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds) are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE) and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using 11C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography. The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage – particularly in the setting of anticoagulation – and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future. PMID:24432010

  11. Apoprotein C-III: A review of its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-Lu; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Apoprotein C-III (apoC-III), originating from the apoA-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster affected by multiple regulating factors, has been demonstrated to have a validated link with hypertriglyceridemia in humans. Following genome studies establishing the impact of apoC-III on both plasma triglyceride (TG) level and cardiovascular disease (CVD), apoC-III offers us a novel explanation attempting to resolve the long-existing confusion with regard to the atherogenic effect of TG. Notably, apoC-III exerts its atherogenic effect by means of not only intervening in the function and metabolism of various lipid molecules, but also accelerating pro-inflammatory effects between monocytes and endothelial cells. Data have suggested that diabetes, a common endocrine disease, also correlates closely with apoC-III in its apoptosis process of islet βcells. In fact, apoC-III genes, with various mutations among individuals, are also found to have relevance to other diseases, including fatty liver disease. Fortunately, besides present day therapeutic strategies, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drug treatments, a promising new antisense drug specifically targeting on apoC-III gene expression opens up new avenues. This article mainly summarizes the clinical implication of apoC-III and its future directions of treatment. PMID:27318213

  12. Postradiation sarcoma of bone: review of 78 Mayo Clinic cases

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherby, R.P.; Dahlin, D.C.; Ivins, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Postradiation sarcoma of bone is an uncommon but serious sequela of radiation therapy. Seventy-eight Mayo Clinic patients have been treated for sarcomas arising in irradiated bones. They received their initial radiotherapy for a wide variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic conditions, both benign and malignant. Thirty-five sarcomas arose in bone that was normal at the time of radiotherapy, and 43 arose in irradiated preexisting osseous lesions. The latent period between radiotherapy and diagnosis of sarcoma averaged 14.3 years. Ninety percent of the postradiation sarcomas were either osteosarcomas or fibrosarcomas; chondrosarcoma, malignant (fibrous) histiocytoma, malignant lymphoma, Ewing's tumor, and metastasizing chondroblastoma also occurred. Prompt radical surgery, when feasible, is usually the treatment of choice for the sarcoma. About 30% of patients with sarcomas of the extremities or craniofacial bones survived 5 years without recurrence; there were no disease-free survivors among patients with tumors of the vertebral column, pelvis, or shoulder girdle. The low risk of sarcoma following radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer should not be a contraindication to its use in these patients; however, radiation therapy for benign bone tumors should be reserved for lesions that are not amenable to surgical treatment. An unusual case is also reported herein in which a fibrosarcoma was discovered in the humerus of a patient who had received radiotherapy 55 years previously for a verified osteosarcoma in the same site.

  13. Clinical and billing review of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Lynch, William R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a temporary technique for providing life support for cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary dysfunction, or both. The two forms of ECMO, veno-arterial (VA) and veno-venous (VV), are used to support cardiopulmonary and pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. Historically, ECMO was predominantly used in the neonatal and pediatric populations, as early adult studies failed to improve outcomes. ECMO has become far more common in the adult population because of positive results in published case series and clinical trials during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in 2009 to 2010. Advances in technology that make the technique much easier to implement likely fueled the renewed interest. Although exact criteria for ECMO are not available, patients who are good candidates are generally considered to be relatively young and suffering from acute illness that is believed to be reversible or organ dysfunction that is otherwise treatable. With the increase in the use in the adult population, a number of different codes have been generated to better identify the method of support with distinctly different relative value units assigned to each code from a very simple prior coding scheme. To effectively be reimbursed for use of the technique, it is imperative that the clinician understands the new coding scheme and works with payers to determine what is incorporated into each specific code. PMID:25789816

  14. Yttrium-90 Microspheres: A Review of Its Emerging Clinical Indications

    PubMed Central

    Khajornjiraphan, Natthida; Thu, Nyein Aye; Chow, Pierce Kah Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with liver malignancies are not candidates for resection, and systemic therapies are often not effective. Radioembolization (RE) is an alternative treatment for this group of patients. The safety and efficacy of RE with yttrium 90 (Y90) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or metastatic colon cancer to the liver have been proven in several studies. However, fewer studies have focussed on the safety and efficacy of RE with Y90 in other extrahepatic primary and secondary liver cancers. The effect on outcomes of concomitant use of Y90 with a systemic therapy is still currently under investigation. Summary A review of the published data on the use of RE as stand-alone, concomitant or sequential with other treatment modalities in HCC and other primary and secondary liver cancer is reported here. Key message RE for the treatment of HCC and other extrahepatic, primary and secondary liver cancer has reasonable efficacy and acceptable toxicities. Definitive studies to establish the role of RE in the treatment of such malignancies are warranted. PMID:26020025

  15. Clinical Outcome Following Hemorrhoid Surgery: a Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Picchio, Marcello; Greco, Ettore; Di Filippo, Annalisa; Marino, Giuseppe; Stipa, Francesco; Spaziani, Erasmo

    2015-12-01

    Surgical therapy guaranties satisfactory results, which are significantly better than those obtained with conservative therapies, especially for Grade III and IV hemorrhoids. In this review, we present and discuss the results of the most diffuse surgical techniques for hemorrhoids. Traditional surgery for hemorrhoids aims to remove the hemorrhoids, with closure (Fergusson's technique) or without closure (Milligan-Morgan procedure) of the ensuing defect. This traditional approach is effective, but causes a significant postoperative pain because of wide external wounds in the innervated perianal skin. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy, proposed by Longo, has gained a vast acceptance because of less postoperative pain and faster return to normal activities. In the recent literature, a significant incidence of recurrence after stapled hemorrhoidopexy was reported, when compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. Double stapler hemorrhoidopexy may be an alternative to simple stapled hemorrhoidopexy to reduce the recurrence in advanced hemorrhoidal prolapse. Transanal hemorrhoidal deartertialization was showed to be as effective as stapled hemorrhoidopexy in terms of treatment success, complications, and incidence recurrence. However, further high-quality trials are recommended to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011555

  16. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-08-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  17. Lithium: a review of pharmacology, clinical uses, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Oruch, Ramadhan; Elderbi, Mahmoud A; Khattab, Hassan A; Pryme, Ian F; Lund, Anders

    2014-10-01

    A radical drug treatment for bipolar affective disorder (BD) is currently unavailable. This is attributed to the fact that the precise pathophysiology of this ailment is unclear though a genetic factor is an essential element in etiology. Dissimilar to other serious psychiatric categories such as psychoses and major depression the forecast of this disease is unpredictable. There is a high suicidal risk among BD affected individuals. In this review we will consider lithium, the drug of choice in treatment of this disorder with special emphasis on pharmacology and toxicity. We have also elucidated the alternatives to lithium, since it has a wide spectrum of side-effects. Lithium is known to interact with many types of drugs used to treat different ailments in humans. This could cause either augmentation or minimization of the therapeutic action, causing secondary undesired effects of the agent. This necessitates a search for other alternatives and/or different combinations to lithium in order to decrease the range of unwanted effects for which it has received discredit. These alternatives should be potent mood stabilizers as monotherapy so as to avoid polypharmacy. If not, one should find the best combination of drugs (synergistic agents) such that the lithium dose can be minimized, thereby securing a more potent drug therapy. This study also focuses on the provision of instruction to psychiatric care givers, such as junior doctors in residency, nurses in psychiatric units, psychiatric emergency personnel and, additionally, medical and pharmacy students. PMID:24991789

  18. Anthelmintics. A comparative review of their clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    de Silva, N; Guyatt, H; Bundy, D

    1997-05-01

    Virtually all the important helminth infections in humans can be treated with one of 5 anthelmintics currently in use: albendazole, mebendazole, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and praziquantel. These drugs are vital not only for the treatment of individual infections, but also useful in controlling transmission of the more common infections. This article reviews briefly the pharmacology of these 5 drugs, and then discusses current issues in the use of anthelmintics in the treatment and/or control of soil-transmitted nematode infections, filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis (and other trematode infections), neurocysticercosis and hydatidosis. Mebendazole and albendazole are most effective against intestinal nematodes, but are contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy. The efficacy of prolonged therapy with these 2 drugs for treatment of larval cestode infections has not yet been established. Diethylcarbamazine is widely used to treat and control lymphatic filariasis, but adverse effects related to death of microfilariae or damage to adult worms may be marked. While ivermectin has been used in the treatment of patients with onchocerciasis, it is also undergoing investigation against lymphatic filariae. Praziquantel, used to treat schistosome infections, is also effective in other trematode infections and adult cestode infections. PMID:9129865

  19. Clinical review: Prothrombin complex concentrates - evaluation of safety and thrombogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) are used mainly for emergency reversal of vitamin K antagonist therapy. Historically, the major drawback with PCCs has been the risk of thrombotic complications. The aims of the present review are to examine thrombotic complications reported with PCCs, and to compare the safety of PCCs with human fresh frozen plasma. The risk of thrombotic complications may be increased by underlying disease, high or frequent PCC dosing, and poorly balanced PCC constituents. The causes of PCC thrombogenicity remain uncertain but accumulating evidence indicates the importance of factor II (prothrombin). With the inclusion of coagulation inhibitors and other manufacturing improvements, today's PCCs may be considered safer than earlier products. PCCs may be considered preferable to fresh frozen plasma for emergency anticoagulant reversal, and this is reflected in the latest British and American guidelines. Care should be taken to avoid excessive substitution with prothrombin, however, and accurate monitoring of patients' coagulation status may allow thrombotic risk to be reduced. The risk of a thrombotic complication due to treatment with PCCs should be weighed against the need for rapid and effective correction of coagulopathy. PMID:21345266

  20. Review of a challenging clinical issue: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Sebiha; Ceylan, Yasin; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Yildirim, Sule

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible pregnancy-specific cholestatic condition characterized by pruritus, elevated liver enzymes, and increased serum bile acids. It commences usually in the late second or third trimester, and quickly resolves after delivery. The incidence is higher in South American and Scandinavian countries (9.2%-15.6% and 1.5%, respectively) than in Europe (0.1%-0.2%). The etiology is multifactorial where genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors interact. Maternal outcome is usually benign, whereas fetal complications such as preterm labor, meconium staining, fetal distress, and sudden intrauterine fetal demise not infrequently lead to considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. Ursodeoxycholic acid is shown to be the most efficient therapeutic agent with proven safety and efficacy. Management of ICP consists of careful monitoring of maternal hepatic function tests and serum bile acid levels in addition to the assessment of fetal well-being and timely delivery after completion of fetal pulmonary maturity. This review focuses on the current concepts about ICP based on recent literature data and presents an update regarding the diagnosis and management of this challenging issue. PMID:26109799

  1. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre’s effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre’s health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  2. Antimicrobial therapy of acute diarrhoea: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lübbert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of the most commonly occurring diseases. This article presents a review of the current state of the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea, as well as of the most important pathogens. The general principles of the therapy of diarrhoea are exemplified, followed by a description of the targeted antimicrobial therapy of the most important bacterial gastrointestinal infections, including salmonellosis, shigellosis and Campylobacter infections, as well as infections with pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, yersiniosis and cholera. Diarrhoea caused by toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains has increased in incidence and in severity. These infections will therefore be described in detail, including important new aspects of treatment. Symptomatic therapy is still the most important component of the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. However, empirical antibiotic therapy should be considered for severely ill patients with a high frequency of stools, fever, bloody diarrhoea, underlying immune deficiency, advanced age or significant comorbidities. Increasing resistance, in particular against fluoroquinolones, must be taken into consideration. Therapy with motility inhibitors is not recommended for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and severe colitis. The macrocyclic antibiotic fidaxomicin can reduce the rate of recurrent disease in CDI. Furthermore, evidence for the benefits of faecal microbiota transplantation as a treatment option for multiple recurrences of CDI is increasing. In conclusion, the treatment of acute diarrhoea is still primarily supportive. General empirical antibiotic therapy for acute diarrhoea is not evidence-based. PMID:26641310

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  4. Dietary sodium intake and asthma: an epidemiological and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Fogarty, A

    2006-12-01

    The changes in diet associated with the development of a more affluent lifestyle have been considered one of the environmental factors that may have contributed to the rise in the prevalence of asthma over the past few decades, and dietary sodium has been considered to be a dietary constituent which may be implicated in this phenomenon. The data presented in this review demonstrate that adoption of a low sodium diet for a period of 2-5 weeks may improve lung function and decrease bronchial reactivity in adults with asthma, while sodium loading appears to have a detrimental effect. Similarly, a low sodium diet maintained for 1-2 weeks decreases bronchoconstriction in response to exercise in individuals with asthma. There is no data as to the longer-term effect of a low sodium diet on either the prevalence or severity of asthma or on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. As a low sodium diet has other beneficial health effects, it can be considered as a therapeutic option for adults with asthma, although it should be considered as an adjunctive intervention to supplement optimal pharmacological management of asthma and not as an alternative. If the relationship between higher sodium intake and increased prevalence and severity of asthma is causal, then there are potential population benefits for asthma as well as cardiovascular disease to be derived from public health measures to reduce sodium consumption. PMID:17109669

  5. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-06-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre's effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre's health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  6. Bleaching of nonvital teeth. A clinically relevant literature review.

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Brigitte; Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Today, the bleaching of nonvital, discolored teeth is a low-risk routine treatment for improving esthetics. This review article focuses on the etiology of tooth discolorations, different treatment techniques, and risks of bleaching procedures. Some tooth discolorations in endodontically treated teeth are caused by dental treatments. The three most popular techniques for nonvital tooth bleaching are the walking bleach technique, inside/outside bleaching, and in-office bleaching. The walking bleach technique is a relatively reliable, fairly simple technique for dentists and patients. Inside/outside bleaching can be used additionally when internal and external bleaching must be combined. In-office bleaching seems to be a short-term solution, the effects of which can largely be attributed to dehydration of the teeth. There are still some open questions concerning the bleaching agents. Improved safety seems desirable with regard to adding thiourea as a scavenger of radicals or newer materials such as sodium percarbonate. The thermocatalytic technique, insufficient cervical sealing, and high concentrations of bleaching agents should be avoided, as this can increase the risk of cervical root resorptions. Patients should be informed about the low predictability of bleaching success and the risk of recurrent discoloration. The risk of cervical root resorption should be discussed with the patient. There is a strong correlation between root resorption and dental trauma. PMID:20514558

  7. Chronic opioid use in fibromyalgia syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Painter, Jacob T; Crofford, Leslie J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic opioid therapy in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain has increased drastically over the past decade. This is a worrisome trend in general, but specifically, given pathophysiologic characteristics seen in fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome patients, the use of this class of medication deserves special scrutiny. We first describe the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of FM, including the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of this syndrome. We then discuss the biologic effects of opioid use. Next, we review the pharmaceutical treatment options for FM, including 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved medications, and the evolution of treatment guidelines since 2004. We then highlight the various consequences associated with the mechanism of action of opioids and the specific concerns for FM patients.Finally, summarizing the existing literature, we make the case that chronic opioid use is inappropriate in the treatment of FM because of the interaction of unique pathophysiologic characteristics of the patients and effects associated with chronic opioid use. PMID:23364665

  8. When clinical care is like research: the need for review and consent.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David; Johnson, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    The prevailing "segregated model" for understanding clinical research sharply separates it from clinical care and subjects it to extensive regulations and guidelines. This approach is based on the fact that clinical research relies on procedures and methods-research biopsies, blinding, randomization, fixed treatment protocols, placebos-that pose risks and burdens to participants in order to collect data that might benefit all patients. Reliance on these methods raises the potential for exploitation and unfairness, and thus points to the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent. In contrast, it is widely assumed that clinical care does not raise these ethical concerns because it is designed to promote the best interests of individual patients. The segregation of clinical research from clinical care has been largely effective at protecting research participants. At the same time, this approach ignores the fact that several aspects of standard clinical care, such as clinician training and scheduling, also pose some risks and burdens to present patients for the benefit of all patients. We argue that recently proposed learning health care systems offer a way to address this concern, and better protect patients, by developing integrated review and consent procedures. Specifically, current approaches base the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent on whether an activity is categorized as clinical research or clinical care. An ethically sounder approach, which could be incorporated into learning health care systems, would be to base the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent on the extent to which an activity poses risks to present patients for the benefit of all patients. PMID:27188333

  9. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Nayer, Ali; Asif, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare life-threatening disorder characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and ischemic injury to organs, especially the kidneys. Microvascular injury and thrombosis are the dominant histologic findings. Complement activation through the alternative pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atypical HUS. Genetic abnormalities involving complement regulatory proteins and complement components form the molecular basis for complement activation. Endothelial cell dysfunction, probably because of the effects of complement activation, is an intermediate stage in the pathophysiologic cascade. Atypical HUS has a grave prognosis. Although mortality approaches 25% during the acute phase, end-stage renal disease develops in nearly half of patients within a year. Atypical HUS has a high recurrence rate after renal transplantation, and recurrent disease often leads to graft loss. Plasma therapy in the form of plasma exchange or infusion has remained the standard treatment for atypical HUS. However, many patients do not respond to plasma therapy and some require prolonged treatment. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of atypical HUS, eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks cleavage of complement C5 into biologically active mediators of inflammation and cytolysis. Although case reports have shown the efficacy of eculizumab, randomized clinical trials are lacking. Therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial cells have demonstrated promising results in experimental settings. Therefore, inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, HMG-CoA reductase, and xanthine oxidase as well as antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, may have salutary effects in patients with atypical HUS. PMID:24681522

  10. AACE/ACE Disease State Clinical Review: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Incidentalomas

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Miguel F.; Åkerström, Göran; Angelos, Peter; Grant, Clive S.; Hoff, Ana O.; Pantoja, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Johnston, Rocio; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Wong, Richard J.; Randolph, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary Incidental detection of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has substantially increased over the last decade due to widespread use of advanced imaging studies. Reliable initial imaging-based characterization is crucial for the differential diagnosis from other exocrine neoplasms and to determine the appropriate management plan. Measurements of chromogranin A, pancreatic polypeptide, and calcitonin are recommended for the biochemical evaluation. A thorough medical history needs to be performed to rule out multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1. The European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS)/Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system together with a grading based on the Ki-67 proliferation index and mitotic counts has proven to give more appropriate prognostic information than the World Health Organization (WHO)/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging but may still fail to safely differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Poorly differentiated PNETs generally present with metastases and are rarely amenable for resection. Well- or intermediately differentiated tumors ≥2 cm with imaging evidence of malignancy or with a Ki-67 >2% should be resected. It has been suggested that non-MEN related, nonfunctioning, and asymptomatic PNETs <2 cm with a Ki-67 index ≤2% carry a low risk of metastasis and may be observed in the absence of clinical or radiologic criteria of malignancy or progression, especially in older patients. However, because metastases may occur with long delay with smaller PNETS, physicians should consider patient age, lesion location, and the risks of operation, and patients not undergoing surgery need to be closely followed closely. PMID:25962093

  11. [Comparative analysis of 2 clinical scales for clinical evaluation in multiple sclerosis: review of 302 cases].

    PubMed

    Felipe, E; Mendes, M F; Moreira, M A; Tilbery, C P

    2000-06-01

    Many neurologic scales have been used for clinical evaluation of multiple sclerosis, but there is no consensus about which one is the most appropriate to assess evolution and point to a new relapse. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) has been the most commonly used. We analyse the reliability of two scales: the EDSS and Neurologic Rating Scale (NRS) in 302 multiple sclerosis patients. It is shown that NRS is a more sensitive scale than EDSS to disclose clinical changes (22.1% of cases). Changes in NRS were more evident in patients with EDSS 3.0 and 3.5. We comment on these findings and suggest that both scales should be employed in multiple sclerosis treatment trials. PMID:10849631

  12. Concise review: Emerging concepts in clinical targeting of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Zeshaan A.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Smith, B. Douglas; Matsui, William

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew and recapitulate tumors in the ectopic setting. They have been identified in a growing number of human malignancies and their association with poor clinical outcomes has suggested that they are a major factor in dictating clinical outcomes. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that CSCs may display other functional attributes, such as drug resistance and invasion and migration, that implicates a broad role in clinical oncology spanning initial tumor formation, relapse following treatment, and disease progression. Although our knowledge regarding the basic biology of CSCs continues to improve, a major issue remains proof that they are clinically relevant, and translation of the CSC hypothesis from the lab to the clinic is of paramount importance. We will review current evidence supporting the role of CSCs in clinical oncology and discuss potential barriers and strategies in designing trials examining CSC-targeting agents. PMID:21509907

  13. Clinical review: Special populations--critical illness and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Neligan, Patrick J; Laffey, John G

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness is an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of pregnancy. The majority of pregnancy-related critical care admissions occur postpartum. Antenatally, the pregnant patient is more likely to be admitted with diseases non-specific to pregnancy, such as pneumonia. Pregnancy-specific diseases resulting in ICU admission include obstetric hemorrhage, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome, amniotic fluid embolus syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Alternatively, critical illness may result from pregnancy-induced worsening of pre-existing diseases (for example, valvular heart disease, myasthenia gravis, and kidney disease). Pregnancy can also predispose women to diseases seen in the non-pregnant population, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (for example, pneumonia and aspiration), sepsis (for example, chorioamnionitis and pyelonephritis) or pulmonary embolism. The pregnant patient may also develop conditions co-incidental to pregnancy such as trauma or appendicitis. Hemorrhage, particularly postpartum, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy remain the most frequent indications for ICU admission. This review focuses on pregnancy-specific causes of critical illness. Management of the critically ill mother poses special challenges. The physiologic changes in pregnancy and the presence of a second, dependent, patient may necessitate adjustments to therapeutic and supportive strategies. The fetus is generally robust despite maternal illness, and therapeutically what is good for the mother is generally good for the fetus. For pregnancy-induced critical illnesses, delivery of the fetus helps resolve the disease process. Prognosis following pregnancy-related critical illness is generally better than for age-matched non-pregnant critically ill patients. PMID:21888683

  14. A Review on Technical and Clinical Impact of Microsoft Kinect on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews technical and clinical impact of the Microsoft Kinect in physical therapy and rehabilitation. It covers the studies on patients with neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson's, cerebral palsy, and MS as well as the elderly patients. Search results in Pubmed and Google scholar reveal increasing interest in using Kinect in medical application. Relevant papers are reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) papers which evaluated Kinect's accuracy and reliability, (2) papers which used Kinect for a rehabilitation system and provided clinical evaluation involving patients, and (3) papers which proposed a Kinect-based system for rehabilitation but fell short of providing clinical validation. At last, to serve as technical comparison to help future rehabilitation design other sensors similar to Kinect are reviewed. PMID:27006935

  15. Memo to Skip Laitner of EPA: initial comments on 'The internetbegins with coal'

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    1999-12-09

    This memo explores the assumptions in Mark P. Mills' report titled 'The Internet Begins with Coal' that relate to current electricity use 'associated with the Internet'. We find that Mills has significantly overestimated electricity use, in some cases by more than an order of magnitude. We adjust his estimates to reflect measured data and more accurate assumptions, which reduces Mills' overall estimate of total Internet-related electricity use by about a factor of eight.

  16. Accuracy of clinical tests in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical tests are used in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury but their accuracy is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for the diagnosis of ACL injury. Methods Study Design: Systematic review. The review protocol was registered through PROSPERO (CRD42012002069). Electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL) were searched up to 19th of June 2013 to identify diagnostic studies comparing the accuracy of clinical tests for ACL injury to an acceptable reference standard (arthroscopy, arthrotomy, or MRI). Risk of bias was appraised using the QUADAS-2 checklist. Index test accuracy was evaluated using a descriptive analysis of paired likelihood ratios and displayed as forest plots. Results A total of 285 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, from which 14 studies were included in this review. Included studies were deemed to be clinically and statistically heterogeneous, so a meta-analysis was not performed. Nine clinical tests from the history (popping sound at time of injury, giving way, effusion, pain, ability to continue activity) and four from physical examination (anterior draw test, Lachman’s test, prone Lachman’s test and pivot shift test) were investigated for diagnostic accuracy. Inspection of positive and negative likelihood ratios indicated that none of the individual tests provide useful diagnostic information in a clinical setting. Most studies were at risk of bias and reported imprecise estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion Despite being widely used and accepted in clinical practice, the results of individual history items or physical tests do not meaningfully change the probability of ACL injury. In contrast combinations of tests have higher diagnostic accuracy; however the most accurate combination of clinical tests remains an area for future research. Clinical relevance Clinicians should be aware of the limitations associated

  17. A Review of Clinical Trials of Human Papillomavirus Prophylactic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, John T.; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    End of study analyses of the phase III trials of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines in young women are now largely completed. Two distinct vaccines were evaluated, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ USA) a quadrivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 6, 11, 16 and 18 and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium), a bivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 16 and 18. Both vaccines exhibited excellent safety and immunogenicity profiles. The vaccines also demonstrated remarkably high and similar efficacy against the vaccine-targeted types for a range of cervical endpoints from persistent infection to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in women naïve to the corresponding type at the time of vaccination. However, protection from incident infection or disease from non-vaccine types was restricted, and the vaccines had no effect on prevalent infection or disease. Gardasil® also demonstrated strong protection against genital warts and vulvar/vaginal neoplasia associated with the vaccine types. In other trials, Gardasil® protected mid-adult women from incident infection and CIN caused by the vaccine types and protected men for incident infection, genital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia by the vaccine types. Cervarix® protected against vaccine-targeted anal infections in women in an end of study evaluation. For practical reasons, efficacy studies have not been conducted in the primary target populations of current vaccination programs, adolescent girls and boys. However, immunogenicity bridging studies demonstrating excellent safety and strong immune responses in adolescence, coupled with the documentation of durable antibody responses and protection in young adults, leads to an optimistic projection of the effectiveness of the vaccines in adolescent vaccination programs. Taken together, the excellent clinical trial results strongly support the potential of the vaccines as

  18. Evaluating clinical competence during nursing education: A comprehensive integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    This paper explored concepts, definitions and theoretical perspectives evaluating clinical competence during nursing education. The questions were: (i) How is clinical competence evaluated? and (ii) What is evaluated? An integrative review of 19 original research articles from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Results showed that evaluation tools were used in 14, observations in 2 and reflecting writing in 3 studies. The students participated in all but one evaluation alone or together with peers, faculty members or preceptors. Three themes were found: (i) professional practice with a caring perspective; (ii) clinical skills and reflective practice; and (iii) cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills both with a nursing perspective. This review shows an emphasis on structured methods with a risk reducing nursing to tasks and skills why combinations with qualitative evaluations are recommended. A holistic view of competence dominated and in designing evaluations, explicit perspectives and operationalized definitions of clinical competence became evident. PMID:26369943

  19. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  20. Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L

    2008-01-01

    ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIES allergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD Patients may be referred to the immunology clinic for investigation of recurrent superficial abscess formation. In the majority of adult patients this clinical presentation does not equate with an underlying primary immune deficiency. Nevertheless, recurrent mucocutaneous abscesses can be associated with significant morbidity and long-term complications, including scarring and fistula formation, and may be associated with underlying immune-mediated disease. This review sets out an approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses, focusing on the differential diagnoses, investigation and management of both the common causes and those associated with specific immune deficiency. PMID:18422735

  1. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract.

    PubMed

    Maimoona, Alya; Naeem, Ismat; Saddiqe, Zeb; Jameel, Khalid

    2011-01-27

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of ethnomedicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative disorders. Rohdewald (2002) wrote the first comprehensive review of extract highlighting its antioxidative nature and its role in different diseases. Later, Watson (2003) and Gulati (2005) in their reviews about cardiovascular health, described the extract as a best neutraceutical agent in this regard. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on this extract in terms of extraction methods, its pharmacological, toxicological and nutraceutical effects and clinical studies. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2009 and sixty-nine research articles were extracted. Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects. PMID:21044675

  2. Childhood Autism—A Review of the Clinical and Experimental Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, Edward M.

    1973-01-01

    This review of the literature on childhood autism discusses the clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the autistic behavioral syndrome from a developmental perspective. It includes a discussion of the influence of prenatal and perinatal antecedents, genetic and socio-familial factors, and epidemiologic considerations. Neurologic, electro-encephalographic and experimental neurophysiologic, metabolic, biochemical and hematologic investigations are reviewed. Special emphasis has been given to the changing clinical manifestations which accompany maturation and to the problems of recognition of childhood autism in the very young child. PMID:4120820

  3. Rosuvastatin: A Review of the Pharmacology and Clinical Effectiveness in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luvai, Ahai; Mbagaya, Wycliffe; Hall, Alistair S.; Barth, Julian H.

    2012-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a new generation HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which exhibits some unique pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties. It has low extrahepatic tissue penetration, low potential for CYP3A4 interactions and substantial LDL-C lowering capacity and therefore has distinct advantages. We conducted a Medline literature search to identify rosuvastatin papers published in English. In this review, we outline the pharmacology of rosuvastatin, highlighting its efficacy and safety. We also review the major clinical trials with reference to primary and secondary prevention, familial hypercholesterolaemia and comparison with other statins. Finally we address its place in clinical practice. PMID:22442638

  4. Association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regenerative therapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210

  5. [Diagnostic difficulty of abdominal wall endometrioma: clinical case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Denzil Garteiz; Romano, Rafael Carbo; Sánchez, Alejandro Weber; Horcasitas, Lourdes Molinar

    2008-02-01

    Abdominal wall endometrioma is a rare clinical condition with which the general surgeon is faced and usually presents a diagnostic challenge due to the similar signs and symptoms that this illness shares with other tumors of the abdominal wall. A clinical case which exemplifies this diagnostic challenge is presented, and a review is made about the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of abdominal wall endometriomas, emphasizing on the different diagnoses with which it can be confused. PMID:18798406

  6. Insights and clinical questions about the active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [Review].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Over 20 years ago, two Japanese institutions initiated an active surveillance policy for papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) without high-risk features (such as clinical lymph node and distant metastases) and suspected trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion. Since the most recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines adopt active surveillance as a therapy option for low-risk PMCs, the number of institutions worldwide carrying out this policy can be expected to increase. However, before adopting an active surveillance strategy, some important clinical questions must be considered. In this review, conceivable clinical questions with our answers based on the present accumulation of low-risk PMC surveillance data are presented. PMID:26632168

  7. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C.; Cotter, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis. PMID:26191419

  8. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users. PMID:24399281

  9. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Novak, Susan M; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated. PMID:26110091

  10. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Daniel D.; Novak, Susan M.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated. PMID:26110091

  11. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein. PMID:24848002

  12. Cardiovascular tolerability and safety of triptans: a review of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Dodick, David W; Martin, Vincent T; Smith, Timothy; Silberstein, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Triptans are not widely used in clinical practice despite their well-established efficacy, endorsement by the US Headache Consortium, and the demonstrable need to employ effective intervention to reduce migraine-associated disability. Although the relatively restricted use of triptans may be attributed to several factors, research suggests that prescribers' concerns about cardiovascular safety prominently figure in limiting their use. This article reviews clinical data--including results of clinical trials, postmarketing studies and surveillance, and pharmacodynamic studies--relevant to assessing the cardiovascular safety profile of the triptans. These data demonstrate that triptans are generally well tolerated. Chest symptoms occurring during use of triptans are usually nonserious and usually not attributed to ischemia. Incidence of triptan-associated serious cardiovascular adverse events in both clinical trials and clinical practice appears to be extremely low. When they do occur, serious cardiovascular events have most often been reported in patients at significant cardiovascular risk or in those with overt cardiovascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events also have occurred, however, in patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that nonischemic mechanisms are responsible for sumatriptan-associated chest symptoms, although the mechanism of chest symptoms has not been determined to date. Importantly, most of the clinical trials and clinical practice data on triptans are derived from patients without known cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the conclusions of this review cannot be extended to patients with cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular safety profile of triptans favors their use in the absence of contraindications. PMID:15149490

  13. Pharmacotherapy in the management of asthma in the elderly: a review of clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Song, Woo-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly is a disease with emerging concern. Despite some recent advances in our understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology, there is a considerable lack of clinical evidence specific to elderly patients. Currently available high quality clinical evidence has been mostly obtained from younger adults, but rarely from elderly patients. Under-representation of elderly patients in previous randomized trials may have been due to being, old age, or having comorbidities. Thus, a question may be raised whether current clinical evidence could be well generalized into elderly patients. Further clinical trials should address clinical issues raised in elderly population. In this review, we aimed to overview the efficacy and safety of pharmacological management, and also to summarize the literature relevant to elderly asthma. PMID:26844215

  14. Pharmacotherapy in the management of asthma in the elderly: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Song, Woo-Jung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly is a disease with emerging concern. Despite some recent advances in our understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology, there is a considerable lack of clinical evidence specific to elderly patients. Currently available high quality clinical evidence has been mostly obtained from younger adults, but rarely from elderly patients. Under-representation of elderly patients in previous randomized trials may have been due to being, old age, or having comorbidities. Thus, a question may be raised whether current clinical evidence could be well generalized into elderly patients. Further clinical trials should address clinical issues raised in elderly population. In this review, we aimed to overview the efficacy and safety of pharmacological management, and also to summarize the literature relevant to elderly asthma. PMID:26844215

  15. Five-year review of an international clinical research-training program

    PubMed Central

    Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Ismail, Sherine; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto; Khawaja, Faiza; Jerves, Teodoro; Pesantez, Laura; Germani, Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves; Zaina, Fabio; dos Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares; de Oliveira Ferreira, Ricardo Jorge; Singh, Priyamvada; Paulo, Judy Vicente; Matsubayashi, Suely Reiko; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; Andretta, Guilherme; Tomás, Rita; Illigens, Ben MW; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in clinical research has profoundly changed medical sciences. Evidence that has accumulated in the past three decades from clinical trials has led to the proposal that clinical care should not be based solely on clinical expertise and patient values, and should integrate robust data from systematic research. As a consequence, clinical research has become more complex and methods have become more rigorous, and evidence is usually not easily translated into clinical practice. Therefore, the instruction of clinical research methods for scientists and clinicians must adapt to this new reality. To address this challenge, a global distance-learning clinical research-training program was developed, based on collaborative learning, the pedagogical goal of which was to develop critical thinking skills in clinical research. We describe and analyze the challenges and possible solutions of this course after 5 years of experience (2008–2012) with this program. Through evaluation by students and faculty, we identified and reviewed the following challenges of our program: 1) student engagement and motivation, 2) impact of heterogeneous audience on learning, 3) learning in large groups, 4) enhancing group learning, 5) enhancing social presence, 6) dropouts, 7) quality control, and 8) course management. We discuss these issues and potential alternatives with regard to our research and background. PMID:25878518

  16. Five-year review of an international clinical research-training program.

    PubMed

    Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Ismail, Sherine; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto; Khawaja, Faiza; Jerves, Teodoro; Pesantez, Laura; Germani, Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves; Zaina, Fabio; Dos Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares; de Oliveira Ferreira, Ricardo Jorge; Singh, Priyamvada; Paulo, Judy Vicente; Matsubayashi, Suely Reiko; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; Andretta, Guilherme; Tomás, Rita; Illigens, Ben Mw; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in clinical research has profoundly changed medical sciences. Evidence that has accumulated in the past three decades from clinical trials has led to the proposal that clinical care should not be based solely on clinical expertise and patient values, and should integrate robust data from systematic research. As a consequence, clinical research has become more complex and methods have become more rigorous, and evidence is usually not easily translated into clinical practice. Therefore, the instruction of clinical research methods for scientists and clinicians must adapt to this new reality. To address this challenge, a global distance-learning clinical research-training program was developed, based on collaborative learning, the pedagogical goal of which was to develop critical thinking skills in clinical research. We describe and analyze the challenges and possible solutions of this course after 5 years of experience (2008-2012) with this program. Through evaluation by students and faculty, we identified and reviewed the following challenges of our program: 1) student engagement and motivation, 2) impact of heterogeneous audience on learning, 3) learning in large groups, 4) enhancing group learning, 5) enhancing social presence, 6) dropouts, 7) quality control, and 8) course management. We discuss these issues and potential alternatives with regard to our research and background. PMID:25878518

  17. A Review of "Research-Informed Clinical Practice" in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Katharine; Mutton, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the kinds of relationship between research and practice that have been envisaged in programmes designed to provide opportunities for beginning teachers to engage in "research-informed clinical practice". Although the terminology varies, scope for inclusion is defined by an intention to facilitate and deepen the…

  18. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  19. 77 FR 51849 - Agency Information Collection: Emergency Submission for OMB Review (PACT Demo Lab, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection: Emergency Submission for OMB Review (PACT Demo Lab, Clinical... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) the following emergency proposal for the collection of.... ADDRESSES: Send comments and recommendations concerning any aspect of the information collection to VA's...

  20. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  1. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  2. Teaching Clinical Interviewing in the Health Professions: A Review of Empirical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, J. Gregory; Monroe, Judy

    1980-01-01

    A review of 36 empirical studies on teaching interviewing skills in various health profession programs is presented. The focus is on teaching skills which consider the interpersonal skills relevant to effective clinical interviewing. Programs are compared and implications for future research are discussed. (GDC)

  3. 75 FR 39263 - Guidance for Humanitarian Device Exemption Holders, Institutional Review Boards, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... their device. In the Federal Register of August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45460), FDA published a 60-day notice... September 30, 2009 (74 FR 50214), but republished a 30-day notice on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7270), to..., Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian...

  4. Assessing the Clinical Skills of Dental Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carly L.; Grey, Nick; Satterthwaite, Julian D.

    2013-01-01

    Education, from a student perspective, is largely driven by assessment. An effective assessment tool should be both valid and reliable, yet this is often not achieved. The aim of this literature review is to identify and appraise the evidence base for assessment tools used primarily in evaluating clinical skills of dental students. Methods:…

  5. Robot-Mediated Upper Limb Physiotherapy: Review and Recommendations for Future Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…

  6. Current Clinical Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Robert Leonard, Jr.

    This document reviews all empirical studies on clinically-based smoking cessation interventions that were reported in "Psychological Abstracts" between January 1982 and March 1990. Interventions are categorized as either physiological or psychological in orientation and are further grouped according to specific treatment type: acupuncture,…

  7. Approaches to sample size estimation in the design of clinical trials--a review.

    PubMed

    Donner, A

    1984-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable interest has focused on sample size estimation in the design of clinical trials. The resulting literature is scattered over many textbooks and journals. This paper presents these methods in a single review and comments on their application in practice. PMID:6385187

  8. Self-limiting Atypical Antipsychotics-induced Edema: Clinical Cases and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Musa Usman; Abdullahi, Aminu Taura

    2016-01-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotics have been associated with peripheral edema. The exact cause is not known. We report two cases of olanzapine-induced edema and a brief review of atypical antipsychotic-induced edema, possible risk factors, etiology, and clinical features. The recommendation is given on different methods of managing this side effect. PMID:27335511

  9. Religion and Spirituality within Counselling/Clinical Psychology Training Programmes: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to attend to religious and spiritual issues within clinical/counselling psychology. However, there is limited research demonstrating how successfully such content is integrated into existing training programmes. This investigation sought to review primary research literature related to training…

  10. 78 FR 55262 - Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Sponsors, and Institutional Review Boards on Investigational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... of subjects and, in Phases 2 and 3 of an investigation, to help assure the quality of the scientific... regulations to a planned clinical investigation. In the Federal Register of October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63189... Institutional Review Boards on Investigational New Drug Applications--Determining Whether Human Research...

  11. The Clinical Use of Robots for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Joshua J.; Schmitt, Lauren M.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined peer-reviewed studies in order to understand the current status of empirically based evidence on the clinical applications of robots in the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Studies are organized into four broad categories: (a) the response of individuals with ASD to robots or robot-like behavior in comparison…

  12. Quantitative clinical pharmacology for size and age scaling in pediatric drug development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Samant, Tanay S; Mangal, Naveen; Lukacova, Viera; Schmidt, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    The establishment of drug dosing in children is often hindered by the lack of actual pediatric efficacy and safety data. To overcome this limitation, scaling approaches are frequently employed to leverage adult clinical information for informing pediatric dosing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the different scaling approaches used in pediatric pharmacotherapy as well as their proper implementation in drug development and clinical use. We will start out with a brief overview of the current regulatory requirements in pediatric drug development, followed by a review of the most commonly employed scaling approaches in increasing order of complexity ranging from simple body weight-based dosing to physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Each of the presented approaches has advantages and limitations, which will be highlighted throughout the course of the review by the use of clinically-relevant examples. The choice of the approach employed consequently depends on the clinical question at hand and the availability of sufficient clinical data. The main effort while establishing and qualifying these scaling approaches should be directed towards the development of safe and effective dosing regimens in children rather than identifying the best model, ie models should be fit for purpose. PMID:26009792

  13. Registered nurses' perceptions of new nursing graduates' clinical competence: A systematic integrative review.

    PubMed

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, many questions have been raised about graduates' clinical competence and fitness for practice upon completion of their undergraduate education. Despite the significance of this issue, the perspectives of registered nurses have rarely been examined. This systematic review explores the perceptions of experienced registered nurses regarding the clinical competence of new nursing graduates. Original research studies published between 2004-2014 were identified using electronic databases, reference lists, and by searching "grey literature." Papers were critically reviewed and relevant data extracted and synthesized using an approach based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. From 153 studies initially identified, 15 original research papers were included. Four main research themes were identified: clinical/technical skills, critical thinking, interaction/communication, and overall readiness for practice. Areas of concern in relation to the clinical competence of new nursing graduates specifically related to two themes: critical thinking and clinical/technical skills. Further research is required on strategies identified within the literature with the ultimate aim of ensuring new nursing graduates are safe and competent practitioners. PMID:26592371

  14. Clinical review: Sleep measurement in critical care patients: research and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Richard S; Minelli, Cosetta; Mills, Gary H; Kandler, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in critically ill patients and have been characterised by numerous studies using polysomnography. Issues regarding patient populations, monitoring duration and timing (nocturnal versus continuous), as well as practical problems encountered in critical care studies using polysomnography are considered with regard to future interventional studies on sleep. Polysomnography is the gold standard in objectively measuring the quality and quantity of sleep. However, it is difficult to undertake, particularly in patients recovering from critical illness in an acute-care area. Therefore, other objective (actigraphy and bispectral index) and subjective (nurse or patient assessment) methods have been used in other critical care studies. Each of these techniques has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. We use data from an interventional study to compare agreement between four of these alternative techniques in the measurement of nocturnal sleep quantity. Recommendations for further developments in sleep monitoring techniques for research and clinical application are made. Also, methodological problems in studies validating various sleep measurement techniques are explored. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47578325. PMID:17764582

  15. Sequential analysis applied to clinical trials in dentistry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bogowicz, P; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W; Heo, G

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials employ sequential analysis for the ethical and economic benefits it brings. In dentistry, as in other fields, resources are scarce and efforts are made to ensure that patients are treated ethically. The objective of this systematic review was to characterise the use of sequential analysis for clinical trials in dentistry. We searched various databases from 1900 through to January 2008. Articles were selected for review if they were clinical trials in the field of dentistry that had applied some form of sequential analysis. Selection was carried out independently by two of the authors. We included 18 trials from various specialties, which involved many different interventions. We conclude that sequential analysis seems to be underused in this field but that there are sufficient methodological resources in place for future applications.Evidence-Based Dentistry (2008) 9, 55-62. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400587. PMID:18584009

  16. Yoga for Health Care in Korea: A Protocol for Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of yoga therapy using an evidence-based approach and investigates the relationship between yoga and the meridian energies based on all available clinical studies in Korea. Sixteen electronic databases will be searched from the inception of the study until January 2016. All clinical evidences that evaluate any type of yoga and any type of control in individuals with any type of condition will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for nonrandomized studies. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and the risk of bias, and then they will extract the data. With its extensive, unbiased search of the Korean literature from various databases without any language restrictions, this systematic review will be useful for both practitioners in the field of yoga research as well as for patients. PMID:27555227

  17. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells: a review of clinical applications and manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ratti Ram; Pollock, Kathryn; Hubel, Allison; McKenna, David

    2014-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently generated great interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and immunotherapy due to their unique biologic properties. In this review we attempt to provide an overview of the current clinical status of MSC therapy, primarily focusing on immunomodulatory and regenerative or tissue repair applications of MSCs. In addition, current manufacturing is reviewed with attention to variation in practices (e.g., starting material, approach to culture and product testing). There is considerable variation among the 218 clinical trials assessed here; variations include proposed mechanisms of action, optimal dosing strategy, and route of administration. To ensure the greatest likelihood of success in clinical trials as the field progresses, attention must be given to the optimization of MSC culture. PMID:24898458

  18. Clinical performance and failures of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures: a review literature

    PubMed Central

    Triwatana, Premwara; Nagaviroj, Noppavan

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Zirconia has been used in clinical dentistry for approximately a decade, and there have been several reports regarding the clinical performance and survival rates of zirconia-based restorations. The aim of this article was to review the literatures published from 2000 to 2010 regarding the clinical performance and the causes of failure of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search of English peer-reviewed dental literatures was performed through PubMed to obtain all the clinical studies focused on the performance of the zirconia FPDs. The electronic search was supplemented by manual searching through the references of the selected articles for possible inclusion of some articles. Randomized controlled clinical trials, longitudinal prospective and retrospective cohort studies were the focuses of this review. Articles that did not focus on the restoration of teeth using zirconia-based restorations were excluded from this review. RESULTS There have been three studies for the study of zirconia single crowns. The clinical outcome was satisfactory (acceptable) according to the CDA evaluation. There have been 14 studies for the study of zirconia FPDs. The survival rates of zirconia anterior and posterior FPDs ranged between 73.9% - 100% after 2 - 5 years. The causes of failure were veneer fracture, ceramic core fracture, abutment tooth fracture, secondary caries, and restoration dislodgment. CONCLUSION The overall performance of zirconia FPDs was satisfactory according to either USPHS criteria or CDA evaluations. Fracture resistance of core and veneering ceramics, bonding between core and veneering materials, and marginal discrepancy of zirconia-based restorations were discussed as the causes of failure. Because of its repeated occurrence in many studies, future researches are essentially required to clarify this problem and to reduce the fracture incident. PMID:22737311

  19. Identifying low-value clinical practices in critical care medicine: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne P; Stelfox, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reducing unnecessary, low-value clinical practice (ie, de-adoption) is key to improving value for money in healthcare, especially among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) where resource consumption exceeds other medical and surgical populations. Research suggests that low-value clinical practices are common in medicine, however systematically and objectively identifying them is a widely cited barrier to de-adoption. We will conduct a scoping review to identify low-value clinical practices in adult critical care medicine that are candidates for de-adoption. Methods and analysis We will systematically search the literature to identify all randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews that focus on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in adult patients admitted to medical, surgical or specialty ICUs, and are published in 3 general medical journals with the highest impact factor (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association). 2 investigators will independently screen abstracts and full-text articles against inclusion criteria, and extract data from included citations. Included citations will be classified according to whether or not they represent a repeat examination of the given research question (ie, replication research), and whether the results are similar or contradictory to the original study. Studies with contradictory results will determine clinical practices that are candidates for de-adoption. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to systematically identify a list of clinical practices in adult critical care medicine with evidence supporting their de-adoption. In addition to adding to advancing the study of de-adoption, this review may also serve as the launching point for clinicians and researchers in critical care to begin reducing the number of low-value clinical practices. Dissemination of these results to relevant stakeholders will include

  20. Concise Review: Apoptotic Cell-Based Therapies-Rationale, Preclinical Results and Future Clinical Developments.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Daguindau, Etienne; Perruche, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this review are to summarize the experimental data obtained using apoptotic cell-based therapies, and then to discuss future clinical developments. Indeed, apoptotic cells exhibit immunomodulatory properties that are reviewed here by focusing on more recent mechanisms. These immunomodulatory mechanisms are in particular linked to the clearance of apoptotic cells (called also efferocytosis) by phagocytes, such as macrophages, and the induction of regulatory T cells. Thus, apoptotic cell-based therapies have been used to prevent or treat experimental inflammatory diseases. Based on these studies, we have identified critical steps to design future clinical trials. This includes: the administration route, the number and schedule of administration, the appropriate apoptotic cell type to be used, as well as the apoptotic signal. We also have analyzed the clinical relevancy of apoptotic-cell-based therapies in experimental models. Additional experimental data are required concerning the treatment of inflammatory diseases (excepted for sepsis) before considering future clinical trials. In contrast, apoptotic cells have been shown to favor engraftment and to reduce acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in different relevant models of transplantation. This has led to the conduct of a phase 1/2a clinical trial to alleviate GvHD. The absence of toxic effects obtained in this trial may support the development of other clinical studies based on this new cell therapy. Stem Cells 2016;34:1464-1473. PMID:27018198

  1. Review of Electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes Systems Used in Cancer Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Snyder, Claire F.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Basch, Ethan; Potosky, Arnold L.; Roberts, Aaron C.; Loeffler, Deena R.; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The use of electronic patient-reported outcomes (PRO) systems is increasing in cancer clinical care settings. This review comprehensively identifies existing PRO systems and explores how systems differ in the administration of PRO assessments, the integration of information into the clinic workflow and electronic health record (EHR) systems, and the reporting of PRO information. Methods: Electronic PRO (e-PRO) systems were identified through a semistructured review of published studies, gray literature, and expert identification. System developers were contacted to provide detailed e-PRO system characteristics and clinical implementation information using a structured review form. Results: A total of 33 unique systems implemented in cancer clinical practice were identified. Of these, 81% provided detailed information about system characteristics. Two system classifications were established: treatment-centered systems designed for patient monitoring during active cancer treatment (n = 8) and patient-centered systems following patients across treatment and survivorship periods (n = 19). There was little consensus on administration, integration, or result reporting between these system types. Patient-centered systems were more likely to provide user-friendly features such as at-home assessments, integration into larger electronic system networks (eg, EHRs), and more robust score reporting options. Well-established systems were more likely to have features that increased assessment flexibility (eg, location, automated reminders) and better clinical integration. Conclusion: The number of e-PRO systems has increased. Systems can be programmed to have numerous features that facilitate integration of PRO assessment and routine monitoring into clinical care. Important barriers to system usability and widespread adoption include assessment flexibility, clinical integration, and high-quality data collection and reporting. PMID:24301843

  2. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-01-01

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES. PMID:27608017

  3. Biomechanical Modeling to Improve Coronary Artery Bifurcation Stenting: Expert Review Document on Techniques and Clinical Implementation.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Antonios P; Mortier, Peter; Kassab, Ghassan; Dubini, Gabriele; Foin, Nicolas; Murasato, Yoshinobu; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Tu, Shengxian; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Hikichi, Yutaka; Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank; Reiber, Johan H C; Barlis, Peter; Serruys, Patrick W; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stankovic, Goran; Edelman, Elazer R; Giannoglou, George D; Louvard, Yves; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S

    2015-08-24

    Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains an ongoing challenge for interventional cardiologists. Stenting of coronary bifurcations carries higher risk for in-stent restenosis, stent thrombosis, and recurrent clinical events. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding application and use of biomechanical modeling in the study of stent properties, local flow dynamics, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions in bifurcation lesions. Biomechanical modeling of bifurcation stenting involves computational simulations and in vitro bench testing using subject-specific arterial geometries obtained from in vivo imaging. Biomechanical modeling has the potential to optimize stenting strategies and stent design, thereby reducing adverse outcomes. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish the translation of pre-clinical findings to the clinical arena. PMID:26315731

  4. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care. PMID:25822567

  5. Beyond the "acid test": a conceptual review and reformulation of outcome evaluation in clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Milne, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models abound within clinical supervision, but these rarely have been applied to supervision evaluation. Instead, it appears that reviewers and researchers have simply transferred to supervision the conceptual frameworks used within medicine, especially the idea that clinical outcomes are the "acid test" of supervisory effectiveness or quality. Following a careful examination of the key literature, in this paper I argue that this has led to an over-emphasis on clinical outcomes, with the net effect of reducing scientific confidence, understanding, and the effectiveness of supervision. To begin to rectify this bias, an augmented fidelity framework is used to reformulate evaluation, drawing on some of the key concepts guiding evaluation within related fields (i.e. service evaluation; staff development; psychotherapy; applied research). The resulting evaluation model is specific to clinical supervision and can help to increase our understanding, enhance our practice, re-prioritise research, and inspire confidence in supervision. PMID:25122986

  6. A Clinical Update and Radiologic Review of Pediatric Orbital and Ocular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ajay A.; Naheedy, John H.; Chen, James Y.-Y.; Robbins, Shira L.; Ramkumar, Hema L.

    2013-01-01

    While pediatric orbital tumors are most often managed in tertiary care centers, clinicians should be aware of the signs of intraocular and orbital neoplasms. In the pediatric population, a delay in diagnosis of orbital and intraocular lesions, even if benign, can lead to vision loss and deformity. Intraocular lesions reviewed are retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Orbital neoplasms reviewed are rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma metastases, optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, leukemia, lymphoprolipherative disease, orbital inflammatory syndrome, dermoid and epidermoid inclusion cysts, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Vascular lesions reviewed are infantile hemangioma and venous lymphatic malformation. In conjunction with clinical examination, high-resolution ophthalmic imaging and radiologic imaging play an important role in making a diagnosis and differentiating between benign and likely malignant processes. The radiologic imaging characteristics of these lesions will be discussed to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. The current treatment modalities and management of tumors will also be reviewed. PMID:23577029

  7. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  8. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  9. Can clinical and radiological findings predict surgery for lumbar disc herniation? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrew P.; Harrop, James; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Objective or clinical question: What clinical and radiological findings in patients with lumbar-herniated nucleus pulposus can serve as predictors of surgical intervention? Methods: Articles published between January 1975 and August 2011 were systematically reviewed using Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles. Each article was subject to quality rating and was analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: From 123 citations, 21 underwent full-text review. Four studies met inclusion criteria. Only baseline disability as measured by the Roland Disability Index (RDI) or the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of having discectomy surgery across multiple studies. With the current literature, we were not able to find an association between surgery and several characteristics including smoking status, body mass index, neurological deficit, positive straight leg testing, and level of herniation. Conclusions: From the limited data available, it appears that individual radiographic and clinical features are not able to predict the likelihood of surgical intervention. Higher baseline disability measurements (Oswestry and Roland) did correlate, however, with surgical treatment. PMID:23236305

  10. Clinical results of coracoacromial ligament transfer in acromioclavicular dislocations: A review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aman; Wallwork, Nicholas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2008-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint dislocations are common injuries, which typically occur with trauma in young men. Treatment recommendations for these injuries are highly variable and controversial. There are greater than 100 surgical techniques described for operative treatment of this injury. One of the most widely recommended methods of surgical reconstruction for acromioclavicular joint dislocations is to utilize the coracoacromial ligament for stabilization of the distal clavicle. Several modifications of this procedure have been described which have involved adjunct coracoclavicular fixation or fixation across acromioclavicular joint. Although the literature is replete with descriptive papers, there is paucity of studies evaluating the surgical outcome of this procedure. We systematically reviewed the English language published literature in peer reviewed journals (Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS) and assigned a level of evidence for available studies. We critically reviewed each paper for the flaws and biases and then evaluated the comparable clinical outcomes for various procedures and their modifications. The published literature consists entirely of case series (Level IV evidence) with variability in surgical technique and outcome measures. On review there is low level evidence to support the use of coracoacromial ligament for acromioclavicular dislocation but it has been associated with high rate of deformity recurrence. Adjunct fixation does not improve clinical results when compared to isolated coracoacromial ligament transfer. This is in part because of the high incidence of fixation related complications. Similar results are reported with coracoacromial ligament reconstruction for acute and chronic cases. The development of secondary acromioclavicular joint symptoms with distal clavicle retention is poorly reported with the incidence rate varying from 12% to 32%. Despite this, the retention or excision of distal clavicle did not affect overall clinical results except

  11. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast

  12. Factors influencing outcomes of clinical information systems implementation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Dianne; Cummings, Greta G; LeBlanc, Lisa; Smith, Donna L

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare agencies spend significant resources to acquire or develop clinical information systems. However, implementation of clinical information systems often report significant failures. A systematic review of the research literature identified processes and outcomes of clinical information system implementation and factors that influenced success or failure. Of 124 original papers, 18 met the primary inclusion criteria-clinical systems implementation, healthcare facility, and outcome measures. Data extraction elements included study characteristics, outcomes, and implementation risk factors classified according to the Expanded Systems Life Cycle. The quality of each study was also assessed. Forty-nine outcomes of clinical information system implementation were identified. No single implementation strategy proved completely effective. The findings of this synthesis direct the attention of managers and decision makers to the importance of clinical context to successful implementation of clinical information systems. The highest number of factors influencing success or failure was reported during implementation and system "go-live." End-user support or lack thereof was the important factor in both successful and failed implementations, respectively. Following the Expanded Systems Life Cycle management model instead of a traditional project management approach may contribute to greater success over time, by paying particular attention to the underrecognized maintenance phase of implementation. PMID:19411944

  13. Paying clinicians to join clinical trials: a review of guidelines and interview study of trialists

    PubMed Central

    Raftery, James; Kerr, Christine; Hawker, Sheila; Powell, John

    2009-01-01

    Background The motivations of clinicians to participate in clinical trials have been little studied. This project explored the potential role of payment for participation in publicly funded clinical trials in the UK. The aims were to review relevant guidelines and to collate and analyse views of clinical trialists on the role of payments and other factors that motivated clinicians to join clinical trials. Methods Review of guidelines governing payments to clinicians for recruitment to trials. Semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS clinical trial leaders, analysed using qualititative methods. Results While UK guidelines had little to say specifically on payments linked to recruitment, all payments have become highly regulated and increasingly transparent. Interview participants believed that expenses arising from research should be covered. Payments in excess of expenses were seen as likely to increase participation but with the risk of reducing quality. Motivations such as interest in the topic, the scope for patients to benefit and intellectual curiosity were considered more important. Barriers to involvement included bureaucracy and lack of time. Discussion Limited scope exists for paying clinicians over-and-above the cost of their time to be involved in research. Most trialists favour full payment of all expenses related to research. Conclusion Payment of clinicians beyond expenses is perceived to be a less important motivating factor than researching important, salient questions, and facilitating research by reducing bureaucracy and delay. PMID:19272166

  14. Clinical applications of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography: an expanded pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Baris; Akpinar, Erhan; Balli, Omur; Tirnaksiz, Bulent; Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2011-01-01

    Gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) is taken up by functioning hepatocellular cells and is partially excreted into the biliary system; therefore, it can be used as a potential intrabiliary contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiography applications for various clinical conditions such as obstructive disorders (e.g., choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis), inflammatory disorders (e.g., acute cholecystitis, cholangitis), benign biliary disorders, and pre- and postprocedural evaluation of the biliary system. In this pictorial review, we aimed to demonstrate the clinical applications of Gd-BOPTA as an intrabiliary contrast agent for imaging various biliary pathologies. PMID:21264655

  15. Characteristics of corneal dystrophies: a review from clinical, histological and genetic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ze-Nan; Chen, Jie; Cui, Hong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Corneal dystrophy is a common type of hereditary corneal diseases. It includes many types, which have varied pathology, histology and clinical manifestations. Recently, the examination techniques of ophthalmology and gene sequencing advance greatly, which do benefit to our understanding of these diseases. However, many aspects remain still unknown. And due to the poor knowledge of these diseases, the results of the treatments are not satisfoctory. The purpose of this review was to summarize the clinical, histological and genetic characteristics of different types of corneal dystrophies. PMID:27366696

  16. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the foramen magnum: Report of a case and clinical-anatomical review.

    PubMed

    Llácer, José L; Suay, Guillermo; Piquer, José; Vazquez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Arterial supply and venous drainage at the foramen magnum is variable. Two main forms of clinical presentation, intracranial and spinal, can be differentiated when a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is found at this level. We describe a case of a 68-year-old patient with a progressive paraparesis, diagnosed of dural arteriovenous fistula located at the posterior lip of foramen magnum. We review, in this setting, the vascular radiological anatomy of those fistulas and its important correlation with neurologic clinical symptoms. PMID:26949168

  17. Treatment of clinical hypothyroidism with thyroxine and triiodothyronine: a literature review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Russell T; Brimacombe, Michael; Levitt, Anthony J; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Thyroxine is the standard replacement therapy for patients with clinical hypothyroidism. However, there has been recent interest in examining the potential advantages of combined thyroxine and triiodothyronine treatment for the treatment of hypothyroidism. The authors review the nine studies to-date and conclude that the variability and limitations in study design make definitive and clinically useful recommendations difficult. They therefore conducted a metaanalysis of the nine controlled studies examining the impact of combined thyroxine-plus-triiodothyronine versus thyroxine alone, with measures of psychiatric symptoms as the primary outcome. Their analysis reveals no significant difference in treatment effect on psychiatric symptoms in the nine controlled studies to date. PMID:17878495

  18. Systemic Arthritis in Children: A Review of Clinical Presentation and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gurion, R.; Lehman, T. J. A.; Moorthy, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) constitutes a small part of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet has a disproportionally higher rate of mortality. Despite being grouped under JIA, it is considered to be a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, clinical manifestations, complications, therapy, prognosis, and outcome of sJIA. The presentation and clinical manifestations of sJIA have not changed much in the past several decades, but the collective understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of new targeted therapies (particularly the biologic agents) have transformed and improved the disease outcome for children with sJIA. PMID:22235382

  19. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    PubMed

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. PMID:25027188

  20. Do calculation errors by nurses cause medication errors in clinical practice? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to examine the literature available to ascertain whether medication errors in clinical practice are the result of nurses' miscalculating drug dosages. The research studies highlighting poor calculation skills of nurses and student nurses have been tested using written drug calculation tests in formal classroom settings [Kapborg, I., 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, student nurses and physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4): 389 -395; Hutton, M., 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application Nursing Standard 13(11): 35-38; Weeks, K., Lynne, P., Torrance, C., 2000. Written drug dosage errors made by students: the threat to clinical effectiveness and the need for a new approach. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 4, 20-29]; Wright, K., 2004. Investigation to find strategies to improve student nurses' maths skills. British Journal Nursing 13(21) 1280-1287; Wright, K., 2005. An exploration into the most effective way to teach drug calculation skills to nursing students. Nurse Education Today 25, 430-436], but there have been no reviews of the literature on medication errors in practice that specifically look to see whether the medication errors are caused by nurses' poor calculation skills. The databases Medline, CINAHL, British Nursing Index (BNI), Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) and Archives and Cochrane reviews were searched for research studies or systematic reviews which reported on the incidence or causes of drug errors in clinical practice. In total 33 articles met the criteria for this review. There were no studies that examined nurses' drug calculation errors in practice. As a result studies and systematic reviews that investigated the types and causes of drug errors were examined to establish whether miscalculations by nurses were the causes of errors. The review found insufficient evidence to suggest that medication errors are caused by nurses' poor

  1. Oral Lichen Planus: Clinical Features, Etiology, Treatment and Management; A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Boorghani, Marzieh; Gholizadeh, Narges; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Vatankhah, Mehdi; Mehdipour, Masoumeh

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Mucosal lesions are classified into six clinical forms and there is malignant potential for two forms of OLP; therefore, follow-up should be considered. There are many un-established etiological factors for OLP and some different treatment modalities are based on etiology. The aims of current OLP therapy are to eliminate mucosal erythema and ulceration, alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of oral cancer. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, and case-and-control studies published from 1985 to 2010 to prepare this review of literature. PMID:22991586

  2. Taking advantage of the MEMO orbiter to improve the determination of Mars' gravity field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, P.; Le Maitre, S.; Marty, J. C.; Duron, J.; Dehant, V.

    2007-08-01

    In the context of future ESA's mission to Mars, it is proposed an orbiter named MEMO (Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter) to especially improve the measurement of the atmospheric escape and the magnetic field of the planet. Its orbit is planned to have an inclination of 77 degrees and periapsis and apoapsis altitude of 130 km and 1000 km, respectively. In addition, such an orbit is scheduled to be maintained during one Martian year. This differs from the usual near-polar, near-circular orbit with a periapsis altitude of at least 200 km, such as for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Even if the MEMO orbiter is not dedicated to Mars' gravity field investigation, we propose to take this opportunity to improve our knowledge of Mars' gravity field. Indeed, the sensitivity of an orbiter to the gravity field strongly depends on the semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity of its orbit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the improvement on the determination of local gravity anomalies, of seasonal variations of the first zonal harmonics and of the k2 Love number of Mars. We base our work on both analytical and numerical approaches in order to simulate the Mars' gravity field determination from spacecraft tracking data from the Earth.We also add in our simulations the possibility to have an accelerometer onboard the MEMO spacecraft. Indeed, if it is placed at the center of mass of the spacecraft, it could provide measurements of the non-gravitational forces acting on it, especially the atmospheric drag. A good determination of the contribution of this force to the spacecraft motion would bring information about the atmospheric density at altitude between 100 and 200 km, and would improve the gravity field determination from tracking data of the spacecraft.

  3. Sneddon syndrome: rare disease or under diagnosed clinical entity? Review of the literature related to a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Orac, Amalia; Artenie, Anca; Toader, Mihaela Paula; Harnagea, Raluca; Dinu-Mitrofan, Diana; Grigorovici, Mirela; Ungureanu, G

    2014-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome is defined by the association of livedo racemosa and recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic lesions. The annual incidence is 4/1,000,000. This syndrome particularly affects young women, some reports suggesting a family predisposition. It is a chronic, progressive, arterio-occlusive disease of unknown etiology that involves small and medium-sized arteries. It is usually associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a female patient with Sneddon syndrome with significant family history, personal history of stroke, epilepsy, migraine, cardiovascular involvement, three miscarriages, cognitive decline, noncompliant to therapy, in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies. This paper aims to analyze the main characteristic features and management of Sneddon syndrome by conducting a literature review related to a clinical case. PMID:25341280

  4. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its evaluation in a clinical scenario: a review.

    PubMed

    Dixit, S; Maiya, A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not only a clinical syndrome characterizing hyperglycemia, but is also a cause of debilitating problem known as peripheral neuropathy (PN). This review addresses the importance of diagnosing PN in a clinical setting as PN causes pain and discomfort in lower extremities, loss or absence of protective sensations in the lower extremities leading to balance problems, risk of foot ulcerations, and a reduced quality of life in adults with type 2 diabetes. A variety of modalities or methods are available to evaluate both subjective and objective measures of peripheral nerve functions, and have been discussed in detail in this review. It is of utmost importance to understand that evaluating PN as a routine practice in a simple way may also play a vitally important role in preventing foot ulcers or fall-related morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24625937

  5. Diagnosing pubovisceral avulsions: a systematic review of the clinical relevance of a prevalent anatomical defect.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Karin; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Prokop, Mathias; Vierhout, Mark E; Kluivers, Kirsten B

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this systematic literature review were to assess whether the detection of pubovisceral avulsions using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or perineal ultrasonography was clinically relevant in women with pelvic floor dysfunction and to evaluate the relation with anatomy, symptoms, and recurrence after surgery. We performed a systematic literature review using three bibliographical databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) as data sources. Clinical studies were included in which pubovisceral avulsions were studied in relation to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage, pelvic floor symptoms, and/or recurrence of POP after surgery. Ultimately, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. POP stage and recurrence of POP after surgery were strongly associated with pubovisceral avulsions. Contradictory results were found regarding the relation between pubovisceral avulsions and urinary symptoms and symptoms of anorectal dysfunction. Pubovisceral avulsions, as diagnosed by MR imaging or perineal ultrasonography, are associated with higher stages of POP and recurrence of POP after surgery. PMID:22581241

  6. The Clinical Use of Robots for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Joshua J.; Schmitt, Lauren M.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined peer-reviewed studies in order to understand the current status of empirically-based evidence on the clinical applications of robots in the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Studies are organized into four broad categories: (a) the response of individuals with ASD to robots or robot-like behavior in comparison to human behavior, (b) the use of robots to elicit behaviors, (c) the use of robots to model, teach, and/or practice a skill, and (d) the use of robots to provide feedback on performance. A critical review of the literature revealed that most of the findings are exploratory and have methodological limitations that make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the clinical utility of robots. Finally, we outline the research needed to determine the incremental validity of this technique. PMID:22125579

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Hypericum perforatum in depression: a comprehensive clinical review.

    PubMed

    Whiskey, E; Werneke, U; Taylor, D

    2001-09-01

    The herbal remedy St John's wort is widely used as an antidepressant but its efficacy has not been systematically investigated. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of published trials strongly suggest St John's wort is more effective than placebo although comparative efficacy to standard antidepressants is less clearly established. We updated and expanded previous meta-analyses of St John's wort, scrutinised the validity of published reports and examined possible mechanisms of action. Twenty-two randomised controlled trials were identified. Meta-analysis showed St John's wort to be significantly more effective than placebo (relative risk (RR) 1.98 (95% CI 1.49-2.62)) but not significantly different in efficacy from active antidepressants (RR 1.0 (0.90-1.11)). A sub-analysis of six placebo-controlled trials and four active comparator trials satisfying stricter methodological criteria also suggested that St John's wort was more effective than placebo (RR 1.77 (1.16-2.70)) and of similar effectiveness to standard antidepressants (RR 1.04 (0.94-1.15)). There was no evidence of publication bias. Adverse effects occurred more frequently with standard antidepressants than with St John's wort. The mechanism of action of St John's wort remains unknown. Future research should include large scale, appropriately powered comparisons of St John's wort and standard antidepressants. PMID:11552767

  8. Animal experiments scrutinised: systematic reviews demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. Of 20 reviews examining clinical utility, authors concluded that the animal models were substantially consistent with or useful in advancing clinical outcomes in only two cases, and the conclusion in one case was contentious. Included were reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments - the species most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of experimental outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which a majority of animal experiments were of good quality. While the latter problems might be minimised with concerted effort, given their widespread nature, the interspecies limitations are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Yet, unlike non-animal models, animal models are not normally subjected to formal scientific validation. Instead of simply assuming they are predictive of human outcomes, the consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their

  9. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical review and update*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Thamy; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the diagnostic and classificatory concepts of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome in light of the latest normative publications. It describes the great variability of the clinical expression of mycosis fungoides in its early stages as well as the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects that help with diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria required for characterizing Sézary syndrome and the staging system used for both mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are described. PMID:23197199

  10. Clinical Decision Support Tools for Osteoporosis Disease Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies indicate a gap between evidence and clinical practice in osteoporosis management. Tools that facilitate clinical decision making at the point of care are promising strategies for closing these practice gaps. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the literature to identify and describe the effectiveness of tools that support clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management. DATA SOURCES Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews (CDSR, DARE, CCTR, and ACP J Club), and contact with experts in the field. REVIEW METHODS Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language from 1966 to July 2006 investigating disease management interventions in patients at risk for osteoporosis. Outcomes included fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Two investigators independently assessed articles for relevance and study quality, and extracted data using standardized forms. RESULTS Of 1,246 citations that were screened for relevance, 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Reported study quality was generally poor. Meta-analysis was not done because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity; 77% of studies included a reminder or education as a component of their intervention. Three studies of reminders plus education targeted to physicians and patients showed increased BMD testing (RR range 1.43 to 8.67) and osteoporosis medication use (RR range 1.60 to 8.67). A physician reminder plus a patient risk assessment strategy found reduced fractures [RR 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.90] and increased osteoporosis therapy (RR 2.44, CI 1.43 to 4.17). CONCLUSION Multi-component tools that are targeted to physicians and patients may be effective for supporting clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0812-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18836782

  11. Higher Education Institutions: Patterns of Expenditures. NEA Research Memo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybeal, William S.

    Patterns of expenditures in higher education are examined, based on 1977 financial data from the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and on data from "Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States, Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1976, Review Edition." Based on 1977 fiscal year data from HEGIS, distributions of institutional…

  12. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  13. Cognitive Features of Essential Tremor: A Review of the Clinical Aspects and Possible Mechanistic Underpinnings

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Puertas-Martín, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    The classical concept of essential tremor (ET) as a monosymptomatic tremorogenic disorder has been questioned in the last decade as new evidence has been described. Clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological studies have described a probable structural basis (mainly in cerebellum) and evidence that ET is associated with subtle clinical cerebellar deficits and several non-motor clinical manifestations, such as cognitive and mood disorders. We performed literature searches in Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo databases. The aim of this review is to describe cognitive deficits associated with ET. First, we present a brief history of ET cognitive disorders presented. Second, we describe several clinical cross-sectional series demonstrating that ET is associated with mild cognitive deficits of attention, executive functions, several types of memory (working memory, immediate, short term, delayed, and possibly others) and, mood disorders (depression). Recent neuroimaging studies favor a cerebellar basis for these cognitive deficits. Population-based surveys confirm that mild cognitive dysfunction is not limited to severe ET cases, the entire ET group, including mild and undiagnosed cases, can be affected. Cohort studies indicated that ET cognitive deficits could be progressive and that ET patients had an increased risk of dementia. The mood and cognitive deficits in ET are in agreement with cognitive affective cerebellar syndrome described in patients with cerebellar disorders. New evidence, mainly from functional (neuroimaging) and prospective clinical studies would further bolster recent descriptions of ET clinical manifestations. PMID:23440004

  14. Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines in USA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tony Yuqi; Li, Fang-Zhou; Afseth, Janyne

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 39 new drugs, however, there are only two botanical drugs (one topical and one oral) approved by FDA since the publication of the FDA's industry guidelines for the botanical drug product in June 2004. The approval shows the Western guideline can be used for herbal medicines, authors investigate current regulation on herbal medicine clinical research, identify challenges conducting clinical trials, and seek to produce some guidance for potential investigators and sponsors considering a clinical trial in this area. Key words were formulated for searching on Medline and FDA website to locate relevant regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines to understand current environment for herbal medicine usage and examine the barriers affecting herbal medicine in clinical trials. Authors critically explore case study of the 1st FDA approved botanical drugs, Veregen (sinecatechins), green tea leaves extract, a topical cream for perianal and genital condyloma. In consideration of current regulation environment in USA, based on the findings and analysis through the literature review and Veregen case study, authors produce and propose a Checklist for New Drug Application of Herbal Medicines for potential investigators and sponsors considering in a herbal medicine clinical trial. PMID:25428336

  15. Clinical applications of dynamic infrared thermography in plastic surgery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    John, Hannah Eliza; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Whitaker, Iain S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infrared thermography (IRT) has become an increasingly utilized adjunct to more expensive and/or invasive investigations in a range of surgical fields, no more so than in plastic surgery. The combination of functional assessment, flow characteristics and anatomical localization has led to increasing applications of this technology. This article aims to perform a systematic review of the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery. Methods A systematic literature search using the keywords ‘IRT’ and ‘dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT)’ has been accomplished. A total of 147 papers were extracted from various medical databases, of which 34 articles were subjected to a full read by two independent reviewers, to ensure the papers satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies focusing on the use of IRT in breast cancer diagnosis were excluded. Results A systematic review of 29 publications demonstrated the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery today. They include preoperative planning of perforators for free flaps, post operative monitoring of free flaps, use of IRT as an adjunct in burns depth analysis, in assessment of response to treatment in hemangioma and as a diagnostic test for cutaneous melanoma and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Conclusions Modern infrared imaging technology with improved standardization protocols is now a credible, useful non-invasive tool in clinical practice. PMID:27047781

  16. Empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing: A systematic literature review and methodological critique.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically evaluate all English language research papers reporting empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing. The first part of the search strategy was a combination of brief and building block strategies in the PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The second part was a citation pearl growing strategy with reviews of 179 reference lists. In total, the search strategy demonstrated a low level of precision and a high level of recall. Thirty four articles met the criteria of the review and were systematically evaluated using three checklists. The findings were summarized by using a new checklist with nine overall questions regarding the studies' design, methods, findings, and limitations. The studies were categorized as: (i) effect studies; (ii) survey studies; (iii) interview studies; and (iv) case studies. In general, the studies were relatively small scale; they used relatively new and basic methods for data collection and analysis, and rarely included sufficient strategies for identifying confounding factors or how the researchers' preconceptions influenced the analyses. Empirical research of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was characterized by a basic lack of agreement about which models and instruments to use. Challenges and recommendations for future research are discussed. Clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was commonly perceived as a good thing, but there was limited empirical evidence supporting this claim. PMID:19594645

  17. Effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations. PMID:25716404

  18. Outcome Measures Used in Clinical Trials for Behçet Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Gulen; Merkel, Peter A.; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Boers, Maarten; Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Z.; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Behçet syndrome (BS) is a multisystem vasculitis that is most active during young adulthood, causing serious disability and significant impairment in quality of life. Differences in the disease course, severity, and organ involvement between patients, depending on the age at presentation and sex, makes it impossible to determine a single management strategy. The diversity and variability in the outcome measures used in clinical trials in BS makes it difficult to compare the results or inform physicians about the best management strategy for individual patients. There is a large unmet need to determine or develop validated outcome measures for use in clinical trials in BS that are acceptable to researchers and regulatory agencies. We conducted a systematic review to describe the outcomes and outcome measures that have been used in clinical trials in BS. This review revealed the diversity and variability in the outcomes and outcome measures and the lack of standard definitions for most outcomes and rarity of validated outcome tools for disease assessment in BS. This systematic literature review will identify domains and candidate instruments for use in a Delphi exercise, the next step in the development of a core set of outcome measures that are properly validated and widely accepted by the collaboration of researchers from many different regions of the world and from different specialties, including rheumatology, ophthalmology, dermatology, gastroenterology, and neurology. PMID:24488418

  19. Effective Strategies for Global Health Research, Training and Clinical Care: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations. PMID:25716404

  20. Clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although health care providers utilize classically described signs and symptoms to diagnose tension pneumothorax, available literature sources differ in their descriptions of its clinical manifestations. Moreover, while the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax have been suggested to differ among subjects of varying respiratory status, it remains unknown if these differences are supported by clinical evidence. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to systematically describe and contrast the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax among patients receiving positive pressure ventilation versus those who are breathing unassisted. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) and clinical trial registries from their first available date as well as personal files, identified review articles, and included article bibliographies. Two investigators will independently screen identified article titles and abstracts and select observational (cohort, case–control, and cross-sectional) studies and case reports and series that report original data on clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax. These investigators will also independently assess risk of bias and extract data. Identified data on the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax will be stratified according to whether adult or pediatric study patients were receiving positive pressure ventilation or were breathing unassisted, as well as whether the two investigators independently agreed that the clinical condition of the study patient(s) aligned with a previously published tension pneumothorax working definition. These data will then be summarized using a formal narrative synthesis alongside a meta-analysis of observational studies and then case reports and series where possible. Pooled or combined estimates of the occurrence rate of clinical manifestations will be calculated using

  1. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice.

    PubMed

    Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

    2011-11-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites. PMID:22011829

  2. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites. PMID:22011829

  3. [Review on requirements of drug allergy or pseudoallergic reactions in pre-clinical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-yin; Yi, Yan; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lian-mei; Lu, Yu-ting; Li, Gui-qin

    2015-07-01

    Drug allergy and pseudoallergic reactions are main adverse drug reactions. Allergy is mainly induced by the immunogenicity of drug, drug metabolic products or drug additive. Pseudoallergic reactions may result from the irritation or activation of inflammatory material release. Pre-clinical evaluation of drug allergy and pseudoallergic reactions is included in immunotoxicity evaluation. Now there is no in vivo or in vitro method that could predict all kinds of allergy or pseudoallergic reactions due to the different mechanisms. In the past few years, FDA, SFDA OECD, ICH and WHO have published several guidelines on per-clinical immunotoxicity evaluation, however, no agreement has been reached on allergy and pseudoallergic reactions evaluation. This article reviews the requirements of allergy and pseudoallergic reactions in pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:26666009

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  5. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, Y U

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  6. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, YU

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  7. A review of basic to clinical studies of irreversible electroporation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunlan; Davalos, Rafael V; Bischof, John C

    2015-01-01

    The use of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for cancer treatment has increased sharply over the past decade. As a nonthermal therapy, IRE offers several potential benefits over other focal therapies, which include 1) short treatment delivery time, 2) reduced collateral thermal injury, and 3) the ability to treat tumors adjacent to major blood vessels. These advantages have stimulated widespread interest in basic through clinical studies of IRE. For instance, many in vitro and in vivo studies now identify treatment planning protocols (IRE threshold, pulse parameters, etc.), electrode delivery (electrode design, placement, intraoperative imaging methods, etc.), injury evaluation (methods and timing), and treatment efficacy in different cancer models. Therefore, this study reviews the in vitro, translational, and clinical studies of IRE cancer therapy based on major experimental studies particularly within the past decade. Further, this study provides organized data and facts to assist further research, optimization, and clinical applications of IRE. PMID:25389236

  8. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  9. A review of approaches to improve participation of culturally and linguistically diverse populations in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Jo-Anne; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Parker, Anna; Hajek, John; Bresin, Agnese; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong; Story, David

    2016-01-01

    The under-representation of culturally and linguistically diverse participants in clinical trials is an ongoing concern for medical researchers and the community. The aim of this review is to examine the complex issue of recruiting culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older people to medical research and to examine responses to these issues. The review focuses on (1) trends in the existing literature on barriers to and strategies for recruiting CALD and older people to clinical research, (2) issues with informed consent for CALD populations, and (3) the efficacy of innovative approaches, including approaches incorporating multimedia in research and consent processes. The literature indicates that predominant barriers to greater involvement of CALD patients in clinical trials are communication, including literacy and health literacy considerations; English language competence; and cultural factors in the research setting such as mistrust of consent processes, as well as considerable practical and logistical barriers, including mobility considerations. Some evidence exists that incorporating multimedia resources into the informed consent process can improve patient understanding and is preferred by patients, yet these findings are inconclusive. A multi-methodological approach, including the use of culturally and linguistically sensitive multimedia tools, may help address the issue of low inclusion of CALD groups in clinical research. Researcher education needs to be taken into account to address preconceptions about CALD resistance to research participation and to raise awareness of cultural concerns in regard to research participation. PMID:27229153

  10. Tibetan Medicine: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Research Available in the West

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, K. Philip; Weißhuhn, Thorolf E. R.; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little is known about Tibetan medicine (TM), in Western industrialized countries. Objectives. To provide a systematic review of the clinical studies on TM available in the West. Data Sources. Seven literature databases, published literature lists, citation tracking, and contacts to experts and institutions. Study Eligibility Criteria. Studies in English, German, French, or Spanish presenting clinical trial results. Participants. All patients of the included studies. Interventions. Tibetan medicine treatment. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods. Included studies were described quantitatively; their quality was assessed with the DIMDI HTA checklist; for RCTs the Jadad score was used. Results. 40 studies from 39 publications were included. They were very heterogeneous regarding study type and size, treated conditions, treatments, measured outcomes, and quality. Limitations. No Russian, Tibetan, or Chinese publications were included. Possible publication bias. Conclusions. The number of clinical trials on TM available in the West is small; methods and results are heterogeneous. Implications of Key Findings. Higher quality larger trials are needed, as is a general overview of traditional usage to inform future clinical trials. Systematic Review Registration Number. None. PMID:23662117

  11. Tibetan medicine: a systematic review of the clinical research available in the west.

    PubMed

    Reuter, K Philip; Weißhuhn, Thorolf E R; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little is known about Tibetan medicine (TM), in Western industrialized countries. Objectives. To provide a systematic review of the clinical studies on TM available in the West. Data Sources. Seven literature databases, published literature lists, citation tracking, and contacts to experts and institutions. Study Eligibility Criteria. Studies in English, German, French, or Spanish presenting clinical trial results. Participants. All patients of the included studies. Interventions. Tibetan medicine treatment. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods. Included studies were described quantitatively; their quality was assessed with the DIMDI HTA checklist; for RCTs the Jadad score was used. Results. 40 studies from 39 publications were included. They were very heterogeneous regarding study type and size, treated conditions, treatments, measured outcomes, and quality. Limitations. No Russian, Tibetan, or Chinese publications were included. Possible publication bias. Conclusions. The number of clinical trials on TM available in the West is small; methods and results are heterogeneous. Implications of Key Findings. Higher quality larger trials are needed, as is a general overview of traditional usage to inform future clinical trials. Systematic Review Registration Number. None. PMID:23662117

  12. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country. PMID:23337226

  13. Stress and Primary Headache: Review of the Research and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This review begins with a discussion of the nature of stress and then presents the functional model of primary headache as a framework for conceptualizing the complex relationship between stress and headaches. Research is reviewed on stress as a trigger of headaches and how stress can play a role in the developmental and psychosocial context of headaches. Clinical management of headaches from a stress perspective is considered both at the level of trials of behavioral interventions that broadly fit into the stress management category and the additional strategies that might be useful for individual cases based on the research demonstrating associations between stress and headaches. The review concludes by suggesting that although some researchers have questioned whether stress can trigger headaches, overall, the literature is still supportive of such a link. Advances in methodology are discussed, the recent emphasis on protective factors is welcomed, and directions for future research suggested. PMID:27215628

  14. Clinical assessment of effusion in knee osteoarthritis—A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Maricar, Nasimah; Callaghan, Michael J.; Parkes, Matthew J.; Felson, David T.; O׳Neill, Terence W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to determine the validity and inter- and intra-observer reliability of the assessment of knee joint effusion in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, EMBASE, and AMED were searched from their inception to February 2015. Articles were included according to a priori defined criteria: samples containing participants with knee OA; prospective evaluation of clinical tests and assessments of knee effusion that included reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of these tests. Results A total of 10 publications were reviewed. Eight of these considered reliability and four on validity of clinical assessments against ultrasound effusion. It was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis of reliability or validity because of differences in study designs and the clinical tests. Intra-observer kappa agreement for visible swelling ranged from 0.37 (suprapatellar) to 1.0 (prepatellar); for bulge sign 0.47 and balloon sign 0.37. Inter-observer kappa agreement for visible swelling ranged from −0.02 (prepatellar) to 0.65 (infrapatellar), the balloon sign −0.11 to 0.82, patellar tap −0.02 to 0.75 and bulge sign kappa −0.04 to 0.14 or reliability coefficient 0.97. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy tended to be better in experienced observers. Very few data looked at performance of individual clinical tests with sensitivity ranging 18.2–85.7% and specificity 35.3–93.3%, both higher with larger effusions. Conclusion The majority of unstandardized clinical tests to assess joint effusion in knee OA had relatively low intra- and inter-observer reliability. There is some evidence experience improved reliability and diagnostic accuracy of tests. Currently there is insufficient evidence to recommend any particular test in clinical practice. PMID:26581486

  15. A Systematic Review of Race and Ethnicity in Hepatitis C Clinical Trial Enrollment.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Julius; Saraswathula, Anirudh; Hasselblad, Vic; Muir, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The African American/Black population in the United States (US) is disproportionately affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and has lower response rates to current treatments. This analysis evaluates the participation of African American/Blacks in North American and European HCV clinical trials. The data source for this analysis was the PubMed database. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) on HCV treatment with interferon 2a or 2b between January 2000 and December 2011 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included English language and participants 18 years or older with chronic HCV. Exclusion criteria included non-randomized trials, case reports, cohort studies, ethnic specific studies, or studies not using interferon-alfa or PEG-interferon. Of the 588 trials identified, 314 (53.4%) fit inclusion criteria. The main outcome was the rate of African American/ Black participation in North American HCV clinical trials. A meta-analysis comparing the expected and observed rates was performed. Of the RCT's that met search criteria, 123 (39.2%) reported race. Clinical trials in North America were more likely to report racial data than European trials. Racial reporting increased over time. There was a statistically significant difference among the expected and observed participation of African Americans in HCV clinical trials in North America based on the prevalence of this disease within the population. The burden of HCV among African Americans in North America is not reflected in those clinical trials designed to treat HCV. Research on minority participation in clinical trials and how to increase minority participation in clinical trials is needed. PMID:26928485

  16. The quality and characteristics of clinical drug study notifications reviewed by the regulatory agency in Finland.

    PubMed

    Keinonen, Tuija; Nieminen, Sakari; Saareks, Virpi; Miettinen, Pirkko; Saano, Veijo; Ylitalo, Pauli

    2002-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the validity of clinical drug study notifications reviewed by the regulatory agency in Finland during the 1990s. (In practice, the notification is equivalent to tacit authorization, which the agency has full powers to revoke before it takes effect.) All clinical drug studies reviewed by the agency during the years 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998 were studied retrospectively. The main measurements used were the number of studies with no objection to start; the number and type of questions raised; the profile, phase, and type of study; and the study design. Additionally, the studies approved by two ethics committees of university hospitals during the same years were cross-checked to see whether the agency was notified of them in accordance with the national regulations. In total, 1174 study notifications were reviewed. Most studies were international (52%), phase III (46%), placebo-controlled with/without active control (35%) investigations of new chemical entities (38%) and were carried out in university hospitals (63%). The regulatory agency had no objections or questions regarding 55% of the notifications; 37% of the studies were permitted to begin after a clarification; 5% had to be clarified a second time; and 3% were rejected. Most questions dealt with subject information. Out of the 1140 permitted studies, 8% were later canceled or prematurely terminated as reported by the applicant. Altogether 71% of the studies that had been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees were reported to the authorities before commencement. Study completions were rarely reported. Most of the clinical drug studies planned in Finland are large international studies to investigate new chemical entities. More than half of the notifications are valid according to the regulatory authorities. Not all studies, nor the majority of study completions, are reported to the authority, though according to the regulations they should be so reported. The

  17. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  18. Clinical Predictors of Recovery after Blunt Spinal Cord Trauma: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro F.; Attabib, Najmedden; Ball, Jonathon; Bajammal, Sohail; Casha, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Several clinical, imaging, and therapeutic factors affecting recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been described. A systematic review of the topic is still lacking. Our primary aim was to systematically review clinical factors that may predict neurological and functional recovery following blunt traumatic SCI in adults. Such work would help guide clinical care and direct future research. Both Medline and Embase (to April 2008) were searched using index terms for various forms of SCI, paraplegia, or quadri/tetraplegia, and functional and neurological recovery. The search was limited to published articles that were in English and included human subjects. Article selection included class I and II evidence, blunt traumatic SCI, injury level above L1-2, baseline assessment within 72 h of injury, use of American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scoring system for clinical assessment, and functional and neurological outcome. A total of 1526 and 1912 citations were located from Medline and Embase, respectively. Two surgeons reviewed the titles, abstracts, and full text articles for each database. Ten articles were identified, only one of which was level 1 evidence. Age and gender were identified as two patient-related predictors. While motor and functional recovery decreased with advancing age for complete SCI, there was no correlation considering incomplete ones. Therefore, treatment should not be restructured based on age in incomplete SCI. Among injury-related predictors, severity of SCI was the most significant. Complete injuries correlated with increased mortality and worse neurological and functional outcomes. Other predictors included SCI level, energy transmitted by the injury, and baseline electrophysiological testing. PMID:19831845

  19. Sex, Gender, and Pain: A Review of Recent Clinical and Experimental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Fillingim, Roger B.; King, Christopher D.; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete C.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-related influences on pain and analgesia have become a topic of tremendous scientific and clinical interest, especially in the last 10 to 15 years. Members of our research group published reviews of this literature more than a decade ago, and the intervening time period has witnessed robust growth in research regarding sex, gender, and pain. Therefore, it seems timely to revisit this literature. Abundant evidence from recent epidemiologic studies clearly demonstrates that women are at substantially greater risk for many clinical pain conditions, and there is some suggestion that postoperative and procedural pain may be more severe among women than men. Consistent with our previous reviews, current human findings regarding sex differences in experimental pain indicate greater pain sensitivity among females compared with males for most pain modalities, including more recently implemented clinically relevant pain models such as temporal summation of pain and intramuscular injection of algesic substances. The evidence regarding sex differences in laboratory measures of endogenous pain modulation is mixed, as are findings from studies using functional brain imaging to ascertain sex differences in pain-related cerebral activation. Also inconsistent are findings regarding sex differences in responses to pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic pain treatments. The article concludes with a discussion of potential biopsychosocial mechanisms that may underlie sex differences in pain, and considerations for future research are discussed. Perspective This article reviews the recent literature regarding sex, gender, and pain. The growing body of evidence that has accumulated in the past 10 to 15 years continues to indicate substantial sex differences in clinical and experimental pain responses, and some evidence suggests that pain treatment responses may differ for women versus men. PMID:19411059

  20. Prescription Opioid Abuse: A Literature Review of the Clinical and Economic Burden in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anisha M.; Rattana, Stacy K.; Quock, Tiffany P.; Mody, Samir H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole. (Population Health Management 2014;17:372–387) PMID:25075734

  1. Prescription opioid abuse: a literature review of the clinical and economic burden in the United States.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Roxanne; Patel, Anisha M; Rattana, Stacy K; Quock, Tiffany P; Mody, Samir H

    2014-12-01

    Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole. PMID:25075734

  2. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke: a review of the literature, clinical effectiveness and future use.

    PubMed

    Lally, Frank; Grunwald, Iris Q; Sanyal, Ranjan; Natarajan, Indira; Roffe, Christine

    2013-03-01

    The only effective treatment licensed for acute ischaemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 hours from stroke onset. An alternative method of restoring blood flow is mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Although this is highly effective at recanalization, it remains unclear whether it is more effective than thrombolysis in improving clinical outcomes. This review examines key clinical outcomes from published studies and reviews ongoing studies to identify devices, patient population, and stated outcomes of MT. We discuss the issues when comparing clinical outcomes from different trials and suggest measures to help standardize reporting. We used routine review methodology to search relevant databases for stroke and MT published between 1999 - 2012 and active trials between August 2011 - May 2012. The studies in this review had an overall patient population of 8354. The most widely used primary outcome (94% of studies) was successful recanalization. The mean mortality across the studies was 17% (range 7 - 44), 64% of studies reported neurological improvement and 97% reported functional outcome with 42% (range 15 - 54)] achieving independence in activities of daily living. Mean symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage was 11% (range 0 - 45%). There were significant differences in outcome reporting between studies. Evidence from published studies shows a strong relationship between recanalization and good outcomes although non-standardization makes comparisons difficult. There is a trend towards higher recanalization, lower mortality, and better functional outcome in more recent studies. To examine effectiveness of MT vs thrombolysis, randomized controlled trials are needed. Several are currently in progress but it remains to be seen if procedures and outcomes are reported in a standardized manner. PMID:23394538

  3. FY94 CAG trip reports, CAG memos and other products: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-15

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the US DOE is tasked with designing, constructing, and operating an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the YMP is to provide detailed characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential mined geologic repository for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Detailed characterization of properties of the site are to be conducted through a wide variety of short-term and long-term in-situ tests. Testing methods require the installation of a large number of test instruments and sensors with a variety of functions. These instruments produce analog and digital data that must be collected, processed, stored, and evaluated in an attempt to predict performance of the repository. The Integrated Data and Control System (IDCS) is envisioned as a distributed data acquisition that electronically acquires and stores data from these test instruments. IDCS designers are responsible for designing and overseeing the procurement of the system, IDCS Operation and Maintenance operates and maintains the installed system, and the IDCS Data Manager is responsible for distribution of IDCS data to participants. This report is a compilation of trip reports, interoffice memos, and other memos relevant to Computer Applications Group, Inc., work on this project.

  4. Patient satisfaction surveys in dental school clinics: a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Pakkhesal, Mina; Zafarmand, A Hamid; Lando, Harry Alan

    2015-04-01

    Health care is becoming more patient-centered and, as a result, patients' experiences of care and assessment of satisfaction are taken more seriously. Patient satisfaction influences treatment cooperation, and better cooperation leads to healthier patients in the long term. This generalization clearly applies in the dental school clinic setting. Furthermore, dental school clinics' administrators and clinicians should know about the dimensions of their patient satisfaction in order to provide the highest quality of care. The aim of this study was to review studies published between 1980 and March 2014 to identify the dimensions used to measure patients' satisfaction when they receive services in dental school clinics. The PubMed database was used to access published studies using patient satisfaction surveys in dental school clinics, and the dimensions used in these surveys were then categorized. Through several stages of searching in PubMed, the authors selected 41 articles from a total of 730; after further critical appraisal, nine articles were retained. Five dimensions included in patient surveys were identified: quality, interaction, access, environment, and cost. Determining the dimensions used in patient satisfaction surveys in dental school clinics can assist academic dental institutions in providing the highest quality of care. PMID:25838009

  5. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. Results 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Conclusions According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice. PMID:21078197

  6. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions. PMID:25756474

  7. [Clinical characteristics of histoplamosis in 8 patients: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Fan, Songqing; Liang, Qingchun; Peng, Yating; Zong, Dandan; Ouyang, Ruoyun

    2016-06-28

    To explore the clinical characteristics, imaging manifestation, diagnosis and treatment for histoplasmosis and to improve therapeutic level, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 8 patients with biopsy-confirmed histoplasmosis from 2004 to 2014 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and reviewed relevant literatures. The main clinical symptoms of histoplasmosis included fever, cough, expectoration, chest pain, blood-stained sputum, lymphadenectasis, etc. The major lung imaging features were mass, node or pneumonia-like performance. No case was diagnosed as histoplasimosis firstly. Four patients whose imaging manifestations were focal pulmonary lesion received lobectomy of lung lesions or wedge resection. Clinical and imaging manifestations in 3 patients, who treated with amphotericin B or its liposomal, itraconazole or fluconazole, were improved. The clinical symptoms and imaging findings of histoplasmosis are nonspecific. It is easy for the physicians to misdiagnose histoplasmosis as bacterial infection, lung cancer, tuberculosis lymphoma, etc. Therefore, it is significant and necessary to carry out multiple biopsies combined with multiple etiological examinations for patients with difficult diagnosis. PMID:27374451

  8. A systematic review of animal and clinical studies on the use of scaffolds for urethral repair.

    PubMed

    Qi, Na; Li, Wen-jiao; Tian, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Replacing urethral tissue with functional scaffolds has been one of the challenging problems in the field of urethra reconstruction or repair over the last several decades. Various scaffold materials have been used in animal studies, but clinical studies on use of scaffolds for urethral repair are scarce. The aim of this study was to review recent animal and clinical studies on the use of different scaffolds for urethral repair, and to evaluate these scaffolds based on the evidence from these studies. PubMed and OVID databases were searched to identify relevant studies, in conjunction with further manual search. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated. Of 555 identified studies, 38 were included for analysis. It was found that in both animal and clinical studies, scaffolds seeded with cells were used for repair of large segmental defects of the urethra, such as in tubular urethroplasty. When the defect area was small, cell-free scaffolds were more likely to be applied. A lot of pre-clinical and limited clinical evidence showed that natural or artificial materials could be used as scaffolds for urethral repair. Urinary tissue engineering is still in the immature stage, and the safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness of the scaffolds are needed for further study. PMID:26838750

  9. Clinical evidence on titanium-zirconium dental implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Altuna, P; Lucas-Taulé, E; Gargallo-Albiol, J; Figueras-Álvarez, O; Hernández-Alfaro, F; Nart, J

    2016-07-01

    The use of titanium implants is well documented and they have high survival and success rates. However, when used as reduced-diameter implants, the risk of fracture is increased. Narrow diameter implants (NDIs) of titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) alloy have recently been developed (Roxolid; Institut Straumann AG). Ti-Zr alloys (two highly biocompatible materials) demonstrate higher tensile strength than commercially pure titanium. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the existing clinical evidence on dental NDIs made from Ti-Zr. A systematic literature search was performed using the Medline database to find relevant articles on clinical studies published in the English language up to December 2014. Nine clinical studies using Ti-Zr implants were identified. Overall, 607 patients received 922 implants. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.36±0.06mm after 1 year and 0.41±0.09mm after 2 years. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 36 months. Mean survival and success rates were 98.4% and 97.8% at 1 year after implant placement and 97.7% and 97.3% at 2 years. Narrow diameter Ti-Zr dental implants show survival and success rates comparable to regular diameter titanium implants (>95%) in the short term. Long-term follow-up clinical data are needed to confirm the excellent clinical performance of these implants. PMID:26852292

  10. Brain temperature and its fundamental properties: a review for clinical neuroscientists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Bonnie; Normoyle, Kieran P.; Jackson, Kevin; Spitler, Kevin; Sharrock, Matthew F.; Miller, Claire M.; Best, Catherine; Llano, Daniel; Du, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Brain temperature, as an independent therapeutic target variable, has received increasingly intense clinical attention. To date, brain hypothermia represents the most potent neuroprotectant in laboratory studies. Although the impact of brain temperature is prevalent in a number of common human diseases including: head trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, mood disorders, headaches, and neurodegenerative disorders, it is evident and well recognized that the therapeutic application of induced hypothermia is limited to a few highly selected clinical conditions such as cardiac arrest and hypoxic ischemic neonatal encephalopathy. Efforts to understand the fundamental aspects of brain temperature regulation are therefore critical for the development of safe, effective, and pragmatic clinical treatments for patients with brain injuries. Although centrally-mediated mechanisms to maintain a stable body temperature are relatively well established, very little is clinically known about brain temperature's spatial and temporal distribution, its physiological and pathological fluctuations, and the mechanism underlying brain thermal homeostasis. The human brain, a metabolically “expensive” organ with intense heat production, is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature with regards to its functional activity and energy efficiency. In this review, we discuss several critical aspects concerning the fundamental properties of brain temperature from a clinical perspective. PMID:25339859

  11. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  12. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice. PMID:27475049

  13. Functional and clinical aspects of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF): a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lied, G A; Berstad, A

    2011-01-01

    B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) influences peripheral B-cell survival, maturation and immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and has a range of potential clinical implications. Biological functions of BAFF and its relevance in various clinical disorders including currently investigated BAFF-targeting therapies are reviewed and discussed based on PubMed search of relevant articles. Serum levels of BAFF are increased in autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis where BAFF concentrations are related to titres of autoantibodies and disease progression. Increased BAFF levels are found in synovial, bronchoalveolar and gut lavage fluids, suggesting local class switching and immunoglobulin production. Clinical relevance and diagnostic potential of BAFF are also noted in patients with allergic diseases, malignancies and infections including hepatitis C virus. BAFF antagonists are promising new therapeutic agents, currently being tried in B-cell-related autoimmune diseases. Serum level of BAFF may indicate disease mechanisms and the degree of activity. Determination of BAFF in different body compartments like synovium, airways and gut may also have clinical implications. Results of ongoing clinical trials with BAFF antagonists are eagerly awaited. PMID:21128997

  14. Clinical solid waste management practices and its impact on human health and environment--A review.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Santhanam, Amutha; Nik Norulaini, N A; Omar, A K Mohd

    2011-04-01

    The management of clinical solid waste (CSW) continues to be a major challenge, particularly, in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. Poor conduct and inappropriate disposal methods exercised during handling and disposal of CSW is increasing significant health hazards and environmental pollution due to the infectious nature of the waste. This article summarises a literature review into existing CSW management practices in the healthcare centers. The information gathered in this paper has been derived from the desk study of open literature survey. Numerous researches have been conducted on the management of CSW. Although, significant steps have been taken on matters related to safe handling and disposal of the clinical waste, but improper management practice is evident from the point of initial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of the mismanagement of CSW are the lack of appropriate legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lack of awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centers of the developing world have faced financial difficulties and therefore looking for cost effective disposal methods of clinical waste. This paper emphasizes to continue the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilization by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization technology at the point of initial collection. Emphasis is on the priority to inactivate the infectious micro-organisms in CSW. In that case, waste would not pose any threat to healthcare workers. The recycling-reuse program would be carried out successfully with the non-specialized clinical staffs. Therefore, the adoption of SF-CO2 sterilization technology in management of clinical solid waste can reduce exposure to infectious waste, decrease labor, lower costs, and yield better compliance with regulatory. Thus healthcare facilities can both save money and provide a safe environment for patients, healthcare staffs

  15. A systematic review of evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathal; Lennox, Laura; Bell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness outcomes. Design Systematic review. Setting A wide range of settings within primary and secondary care including hospitals and primary care centres. Participants A wide range of demographic groups and age groups. Primary and secondary outcome measures A broad range of patient safety and clinical effectiveness outcomes including mortality, physical symptoms, length of stay and adherence to treatment. Results This study, summarising evidence from 55 studies, indicates consistent positive associations between patient experience, patient safety and clinical effectiveness for a wide range of disease areas, settings, outcome measures and study designs. It demonstrates positive associations between patient experience and self-rated and objectively measured health outcomes; adherence to recommended clinical practice and medication; preventive care (such as health-promoting behaviour, use of screening services and immunisation); and resource use (such as hospitalisation, length of stay and primary-care visits). There is some evidence of positive associations between patient experience and measures of the technical quality of care and adverse events. Overall, it was more common to find positive associations between patient experience and patient safety and clinical effectiveness than no associations. Conclusions The data presented display that patient experience is positively associated with clinical effectiveness and patient safety, and support the case for the inclusion of patient experience as one of the central pillars of quality in healthcare. It supports the argument that the three dimensions of quality should be looked at as a group and not in isolation. Clinicians should resist sidelining patient experience as too subjective or mood-oriented, divorced from the ‘real’ clinical work of measuring safety and effectiveness. PMID:23293244

  16. In the End What Matters Most? A Review of Clinical Endpoints in Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Deanna; Batist, Gerald; Robidoux, André; Martins, Ilídio R. S.; Mackey, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Many agents are being studied for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), yet few studies have demonstrated longer overall survival (OS), the primary measure of clinical benefit in MBC. This paper examines the key endpoints in clinical trials and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals of drugs for MBC. PubMed was searched (1980 to October 2009) for reports of phase III trials investigating chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy agents in MBC. FDA approval histories (1996–2009) for cytotoxic and biological agents indicated for MBC were reviewed. Of the 73 phase III MBC trials reviewed, a strikingly small proportion of trials demonstrated a gain in OS duration (12%, n = 9). OS gains were less frequently noted in first-line trials (8%) than in trials of second-line plus other lines of therapy (22%). Few trials were designed with the capacity to detect OS effects. Among 37 phase III trials conducted in the last 15 years, only three systemic therapies were approved for first-line use and nine were approved for use as second-line or other lines of therapy. Of these, only four were supported by results showing longer survival times. There is substantial discordance among the design and conduct of clinical trials, FDA drug approval, and the current view of OS as the ultimate measure of clinical benefit. There is an urgent need to reassess standards for clinical benefit in MBC and to establish guidelines for study design and conduct and drug approval. In the end, what matters most is ensuring rapid access to safe and effective oncology treatments. PMID:21212428

  17. Internet addiction and problematic Internet use: A systematic review of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a comprehensive overview of clinical studies on the clinical picture of Internet-use related addictions from a holistic perspective. A literature search was conducted using the database Web of Science. METHODS: Over the last 15 years, the number of Internet users has increased by 1000%, and at the same time, research on addictive Internet use has proliferated. Internet addiction has not yet been understood very well, and research on its etiology and natural history is still in its infancy. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the appendix of the updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as condition that requires further research prior to official inclusion in the main manual, with important repercussions for research and treatment. To date, reviews have focused on clinical and treatment studies of Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder. This arguably limits the analysis to a specific diagnosis of a potential disorder that has not yet been officially recognised in the Western world, rather than a comprehensive and inclusive investigation of Internet-use related addictions (including problematic Internet use) more generally. RESULTS: The systematic literature review identified a total of 46 relevant studies. The included studies used clinical samples, and focused on characteristics of treatment seekers and online addiction treatment. Four main types of clinical research studies were identified, namely research involving (1) treatment seeker characteristics; (2) psychopharmacotherapy; (3) psychological therapy; and (4) combined treatment. CONCLUSION: A consensus regarding diagnostic criteria and measures is needed to improve reliability across studies and to develop effective and efficient treatment approaches for treatment seekers. PMID:27014605

  18. Clinical utilization of musculoskeletal sonography involving non-physician rehabilitation providers: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Asai, Christina; Tsai, Julieann

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal sonography use in point-of-care physical medicine and rehabilitation is rapidly expanding, not only by physiatrists, but also by non-physician rehabilitation providers. Aim To evaluate the current range, extent and nature of literature and to identify emerging areas of evidence for the use of musculoskeletal sonography involving non-physician rehabilitation providers to guide research and clinical practice. Design Scoping Review Setting Inpatient, Outpatient, Other Population Musculoskeletal conditions Methods Five databases were searched and 578 unique abstracts were identified and screened for eligibility. Three raters independently read 68 full texts and 36 articles that reported on applied uses of sonography by non-physician rehabilitation providers were included. Results Eighteen studies described direct clinical use, primarily for outcomes measurement (n=12) or as a biofeedback intervention (n=10). Twelve laboratory studies were included that related morphology to patient reports or validated clinical interventions. Six additional studies, although not involving non-physician providers, were included as they presented potential valuable uses that were not noted in the other included studies, such as monitoring bone healing, tendon repair, and evaluation of idiopathic symptom reports or non-specific primary diagnoses. Conclusion This review indicates that non-physician rehabilitation providers use sonography for outcomes measurement and biofeedback interventions. Research is needed to evaluate effects of these uses on patient outcomes and to explore additional potential uses for clinical reasoning, treatment planning, and monitoring of tissue healing related to intervention. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact Implementation of musculoskeletal sonography by non-physician rehabilitation providers has the potential to be a critically advantageous addition to improve care. PMID:26201705

  19. Combinations of Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiotherapy. The cytokines interferon-alpha and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiotherapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiotherapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested radiotherapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study. PMID:24661650

  20. Headache and sleep disorders: review and clinical implications for headache management.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2006-10-01

    Review of epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that sleep disorders are disproportionately observed in specific headache diagnoses (eg, migraine, tension-type, cluster) and other nonspecific headache patterns (ie, chronic daily headache, "awakening" or morning headache). Interestingly, the sleep disorders associated with headache are of varied types, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), periodic limb movement disorder, circadian rhythm disorder, insomnia, and hypersomnia. Headache, particularly morning headache and chronic headache, may be consequent to, or aggravated by, a sleep disorder, and management of the sleep disorder may improve or resolve the headache. Sleep-disordered breathing is the best example of this relationship. Insomnia is the sleep disorder most often cited by clinical headache populations. Depression and anxiety are comorbid with both headache and sleep disorders (especially insomnia) and consideration of the full headache-sleep-affective symptom constellation may yield opportunities to maximize treatment. This paper reviews the comorbidity of headache and sleep disorders (including coexisting psychiatric symptoms where available). Clinical implications for headache evaluation are presented. Sleep screening strategies conducive to headache practice are described. Consideration of the spectrum of sleep-disordered breathing is encouraged in the headache population, including awareness of potential upper airway resistance syndrome in headache patients lacking traditional risk factors for OSA. Pharmacologic and behavioral sleep regulation strategies are offered that are also compatible with treatment of primary headache. PMID:17040332

  1. A review of hyperprolactinaemia and severe mental illness: are there implications for clinical biochemistry?

    PubMed

    Bushe, Chris J; Bradley, Andrew; Pendlebury, John

    2010-07-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is a common adverse event reported in association with treatments used in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent data are suggestive that hyperprolactinaemia may have a range of significant short-and long-term clinical consequences. The objective of this review is to examine the causes, frequency and clinical consequences of hyperprolactinaemia in the severely mentally ill (SMI) with a focus on patients taking antipsychotic medications. A Medline search was carried out to identify relevant publications. Reference lists from previous review articles were also examined to search for additional data. Hyperprolactinaemia may be one of the most common adverse events associated with some antipsychotic medications. Precise rates with individual drugs had however until recently been poorly categorized. The relationship between hyperprolactinaemia and adverse outcomes in the SMI population appears similar to that in the general population. Adverse outcomes (such as sexual dysfunction) can occur acutely and in the longer term (bone fractures and possibly breast cancer), but the precise link between degree and length of hyperprolactinaemia and adverse outcome remains to be established. In conclusion, hyperprolactinaemia is a common treatment-emergent adverse event of some antipsychotic medications and may have clinical consequences. Physicians must balance the benefits and risks of treatment when determining appropriate therapy for individual patients. PMID:20592331

  2. Combinations of Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiation therapy. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiation therapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiation therapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested that radiation therapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study.

  3. A review of the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a clinical treatment for depression.

    PubMed

    Loo, Colleen K; McFarquhar, Tara F; Mitchell, Philip B

    2008-02-01

    There is growing interest worldwide in rTMS as a clinical treatment for depression. Apart from efficacy, its safety as a clinical treatment must be considered before its widespread use can be advocated. All published, sham-controlled rTMS depression trials were reviewed for reported side-effects and outcomes of formal neuropsychological testing. In addition, all reports of seizures occurring with rTMS were reviewed. Other safety concerns (effects on hearing; headache, pain, induced currents in electrical circuits, histotoxicity, electromagnetic field exposure, psychiatric complications, safety in pregnancy) are discussed. Common side-effects were of a minor nature, e.g. headache. There was a low incidence of accidental seizures and induced hypomania, both of which were associated with identified risk factors for which subjects should be screened. Long-term effects of repeated rTMS sessions are as yet unknown. When given within recommended guidelines, the overall safety profile of rTMS is good, and supports its further development as a clinical treatment. PMID:17880752

  4. The Differential Diagnosis of Desquamative Gingivitis: Review of the Literature and Clinical Guide for Dental Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abeedi, Faris; Aldahish, Yaser; Almotawa, Zaid; Kujan, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Desquamative gingivitis is an elucidating term used to demonstrate epithelial desquamation, erythema, erosions, and/or vesiculobullous lesions of the gingiva. Detection and differentiation between conditions that manifest desquamative gingivitis have been almost a continuing problem for dental undergraduates. Several studies have described the association between desquamative gingivitis and other relevant conditions. This study aimed to review the current literature on desquamative gingivitis and to formulate a clinical guide for the differential diagnosis of desquamative gingivitis designated as a teaching aid tool for dental undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A search strategy based on the key words “desquamative gingivitis, guidelines, diagnosis, undergraduate, teaching” was performed in Medline and Google Scholar. Papers published between 1932 and December 2014 were scrutinized. Only articles that describe the terminology and classification of DG-associated disorders or the diagnostic procedures of DG were selected, then obtained in full text and analyzed. Results: 47 studies were included and reviewed narratively. Conclusion: The clinical signs and symptoms of desquamative gingivitis are insufficient to make a definitive diagnosis. We proposed a clinical flowchart aimed to help dental undergraduates achieving their goal in making an accurate and easy diagnosis. However, this guideline needs further evaluation. PMID:26225114

  5. The 7q11.23 Microduplication Syndrome: A Clinical Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Elham; Cox, Devin M; Smith, Teri; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-09-01

    We report a 14-year-old adolescent girl with selective mutism (SM) and a 7q11.23 microduplication detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis and reviewed the literature from 18 published clinical reports. Our patient had specific phobias, SM, extreme anxiety, obesity, cutis marmorata, and a round appearing face with a short neck and over folded ears. We reviewed the published clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and cytogenetic findings grouped by speech and language delay, growth and development, craniofacial, clinical, and behavior and cognitive features due to the 7q11.23 microduplication. This microduplication syndrome is characterized by speech delay (91%), social anxiety (42%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 37%), autism spectrum disorder (29%), and separation anxiety (13%). Other findings include abnormal brain imaging (80%), congenital heart and vascular defects (54%), and mild intellectual disability (38%). We then compared the phenotype with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) which is due to a deletion of the same chromosome region. Both syndromes have abnormal brain imaging, hypotonia, delayed motor development, joint laxity, mild intellectual disability, ADHD, autism, and poor visuospatial skills but opposite or dissimilar findings regarding speech and behavioral patterns, cardiovascular problems, and social interaction. Those with WBS are prone to have hyperverbal speech, lack of stranger anxiety, and supravalvular aortic stenosis while those with the 7q11.23 microduplication have speech delay, SM, social anxiety, and are prone to aortic dilatation. PMID:27617154

  6. Biosimilars: a systematic review of published and ongoing clinical trials of antipsoriatics in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Nast, Alexander; Rosumeck, Stefanie; Seidenschnur, Karin

    2015-04-01

    Biosimilars for psoriasis treatment are currently being developed. Comparison of their efficacy and safety is a challenge. For approval, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) considers indirect evidence from other indications (for example, rheumatoid arthritis) as sufficient. Systematic review of biosimilars for psoriasis and other indications, review of ongoing trials in trial registers. Systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) on biosimilars to adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, and ustekinumab compared to their reference medication: (1) Publications in Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, Cochrane Library (efficacy, safety, immunogenicity) and (2) ongoing studies in clinical trial registers. No trials on biosimilars in psoriasis patients were identified. As to the infliximab biosimilar, there is data on patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis, indicating no clinically relevant differences regarding efficacy and safety. Currently, there are two registered studies of an adalimumab biosimilar and one study of an etanercept biosimilar in psoriasis patients. Further ongoing studies on biosimilars to adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab - all in rheumatoid arthritis patients - were identified. There is currently only limited data regarding RCTs with biosimilars. Provision of further clinical data and inclusion of patients in patient registers will be crucial. PMID:25819235

  7. Clinical Applications of Yoga for the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Wayne, Peter M.; Phillips, Russell S.; Davis, Roger B.; Gardiner, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the evidence for clinical applications of yoga among the pediatric population. Methods We conducted an electronic literature search including CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, and manual search of retrieved articles from inception of database until December 2008. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were selected including yoga or yoga-based interventions for individuals aged from 0 to 21 years of age. Data were extracted and articles critically reviewed utilizing a modified Jadad score and descriptive methodological criteria with summarization in tables. Results Thirty four controlled studies were identified published from 1979 to 2008, with 19 RCTS and 15 NRCTs. Many studies were of low methodological quality. Clinical areas for which yoga has been studied include physical fitness, cardio-respiratory effects, motor skills/strength, mental health and psychological disorders, behavior and development, irritable bowel syndrome, and birth outcomes following prenatal yoga. No adverse events were reported in trials reviewed. While a large majority of studies were positive, methodological limitations such as randomization methods, withdrawal/dropouts, and details of yoga intervention preclude conclusive evidence. Conclusions There are limited data on the clinical applications of yoga among the pediatric population. Most published controlled trials were suggestive of benefit, but results are preliminary based on low quantity and quality of trials. Further research of yoga for children utilizing a higher standard of methodology and reporting is warranted. PMID:19608122

  8. Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports.

    PubMed

    Park, Brian Y; Wilson, Gary; Berger, Jonathan; Christman, Matthew; Reina, Bryn; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Traditional factors that once explained men's sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. This review also considers evidence that Internet pornography's unique properties (limitless novelty, potential for easy escalation to more extreme material, video format, etc.) may be potent enough to condition sexual arousal to aspects of Internet pornography use that do not readily transition to real-life partners, such that sex with desired partners may not register as meeting expectations and arousal declines. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use. In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth. PMID:27527226

  9. A review of disease progression models of Parkinson's disease and applications in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Venuto, Charles S; Potter, Nicholas B; Ray Dorsey, E; Kieburtz, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative disease progression models for neurodegenerative disorders are gaining recognition as important tools for drug development and evaluation. In Parkinson's disease (PD), several models have described longitudinal changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), one of the most utilized outcome measures for PD trials assessing disease progression. We conducted a literature review to examine the methods and applications of quantitative disease progression modeling for PD using a combination of key words including "Parkinson disease," "progression," and "model." For this review, we focused on models of PD progression quantifying changes in the total UPDRS scores against time. Four different models reporting equations and parameters have been published using linear and nonlinear functions. The reasons for constructing disease progression models of PD thus far have been to quantify disease trajectories of PD patients in active and inactive treatment arms of clinical trials, to quantify and discern symptomatic and disease-modifying treatment effects, and to demonstrate how model-based methods may be used to design clinical trials. The historical lack of efficiency of PD clinical trials begs for model-based simulations in planning for studies that result in more informative conclusions, particularly around disease modification. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27226141

  10. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process. PMID:26332763

  11. Thrombin use in surgery: an evidence-based review of its clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Sung W; Lew, Wesley K; Weaver, Fred A

    2010-01-01

    When surgical ligation of bleeding fails, or is not possible, surgeons rely on a number of hemostatic aids, including thrombin. This review discusses the history, pharmacology and clinical application of thrombin as a surgical hemostat. The initial thrombin was bovine in origin, but its use has been complicated by the formation of antibodies that cross-react with human coagulation factors. This has been associated with life-threatening bleeding and in some circumstances anaphylaxis and death. Human thrombin, isolated from pooled plasma of donors, was developed in an effort to minimize these risks, but its downsides are its limited availability and the potential for transmitting blood-borne pathogens. Recently a recombinant thrombin has been developed, and approved for use by the FDA. It has the advantage of being minimally antigenic and devoid of the risk of viral transmission. Thrombin is often used in conjunction with other hemostatic aids, including absorbable agents such as Gelfoam, and with fibrinogen in fibrin glues. The last part of this review will discuss these agents in detail, and review their clinical applications. PMID:22282693

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from methyldibromo glutaronitrile in a sanitary pad and review of Australian clinic data.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason D; Frowen, Kathryn E; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-03-01

    Methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has rarely been reported as an allergen in adhesives but is recognized as a common allergen in skin care products in Europe. It has been banned for use in leave-on products by the European Union. In this study, we present a case with an unusual source of this common allergen and review all cases of allergy to MDBGN from our clinics over a 12-year period. A 49-year-old nurse presented with dermatitis affecting the vulva caused by MDBGN present in her sanitary pad. All other cases of allergy to MDBGN in patients attending the occupational dermatology or contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Victoria, between January 1993 and December 2004, were reviewed. Patch testing was positive to her sanitary pad, the adhesive and MDBGN, which were used as a biocide in the pad adhesive. Only 20 cases of allergy to MDBGN have been diagnosed in 2837 patients tested during this period (0.7%). To conclude, this study highlights the importance of considering allergic contact dermatitis in the differential diagnosis of vulval rashes and the emergence of MDBGN as an important sensitizer. However, our review suggests that MDBGN remains an infrequent cause of allergy in Australia. PMID:17295694

  13. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections. PMID:15841280

  14. Drug-related problems (DRPs) identified from geriatric medication safety review clinics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Hau; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; We, Chiung-Jung; Lu, I-Shu; Chiu, Lee-Shu; Wu, Shwu-Chong

    2012-01-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) were identified from baseline data of 193 Medication Safety Review Clinic (MSRC) patients. MSRCs enroll older adults (≥ 65 years) with either (1) prescriptions of ≥ 8 chronic medications (drugs prescribed for ≥ 28 days) or (2) a visit to ≥ 3 different physicians at the two participating hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from August to October 2007. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) Classification Version 5.01 was used to report DRPs. Mean age was 76.2 ± 6.2 years and 53% of participants were male. Participants had, on average, 9.0 ± 2.6 chronic conditions and took 8.9 ± 3.1 chronic medications and 1.7 ± 1.8 dietary supplements. Eighty-seven percent had at least one DRP. Being older, having orthostatic hypotension and taking more chronic medications were associated with higher likelihood of having at least one DRP. For the 1713 medications and 331 diet supplements reviewed, 427 DRPs were found, 490 causes (1.1 ± 0.4 per problem) identified and 1067 interventions proposed (2.5 ± 0.6 per problem). The most common DRP category was "drug not taken/administered" (35%), and the most common offending drug category was cardiovascular agents (33%). Prevalence of DRPs was high among geriatric outpatients prescribed multiple medications. Careful medication review is needed in routine clinical practice to improve prescription quality. PMID:21353318

  15. Clinical Decision Support Alert Appropriateness: A Review and Proposal for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Thomas, Eric J.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Sittig, Dean F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many healthcare providers are adopting clinical decision support (CDS) systems to improve patient safety and meet meaningful use requirements. Computerized alerts that prompt clinicians about drug-allergy, drug-drug, and drug-disease warnings or provide dosing guidance are most commonly implemented. Alert overrides, which occur when clinicians do not follow the guidance presented by the alert, can hinder improved patient outcomes. Methods We present a review of CDS alerts and describe a proposal to develop novel methods for evaluating and improving CDS alerts that builds upon traditional informatics approaches. Our proposal incorporates previously described models for predicting alert overrides that utilize retrospective chart review to determine which alerts are clinically relevant and which overrides are justifiable. Results Despite increasing implementations of CDS alerts, detailed evaluations rarely occur because of the extensive labor involved in manual chart reviews to determine alert and response appropriateness. Further, most studies have solely evaluated alert overrides that are appropriate or justifiable. Our proposal expands the use of web-based monitoring tools with an interactive dashboard for evaluating CDS alert and response appropriateness that incorporates the predictive models. The dashboard provides 2 views, an alert detail view and a patient detail view, to provide a full history of alerts and help put the patient's events in context. Conclusion The proposed research introduces several innovations to address the challenges and gaps in alert evaluations. This research can transform alert evaluation processes across healthcare settings, leading to improved CDS, reduced alert fatigue, and increased patient safety. PMID:24940129

  16. A review of the clinical performance of the Aptima HPV assay.

    PubMed

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This comprehensive review compiles published data from 62 original articles comparing different HPV tests and one meta-analysis on the clinical performance of the Aptima HR HPV (AHPV) assay in either screening or referral populations as well as for the purpose of test of cure. A number of publications with technical issues were also considered. Besides a brief introduction in the development of E6/E7 mRNA testing, the review summarizes data on analytical sensitivies and specificities, as well as on clinical sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV with histological endpoints CIN2+ and CIN3+, where available. Although most studies were of cross-sectional design, five studies with a longitudinal prospective design or component were identified. In addition to the study design, sample size, age and CIN2/3+ prevalence of the respective cohort are listed. This allows direct comparison of the published data in the respective groups. One major outcome of this review is the remarkably stable similar sensitivities of AHPV and HC2 independent from study design for detection of CIN2/3+ combined with a higher specificity of the AHPV. The second outcome was the longitudinal predictive value derived from registry linkage and other prospective studies that would support the applicability of the AHPV test in primary screening with at least a three year screening interval. PMID:26614686

  17. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties.

    PubMed

    Naser, Belal; Bodinet, Cornelia; Tegtmeier, Martin; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2005-03-01

    Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections. PMID:15841280

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the clinical feeding evaluation in detecting aspiration in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Irene; Conway, Aifric; Henriques, Filipa; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical feeding evaluation (CFE) compared to instrumental assessments in detecting oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) in children. This is important to support clinical decision-making and to provide safe, cost-effective, higher quality care. All published and unpublished studies in all languages assessing the diagnostic accuracy of CFE compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and/or fibre-optic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) in detecting OPA in paediatric populations were sought. Databases were searched from inception to April 2015. Grey literature, citations, and references were also searched. Two independent reviewers extracted and analysed data. Accuracy estimates were calculated. Research reports were translated into English as required. Six studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of CFE using VFSS and/or FEES were eligible for inclusion. Sample sizes, populations studied, and CFE characteristics varied widely. The overall methodological quality of the studies, assessed with QUADAS-2, was considered 'low'. Results suggested that CFEs trialling liquid consistencies might provide better accuracy estimates than CFEs trialling solids exclusively. This systematic review highlights the critical lack of evidence on the accuracy of CFE in detecting OPA in children. Larger well-designed primary diagnostic test accuracy studies in this area are needed to inform dysphagia assessment in paediatrics. PMID:26862075

  19. Clinical solid waste management practices and its impact on human health and environment - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Santhanam, Amutha; Nik Norulaini, N.A.; Omar, A.K. Mohd

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Appropriate waste management technology for safe handling and disposal of clinical solid waste. > Infectious risk assessment on unsafe handling of clinical solid waste. > Recycling-reuse program of clinical solid waste materials. > Effective sterilization technology to reduce exposure of infectious risk. - Abstract: The management of clinical solid waste (CSW) continues to be a major challenge, particularly, in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. Poor conduct and inappropriate disposal methods exercised during handling and disposal of CSW is increasing significant health hazards and environmental pollution due to the infectious nature of the waste. This article summarises a literature review into existing CSW management practices in the healthcare centers. The information gathered in this paper has been derived from the desk study of open literature survey. Numerous researches have been conducted on the management of CSW. Although, significant steps have been taken on matters related to safe handling and disposal of the clinical waste, but improper management practice is evident from the point of initial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of the mismanagement of CSW are the lack of appropriate legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lack of awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centers of the developing world have faced financial difficulties and therefore looking for cost effective disposal methods of clinical waste. This paper emphasizes to continue the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilization by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization technology at the point of initial collection. Emphasis is on the priority to inactivate the infectious micro-organisms in CSW. In that case, waste would not pose any threat to healthcare workers. The recycling-reuse program would be carried out successfully with the non

  20. Clinical review: A review and analysis of heart rate variability and the diagnosis and prognosis of infection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial infection leading to organ failure is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients. Early diagnosis and expeditious treatment is a cornerstone of therapy. Evaluating the systemic host response to infection as a complex system provides novel insights: however, bedside application with clinical value remains wanting. Providing an integrative measure of an altered host response, the patterns and character of heart rate fluctuations measured over intervals-in-time may be analysed with a panel of mathematical techniques that quantify overall fluctuation, spectral composition, scale-free variation, and degree of irregularity or complexity. Using these techniques, heart rate variability (HRV) has been documented to be both altered in the presence of systemic infection, and correlated with its severity. In this review and analysis, we evaluate the use of HRV monitoring to provide early diagnosis of infection, document the prognostic implications of altered HRV in infection, identify current limitations, highlight future research challenges, and propose improvement strategies. Given existing evidence and potential for further technological advances, we believe that longitudinal, individualized, and comprehensive HRV monitoring in critically ill patients at risk for or with existing infection offers a means to harness the clinical potential of this bedside application of complex systems science. PMID:20017889

  1. Outcomes of Health System Structures, Highly Pertinent Clinical Information, Idea Stimulators, Clinical Reviews, and Prediction Tools: JABFM Exemplified.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria; Seehusen, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    This issue exemplifies the types of articles that JABFM publishes to advance family medicine. We have articles on the implications of health system organizational structures. Three of these are international articles at the level of the national health system (1 from China) and systematic local health interventions (1 from Canada and 1 from Netherlands). Inside the United States, where there are more family physicians, there is less obesity, and designation as a Patient Centered Medical Home is related to increased rates of colorectal cancer screening. Review articles on common clinical topics discuss treatments that are changing (acne in pregnancy) or lack consensus (distal radial fractures). We have articles on making life easier in the office, such as for predicting Vitamin D levels, osteoporosis, and pre-diabetes in normal weight adults. There are articles to raise awareness of the "newest" testing or treatments, that is, auditory brainstem implants. "Reminder" articles highlight known entities that need to be reinforced to prevent over-/underdiagnosis or treatment, for example, "cotton fever." Another article discusses the increased risk for postoperative complications with sleep apnea. We also provide "thought" pieces, in this case about the terminology we are using to extend our concept of patient-centered medical homes. PMID:26957371

  2. The Clinical Learning Environment Review as a model for impactful self-directed quality control initiatives in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Saul, Kenneth; Casamiquela, Kathleen; McCowan, Nancye; Jackson, Jeremy D; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program was designed to assess the learning environment in residencies and fellowships accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The program's focus is preventing harm to patients. This effort was purposely separated from the residency survey process so that training programs would be open to identifying and preventing errors without fear of jeopardizing their accreditation status. In our dermatology residency program, we established a resident-centered project for quality assessment/quality improvement (QA/QI). We identified areas of potential patient harm, designed methods to quantifiably assess the problems, and developed focused and cost-effective initiatives to improve patient safety. A new initiative was presented at each monthly faculty meeting. This project jump-started QA/QI efforts in our department and has improved patient safety. Our QA/QI project also has enhanced resident/faculty communication and provided trainees with experience in designing QA/QI efforts. It could serve as a model for postresidency efforts to prevent patient harm. PMID:26919498

  3. Clinical Correlates of Co-Occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Budney, Alan J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims A growing literature has documented the substantial prevalence of and putative mechanisms underlying co-occurring (i.e., concurrent or simultaneous) cannabis and tobacco use. Greater understanding of the clinical correlates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use may suggest how intervention strategies may be refined to improve cessation outcomes and decrease the public health burden associated with cannabis and tobacco use. Methods A systematic review of the literature on clinical diagnoses, psychosocial problems, and outcomes associated with co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Twenty-eight studies compared clinical correlates in co-occurring cannabis and tobacco users vs. cannabis or tobacco only users. These included studies of treatment-seekers in clinical trials and non-treatment-seekers in cross-sectional or longitudinal epidemiological or non-population-based surveys. Results Sixteen studies examined clinical diagnoses, four studies examined psychosocial problems, and 11 studies examined cessation outcomes in co-occurring cannabis and tobacco users (several studies examined multiple clinical correlates). Relative to cannabis use only, co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use was associated with a greater likelihood of cannabis use disorders, more psychosocial problems, and poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. Relative to tobacco use only, co-occurring use did not appear to be consistently associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use disorders, more psychosocial problems, nor poorer tobacco cessation outcomes. Conclusions Cannabis users who also smoke tobacco are more dependent on cannabis, have more psychosocial problems, and have poorer cessation outcomes than those who use cannabis but not tobacco. The converse does not appear to be the case. PMID:22340422

  4. Insights and clinical perspectives of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the available evidence.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana; Santagati, Maria; Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Cafiso, Viviana; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of glycopeptide reduced susceptibility and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains is a growing clinical problem that poses significant clinical challenges in treatment. Its development is a complex and novel process involving many subtle physiological changes in the micro-organism. Daptomycin is the first cyclic lipopeptide approved for clinical use. Unlike most other antimicrobials, a trend towards increased daptomycin resistance has not been reported, although several cases of daptomycin non-susceptibility have been reported. The present review will present the available evidence on daptomycin resistance of S. aureus, with particular attention to its development. In addition to a literature overview, we have compiled the reported cases of daptomycin non-susceptibility to shed light on possible clinical mechanisms of resistance. In the 36 reports describing 62 clinical cases, infections caused by meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 1mg/L and 2mg/L often led to vancomycin treatment failure, which may be associated with the development of non-susceptibility to daptomycin. Additional evidence suggests that underdosage of daptomycin is an important clinical aspect that merits further study. The current analysis highlights the importance of determining the MIC when using vancomycin to treat patients with severe S. aureus infections and that when failure is suspected, testing for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) may also be necessary. Whilst further investigation is needed, it can be hypothesised that MRSA strains become hVISA during prolonged bacteraemia, which may predispose to the development of daptomycin resistance. PMID:26143590

  5. Is Toxoplasma gondii type related to clinical outcome in human congenital infection? Systematic and critical review.

    PubMed

    Rico-Torres, C P; Vargas-Villavicencio, J A; Correa, D

    2016-07-01

    In human congenital toxoplasmosis the effects of parasite burden and pregnancy time at infection on clinical outcome are well known, but there is controversy regarding the role of Toxoplasma gondii type. Through a systematic review of the literature, we aimed to discern if T. gondii type has a role on clinical outcome in human congenital toxoplasmosis. We built up a database of congenital toxoplasmosis from reports of cases, case series and screening-based cohorts, which had information about parasite type, gestation time at maternal infection and/or clinical outcome in the product. Then, we obtained frequencies for loci used to genotype geographical origin of cases and types found. Also, odds ratios were calculated for association between time of maternal infection or parasite type on outcome. Type II parasites were the most common in Europe, Asia and Africa, while in America there were mainly atypical strains. More newborns with clinical problems were born from mothers infected during the first half of gestation than from those acquiring the parasite after week 24, regardless of parasite genotype (92.9 vs. 16.1 %, OR = 67.9, CI95 25.4-181.6). Type I and atypical parasites were associated with clinical problems as opposed to types II and III, regardless of pregnancy period at infection (86.9 vs. 72.9 %, OR = 2.47, CI95 1.1-5.4). A significant and remarkable tendency of type I parasites to be present during early pregnancy was also observed (94.4 vs. 5.6 %, P < 0.009). In addition to parasite burden and period of gestation, T. gondii genotype seems involved in CT clinical outcome. PMID:27146878

  6. Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Lori J; Van Haren, Frank; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequently cited in both subjective and objective studies. As a result, interventions are targeted towards modifiable factors to ameliorate their impact. This paper reviews normal sleep physiology and the impact that sleep disturbance has on patient psychophysiological recovery, and the contribution that the clinical environment has on intensive care patients' sleep. PMID:25852963

  7. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic Diseases, Host Responses, Cancer, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses. There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  8. Reflexology: an update of a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Posadzki, P; Lee, M S

    2011-02-01

    Reflexology is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this update is to critically evaluate the evidence for or against the effectiveness of reflexology in patients with any type of medical condition. Six electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Their methodological quality was assessed independently by the two reviewers using the Jadad score. Overall, 23 studies met all inclusion criteria. They related to a wide range of medical conditions. The methodological quality of the RCTs was often poor. Nine high quality RCTs generated negative findings; and five generated positive findings. Eight RCTs suggested that reflexology is effective for the following conditions: diabetes, premenstrual syndrome, cancer patients, multiple sclerosis, symptomatic idiopathic detrusor over-activity and dementia yet important caveats remain. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence does not demonstrate convincingly reflexology to be an effective treatment for any medical condition. PMID:21111551

  9. [Pneumoblastoma in children. A clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bongo, S; Coze, C; Scheiner, C; Coquet, M; Devred, P; Bernard, J L

    1996-10-01

    Pulmonary blastoma is a rare malignant tumor. A new case is reported in a 3 years 6 month-old girl. An apparent clinical remission was first obtained after a surgical treatment followed by a conventional chemotherapy during six months. Afterwards the persistence of a microscopic residual pulmonary disease lead us to deliver successfully an intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cells reinjection. The child remains disease free 12 months after graft. Problems set by the histogenesis of this tumor, its unspecific clinical and paraclinical features and the role of conventional and intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation are discussed on the basis of a review of 50 cases in the literature. PMID:8952639

  10. Magnesium Deficiency and Proton-Pump Inhibitor Use: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    William, Jeffrey H; Danziger, John

    2016-06-01

    The association of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and hypomagnesemia has garnered much attention over the last 5 years. A large body of observational data has linked chronic PPI use with hypomagnesemia, presumably due to decreased intestinal absorption and consequent magnesium deficiency. However, despite the increasing prevalence of this highly popular class of medicine, and despite potential significant risks associated with magnesium depletion, including cardiac arrhythmias and seizures, there are no well-designed studies to delineate the nature of this observed association. Consequently, providers must use best judgment to inform clinical decision making. This review summarizes the current body of evidence linking PPI use with hypomagnesemia, acknowledges the possibility of significant residual confounding in the observational data, explains potential physiologic mechanisms, and offers clinical recommendations. PMID:26582556

  11. Evidence review and clinical guidance for the use of ziprasidone in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While indicated for schizophrenia and acute mania, ziprasidone’s evidence base and use in clinical practice extends beyond these regulatory approvals. We, an invited panel of experts led by a working group of 3, critically examined the evidence and our collective experience regarding the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of ziprasidone across its clinical uses. There was no opportunity for manufacturer input into the content of the review. As anticipated, ziprasidone was found to be effective for its indicated uses, although its utility in mania and mixed states lacked comparative data. Beyond these uses, the available data were either unimpressive or were lacking. An attractive characteristic is its neutral effect on weight thereby providing patients with a non-obesogenic long-term treatment option. Key challenges in practice include the need for dosing on a full stomach and managing its early onset adverse effect of restlessness. Addressing these issues are critical to its long-term success PMID:23347694

  12. Review of technology development and clinical trials of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian E.; Streeter, Jackson; de Taboada, Luis

    2010-02-01

    Stroke is the one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, claiming 600,000 lives each year. Evidence suggests that near infrared (NIR) illumination has a beneficial effect on a variety of cells when these cells are exposed to adverse conditions. Among these conditions is the hypoxic state produced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To demonstrate the impact NIR Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) has on AIS in humans, a series of double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials were designed using the NeuroThera(R) System (NTS). The NTS was designed and developed to treat subjects non-invasively using 808 nm NIR illumination. TLT, as it applies to stroke therapy, and the NTS will be described. The results of the two clinical trials: NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 1 (NEST-1) and NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 2 (NEST-2) will be reviewed and discussed.

  13. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  14. Giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses: Clinical characteristics and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, KE-JIA; WANG, SHEN-QING; LIN, LIN

    2013-01-01

    Giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses ary very rare, with only a few dozen cases reported in the literature. Given their rarity, the clinical characteristics and treatment of this disease remain controversial. In this study, the clinical presentation and surgical methods used to treat three patients with giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses are described, combined with a review of the literature from 1975 to 2011. In total, 45 patients with giant osteomas arising from the ethmoid and frontal sinuses (including the present cases) have been reported in 41 articles. Headache and ocular signs are the most common symptoms. This disease often leads to intracranial or intraorbital complications. The main treatment for giant osteoma is surgery via an external approach. The outcome of surgery for giant osteoma is good, with rare recurrence, no malignant transformation and few persistent symptoms. PMID:23759920

  15. Tunnels and grooves for supraclavicular nerves within the clavicle: review of the literature and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Chorti, Angeliki; Karanassos, Marinos; Didagelos, Matthaios; Lazaridis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Perforation of the clavicle by supraclavicular nerves is a common anatomical variation. This variation has been reported in several studies based on post-mortem, surgical and radiologic findings, with an overall frequency between 1 and 6.6 %. The penetrating branch passes either through a bony tunnel or a groove on the superior surface of the bone. Entrapment neuropathy of the perforating branch is a documented clinical entity reported in the literature. The intraosseous course of the supraclavicular nerves makes them vulnerable to injury in case of clavicular fractures or during surgical manipulations of these fractures. Furthermore, this variation should be taken into account during the interpretation of chest and shoulder radiographs. The purpose of the current study is to perform an extended review of the relevant literature, highlighting the clinical impact of this variation, as well as to incorporate our own findings into them. PMID:26702936

  16. Pain and placebo in pediatrics: A comprehensive review of laboratory and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Kossowsky, Joe; Krummenacher, Peter; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel; Colloca, Luana

    2014-01-01

    Pain modulation by placebo mechanisms is one of the most robust and best-studied phenomena, yet almost all research investigating the mechanisms and implications of the placebo analgesia are based on adult research. After highlighting crucial aspects that need to be considered in studying pain modulation in children, this comprehensive review examines studies related to pain modulation with an emphasis on factors such as age, neural development and pain measures. Psychological mechanisms underlying placebo effects including: 1) verbally-induced expectations; 2) conditioning and learning mechanisms; 3) child-parent-physician interactions are critically discussed. Taken together, research suggests that placebo mechanisms can impact therapeutic outcomes and potentially be exploited clinically to improve clinical outcomes in pediatric population. Recommendations for further investigating the mechanistic bases and harnessing placebo effects for supportive therapeutic applications are given. PMID:25180010

  17. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  18. Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: Clinical outcomes and literature review.

    PubMed

    Madaelil, Thomas P; Kansagra, Akash P; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2016-08-01

    There are limited data on outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric stroke using modern devices. In this study, we report two cases of pediatric acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy, both with good angiographic result (TICI 3) and clinical outcome (no neurological deficits at 90 days). In addition, we conducted a literature review of all previously reported cases describing the use of modern thrombectomy devices. Including our two cases, the aggregate rate of partial or complete vessel recanalization was 100% (22/22), and the aggregate rate of favorable clinical outcome was 91% (20/22). This preliminary evidence suggests that mechanical thrombectomy with modern devices may be a safe and effective treatment option in pediatric patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26945589

  19. Coreference resolution: A review of general methodologies and applications in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaping; Chapman, Wendy W.; Crowley, Rebecca S.; Savova, Guergana K.

    2011-01-01

    Coreference resolution is the task of determining linguistic expressions that refer to the same real-world entity in natural language. Research on coreference resolution in the general English domain dates back to 1960s and 1970s. However, research on coreference resolution in the clinical free text has not seen major development. The recent US government initiatives that promote the use of electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to mine patient notes as more and more health care institutions adopt EHR. Our goal was to review recent advances in general purpose coreference resolution to lay the foundation for methodologies in the clinical domain, facilitated by the availability of a shared lexical resource of gold standard coreference annotations, the Ontology Development and Information Extraction (ODIE) corpus. PMID:21856441

  20. [On the clinical applications of logotherapy: a review of Victor Emil Frankl inheritance].

    PubMed

    Girmenia, E; Andrissi, L; Tambone, V

    2014-01-01

    The Viktor E. Frankl's thought has found wide application in many areas of the Clinic, not limited to the neuropsychiatric area. If the franklian work is known worldwide for being a theory and a practice within neurotic disorders, we must not forget how logotherapy has been put at the disposal of the sufferer in its broadest sense. Especially in the context of care and care of the chronically and evolutionary ill (cancer, heart disease, degenerative diseases, etc.), the thought and practice logotherapy have made and continue to make a valuable contribution. In this review we will cover in more detail the application of logotherapy in clinical-care, pausing to examine the international literature. PMID:25203351

  1. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  2. Management of persistent anal canal carcinoma after combined-modality therapy: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anal canal carcinoma is a rare gastro-intestinal cancer. Radiochemotherapy is the recommended primary treatment for patients with non-metastatic carcinoma; surgery is generally reserved for persistent or recurrent disease. Follow-up and surveillance after primary treatment is paramount to classify patients in those with complete remission, persistent or progressive disease. Locally persistent disease represents a clinically significant problem and its management remains subject of some controversy. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise recommendations for the primary treatment of anal canal carcinoma, to focus on the optimal time to consider residual disease as genuine persistence to proceed with salvage treatment, and to discern how this analysis might inform future clinical trials in management in this class of patients. PMID:24472223

  3. Health economic evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical practice focused review.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Andreas; Khunti, Kamlesh; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Yale, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a growing healthcare burden primarily due to long-term complications. Strict glycemic control helps in preventing complications, and early introduction of insulin may be more cost-effective than maintaining patients on multiple oral agents. This is an expert opinion review based on English peer-reviewed articles (2000-2012) to discuss the health economic consequences of T2D treatment intensification. T2D costs are driven by inpatient care for treatment of diabetes complications (40%-60% of total cost), with drug therapy for glycemic control representing 18% of the total cost. Insulin therapy provides the most improved glycemic control and reduction of complications, although hypoglycemia and weight gain may occur. Early treatment intensification with insulin analogs in patients with poor glycemic control appears to be cost-effective and improves clinical outcomes. PMID:25861233

  4. A review of the pharmacology and clinical application of alfaxalone in cats.

    PubMed

    Warne, Leon N; Beths, Thierry; Whittem, Ted; Carter, Jennifer E; Bauquier, Sébastien H

    2015-02-01

    Alfaxalone-2-hydroxpropyl-β-cyclodextrin (alfaxalone-HPCD) was first marketed for veterinary use in Australia in 2001 and has since progressively became available throughout the world, including the USA, where in 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) registration was granted. Despite the growing body of published works and increasing global availability of alfaxalone-HPCD, the accumulating evidence for its use in cats has not been thoroughly reviewed. The purpose of this review is: (1) to detail the pharmacokinetic properties of alfaxalone-HPCD in cats; (2) to assess the pharmacodynamic properties of alfaxalone-HPCD, including its cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous system, neuromuscular, hepatic, renal, haematological, blood-biochemical, analgesic and endocrine effects; and (3) to consider the clinical application of alfaxalone-HPCD for sedation, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in cats. Based on the published literature, alfaxalone-HPCD provides a good alternative to the existing intravenous anaesthetic options for healthy cats. PMID:25582797

  5. A practical comparison of blinded methods for sample size reviews in survival data clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Todd, Susan; Valdés-Márquez, Elsa; West, Jodie

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents practical approaches to the problem of sample size re-estimation in the case of clinical trials with survival data when proportional hazards can be assumed. When data are readily available at the time of the review, on a full range of survival experiences across the recruited patients, it is shown that, as expected, performing a blinded re-estimation procedure is straightforward and can help to maintain the trial's pre-specified error rates. Two alternative methods for dealing with the situation where limited survival experiences are available at the time of the sample size review are then presented and compared. In this instance, extrapolation is required in order to undertake the sample size re-estimation. Worked examples, together with results from a simulation study are described. It is concluded that, as in the standard case, use of either extrapolation approach successfully protects the trial error rates. PMID:22337635

  6. Health Economic Evaluation of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Andreas; Khunti, Kamlesh; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Yale, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a growing healthcare burden primarily due to long-term complications. Strict glycemic control helps in preventing complications, and early introduction of insulin may be more cost-effective than maintaining patients on multiple oral agents. This is an expert opinion review based on English peer-reviewed articles (2000–2012) to discuss the health economic consequences of T2D treatment intensification. T2D costs are driven by inpatient care for treatment of diabetes complications (40%–60% of total cost), with drug therapy for glycemic control representing 18% of the total cost. Insulin therapy provides the most improved glycemic control and reduction of complications, although hypoglycemia and weight gain may occur. Early treatment intensification with insulin analogs in patients with poor glycemic control appears to be cost-effective and improves clinical outcomes. PMID:25861233

  7. Clinical applications of HPLC-ICP-MS element speciation: A review.

    PubMed

    Delafiori, Jeany; Ring, Gavin; Furey, Ambrose

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and Mercury (Hg) are three trace elements that have been the subject of much analytical discussion and investigation over the last three decades. While Selenium (Se) is among the list of essential trace elements necessary for the regulation of metabolic processes and overall health, As and Hg are not, and have been the centre of various cases surrounding the contamination of food, water and the environment. The focus of this review is to explore the area of chemical speciation, particularly as it relates to the measurement of these elements in various clinical matrices by HPLC-ICP-MS. This review will highlight the importance of accurately identifying the various chemical species of each of these elements, especially when considering their respective toxicological impacts on human health. PMID:27130123

  8. Service oriented architecture for clinical decision support: a systematic review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Loya, Salvador Rodriguez; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Chatwin, Chris; Huser, Vojtech

    2014-12-01

    The use of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) has been identified as a promising approach for improving health care by facilitating reliable clinical decision support (CDS). A review of the literature through October 2013 identified 44 articles on this topic. The review suggests that SOA related technologies such as Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) and Service Component Architecture (SCA) have not been generally adopted to impact health IT systems' performance for better care solutions. Additionally, technologies such as Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) and architectural approaches like Service Choreography have not been generally exploited among researchers and developers. Based on the experience of other industries and our observation of the evolution of SOA, we found that the greater use of these approaches have the potential to significantly impact SOA implementations for CDS. PMID:25325996

  9. Spitz/Reed nevi: a review of clinical-dermatoscopic and histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Azevedo, Filomena; Mota, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spitz/Reed nevi are melanocytic lesions that may mimic melanoma at clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological levels. Management strategies of these lesions remain controversial. Objectives: We aim a correlation among clinical-dermatoscopic and histological features of a series of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed during 7 years at the Department of Dermatology. Methods: Clinical, dermatoscopic and histological features of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed at our tertiary hospital from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed in order to seek correlation. Results: All described dermatoscopic patterns for Spitz/Reed nevi were found among the 47 enrolled patients; starburst and atypical/multicomponent patterns prevailed (57.4%). Reticular pattern predominated among children younger than 12 years, whereas homogeneous pattern was more frequent in patients older than 12 years, although these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.785). Among histological atypical lesions, all dermatoscopic patterns were represented, but the atypical/multicomponent predominated (56.3%). Two out of 11 dermatoscopically atypical lesions did not show histopathological counterpart. Conclusions: The excision of Spitz/Reed nevi in adults is supported, given the inability to accurately predict those with histopathological atypia, based on clinical and dermatoscopic features, which may raise concern about malignancy. PMID:27222770

  10. A review of the clinical and biologic aspects of HPV-positive HNC

    PubMed Central

    Blitzer, Grace C.; Smith, Molly A.; Harris, Stephen L.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection including limitations of these methods are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in utilizing these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers. PMID:24606845

  11. Informed consent in psychiatry clinical research: A conceptual review of issues, challenges, and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Umesh Chandra; Kharawala, Saifuddin

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent in psychiatry clinical research involving subjects with diminished mental abilities and impaired consent capacity has been a challenge for researchers, posing many ethical concerns and procedural hurdles due to participants’ cognitive deficits and impaired ability to judge reality. Regulations seem inadequate and provide limited guidance, not sufficient to address all the ethical issues inherent in different situations related to obtaining consent from decisionally impaired persons. Researchers are struggling to find a balance between risk-benefit ratio, research advancement, and autonomy of study subjects. Inspired to improve the consent process in psychiatry clinical research, many studies have been conducted focusing on various informed consent-related ethical concerns, with the aim of developing appropriate strategies and optimizing the informed consent procedure in psychiatry clinical research, overcoming the ethical concerns. This article critically reviews the various ethical issues and consent challenges, their underlying reasons, and investigates the appropriate strategies and practices needed to be adopted while obtaining informed consent from subjects with impaired consent capacity, participating in psychiatry clinical research. PMID:22347696

  12. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Cortical Button Distal Biceps Repair: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcomes and complications of the cortical button distal biceps fixation method. Material and Methods. All methods followed the PRISMA guidelines. Included studies had to describe clinical outcomes and complications after acute distal biceps repair with cortical button fixation. Eligibility criteria also included English language, more than 5 cases with minimum follow-up of 6 months, and preferably usage of at least one relevant clinical score (MEPS, ASES, and/or DASH) for final outcome. A loss of at least 30° in motion—flexion, extension, pronation, or supination—and a loss of at least 30% of strength were considered an unsatisfactory result. Results. The review identified 7 articles including 105 patients (mean age 43.6 years) with 106 acute distal biceps ruptures. Mean follow-up was 26.3 months. Functional outcome of ROM regarding flexion/extension and pronation/supination was satisfactory in 94 (89.5%) and 86 (82%) patients in respect. Averaged flexion and supination strength had been reported in 6/7 studies (97 patients) and were satisfactory in 82.4% of them. The most common complication was transient nerve palsy (14.2%). The overall reoperation rate was 4.8% (5/105 cases). Conclusion. Cortical button fixation for acute distal biceps repair is a reproducible operation with good clinical results. Most of the complications can be avoided with appropriate surgical technique. PMID:27525303

  13. Is fresh frozen plasma clinically effective? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Brunskill, S J; Hyde, C J; McClelland, D B L; Murphy, M F

    2004-07-01

    Summary Randomized controlled trials of good quality are a recognized means to robustly assess the efficacy of interventions in clinical practice. A systematic identification and appraisal of all randomized trials involving fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been undertaken in parallel to the drafting of the updated British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines on the use of FFP. A total of 57 trials met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Most clinical uses of FFP, currently recommended by practice guidelines, are not supported by evidence from randomized trials. In particular, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of the prophylactic use of FFP. Many published trials on the use of FFP have enrolled small numbers of patients, and provided inadequate information on the ability of the trial to detect meaningful differences in outcomes between the two patient groups. Other concerns about the design of the trials include the dose of FFP used, and the potential for bias. No studies have taken adequate account of the extent to which adverse effects might negate the clinical benefits of treatment with FFP. There is a need to consider how best to develop new trials to determine the efficacy of FFP in different clinical scenarios to provide the evidence base to support national guidelines for transfusion practice. Trials of modified FFP (e.g. pathogen inactivated) are of questionable value when there is little evidence that the standard product is an effective treatment. PMID:15198745

  14. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity. PMID:27113643

  15. Nanoparticle-Based Medicines: A Review of FDA-Approved Materials and Clinical Trials to Date.

    PubMed

    Bobo, Daniel; Robinson, Kye J; Islam, Jiaul; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Corrie, Simon R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we provide an up to date snapshot of nanomedicines either currently approved by the US FDA, or in the FDA clinical trials process. We define nanomedicines as therapeutic or imaging agents which comprise a nanoparticle in order to control the biodistribution, enhance the efficacy, or otherwise reduce toxicity of a drug or biologic. We identified 51 FDA-approved nanomedicines that met this definition and 77 products in clinical trials, with ~40% of trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov started in 2014 or 2015. While FDA approved materials are heavily weighted to polymeric, liposomal, and nanocrystal formulations, there is a trend towards the development of more complex materials comprising micelles, protein-based NPs, and also the emergence of a variety of inorganic and metallic particles in clinical trials. We then provide an overview of the different material categories represented in our search, highlighting nanomedicines that have either been recently approved, or are already in clinical trials. We conclude with some comments on future perspectives for nanomedicines, which we expect to include more actively-targeted materials, multi-functional materials ("theranostics") and more complicated materials that blur the boundaries of traditional material categories. A key challenge for researchers, industry, and regulators is how to classify new materials and what additional testing (e.g. safety and toxicity) is required before products become available. PMID:27299311

  16. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kochar, Puneet S; Lath, Chinar O; Klein, Andrew P; Ulmer, John L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively. PMID:27081235

  17. Acute flaccid myelitis: A clinical review of US cases 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Schreiner, Teri L; Van Haren, Keith; Yang, Michele; Glaser, Carol A; Tyler, Kenneth L; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-09-01

    This review highlights clinical features of the increasing cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with anterior myelitis noted in the United States from 2012 to 2015. Acute flaccid myelitis refers to acute flaccid limb weakness with spinal cord gray matter lesions on imaging or evidence of spinal cord motor neuron injury on electrodiagnostic testing. Although some individuals demonstrated improvement in motor weakness and functional deficits, most have residual weakness a year or more after onset. Epidemiological evidence and biological plausibility support an association between enterovirus D68 and the recent increase in acute flaccid myelitis cases in the United States. Ann Neurol 2016;80:326-338. PMID:27422805

  18. Neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis has been recognized as a major cause of secondary epilepsy worldwide. So far, most of the knowledge about the disease comes from Latin America and the Indian subcontinent. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa the condition was neglected for a long time, mainly owing to the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. This review therefore focuses on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa, the clinical picture with emphasis on epilepsy, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis and its related epilepsy/epileptic seizures in African resource-poor settings. PMID:23265550

  19. HLA Associations and Clinical Implications in T-Cell Mediated Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Wei-Li; Deng, Shin-Tarng; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2014-01-01

    T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions may range from mild rash to severe fatal reactions. Among them, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), are some of the most life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). Recent advances in pharmacogenetic studies show strong genetic associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to drug hypersensitivity. This review summarizes the literature on recent progresses in pharmacogenetic studies and clinical application of pharmacogenetic screening based on associations between SCARs and specific HLA alleles to avoid serious conditions associated with drug hypersensitivity. PMID:24901010

  20. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. PMID:25892605

  1. The current clinical practice of herbal medicine in psychiatry in mainland China: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saku, M

    1991-12-01

    The current clinical psychiatric practice of herbal medicine in the People's Republic of China was explored by reviewing the literature. The results found in many of the articles were lacking methodological strictness. Some reliable articles reported that certain herbal medicines were effective for psychiatric conditions, and that a combination treatment of modern drugs with herbs was useful for the enhancement of the efficacy and the reduction of both recovery time and side effects. It is suggested that more sophisticated investigations are necessary to corroborate any conclusions concerning the value for herbal medicine in the psychiatric field. PMID:1813678

  2. The relationship between opioid and sugar intake: Review of evidence and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Mysels, David J; Sullivan, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Opioid dependence poses significant public health risks arising from associated morbidity and mortality caused by accidents, infectious disease, and social ramifications of crime and unemployment, among other complications. Opioid use, acute and chronic, is also associated with weight gain, glycemic dysregulation, and dental pathology. The literature supporting the connection between opiate use and development of preference for sweet tastes is reviewed, and further association with dental pathology, weight gain, and loss of glycemic control are considered. We discuss the impact of sweet tastes on the endogenous opioid system as well as clinical implications for analgesia and treating the opiate-dependent patient. PMID:21269006

  3. Towards Ubiquitous Peer Review Strategies to Sustain and Enhance a Clinical Knowledge Management Framework

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Roberto A.; Bradshaw, Richard L.; Bigelow, Sharon M.; Hanna, Timothy P.; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Hulse, Nathan C.; Roemer, Lorrie K.; Wilkinson, Steven G.

    2006-01-01

    Widespread cooperation between domain experts and front-line clinicians is a key component of any successful clinical knowledge management framework. Peer review is an established form of cooperation that promotes the dissemination of new knowledge. The authors describe three peer collaboration scenarios that have been implemented using the knowledge management infrastructure available at Intermountain Healthcare. Utilization results illustrating the early adoption patterns of the proposed scenarios are presented and discussed, along with succinct descriptions of planned enhancements and future implementation efforts. PMID:17238422

  4. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Clark, Brenda; Karkhaneh, Mohammad; Hartling, Lisa; Tjosvold, Lisa; Vandermeer, Ben; Smith, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special education for non

  5. Pemetrexed clinical studies in performance status 2 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ZINNER, RALPH; GRUL, CARLA VISSEREN; SPIGEL, DAVID R.; OBASAJU, COLEMAN

    2016-01-01

    Because poor performance status (PS) is an independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PS scores are widely used by oncologists to make treatment decisions. Advanced NSCLC patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 2 have poor prognoses and are frequently excluded from clinical trials. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed in this patient group. We identified English-language literature (through March 2015) involving completed and ongoing studies through searches of PubMed, meeting abstracts, ClinicalTrials.gov and the European Clinical Trials Register; search terms included ‘pemetrexed,’ ‘NSCLC’ and ‘PS2’. Only studies reporting ≥1 subset analysis of PS2 patients receiving pemetrexed were chosen. Our search identified a total of ten pemetrexed studies in PS2 patients. Eight studies included only chemonaive patients, one study included both chemonaive patients and patients with one prior chemotherapy regimen and one study included only patients with one prior regimen. In subset analyses in these studies, PS2 patients had worse outcomes than PS0-1 patients regardless of treatment. In a phase 3 study, chemonaive advanced NSCLC patients with PS2 receiving pemetrexed-carboplatin versus pemetrexed experienced improved overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; P=0.001], progression-free survival (HR=0.46; P<0.001) and response (P=0.032). This review confirms the poorer outcomes in PS2 vs. PS0-1 patients. Although it is not an approved combination therapy, in clinical studies, PS2 patients treated with pemetrexed plus carboplatin as first-line therapy had improved response rates and survival. Additional research on PS2 patients is needed. PMID:26530033

  6. McCune–Albright syndrome with craniofacial dysplasia: Clinical review and surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Belsuzarri, Telmo Augusto Barba; Araujo, João Flavio Mattos; Melro, Carlos Alberto Morassi; Neves, Maick Willen Fernandes; Navarro, Juliano Nery; Brito, Leandro Gomes; Pontelli, Luis Otavio Carneiro; de Abreu Mattos, Luis Gustavo; Gonçales, Tiago Fernandes; Zeviani, Wolnei Marques

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign fibro-osseous lesion related to an abnormal bone development and replacement by fibrous tissue. FD has three clinical patterns namely monostotic, polyostotic, and the McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS). MAS is a rare genetic disorder (about 3% of all FD's) that comprises a triad of polyostotic FD, café-au-lait skin macules, and precocious puberty. MAS can involve the orbit region and cause stenosis in the optic canal, leading the patient to a progressive visual loss. Methods: We reported a case of craniofacial FD in MAS in a 9-year-old male with progressive visual loss, submitted to optic nerve decompression by fronto-orbito-zygomatic approach, with total recovery. A research was made at Bireme, PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, and MEDLINE with the keywords: FD/craniofacial/McCune–Albright/Optic compression for the clinical review. Results: A clinical review of the disease was made, the multiple, clinical, and surgical management options were presented, and the case report was reported. Conclusion: MAS is a rare disease with a progressive polyostotic FD. Whenever it affects the orbit region, the optic canal, and it is associated with a progressive visual loss, the urgent optic nerve decompression is mandatory, either manually or with a rapid drill. It is known that aggressive approach is associated with less recurrence; it is also associated with worsening of the visual loss in optic nerve decompression. In MAS cases, multiple and less aggressive surgeries seem to be more suitable. PMID:27057395

  7. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  8. Genetics in endocrinology: genetic variation in deiodinases: a systematic review of potential clinical effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Verloop, Herman; Dekkers, Olaf M; Peeters, Robin P; Schoones, Jan W; Smit, Johannes W A

    2014-09-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases represent a family of selenoproteins involved in peripheral and local homeostasis of thyroid hormone action. Deiodinases are expressed in multiple organs and thyroid hormone affects numerous biological systems, thus genetic variation in deiodinases may affect multiple clinical endpoints. Interest in clinical effects of genetic variation in deiodinases has clearly increased. We aimed to provide an overview for the role of deiodinase polymorphisms in human physiology and morbidity. In this systematic review, studies evaluating the relationship between deiodinase polymorphisms and clinical parameters in humans were eligible. No restrictions on publication date were imposed. The following databases were searched up to August 2013: Pubmed, EMBASE (OVID-version), Web of Science, COCHRANE Library, CINAHL (EbscoHOST-version), Academic Search Premier (EbscoHOST-version), and ScienceDirect. Deiodinase physiology at molecular and tissue level is described, and finally the role of these polymorphisms in pathophysiological conditions is reviewed. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) polymorphisms particularly show moderate-to-strong relationships with thyroid hormone parameters, IGF1 production, and risk for depression. D2 variants correlate with thyroid hormone levels, insulin resistance, bipolar mood disorder, psychological well-being, mental retardation, hypertension, and risk for osteoarthritis. D3 polymorphisms showed no relationship with inter-individual variation in serum thyroid hormone parameters. One D3 polymorphism was associated with risk for osteoarthritis. Genetic deiodinase profiles only explain a small proportion of inter-individual variations in serum thyroid hormone levels. Evidence suggests a role of genetic deiodinase variants in certain pathophysiological conditions. The value for determination of deiodinase polymorphism in clinical practice needs further investigation. PMID:24878678

  9. Pain and its clinical associations in individuals with cystic fibrosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Rawlings, Sarah; Bennett, Katharine A; Armstrong, David

    2016-05-01

    Pain is recognized as a clinical complication in cystic fibrosis (CF), but the prevalence, characteristics and clinical associations of this co-morbidity have not been systematically reviewed. Electronic searches of six databases were performed. For inclusion in phase 1, studies reported a pain prevalence rate in CF and/or its clinical associations. For phase 2, included studies reported the measurement properties of validity, reliability and responsiveness of an instrument assessing pain in CF. Two independent reviewers rated the quality of evidence (phase 1) and the measurement properties using the 4-point COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist (phase 2). Of the 400 studies identified in the literature, 16 met the inclusion criteria for phase 1 and 5 for phase 2. The mean (SD) quality score (of 16) was 11.8 (2.3). The pooled prevalence of pain in adults with CF was 77% (95% confidence interval (CI): 57%-92%) and in children was 42% (95% CI: 0%-91%). Common regions of pain included back, abdomen, chest and limbs. In children and adults, pain was associated with a poorer quality of life (QOL) and significant interference with treatments. Measurement properties of three instruments (Brief Pain Inventory, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Daily Pain Assessment-CF) were construct validity and criterion-predictive validity, with variable findings based on 'fair' to 'good' quality studies. Pain is a common problem in both children and adults with CF. It has negative clinical associations with QOL and the ability to successfully undertake treatment. Further research exploring the measurement properties of instruments assessing pain is required. PMID:26873725

  10. Eumovate (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%) cream: a review of clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Goustas, P; Cork, M J; Higson, D

    2003-06-01

    Topical steroid creams and ointments have been available as over-the-counter (OTC) medications for the self treatment of acute dermatitis and other steroid responsive skin disorders for more than ten years. Despite earlier fears, widespread availability and use of these creams is not associated with clinically significant adverse effects. In dermatological practice, hydrocortisone 1% remains the mainstay of treatment for facial eczema, but it is often not effective in eczema affecting other body areas. Eumovate(TM) (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%) cream has recently been made available as a pharmacy medication for the short-term management of acute eczema and allergic dermatitis by adults and children aged 10 or older, based on evidence derived from clinical trials involving over 3500 patients. This review summarises the key efficacy and safety data derived from 29 clinical trials and the post-licensing pharmacovigilance safety information, which supported the reclassification of this product for OTC use. These data show clobetasone butyrate 0.05% is more effective than 1.0% hydrocortisone in the treatment of eczema and more effective than flurandrenolone 0.0125% (p=0.01%) and a potent topical steroid hydrocortisone butyrate (p<0.05), in the treatment of psoriasis. A review of the effect of topical steroids on skin thickness concluded that, following short term application, there was no clinically significant difference between hydrocortisone 1.0% and clobetasone butyrate 0.05% in terms of potential for skin thinning. Similarly, even under extreme conditions, clobetasone butyrate 0.05% has negligible systemic absorption and has almost no effect on HPA axis function. PMID:12775314

  11. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified. PMID:25541545

  12. Systematic review of the global epidemiology, clinical and laboratory profile of enteric fever

    PubMed Central

    Azmatullah, Asma; Qamar, Farah Naz; Thaver, Durrane; Zaidi, Anita KM; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    Background Children suffer the highest burden of enteric fever among populations in South Asian countries. The clinical features are non–specific, vary in populations, and are often difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses, leading to delayed or inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a systematic review to assess the clinical profile and laboratory features of enteric fever across age groups, economic regions, level of care and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Methods We searched PubMed (January 1964–December 2013) for studies describing clinical features in defined cohorts of patients over varying time periods. Studies with all culture–confirmed cases or those with at least 50% culture–confirmed cases were included. 242 reports were screened out of 4398 relevant articles and 180 reports were included for final review. Results 96% of studies were from an urban location, 96% were hospital–based studies, with 41% of studies were from South Asia. Common clinical features in hospitalized children include high–grade fever, coated tongue, anaemia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly neutrophilia, abdominal distension and GI bleeding. In adults’ nausea/vomiting, thrombocytopenia and GI perforation predominate. The case–fatality rate in children under 5 years is higher than school aged children and adolescents, and is highest in Sub Saharan Africa and North Africa/Middle East regions. Multi–drug resistant enteric fever has higher rates of complications than drug sensitive enteric fever, but case fatality rates were comparable in both. Conclusions Our findings indicate variability in disease presentation in adults compared to children, in different regions and in resistant vs sensitive cases. Majority of studies are from hospitalized cases, and are not disaggregated by age. Despite higher complications in MDR enteric fever, case fatality rate is comparable to sensitive cases, with an

  13. Review of clinical brachytherapy uncertainties: Analysis guidelines of GEC-ESTRO and the AAPM☆

    PubMed Central

    Kirisits, Christian; Rivard, Mark J.; Baltas, Dimos; Ballester, Facundo; De Brabandere, Marisol; van der Laarse, Rob; Niatsetski, Yury; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Tanderup, Kari; Venselaar, Jack L.M.; Siebert, Frank-André

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose A substantial reduction of uncertainties in clinical brachytherapy should result in improved outcome in terms of increased local control and reduced side effects. Types of uncertainties have to be identified, grouped, and quantified. Methods A detailed literature review was performed to identify uncertainty components and their relative importance to the combined overall uncertainty. Results Very few components (e.g., source strength and afterloader timer) are independent of clinical disease site and location of administered dose. While the influence of medium on dose calculation can be substantial for low energy sources or non-deeply seated implants, the influence of medium is of minor importance for high-energy sources in the pelvic region. The level of uncertainties due to target, organ, applicator, and/or source movement in relation to the geometry assumed for treatment planning is highly dependent on fractionation and the level of image guided adaptive treatment. Most studies to date report the results in a manner that allows no direct reproduction and further comparison with other studies. Often, no distinction is made between variations, uncertainties, and errors or mistakes. The literature review facilitated the drafting of recommendations for uniform uncertainty reporting in clinical BT, which are also provided. The recommended comprehensive uncertainty investigations are key to obtain a general impression of uncertainties, and may help to identify elements of the brachytherapy treatment process that need improvement in terms of diminishing their dosimetric uncertainties. It is recommended to present data on the analyzed parameters (distance shifts, volume changes, source or applicator position, etc.), and also their influence on absorbed dose for clinically-relevant dose parameters (e.g., target parameters such as D90 or OAR doses). Publications on brachytherapy should include a statement of total dose uncertainty for the entire

  14. Medication reviews in primary care in Sweden: importance of clinical pharmacists' recommendations on drug-related problems.

    PubMed

    Modig, Sara; Holmdahl, Lydia; Bondesson, Åsa

    2016-02-01

    Background One way of preventing and solving drug-related problems in frail elderly is to perform team-based medication reviews. Objective To evaluate the quality of the clinical pharmacy service to primary care using structured medication reviews, focusing on the clinical significance of the recommendations made by clinical pharmacists. Setting A random sample of 150 patients (out of 1541) who received structured team based medication reviews. The patients lived at a geriatric nursing home or were ≥65 years and lived in ordinary housing with medication-related community help. Method Based on information on symptoms, kidney function, blood pressure, diagnoses and the medication list, a pharmacist identified possible drug-related problems and supplied recommendations for the general practitioner to act on. Two independent physicians retrospectively ranked the clinical significance of the recommendations according to Hatoum, with rankings ranging between 1 (adverse significance) and 6 (extremely significant). Main outcome measure The clinical significance of the recommendations. Results In total 349 drug-related problems were identified, leading to recommendations. The vast majority of the recommendations (96 %) were judged to have significance 3 or higher and more than the half were judged to have significance 4 or higher. Conclusion The high proportion of clinically significant recommendations provided by pharmacists when performing team-based medication reviews suggest that these clinical pharmacy services have potential to increase prescribing quality. As such, the medication reviews have the potential for contributing to a better and safer drug therapy for elderly patients. PMID:26582483

  15. Methodological quality of systematic reviews and clinical trials on women's health published in a Brazilian evidence-based health journal

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Cristiane Rufino; Riera, Rachel; Torloni, Maria Regina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of systematic reviews and clinical trials on women's health recently published in a Brazilian evidence-based health journal. METHOD: All systematic reviews and clinical trials on women's health published in the last five years in the Brazilian Journal of Evidence-based Health were retrieved. Two independent reviewers critically assessed the methodological quality of reviews and trials using AMSTAR and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table, respectively. RESULTS: Systematic reviews and clinical trials accounted for less than 10% of the 61 original studies on women's health published in the São Paulo Medical Journal over the last five years. All five reviews were considered to be of moderate quality; the worst domains were publication bias and the appropriate use of study quality in formulating conclusions. All three clinical trials were judged to have a high risk of bias. The participant blinding, personnel and outcome assessors and allocation concealment domains had the worst scores. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the systematic reviews and clinical trials on women's health recently published in a Brazilian evidence-based journal are of low to moderate quality. The quality of these types of studies needs improvement. PMID:23778332

  16. Review of nanomaterials in dentistry: interactions with the oral microenvironment, clinical applications, hazards, and benefits.

    PubMed

    Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Tredwin, Christopher J; Handy, Richard D

    2015-03-24

    Interest in the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) as either nanomedicines or dental materials/devices in clinical dentistry is growing. This review aims to detail the ultrafine structure, chemical composition, and reactivity of dental tissues in the context of interactions with ENMs, including the saliva, pellicle layer, and oral biofilm; then describes the applications of ENMs in dentistry in context with beneficial clinical outcomes versus potential risks. The flow rate and quality of saliva are likely to influence the behavior of ENMs in the oral cavity, but how the protein corona formed on the ENMs will alter bioavailability, or interact with the structure and proteins of the pellicle layer, as well as microbes in the biofilm, remains unclear. The tooth enamel is a dense crystalline structure that is likely to act as a barrier to ENM penetration, but underlying dentinal tubules are not. Consequently, ENMs may be used to strengthen dentine or regenerate pulp tissue. ENMs have dental applications as antibacterials for infection control, as nanofillers to improve the mechanical and bioactive properties of restoration materials, and as novel coatings on dental implants. Dentifrices and some related personal care products are already available for oral health applications. Overall, the clinical benefits generally outweigh the hazards of using ENMs in the oral cavity, and the latter should not prevent the responsible innovation of nanotechnology in dentistry. However, the clinical safety regulations for dental materials have not been specifically updated for ENMs, and some guidance on occupational health for practitioners is also needed. Knowledge gaps for future research include the formation of protein corona in the oral cavity, ENM diffusion through clinically relevant biofilms, and mechanistic investigations on how ENMs strengthen the tooth structure. PMID:25625290

  17. Proton Therapy in Children: A Systematic Review of Clinical Effectiveness in 15 Pediatric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Roos; Benahmed, Nadia; Hulstaert, Frank; Van Damme, Nancy; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Because it spares many normal tissues and reduces the integral dose, proton therapy (PT) is the preferred tumor irradiation technique for treating childhood cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of PT in children has been reported in the scientific literature. A systematic search for clinical outcome studies on PT published between 2007 and 2015 was performed in Medline (through OVID), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Twenty-three primary studies were identified, including approximately 650 patients overall. The median/mean follow-up times were limited (range, 19-91 months). None of the studies were randomized, 2 were comparative, and 20 were retrospective. Most suffered from serious methodologic limitations, yielding a very low level of clinical evidence for the outcomes in all indications. For example, for retinoblastoma, very low-level evidence was found that PT might decrease the incidence of second malignancies. For chondrosarcoma, chordoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, central nervous system germinoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, there was insufficient evidence to either support or refute PT in children. For pelvic sarcoma (ie, nonrhabdomyosarcoma and non-Ewing sarcoma), pineal parenchymal tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and "adult-type" soft tissue sarcoma, no studies were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Although there is no doubt that PT reduces the radiation dose to normal tissues and organs, to date the critical clinical data on the long-term effectiveness and harm associated with the use of PT in the 15 pediatric cancers under investigation are lacking. High-quality clinical research in this area is needed. PMID:27084646

  18. Clinical prediction models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a systematic review and external validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of preterm birth. Very different models using clinical parameters at an early postnatal age to predict BPD have been developed with little extensive quantitative validation. The objective of this study is to review and validate clinical prediction models for BPD. Methods We searched the main electronic databases and abstracts from annual meetings. The STROBE instrument was used to assess the methodological quality. External validation of the retrieved models was performed using an individual patient dataset of 3229 patients at risk for BPD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess discrimination for each model by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Calibration was assessed for the best discriminating models by visually comparing predicted and observed BPD probabilities. Results We identified 26 clinical prediction models for BPD. Although the STROBE instrument judged the quality from moderate to excellent, only four models utilised external validation and none presented calibration of the predictive value. For 19 prediction models with variables matched to our dataset, the AUCs ranged from 0.50 to 0.76 for the outcome BPD. Only two of the five best discriminating models showed good calibration. Conclusions External validation demonstrates that, except for two promising models, most existing clinical prediction models are poor to moderate predictors for BPD. To improve the predictive accuracy and identify preterm infants for future intervention studies aiming to reduce the risk of BPD, additional variables are required. Subsequently, that model should be externally validated using a proper impact analysis before its clinical implementation. PMID:24345305

  19. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with

  20. Akt inhibitors in cancer treatment: The long journey from drug discovery to clinical use (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NITULESCU, GEORGE MIHAI; MARGINA, DENISA; JUZENAS, PETRAS; PENG, QIAN; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; SALOUSTROS, EMMANOUIL; FENGA, CONCETTINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapies are used to inhibit the growth, progression, and metastasis of the tumor by interfering with specific molecular targets and are currently the focus of anticancer drug development. Protein kinase B, also known as Akt, plays a central role in many types of cancer and has been validated as a therapeutic target nearly two decades ago. This review summarizes the intracellular functions of Akt as a pivotal point of converging signaling pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation, apoptotis and neo-angiogenesis, and focuses on the drug design strategies to develop potent anticancer agents targeting Akt. The discovery process of Akt inhibitors has evolved from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive agents to alternative approaches employing allosteric sites in order to overcome the high degree of structural similarity between Akt isoforms in the catalytic domain, and considerable structural analogy to the AGC kinase family. This process has led to the discovery of inhibitors with greater specificity, reduced side-effects and lower toxicity. A second generation of Akt has inhibitors emerged by incorporating a chemically reactive Michael acceptor template to target the nucleophile cysteines in the catalytic activation loop. The review outlines the development of several promising drug candidates emphasizing the importance of each chemical scaffold. We explore the pipeline of Akt inhibitors and their preclinical and clinical examination status, presenting the potential clinical application of these agents as a monotherapy or in combination with ionizing radiation, other targeted therapies, or chemotherapy. PMID:26698230