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Sample records for close contact infections

  1. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  2. Interspecies transmission of equine influenza virus (H3N8) to dogs by close contact with experimentally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2009-11-18

    In horse populations, influenza A virus subtype H3N8 (equine influenza virus, EIV) is a very important pathogen that leads to acute respiratory disease. Recently, EIV has emerged in dogs, and has become widespread among the canine population in the United States. The interspecies transmission route had thus far remained unclear. Here, we tested whether the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with experimentally EIV-infected horses. Three pairs consisting of an EIV-infected horse and a healthy dog were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. A subsequent hemagglutination inhibition test revealed that all three dogs exhibited seroconversion. Moreover, two of the three dogs exhibited virus shedding. However, the dogs exhibited no clinical signs throughout the course of the study. These data suggest that the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with EIV-infected horses without clinical symptoms. Although the interspecies transmission of EIV is unlikely to become an immediate threat to canine hygiene, close contact between EIV-infected horses and dogs should be avoided during an EI epidemic. PMID:19596528

  3. The Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in People with Household Close Contact with Tuberculosis in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Khanjani, Narges; Parsaee, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    One of the recommended strategies for preventing tuberculosis is to screen high-risk populations with respect to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate latent infection and active tuberculosis in people with close household contact. It was a cross-sectional descriptive, analytical study with the sample size of 668 people from homes with one infected resident. In order to diagnose tuberculosis latent infection, the PPD test was done. To determine patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, three sputum samples were taken from every patient and were examined using direct microscopy and culture. Data was analyzed by SPSS20 software. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were 42.8% and 0.9% respectively. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact were less than that of other studies. However, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact was 199.5 times more than that of the general population. PMID:25821296

  4. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  5. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  6. Correlation between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs with risk factors for the spread of infection in close contacts with sputum smear positive in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and in vitro interferon-gamma released assays (IGRAs) with risk factors for the spread of infection in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contacts. Methods We recruited prospective contacts with smear positive pulmonary TB cases. We looked at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other conditions of immunosuppression, presence of BCG vaccination and the degree of exposure to the index case. Patients underwent the TST, chest radiography, sputum analysis when necessary, and IGRA assays (QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB). Presence of cough, diagnostic delay (days between first symptoms and TB diagnostic), contact conditions: room size (square meters) and index of overcrowding (square meters per person) were investigated in the index case. Results 156 contacts (119 adults, 37 children) of 66 TB patients were enrolled, 2.4 (1-14) contacts per TB case. The positivity of the TST did not correlate with the risk factors studied: presence of cough (p = 0.929); delayed diagnosis (p = 0.244); room size (p = 0.462); overcrowding (p = 0.800). Both QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB, showed significant association with cough (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007) and room size (p = 0.020, and p = 0.023), respectively. Conclusions Both IGRA associated better than TST with certain host-related risk factors involved in the transmission of disease, such as the presence of cough. PMID:24885850

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals.

    PubMed

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80-14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18–0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80–14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health

  9. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  10. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  11. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N; Luna, Sharmin J; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S G

    2015-11-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5-361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient's. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient's strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions. PMID:26484778

  12. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R. Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O. Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N.; Luna, Sharmin J.; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5–361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient’s. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient’s strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions. PMID:26484778

  13. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  14. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Close and Contact Binary Systems using Bipolytropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    I will present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of close and contact bipolytropic binary systems. This project is motivated by the peculiar case of the red nova, V1309 Sco, which is indeed a merger of a contact binary. Both the stars are believed to have evolved off the main sequence by the time of the merger and possess a small helium core. In order to represent the binary accurately, I need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. I have achieved this using bipolytropes or composite polytropes. For the simulations, I use an explicit 3D Eulerian hydrodynamics code in cylindrical coordinates. I will discuss the evolution and merger scenarios of systems with different mass ratios and core mass fractions as well as the effects due to the treatment of the adiabatic exponent.

  15. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  16. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  17. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  18. Directional close-contact melting in glacier ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact melting probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to melt against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its melting motion, e.g. for target oriented melting or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining melting velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute melting velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the melting velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding melting rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation

  19. Close binaries in near and shallow contact stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2013-02-01

    After a detailed investigation of new observations obtained by small telescopes, we found a group of near and shallow contact binaries with decreasing period including BS Vul, MR Com, EP Cep, ES Cep and V369 Cep. BS Vul and V369 Cep are primary-filling near-contact binaries, while MR Com, EP Cep and ES Cep are shallow contact binaries. With their decrease in period, BS Vul and V369 Cep will evolve to the shallow-contact systems with higher mass ratios, just like ES Cep. The period decease of shallow contact binaries could be caused by the combined effect of the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) and variable angular momentum loss (AML). This produces contact binaries in oscillating circles that evolve towards the lower mass ratio direction. That means systems resemble ES Cep will evolve to those systems with lower mass ratio, such as MR Com and EP Cep.

  20. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Following Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Suler, Denis; Mullins, David; Rudge, Travis; Ashurst, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection. PMID:27583243

  1. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed Central

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it’s prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  2. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it's prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  3. Online Respondent-Driven Sampling for Studying Contact Patterns Relevant for the Spread of Close-Contact Pathogens: A Pilot Study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mart L.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sabaiwan, Wasamon; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna E.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on social interactions is needed to understand the spread of airborne infections through a population. Previous studies mostly collected egocentric information of independent respondents with self-reported information about contacts. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling technique allowing respondents to recruit contacts from their social network. We explored the feasibility of webRDS for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of respiratory pathogens. Materials and Methods We developed a webRDS system for facilitating and tracking recruitment by Facebook and email. One-day diary surveys were conducted by applying webRDS among a convenience sample of Thai students. Students were asked to record numbers of contacts at different settings and self-reported influenza-like-illness symptoms, and to recruit four contacts whom they had met in the previous week. Contacts were asked to do the same to create a network tree of socially connected individuals. Correlations between linked individuals were analysed to investigate assortativity within networks. Results We reached up to 6 waves of contacts of initial respondents, using only non-material incentives. Forty-four (23.0%) of the initially approached students recruited one or more contacts. In total 257 persons participated, of which 168 (65.4%) were recruited by others. Facebook was the most popular recruitment option (45.1%). Strong assortative mixing was seen by age, gender and education, indicating a tendency of respondents to connect to contacts with similar characteristics. Random mixing was seen by reported number of daily contacts. Conclusions Despite methodological challenges (e.g. clustering among respondents and their contacts), applying RDS provides new insights in mixing patterns relevant for close-contact infections in real-world networks. Such information increases our knowledge of the transmission of respiratory infections within populations and can be used to

  4. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microsporidia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Contact to Human

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Zeinab; MIRJALALI, Hamed; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabih; SHOJAEI, Saeideh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can infect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas worldwide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infection particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoonotic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with closecontact to human. Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-contact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopically in 15 (10.56%) samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15%) small white mice and 1 (10%) laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%). Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10%) samples of sheep, 2 (5.12%) cattle, 1 (10%) rabbit, 3 (11.53%) cats and 2 (11.76%) ownership dogs (totally 7.74%). Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with closecontact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. PMID:26622293

  5. Should close contacts of returning travellers with typhoid fever be protected by vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kantele, A

    2015-03-17

    Increasing international travel to areas endemic for typhoid fever correlates with increased risk for travellers to contract the disease. At home, the acutely ill/convalescent patients may pose some risk to their close contacts. In Finland an unofficial guideline suggests vaccination for close contacts of patients with acute typhoid fever; in other developed countries, routine typhoid vaccinations are only recommended to contacts of chronic carriers. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of prophylactic/post-exposure typhoid vaccination for contacts of patients with acute disease. PMID:25678244

  6. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Rao, Maya M; Chalmers, Robin; Mitchell, G Lynn; Richdale, Kathryn; Wagner, Heidi; Kinoshita, Beth T; Lam, Dawn Y; Sorbara, Luigina; Zimmerman, Aaron; Yoder, Jonathan S; Beach, Michael J

    2015-08-21

    Contact lenses provide safe and effective vision correction for many Americans. However, contact lens wearers risk infection if they fail to wear, clean, disinfect, and store their contact lenses as directed. Over the past decade, CDC has investigated several multistate outbreaks of serious eye infections among contact lens wearers, including Acanthamoeba keratitis. Each investigation identified frequent contact lens hygiene-related risk behaviors among patients. To guide prevention efforts, a population-based survey was used to estimate the number of contact lens wearers aged ≥18 years in the United States. A separate online survey of contact lens wearers assessed the prevalence of contact lens hygiene-related risk behaviors. Approximately 99% of wearers reported at least one contact lens hygiene risk behavior. Nearly one third of contact lens wearers reported having experienced a previous contact lens-related red or painful eye requiring a doctor's visit. An estimated 40.9 million U.S. adults wear contact lenses, and many could be at risk for serious eye infections because of poor contact lens wear and care behaviors. These findings have informed the creation of targeted prevention messages aimed at contact lens wearers such as keeping all water away from contact lenses, discarding used disinfecting solution from the case and cleaning with fresh solution each day, and replacing their contact lens case every 3 months. PMID:26292204

  7. A survey of close contact regimes between patients undergoing diagnostic radioisotope procedures and children.

    PubMed

    Greaves, C D; Tindale, W B; Flynn, P J

    1996-07-01

    When following diagnostic radioisotope procedures, UK legislation requires that we advise patients to avoid close contact with children [1, 2]. How does this advice affect the average nuclear medicine patient? Over a 4 month period, 90 patients in contact with children were asked about their home circumstances, how they coped with avoidance of close contact and the problems caused. On average, the patients were in contact with two children with a mean age of 7 years. Thirty-nine per cent of patients spent < 5 h per day and 30% between 5 and 10 h per day in close contact. However, 13% spent 20-24 h in close contact with children. For most patients (55%), it is easy to avoid close contact, but 25% found it difficult or very difficult. The average in-patient received one visit a day from children of 0.5-1 h duration and 65% of children sat on the patient's bed. Restriction of visits was a problem for 14% of patients. Initially, over one-third of the out-patients felt a medium level of anxiety or higher regarding close contact with children. Given more detailed written information and the opportunity to discuss any queries with a member of staff (70% wished to do so), the proportion fell to less than one-tenth. We found it important to question patients carefully, because home circumstances and levels of close contact cannot be deduced from the age of the child or the relationship between the child and the patient. PMID:8843113

  8. Rapid cellular translocation is related to close contacts formed between various cultured cells and their substrata.

    PubMed

    Kolega, J; Shure, M S; Chen, W T; Young, N D

    1982-04-01

    Interference-reflection microscopy combined with time-lapse cinemicrography was used to examine the relationship between cell-to-substratum contact patterns and the speeds of translocation for a variety of cell types. Rapid translocation of amphibian leukocytes (average speed = 9.0 micron/min), amphibian epidermal cells (7 micron/min) and teleost epidermal cells (7 micron/min) was found to correlate with patterns of broad grey close contacts. Similar contact patterns were found under freshly seeded (2 h) chick heart fibroblasts (moving 1-3 micron/min), the rapidly advancing (1-5 micron/min) margin of spreading human WI-38 fibroblasts, and isolated MDCK canine epithelial cells (0.5-1.0 micron/min). Conversely, numerous dark streaks of focal contact were found associated with the slow rate of translocation displayed by older cultures (72 h) of chick fibroblasts (less than 0.1 micron/min), well-spread WI-38 cells (less than or equal to 0.3 micron/min) and confluent MDCK cells (less than 0.01 micron/min). It is concluded that close contacts, but not focal contacts, are associated with rapid cellular translocation, and that the build-up of focal contacts is associated with reduced cellular translocation and maintenance of the spread cell shape. PMID:7076724

  9. A prospective cohort study of latent tuberculosis in adult close contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Hyo; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Hee Jin; Menzies, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in adult close contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Korea. Methods: Adult close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients were recruited at a regional tertiary hospital in Korea. The participants were tested for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) test. LTBI patients, who consented to treatment, were randomly assigned to receive isoniazid for 9 months (9INH) or rifampin for 4 months (4RIF). Results: We examined 189 adult close contacts (> 18 years) of 107 active pulmonary TB patients. The TST and QFT-G were positive (≥ 10 mm) in 75/183 (39.7%) and 45/118 (38.1%) tested participants, respectively. Among 88 TST or QFT-G positive LTBI participants, 45 participants were randomly assigned to receive 4RIF (n = 21) or 9INH (n = 24), respectively. The average treatment duration for the 4RIF and 9INH groups was 3.3 ± 1.3 and 6.1 ± 2.7 months, respectively. Treatment was completed in 25 participants (4RIF, n = 16; 9INH, n = 9). LTBI participants who accepted treatment were more likely to be women and have more cavitary lesions on the chest radiographs of index cases and positive TST and QFT-G results compared to those who refused treatment. Conclusions: About 40% of adult close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients had LTBI; about 50% of these LTBI participants agreed to treatment. PMID:27052266

  10. Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruycker, Trees

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

  11. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  12. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates. PMID:25915205

  13. Water droplet spreading on a soluble polymer: what happens close to the contact line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talini, Laurence; Dupas, Julien; Verneuil, Emilie; Lequeux, Francois; Forny, Laurent; Ramaioli, Marco

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the spreading of a water droplet on a water soluble substrate. Numerous coupled transfer processes are involved in such a situation, leading to complex wetting dynamics. In particular, previous studies have shown the major role of water evaporation from the droplet associated with water uptake by the substrate. However, the processes at stake close to the contact line, where the substrate properties set the wetting angle, have not been understood. We present an experimental study of the phenomena occurring within distances ranging from 10 to 1000 μm from the contact line of a water droplet spreading on a food polymer layer. We have evidenced a wrinkling pattern inside the droplet close to the contact line, and suggest it results from the swelling of the constrained polymer layer before it dissolves. In addition, using an optical method based on the analysis of Newton's rings, we have measured the hydration profile of the substrate ahead the contact line. We show that the profiles can be understood as a result of the evaporation/water uptake process through air combined with direct water diffusion in the substrate from the liquid wedge.

  14. Risk of transmitting meningococcal infection by transient contact on aircraft and other transport.

    PubMed

    Rachael, T; Schubert, K; Hellenbrand, W; Krause, G; Stuart, J M

    2009-08-01

    Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplane or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguishable. In the aeroplane cluster the only link between the two cases was through a single travel episode. The onset of illness (2 and 5 days after the flight) is consistent with infection from an unidentified carrier around the time of air travel. In contrast to the established risk of transmission from a case of tuberculosis, it is likely that the risk from a case of meningococcal disease to someone who is not identified as a close contact is exceedingly low. This should be considered in making international recommendations for passenger contact tracing after a case of meningococcal disease on a plane or other multi-passenger transport. PMID:19296869

  15. Potential Role for IL-2 ELISpot in Differentiating Recent and Remote Infection in Tuberculosis Contact Tracing

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Martin; Reiling, Norbert; Eker, Barbara; Rath, Heidrun; Hoerster, Robert; Wappler, Waltraud; Glaewe, Andrea; Schoellhorn, Volker; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Lange, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ release assays (IGRA) have improved tuberculosis contact tracing, but discrimination of recent from remote Mycobacterium tuberculosis contacts is not possible by IGRA alone. We present results of a tuberculosis contact investigation with a new early-secretory-antigenic-target (ESAT)-6 and culture-filtrate-protein (CFP)-10 specific interleukin (IL)-2 ELISpot in addition to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ ELISpot and tuberculin skin testing (TST). Results of the TST, IFN-γ ELISpot and IL-2 ELISpot were positive in 6/172 (3.4%), 7/167 (4.2%) and 6/196 (3.1%) of contacts, respectively. Close contact (≥100 hours) to the index case increased the risk of positive results in the IFN-γ ELISpot, TST, and IL-2 ELISpot by 40.8, 19.3, and 2.5 times, respectively. Individuals with a positive IFN-γ ELISpot/negative IL-2 ELISpot result had a median (IQR) duration of index case exposure of 568 hours (133_1000) compared to individuals with a positive IFN-γ ELISpot/positive IL-2 ELISpot result (median = 24 hours; 20_130; p-value = 0.047). Combination of a M. tuberculosis specific IFN-γ ELISpot with a M. tuberculosis specific IL-2 ELISpot significantly improved the identification of individuals with the highest risk of recent M. tuberculosis infection and is a promising method that should be explored to target tuberculosis preventive chemotherapy. PMID:20652022

  16. Near-Contact Binaries (NCB): Close Binary Systems in a Key Evolutionary Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.

    2007-08-01

    Short-period eclipsing binary systems with EB-type light variations are interesting objects for understanding the evolutionary changes undergone by close binaries. As investigated by many authors (Kalużny, J., Yamasaki, A., Zhai, D. S, Zhang, X. B Hilditch, R. W., McFarlane, T. M, King, D. J, Shaw, J. S., Samec, R. G., Niarchos, P. G., Oh, Kyu-Dong. etc ), a majority of them belong to an important subclass of close binaries called near-contact binaries (NCBs). According to the geometric definition of this subclass, NCBs actually comprise semi-detached, marginal-contact, and marginal-detached systems. They can be in the intermediate stage between detached or semi-detached state and contact state. Therefore, NCBs are the important observational targets which may be lying in key evolutionary states. In this paper, we observed and investigated several NCBs (BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi, GSC3658-0076, UU Lyn, AS Ser, IR Cas, EP Aur). Our results show that the orbital periods of BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi and UU Lyn are decreasing while that of IR Cas is decreasing and oscillating. The mechanisms that could explain the period variations are discussed. Combining the photometric solutions with period variations of these systems, we divide them into four types: BL And is a semi-detached system with the lobe filling primary, RU UMi and EP Aur are the semi-detached system with the lobe filling secondary, GW Tau, UU Lyn and AS Ser are the marginal contact system while GSC3658-0076 is the marginal detached system. Finally, the evolutionary stage of each system is discussed and some statistical relations of NCBs are presented.

  17. Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from persistently infected sows to contact controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bierk, M D; Dee, S A; Rossow, K D; Otake, S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could persist in non-pregnant sows and if persistently infected sows could transmit virus to naive contact controls. Twelve PRRSV-naive, non-pregnant sows (index sows) were infected with a field isolate of PRRSV and housed in individual isolation rooms for 42 to 56 days postinfection. Following this period, 1 naive contact sow was placed in each room divided by a gate allowing nose-to-nose contact with a single index sow. Index sows were not viremic at the time of contact sow entry. Virus nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and infectious virus was detected by virus isolation in sera from 3 of the 12 contact sows at 49, 56, and 86 days postinfection. All 3 infected contacts developed PRRSV antibodies. Virus nucleic acid was detected in tissues of all of the 12 index sows at 72 or 86 days postinfection. Nucleic acid sequencing indicated that representative samples from index and infected contacts were homologous (> 99%) to the PRRSV used to infect index sows at the onset of the study. This study demonstrates that PRRSV can persist in sows and that persistently infected sows can transmit virus to naive contact animals. PMID:11768134

  18. Contact Lens-Related Corneal Infections - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Srinivasan, Krithika; Abliz, Erkinay; Myers, Ann; Millin, Courtney J; Miller, Andrew; Tarver, Michelle E

    2016-01-01

    Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) can result from contact lens wear or other causes. Keratitis from all causes, including contact lens wear, results in approximately 1 million clinic and emergency department visits annually, with an estimated cost of $175 million in direct health care expenditures in 2010 (1). Approximately 41 million U.S. residents wear contact lenses, and in 2014, >99% of contact lens wearers surveyed reported at least one behavior that puts them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2). The Center for Devices and Radiological Health at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates contact lenses as medical devices, and certain adverse events related to contact lenses are reported to FDA's Medical Device Report (MDR) database. To describe contact lens-related corneal infections reported to the FDA, 1,075 contact lens-related MDRs containing the terms "ulcer" or "keratitis" reported to FDA during 2005-2015 were analyzed. Among these 1,075 reports, 925 (86.0%) were reported by a contact lens manufacturer and 150 (14.0%) by an eye care provider or patient. Overall, 213 (19.8%) reports described a patient who had a central corneal scar, had a decrease in visual acuity, or required a corneal transplant following the event. Among the reports, 270 (25.1%) described modifiable factors known to be associated with an increased risk for contact lens-related corneal infections, including sleeping in contact lenses or poor contact lens hygiene; the remainder did not provide details that permitted determination of associated factors. Continued efforts to educate contact lens wearers about prevention of contact lens-related eye infections are needed. PMID:27538244

  19. Clonal Differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) Recovered from Children and Animals Living in Close Contact in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Dione, Michel M.; Ikumapayi, Usman N.; Saha, Debasish; Mohammed, Nuredin I.; Geerts, Stanny; Ieven, Margareta; Adegbola, Richard A.; Antonio, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia. Methodology Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing. Principal Findings NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa. PMID:21655353

  20. The Minimum Mass Ratio for Contact Close Binary Systems of W Ursae Majoris-Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbutina, B.

    2012-12-01

    The main research topic of this dissertation are extreme mass ratio contact close binary systems, q ≲ 0.1, of W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) type. These close binaries (CBs) represent an interesting class of objects in which "normal", approximately one solar mass main-sequence star is in contact with a significantly less massive companion, M_2 ˜ 0.1 M_⊙. Earlier theoretical investigations of these systems found that there is a minimum mass ratio q_{min} = M_2/M_1 = 0.085 - 0.095 (obtained for n = 3 polytrope - fully radiative primary) above which these CBs are stable and could be observed. If the mass ratio is lower than q_{min}, or, equivalently, if orbital angular momentum is only about three times larger than the spin angular momentum of a massive primary, a tidal instability develops (Darwin's instability) forcing eventually the stars to merge into a single, rapidly rotating object (such as FK Com-type stars or blue stragglers). However, there appear to be some W UMa-type CBs with empirically obtained values for the mass ratio below the theoretical limit for stability. The aim of this dissertation is to try to resolve the discrepancy between theory and observations by considering rotating polytropes. By including in theory the effects of higher central condensation due to rotation we were able to reduce qmin to the new theoretical value q_{min} = 0.070-0.074, for the overcontact degree f = 0 - 1, which is more consistent with the observed population. Other candidate systems for stellar mergers such as AM CVn-type stars have also been discussed in the dissertation.

  1. [Neonatal infection with Salmonella apapa after contact with a reptile in the home].

    PubMed

    Haase, R; Beier, T; Bernstädt, M; Merkel, N; Bartnicki, J

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella apapa is transmitted by reptiles, e.g., bearded dragons. To date only few cases of S. apapa-related human infections have been reported. Because the bacteria are transmitted through the feces of animals or direct contact with low infection doses, infection in early infancy is possible. We report an 18-day-old newborn with sepsis caused by Salmonella apapa. Salmonella apapa was isolated from the feces of a bearded dragon living along with the family. PMID:21541908

  2. Exchange of contact information between East Germany and other countries about persons infected with VD or at risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Elste, G

    1976-04-01

    26 per cent. of all contacts exchanged in both directions between East Germany and Poland in 1973, concerned people infected with STD. This high rate of efficiency obtained by the present methods of contact tracing justifies further cooperative epidemiological work in the field of STD, especially in view of the increasing industrial and economic cooperation and tourism between the two countries which is expected in the future. PMID:946786

  3. Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana infections associated with amphibian contact, Mississippi, 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Srikantiah, P.; Lay, J. C.; Hand, S.; Crump, J. A.; Campbell, J.; Van Duyne, M. S.; Bishop, R.; Middendor, R.; Currier, M.; Mead, P. S.; Mølbak, K.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella Javiana is a Salmonella serotype that is restricted geographically in the United States to the Southeast. During the summer of 2001, the number of reported S. Javiana infections in Mississippi increased sevenfold. To identify sources of infection, we conducted a case-control study, defining a case as an infection with S. Javiana between August and September in a Mississippi resident. We enrolled 55 cases and 109 controls. Thirty (55%) case patients reported exposure to amphibians, defined as owning, touching, or seeing an amphibian on one's property, compared with 30 (29%) controls (matched odds ratio 2.8, P=0.006). Contact with amphibians and their environments may be a risk factor for human infection with S. Javiana. The geographic pattern of S. Javiana infections in the United States mimics the distribution of certain amphibian species in the Southeast. Public health officials should consider amphibians as potential sources of salmonellosis, and promote hand washing after contact with amphibians. PMID:15061502

  4. Prevalence and early attack rate of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India under domiciliary treatment with isoniazid plus PAS or isoniazid alone*

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Andrews, R. H.; Devadatta, S.; Fox, Wallace; Radhakrishna, S.; Somasundaram, P. R.; Velu, S.

    1961-01-01

    The authors present a report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, on the prevalence and attack rate of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India undergoing domiciliary chemotherapy either with isoniazid plus PAS or with one of three regimens of isoniazid alone. The report gives (a) the prevalence of tuberculosis among the contacts at the time of diagnosis of the disease in the patients and (b) the incidence of tuberculosis in the contacts during the first year of treatment of the patients. The contacts were divided into four series, corresponding to the four chemotherapeutic regimens of the patients. The prevalence of active tuberculosis was found to be particularly high among children under five years of age, being 12.0% as compared with 7.6% for all age-groups combined. The incidence of active tuberculosis during the year of treatment of the patients was also found to be highest in the under five years' age-group—a further indication that child contacts are especially vulnerable to infection. The incidence was considerably higher in the first quarter of the year than in the other quarters, and it was lowest in the last quarter. This finding, together with the fact that the attack rates in the four contact series were not related either to the duration of bacteriological positivity in the patients or to the period of excretion of isoniazid-resistant organisms by the patients, suggests that the major risk to contacts in the first year results from exposure to the patient before treatment rather than from exposure during treatment. These results thus confirm the findings in an earlier study by the Centre of the contacts of patients in a controlled comparison of chemotherapy with isoniazid plus PAS at home and in sanatorium. PMID:14038589

  5. Chlamydial infection of the cervix in contacts of men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed Central

    Tait, I A; Rees, E; Hobson, D; Byng, R E; Tweedie, M C

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of chlamydial infection in sexual contacts of patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) was carried out to determine the clinical signs of infection in the cervix, and their response to chemotherapy, and the incidence of cervical infection in the presence of ectopy and oral contraception. In 202 consecutive female contacts of NGU the isolation rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was 35%. Hypertrophic ectopy and endocervical mucopus were present in 19% and 37% of chlamydia-positive patients respectively and, in all but one, resolved after treatment. Only 14% of those followed up after treatment developed yeast infections. The chlamydial isolation rate was significantly higher in patients with hypertrophic ectopy and endocervical mucopus. Cervical ectopy and oral contraceptives acted additively, each producing a significant effect on the chlamydial isolation rate in the presence of the other but not when present alone. Images PMID:7370720

  6. Linking Contact Behavior and Droplet Patterns to Dynamically Model Indoor Respiratory Infections Among Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    You, Shu-Han; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Wang, Chien-Hua; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-01-01

    Background We used the results of a contact behavior survey in conjunction with droplet pattern measurement to investigate the indoor population transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. Methods A total of 404 questionnaires on all contact behaviors were distributed to junior high school students. Droplet number concentration and size distribution generated by coughing and talking were measured by droplet experimentation. A deterministic susceptible–exposed–infected–recovery (SEIR) model was used to simulate the indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection among schoolchildren. Results Results indicated that the average contact rates ranged from 9.44 to 11.18 person−1 day−1 for grades 7 to 9. We showed that total median droplet number concentrations were 9.01 × 107 and 8.23 × 107 droplets per cubic meter for coughing and talking, respectively. Population dynamic simulations indicated that the size-dependent median number of droplets per person resulted in a maximum of 8 and 10 infected persons on day 4, respectively, for talking and coughing activities. Conclusions Human contact behavior and airborne droplet characteristics may substantially change predicted indoor population transmission dynamics of influenza infection. PMID:23728484

  7. Cell-cell contact promotes Ebola virus GP-mediated infection.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunhui; Li, Minghua; Zheng, Yi-Min; Cohen, Fredric S; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2016-01-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Here we provide evidence that cell-cell contact promotes infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. Interestingly, expression of EBOV GP alone, even in the absence of retroviral Gag-Pol, is sufficient to transfer a retroviral vector encoding Tet-off from cell to cell. Cell-to-cell infection mediated by EBOV GP is blocked by inhibitors of actin polymerization, but appears to be less sensitive to KZ52 neutralization. Treatment of co-cultured cells with cathepsin B/L inhibitors, or an entry inhibitor 3.47 that targets the receptor NPC1 for virus binding, also blocks cell-to-cell infection. Cell-cell contact also enhances spread of rVSV bearing GP in monocytes and macrophages, the primary targets of natural EBOV infection. Altogether, our study reveals that cell-cell contact promotes EBOV GP-mediated infection, and provides new insight into understanding EBOV spread and viral pathogenesis. PMID:26655238

  8. Time-Motion Analysis of Health Care Workers’ Contact With Patients and Workers’ Hand Hygiene: Open vs Closed Units

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Babar A.; Hui, Ken Yon; Hui, Siu L.; Gulati, Rajesh; Tricker, Jason; Campbell, Noll L.; Farber, Mark O.; Boustani, Malaz A.; Buckley, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of open (care provided by general medicine teams with a pulmonary intensivist consultant) vs closed (care provided by a dedicated critical care team) intensive care units on health care workers’ contact with patients and their hand hygiene is uncertain. Objective To determine if closed intensive care units have fewer visits of patients by health care providers and greater hand-washing compliance among providers than do open units. Methods Time-motion analysis was used to observe 2 rooms in a medical intensive care unit at a teaching hospital affiliated with Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, for 96 hours before and after closure of the unit. The main outcome measures were frequency of health care providers’ visits and their hand-washing hygiene compliance rates. Results Mean number of visits per room per hour by physicians (1.53 in the open unit vs 1.27 in the closed unit; P = .93) and nurses (3.98 in open unit vs 4.14 in closed unit; P = .60) did not differ. No differences were observed in gold-standard hand washing among physicians (0.00% in open unit vs 2.63% in closed unit; P = .11) or nurses (2.50% in open unit vs 3.49% in closed unit; P = .51). However, hand washing decreased significantly in nurses in the closed unit (40.94% in open unit vs 29.84% in closed unit; P = .002). Conclusion Closing the intensive care unit did not decrease the number of contacts between health care providers and patients nor did it increase the providers’ compliance with hand hygiene. PMID:21532037

  9. Distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke during mastication of three types of food.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Fernández-Formoso, N; Mora, M J; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Santana, U

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize the distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke in healthy adult subjects, during chewing of three types of food (crustless bread, chewing gum and peanuts). Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) on the right and left side during unilateral chewing of the three food types. Length of dental contact was measured in masticatory cycle, which is defined as where the terminal part of the chewing cycles could be superimposed on the pathways taken by the mandible during lateral excursions with occlusal contacts. The length of dental contact during mastication of chewing gum is 1.46 +/- 1 mm, during chewing of soft bread is 1.38 +/- 0.7 mm and during chewing of peanuts is 1.45 +/- 0.9 mm. There is no significant difference in the lengths of dental contact during mastication of three types of foods that enable direct tooth gliding. PMID:19453848

  10. Cough Aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Predict New Infection. A Household Contact Study

    PubMed Central

    Namugga, Olive; Mumbowa, Francis; Ssebidandi, Martin; Mbabazi, Olive; Moine, Stephanie; Mboowa, Gerald; Fox, Matthew P.; Reilly, Nancy; Ayakaka, Irene; Kim, Soyeon; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Airborne transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from incompletely characterized host, bacterial, and environmental factors. Sputum smear microscopy is associated with considerable variability in transmission. Objectives: To evaluate the use of cough-generated aerosols of M. tuberculosis to predict recent transmission. Methods: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) underwent a standard evaluation and collection of cough aerosol cultures of M. tuberculosis. We assessed household contacts for new M. tuberculosis infection. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis with cluster adjustment to analyze predictors of new infection. Measurements and Main Results: From May 2009 to January 2011, we enrolled 96 sputum culture-positive index TB cases and their 442 contacts. Only 43 (45%) patients with TB yielded M. tuberculosis in aerosols. Contacts of patients with TB who produced high aerosols (≥10 CFU) were more likely to have a new infection compared with contacts from low-aerosol (1–9 CFU) and aerosol-negative cases (69%, 25%, and 30%, respectively; P = 0.009). A high-aerosol patient with TB was the only predictor of new M. tuberculosis infection in unadjusted (odds ratio, 5.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–17.61) and adjusted analyses (odds ratio, 4.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–19.23). Contacts of patients with TB with no aerosols versus low and high aerosols had differential tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay responses. Conclusions: Cough aerosols of M. tuberculosis are produced by a minority of patients with TB but predict transmission better than sputum smear microscopy or culture. Cough aerosols may help identify the most infectious patients with TB and thus improve the cost-effectiveness of TB control programs. PMID:23306539

  11. An Effective Computerized Reminder for Contact Isolation of Patients Colonized or Infected with Resistant Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Abel N.; Dexter, Paul R.; Warvel, Jeff S.; Belsito, Anne W.; Commiskey, Marie; Wilson, Stephen J.; Hui, Siu L.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To improve contact isolation rates among patients admitted to the hospital with a known history of infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Methods A before and after interventional study implementing computerized reminders for contact isolation between February 25th of 2005 and February 28th of 2006. We measured rates of appropriate contact isolation, and time to isolation for the four month pre-intervention period, and the 12 month intervention period. We conducted a survey of ordering physicians at the midpoint of the intervention period. Results Implementing a computerized reminder increased the rate of patients appropriately isolated from 33% to fully 89% (P < 0.0001). The median time to writing contact isolation orders decreased from 16.6 hours to 0.0 hours (P < 0.0001). Physicians accepted the order 80% of the time on the first or second presentation. 95% of physicians felt the reminder had no impact on workflow, or saved them time. Conclusion A human reviewed computerized reminder can achieve high rates of compliance with infection control recommendations for contact isolation, and dramatically reduce the time to orders being written upon admission. PMID:17398145

  12. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  13. Prosthetic Arteriovenous Graft Contact Dermatitis Masquerading as an Arteriovenous Graft Infection in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ramagiri-Vinod, Nagadarshini; Tahir, Hassan; Narukonda, Sandhya; Joshi, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) graft is the second most common vascular access of choice in hemodialysis patients. Rare complications of such grafts are increasingly seen due to rising population of patients on hemodialysis. Infections and thrombosis are the most common complications. Though metallic implants are known to cause hypersensitivity skin reactions, prosthetic AV grafts are rarely known to cause such kind of reactions due to inert nature of materials used in their preparation. We present a case of 54-year-old male who developed contact dermatitis after AV graft creation which was mistreated initially as infection. PMID:27493977

  14. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Kamala; Sharma, Anna; Dhungel, Sachin

    2005-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving ninety-two lactating mother- infant pairs in the first six months of birth. They were followed-up up to six months for various perinatal factors determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact had a powerful influence (P<0.001) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to 4-6 months and was found to be more significant than early initiation of breastfeeding (P<0.05). Mode of delivery did not have any significant effect (P<0.5) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Thus health care centers can easily adopt a policy to allow few minutes of early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding to all vaginal as well as caesarian deliveries to promote breastfeeding. PMID:16519083

  15. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key points The different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height. Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase. Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase. PMID:24149397

  16. The W Ursae Majoris Binary V781 Tauri: A Close Binary in Shallow Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Kallrath, J.; Breinhorst, R. A.; Schnell, A.; Purgathofer, A.

    2005-05-01

    V781 Tau [= BD+26 971 = HD 248087 = SAO 077615 (G0) is a W UMa system that was among those studied by Zwitter et al., in a larger program to examine the capability of ESO's GAIA emission to produce fundamental data from spectroscopic and eclipsing binary stars. Zwitter, et al. used new ground-based RV data taken near the resolution expected for GAIA ( 12,000), and light curves from the Hipparcos and Tycho missions. Previously unpublished photometry by RAB, AS, and AP were subsequently analyzed along with all existing RV- and light-curves to produce a new solution, which we discuss here. The system has a variable O'Connell Effect. The analyses, carried out mainly by JK, with the WD2002 light curve modeling package, reveal that the apparently cooler component is the larger and more massive; this circumstance and the variable light curve asymmetries are suggestive of W-type W UMa systems. The system has a decreasing period and a low contact parameter (0.205) that indicates that it is near, but not currently in, a broken contact phase. The properties of the system are self-consistent if the secondary (more massive and ostensibly the cooler) is, in fact, also the star with greater surface brightness but heavily obscured presumably with numerous or extensive spot regions, a verifiable hypothesis that we intend to test. We also compare its properties with those of CN And, thought to be at a broken contact phase, by Van Hamme et al. We conclude that V781 Tau may be nearing the end of the primary mass donor stage of thermal relaxation oscillations, and CN And, with properties of an A-Type W UMa system, is near the beginning of this stage. This work has been supported in part by Canadian NSERC grants to EFM.

  17. Frequency of Patient Contact with Health Care Personnel and Visitors: Implications for Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bevin; Hyman, Sandra; Rosenberg, Lauren; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Contact with health care workers may be an important means of infection transmission between patients, yet little is known about patterns of patient contact with staff and visitors in hospitals. In a cross-sectional study, the frequency, type, and duration of contacts made by health care workers, other hospital staff, and visitors to patients in acute care settings were documented. Methods Patients were observed in seven units of three academic hospitals, with recording of each occurrence of someone’s entry into the patient’s room. The health care worker’s role, the duration of the visit, and the highest level of patient contact made were noted. Staff were also surveyed to determine their perception of how many patients per hour they come into contact with, how long they spend with patients, and the level of patient contact that occurs. Findings Hourly room entries ranged from 0 to 28 per patient (median, 5.5), and patients received visits from 0 to 18 different persons per hour (median, 3.5). Nurses made the most visits (45%), followed by personal visitors (23%), medical staff (17%), nonclinical staff (7%), and other clinical staff (4%). Visits lasted 1 to 124 minutes (median, 3 minutes for all groups). Persons entering patients’ rooms touched nothing inside the room, only the environment, the patient’s intact skin, or the patient’s blood/body fluids 22%, 33%, 27%, and 18% of the time, respectively. Medical staff estimated visiting an average of 2.8 different patients per hour (range, 0.5–7.0), and nursing staff estimated visiting an average of 4.5 different patients per hour (range, 0.5–18.0). Conclusions Examining patterns of patient contact may improve understanding of transmission dynamics in hospitals. New transmission models should consider the roles of health care workers beyond patients’ assigned nurses and physicians. PMID:23240264

  18. Contact-free measurement of the flow field of a liquid metal inside a closed container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinicke, Christiane

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of flow velocities inside metal melts is particularly challenging. Due to the high temperatures of the melts it is impossible to employ measurement techniques that require either mechanical contact with the melt or are only adaptable to translucent fluids. In the past years a number of electromagnetic techniques have been developed that allows a contact-free measurement of volume flows. One of these techniques is the so-called Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV) in which the metal flow is exposed to an external, permanent magnetic field. The interaction between the metal and the magnet not only leads to a force on the fluid, but also on the magnet. The force can be measured and is proportional to the velocity of the melt. Moreover, by using a small permanent magnet it is possible to resolve spatial structures inside the flow.We will demonstrate this using a model experiment that has been investigated with different reference techniques previously. The experimental setup is a cylindrical vessel filled with a eutectic alloy which is liquid at room temperature. The liquid metal can be set into motion by means of a propeller at the top of the liquid. Depending on the direction of rotation of the propeller, the flow inside the vessel takes on different states. Beside the vessel, we place a Lorentz Force Flowmeter (LFF) equipped with a small permanent magnet. By measuring the force on the magnet at different positions and different rotation speeds, we demonstrate that we can qualitatively and quantitatively reconstruct the flow field inside the vessel.

  19. Close intramolecular sulfur-oxygen contacts: modified force field parameters for improved conformation generation.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Dmitry; Abramov, Yuriy A; Sherman, Woody

    2012-11-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) offers an excellent data source to study small molecule conformations and molecular interactions. We have analyzed 130 small molecules from the CSD containing an intramolecular sulfur-oxygen distance less than the sum of their van der Waals (vdW) radii. Close S···O distances are observed in several important medicinal chemistry motifs (e.g. a carbonyl oxygen connected by a carbon or nitrogen linker to a sulfur) and are not treated well with existing parameters in the MMFFs or OPLS_2005 force fields, resulting in suboptimal geometries and energetics. In this work, we develop modified parameters for the OPLS_2005 force field to better treat this specific interaction in order to generate conformations close to those found in the CSD structures. We use a combination of refitting a force field torsional parameter, adding a specific atom pair vdW term, and attenuating the electrostatic interactions to obtain an improvement in the accuracy of geometry minimizations and conformational searches for these molecules. Specifically, in a conformational search 58 % of the cases produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å from the CSD crystal conformation with the modified OPLS force field parameters developed in this work. In contrast, 25 and 37 % produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å with the MMFFs and OPLS_2005 force fields, respectively. As an application of the new parameters, we generated conformations for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (trade name Inlyta) that could be correctly repacked into three observed polymorphic structures, which was not possible with conformations generated using MMFFs or OPLS_2005. The improved parameters can be mapped directly onto physical characteristics of the systems that are treated inadequately with the molecular mechanics force fields used in this study and potentially other force fields as well. PMID:23053737

  20. Contact tracing for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-infected passenger on international flight.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ananda G; Janmohamed, Kulsum; Olowokure, Babatunde; Smith, Gillian E; Hogan, Angela H; De Souza, Valerie; Wallensten, Anders; Oliver, Isabel; Blatchford, Oliver; Cleary, Paul; Ibbotson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In April 2009, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was confirmed in a person who had been symptomatic while traveling on a commercial flight from Mexico to the United Kingdom. Retrospective public health investigation and contact tracing led to the identification of 8 additional confirmed cases among passengers and community contacts of passengers. PMID:24377724

  1. Understanding the Physical Aging Behavior of Glassy Polystyrene Layers in Close Contact with Rubbery Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Connie; Rauscher, Phil; Pye, Justin; Baglay, Roman

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in synthesis strategies and processing methods have led to new nanostructured polymer blend and block-copolymer materials containing domain sizes less than 100 nm with glassy and rubbery domains in close proximity. Given the outsized role interfacial perturbations have played in causing large changes in the glass transition temperature Tg and physical aging of ultrathin single-layer films, we are interested in studying how the presence of glassy-rubbery interfaces between neighboring polymer domains may alter the local stability and physical aging of confined glassy layers. Using a polystyrene (PS) / poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) weakly immiscible system with 7 nm interfacial width, we demonstrate how ellipsometry can be used to isolate the physical aging rate of thin PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA layers. Despite a 25-30 K reduction in the average Tg of 84 nm thick PS layers atop PnBMA as measured by fluorescence, we observe no change in the PS aging rate relative to bulk. These results are in contrast with previous works on single-layer polymer films that have found the local aging rate to often be correlated with local Tg changes. This appears not to be the case for glassy PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA suggesting some additional factor is affecting the structural relaxation occurring near the glassy-rubbery interface.

  2. Influenza A(H5N2) virus antibodies in humans after contact with infected poultry, Taiwan, 2012.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ho-Sheng; Yang, Ji-Rong; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Yang, Chin-Hui; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-05-01

    Six persons in Taiwan who had contact with poultry infected with influenza A(H5N2) showed seroconversion for the virus by hemagglutinin inhibition or microneutralization testing. We developed an ELISA based on nonstructural protein 1 of the virus to differentiate natural infection from cross-reactivity after vaccination; 2 persons also showed seroconversion by this test. PMID:24750594

  3. Closed form expressions for sheet resistance and mobility from Van-der-Pauw measurement on 90° symmetric devices with four arbitrary contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausserlechner, Udo

    2016-02-01

    Sheet resistance and Hall mobility are commonly measured by Van der Pauw's method. Closed form expressions are known for four point-sized contacts. Recently, for devices with fourfold rotational symmetry a closed form expression for the sheet resistance was given for contacts of arbitrary size. In this paper we discuss its accuracy, link it to the equivalent circuit diagram of the device, and add another expression that determines the Hall mobility with 0.02% accuracy.

  4. Infection dynamics in structured populations with disease awareness based on neighborhood contact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lang

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, continuing efforts have been directed to revealing the effect of human behavioral responses in the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, we propose an implementation mechanism of disease awareness via individual self-perception from neighborhood contact histories (NCHs), where each individual is capable of memorizing a sequence of his infectious contacts earlier time, and adaptively adjusting the contact rate with his neighboring individuals as a preventive strategy from risks of exposure to infection. Both analytical and numerical results show that the NCH-based self-perceived awareness is a simple, but efficient disease control measure, which can greatly reduce the outbreak size of infectious diseases. We further examine the effects of a centralized disease control measure, which corresponds, for comparison, to an NCH-independent and uniformly aroused disease awareness. We find our proposed strategy outperforms the centralized one in a much larger and more practical range of epidemiological parameters, which also highlight the importance of the NCH-based awareness information in guidance of the individual protective behavior against infectious diseases.

  5. Should we use closed or open infusion containers for prevention of bloodstream infections?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitalized patients in critical care settings are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSI). Most BSIs originate from a central line (CL), and they increase length of stay, cost, and mortality. Open infusion containers may increase the risk of contamination and administration-related (CLAB) because they allow the entry of air into the system, thereby also providing an opportunity for microbial entry. Closed infusion containers were designed to overcome this flaw. However, open infusion containers are still widely used throughout the world. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from open (glass, burettes, and semi-rigid) infusion containers to closed, fully collapsible, plastic infusion containers (Viaflex®) on the rate and time to onset of central line-associated bloodstream infections CLABs. Methods An open label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in four ICUs in Mexico. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems definitions were used to define device-associated infections. Results A total of 1,096 adult patients who had a central line in place for >24 hours were enrolled. The CLAB rate was significantly higher during the open versus the closed container period (16.1 versus 3.2 CLAB/1000 central line days; RR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11-0.36, P < 0.0001). The probability of developing CLAB remained relatively constant in the closed container period (1.4% Days 2-4 to 0.5% Days 8-10), but increased in the open container period (4.9% Days 2-4 to 5.4% Days 8-10). The chance of acquiring a CLAB was significantly decreased (81%) in the closed container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.19, P < 0.0001). Mortality was statistically significantly lower during the closed versus the open container period (23.4% versus 16.1%; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.88, P < 0.01). Conclusions Closed infusion containers significantly reduced

  6. Hospital Contacts With Infection and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Population-Based Cohort Study With Linkage of Danish National Registers

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Philip R.; Benros, Michael. E.; Mortensen, Preben B.

    2014-01-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child’s risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence unrelated to maternal infection during pregnancy has not been studied to nearly the same extent and the results are far from conclusive. Data were drawn from 2 population-based registers, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. We used a historical population-based cohort design and selected all individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 1996 (n = 843 390). We identified all individuals with a first-time hospital contact with schizophrenia from 1991 through 2010. Out of the 3409 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, a total of 1549 individuals had had a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32–1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact. Bacterial infection was the type of infection that was associated with the highest risk of schizophrenia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.47–1.82). Our study does not exclude that a certain type of infection may have a specific effect; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a wide range of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families. PMID:24379444

  7. TRANSMISSION AND RISK FACTORS FOR LATENT TUBERCULOSIS INFECTIONS AMONG INDEX CASE-MATCHED HOUSEHOLD CONTACTS.

    PubMed

    Faksri, Kiatichai; Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Pimrin, Wilailuk; Bourpoern, Janpen; Prompinij, Supapim

    2015-05-01

    An understanding of the risk factors associated with acquiring and transmitting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is required for controlling tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the risk factors and transmission factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in northeastern Thailand. Household contact persons (n = 70) and matched index patients with pulmonary TB (n = 42) who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand were interviewed from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014. LTBI was determined by positive results on both a tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test. Multivariate analysis of host and environmental risk factors was performed. Among contact persons, being aged 20 years (adjusted OR=14.0; 95% CI: 1.2-159.5), having a family relationship with a TB subject such as being a spouse or parent (adjusted OR=24.9; 95% CI: 2.4-263.9) and exposure to a TB subject for 5 hours/day (adjusted OR=9.2; 95% CI: 1.4-58.1) were risk factors for LTBI. Having a high bacillary load (adjusted OR=2; 95% CI: 1.26-3.17) or a moderate bacillary load (adjusted OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84) among TB subjects correlated with increased transmissibility compared to having a low bacillary load. The type of dwelling and density of household members were not found to be risk factors for LTBI in our study. We conclude being aged 20 years and having a relationship with a TB patient as a spouse or parent were risk factors for acquiring LTBI, and having a higher bacillary load was a risk factor for transmitting TB. Keywords: latent tuberculosis infection, transmission factor, risk factor, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, interferon-gamma release assay, Thailand PMID:26521523

  8. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Pringle, Kimberly; Chea, Nora; Allen, Donna; Allen, Steve; Richards, Shawn; Pantones, Pam; Sandoval, Michelle; Liu, Lixia; Vernon, Michael; Conover, Craig; Chugh, Rashmi; DeMaria, Alfred; Burns, Rachel; Smole, Sandra; Gerber, Susan I; Cohen, Nicole J; Kuhar, David; Haynes, Lia M; Schneider, Eileen; Kumar, Alan; Kapoor, Minal; Madrigal, Marlene; Swerdlow, David L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    In May 2014, a traveler from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the first person identified with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States. To evaluate transmission risk, we determined the type, duration, and frequency of patient contact among health care personnel (HCP), household, and community contacts by using standard questionnaires and, for HCP, global positioning system (GPS) tracer tag logs. Respiratory and serum samples from all contacts were tested for MERS-CoV. Of 61 identified contacts, 56 were interviewed. HCP exposures occurred most frequently in the emergency department (69%) and among nurses (47%); some HCP had contact with respiratory secretions. Household and community contacts had brief contact (e.g., hugging). All laboratory test results were negative for MERS-CoV. This contact investigation found no secondary cases, despite case-patient contact by 61 persons, and provides useful information about MERS-CoV transmission risk. Compared with GPS tracer tag recordings, self-reported contact may not be as accurate. PMID:26079176

  9. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breakwell, Lucy; Pringle, Kimberly; Chea, Nora; Allen, Donna; Allen, Steve; Richards, Shawn; Pantones, Pam; Sandoval, Michelle; Liu, Lixia; Vernon, Michael; Conover, Craig; Chugh, Rashmi; DeMaria, Alfred; Burns, Rachel; Smole, Sandra; Gerber, Susan I.; Cohen, Nicole J; Kuhar, David; Haynes, Lia M.; Schneider, Eileen; Kumar, Alan; Kapoor, Minal; Madrigal, Marlene; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, a traveler from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the first person identified with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States. To evaluate transmission risk, we determined the type, duration, and frequency of patient contact among health care personnel (HCP), household, and community contacts by using standard questionnaires and, for HCP, global positioning system (GPS) tracer tag logs. Respiratory and serum samples from all contacts were tested for MERS-CoV. Of 61 identified contacts, 56 were interviewed. HCP exposures occurred most frequently in the emergency department (69%) and among nurses (47%); some HCP had contact with respiratory secretions. Household and community contacts had brief contact (e.g., hugging). All laboratory test results were negative for MERS-CoV. This contact investigation found no secondary cases, despite case-patient contact by 61 persons, and provides useful information about MERS-CoV transmission risk. Compared with GPS tracer tag recordings, self-reported contact may not be as accurate. PMID:26079176

  10. Relations of Wolbachia Infection with Phylogeography of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) Populations Within and Beyond the Carpathian Contact Zone.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread intracellular α-proteobacteria maternally inherited endosymbiont of insects and nematodes. These bacteria are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes of their hosts. Relatively few studies have dealt with distribution of infections across populations and with the influence of these bacteria on host genetic diversification and speciation. The aims of this study are to determine the distribution and rate of infection and to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with Philaenus spumarius spittlebug (Hemiptera) by using multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis and host phylogeography. The results showed that infection rate was significantly different between members of both main mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages of P. spumarius. We detected much higher infection rates of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations from the north-east clade than the south-west clade. Moreover, the frequency of these infections varied within and outside the contact zone known from the Carpathians. Given the reproductive alterations which are often associated with this endosymbiont, Wolbachia probably maintain genetic differentiation of its hosts in its contact zone in the Carpathians. This is one of the first studies demonstrating the presence of Wolbachia across a large part of the range of insect species, including the contact zone. The spread of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations can potentially cause speciation by compromising the potential reproductive barrier between infected and uninfected populations. We discuss possible implications of Wolbachia infection inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in the population dynamics of this spittlebug but confirm that more studies are also required. PMID:25681033

  11. Modeling a dynamic bi-layer contact network of injection drug users and the spread of blood-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rui; Gutfraind, Alexander; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2016-03-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring and spreading various blood-borne infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a number of sexually transmitted infections. These infections can spread among IDUs via risky sexual and needle-sharing contacts. To accurately model the spread of such contagions among IDUs, we build a bi-layer network that captures both types of risky contacts. We present methodology for inferring important model parameters, such as those governing network structure and dynamics, from readily available data sources (e.g., epidemiological surveys). Such a model can be used to evaluate the efficacy of various programs that aim to combat drug addiction and contain blood-borne diseases among IDUs. The model is especially useful for evaluating interventions that exploit the structure of the contact network. To illustrate, we instantiate a network model with data collected by a needle and syringe program in Chicago. We model sexual and needle-sharing contacts and the consequent spread of HIV and HCV. We use the model to evaluate the potential effects of a peer education (PE) program under different targeting strategies. We show that a targeted PE program would avert significantly more HIV and HCV infections than an untargeted program, highlighting the importance of reaching individuals who are centrally located in contact networks when instituting prevention programs. PMID:26775738

  12. High Rate of Intestinal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Household Contacts of Infected Community Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Aránzazu; Grill, Fabio; Coque, Teresa M.; Pintado, Vicente; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Cobo, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms was detected in 70% of index cases of patients (n = 40) with community-acquired infections due to ESBL producers and reached 16.7% in household contacts (n = 54). A total of 66% of ESBL-producing organisms from index cases were indistinguishable from isolates from household contacts by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Patients with community infections and members of their households represent a reservoir for ESBL producers, increasing dispersal of resistance in healthy people. PMID:18562591

  13. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and GPS reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL∶GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL∶GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL∶GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more

  14. Prevalence of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India, and influence of segregation of the patient on the early attack rate*

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. H.; Devadatta, S.; Fox, Wallace; Radhakrishna, S.; Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Velu, S.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a study by the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, of the merits of home as compared with sanatorium treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis have indicated that treatment at home is satisfactory in the majority of cases. Before domiciliary chemotherapy can be introduced on a large scale, however, it must be established that it does not expose the patient's contacts to a special risk of infection, avoided by his isolation in a sanatorium. Accordingly, a further study was undertaken by the Centre to determine (a) the prevalence of tuberculosis among the family contacts of patients, and (b) the incidence of clinical tuberculosis and of tuberculous infections in the family contacts of the home and sanatorium groups of patients during the first year of treatment. The findings of this study indicate that the major risk for contacts lies in exposure to the infectious case before diagnosis, whether the patient subsequently remains at home or is isolated in a sanatorium appearing to have little importance, if the patients at home are treated with effective chemotherapy. Children under seven years of age proved to be particularly vulnerable to infection. The management of young contacts by chemoprophylaxis or by BCG vaccination, or by both measures, has been discussed. PMID:13683486

  15. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  16. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

    2001-02-01

    The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys

  17. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  18. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the

  19. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  20. Transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and response to infection in vaccinated and contact-vaccinated broilers.

    PubMed

    Velkers, Francisca C; Bouma, Annemarie; Stegeman, J Arjan; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-01-01

    Live vaccines for coccidiosis control are infrequently used in broilers, mainly due to variability in efficacy and relatively high costs. More insight in transmission of vaccine and wild-type strains can facilitate optimization of vaccination strategies and might increase its use as an alternative for anticoccidial drugs. The aim of this study was to quantify transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and to determine the degree of protection against a subsequent infection with a wild-type E. acervulina strain. An experiment was carried out with 4 groups of 22 SPF broilers. At 2 days of age, 11 birds of groups 2 to 4 were vaccinated directly by oral application of E. acervulina oocysts of the Paracox™ vaccine and 11 birds were placed in contact with these birds (contact-vaccinated). Birds in group 1 remained unvaccinated (controls) and were not exposed to vaccinated birds. At day 28 of age, 6 groups of 10 birds were formed, with 2 groups (duplo) for each treatment group, i.e. vaccinated, contact-vaccinated or unvaccinated control birds. Five birds of each group were orally inoculated with wild-type E. acervulina oocysts and five were contact-exposed. Single droppings were examined daily from days 5 to 49 of age for oocyst output and to determine the time of infection. The transmission rate of the vaccine strain was estimated to be 1.6 per day and of the wild-type strain 2.3, 8.7 and 20.8 per day for vaccinated, contact-vaccinated and unvaccinated birds, respectively. Although transmission of wild-type coccidia was not significantly reduced in vaccinated or contact-vaccinated groups, both groups were equally protected against high oocyst output after infection compared to unvaccinated groups. These results suggest that factors influencing transmission of live vaccine strains in flocks may be important targets for improvement of vaccine efficacy and warrant further research. PMID:22075084

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Children with Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections and Their Household Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Stephanie A.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Hayek, Genevieve; Eisenstein, Kimberly A.; Rodriguez, Marcela; Krauss, Melissa; Garbutt, Jane; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To measure prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in household contacts of children with acute S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), determine risk factors for S. aureus colonization in household contacts, and assess anatomic sites of S. aureus colonization in patients and household contacts. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting St. Louis Children’s Hospital Emergency Department and ambulatory wound center and nine community pediatric practices affiliated with a practice-based research network. Participants Patients with community-associated S. aureus SSTI and S. aureus colonization (in the nose, axilla, and/or inguinal folds) and their household contacts. Outcome Measures Colonization of household contacts of pediatric patients with S. aureus colonization and SSTI. Results Of 183 index patients, 61% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 30% with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), and 9% with both MRSA and MSSA. Of 609 household contacts, 323 (53%) were colonized with S. aureus: 115 (19%) with MRSA, 195 (32%) with MSSA, and 13 (2%) with both. Parents were more likely than other household contacts to be colonized with MRSA (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.12, 2.63). MRSA colonized the inguinal folds more frequently than MSSA (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.16, 2.41), and MSSA colonized the nose more frequently than MRSA (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.19, 2.56). Conclusions Household contacts of children with S. aureus SSTI had a high rate of MRSA colonization compared to the general population. The inguinal fold is a prominent site of MRSA colonization, which may be an important consideration for active surveillance programs in hospitals. PMID:22665030

  2. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. PMID:24933163

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nef-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in noninfected heterosexual contact of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Langlade-Demoyen, P; Ngo-Giang-Huong, N; Ferchal, F; Oksenhendler, E

    1994-01-01

    We report on the detection of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) among 23 regular partners of HIV-infected individuals. 15 of the 46 individuals enrolled in the study were positive for HLA-A2.1 typing. Among the 23 contacts studied, 7 were seropositive and 16 were seronegative on repeated tests. None of the 16 seronegative contacts were positive for p24 antigenemia nor were they positive by the lymphocytes coculture assay, although, in two instances HIV-1 DNA could be detected by PCR (in one case using a gag SK 38/39 primer, and in the other using a primer for the pol P3/P4 primer). These two individuals remained seronegative for 18 and 36 mo, respectively. HIV-specific cytotoxicity was performed in the 15 HLA-A2.1 subjects (7 indexes, 2 seropositive contacts, and 6 seronegative contacts) and in 4 HLA-matched HIV negative donors. CTL specific for env, gag, or nef proteins could not be detected in unstimulated bulk cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes in any of the six seronegative contacts. However, using a limiting dilution assay we found an usually high frequency of HIV nef-specific CTL precursors (CTLp) for HIV env and gag was very similar to that observed in seronegative HLA-matched healthy donors. Because no presence of HIV could be demonstrated in these individuals, these findings argue against the possibility of a silent HIV infection and suggest that a CTL response against nef may be involved in a rapid and effective clearance of the virus after sexual exposure. PMID:8132769

  4. Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Birinder J; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

    2002-02-01

    Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment. PMID:11853045

  5. Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Birinder J.; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment. PMID:11853045

  6. A novel mycovirus closely related to hypoviruses that infects the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiatao; Xiao, Xueqiong; Fu, Yanping; Liu, Huiquan; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A; Li, Guoqing; Jiang, Daohong

    2011-09-15

    Three dsRNA segments, two similarly sized at 9.5kbp and a third one of approximately 3.6kbp, were extracted from a hypovirulent strain SZ-150 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The complete cDNA sequence of one of the two large dsRNA segment (10398bp, excluding the poly (A) tail) reveals a single ORF that encodes a polyprotein with conserved domains of putative papain-like protease, UDP glucose/sterol glycosyltransferase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and viral RNA Helicase. This virus is closely related to Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV) 3/GH2 and CHV4/SR2 in the family Hypoviridae and designated as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV1/SZ-150). The satellite-like 3.6kbp dsRNA segment (S-dsRNA) shares high sequence identity with the 5'-UTR of SsHV1/SZ-150. SsHV1/SZ-150 alone is not the primary causal agent for hypovirulence of strain SZ-150 since strains without the S-dsRNA show normal phenotype. This is the first report of a naturally occurring hypovirus that infects a fungus other than Cryphonectria parasitica. PMID:21813149

  7. Tuberculin Skin Testing Compared with T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific and Nonspecific Antigens for Detection of Latent Infection in Persons with Recent Tuberculosis Contact

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Sandra M.; Engelhard, Anrik C. F.; Groot, Gertjan; de Boer, Kirsten; Andersen, Peter; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.

    2001-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used for the identification of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) but lacks specificity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals, who constitute an increasing proportion of TB patients and their contacts from regions where TB is endemic. In previous studies, T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10, M. tuberculosis-specific antigens that are absent from BCG, were sensitive and specific for detection of active TB. We studied 44 close contacts of a patient with smear-positive pulmonary TB and compared the standard screening procedure for LTBI by TST or chest radiographs with T-cell responses to M. tuberculosis-specific and nonspecific antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB10.4 (each as recombinant antigen and as a mixture of overlapping synthetic peptides), M. tuberculosis sonicate, purified protein derivative (PPD), and short-term culture filtrate, using gamma interferon production as the response measure. LTBI screening was by TST in 36 participants and by chest radiographs in 8 persons. Nineteen contacts were categorized as TST negative, 12 were categorized as TST positive, and 5 had indeterminate TST results. Recombinant antigens and peptide mixtures gave similar results. Responses to TB10.4 were neither sensitive nor specific for LTBI. T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were less sensitive for detection of LTBI than those to PPD (67 versus 100%) but considerably more specific (100 versus 72%). The specificity of the TST or in vitro responses to PPD will be even less when the proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons among TB contacts evaluated for LTBI increases. PMID:11687445

  8. Healthcare Worker Contact Networks and the Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Donald E.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Kanade, Gaurav; Pemmaraju, Sriram V.; Polgreen, Philip M.; Segre, Alberto M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive approach to using electronic medical records (EMR) for constructing contact networks of healthcare workers in a hospital. This approach is applied at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) – a 3.2 million square foot facility with 700 beds and about 8,000 healthcare workers – by obtaining 19.8 million EMR data points, spread over more than 21 months. We use these data to construct 9,000 different healthcare worker contact networks, which serve as proxies for patterns of actual healthcare worker contacts. Unlike earlier approaches, our methods are based on large-scale data and do not make any a priori assumptions about edges (contacts) between healthcare workers, degree distributions of healthcare workers, their assignment to wards, etc. Preliminary validation using data gathered from a 10-day long deployment of a wireless sensor network in the Medical Intensive Care Unit suggests that EMR logins can serve as realistic proxies for hospital-wide healthcare worker movement and contact patterns. Despite spatial and job-related constraints on healthcare worker movement and interactions, analysis reveals a strong structural similarity between the healthcare worker contact networks we generate and social networks that arise in other (e.g., online) settings. Furthermore, our analysis shows that disease can spread much more rapidly within the constructed contact networks as compared to random networks of similar size and density. Using the generated contact networks, we evaluate several alternate vaccination policies and conclude that a simple policy that vaccinates the most mobile healthcare workers first, is robust and quite effective relative to a random vaccination policy. PMID:24386075

  9. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  10. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  11. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-05

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  12. SDSS J001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.

    2015-01-10

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ∼8 s yr{sup −1}. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O–C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ∼ 0.14 M {sub ☉}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  13. SDSS J001641-000925: The First Stable Red Dwarf Contact Binary with a Close-in Stellar Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of \\dot{P}˜ {8} s yr-1. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M 3sin i' ~ 0.14 M ⊙. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  14. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing the Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rundjan, Lily; Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Paramita, Tiara Nien; Oeswadi, Chrissela Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective: To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. Methods: Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results: Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect toward the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011–0.85, p = 0.026). Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227–90.662, p = 0.026). BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group. Conclusion: The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device, and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously. PMID:25853110

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Christley, S.; Khodarev, N. N.; Fleming, I.; Huang, Y.; Chang, E.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. Methods We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of P. aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 6 and abdominal tissues analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissues components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to skin, fascia, and muscle. Results Gross wound infection due to P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues vs non-injured (80% vs 10%) tissues (n=20/group, p<0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. Conclusion We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection. PMID:25807409

  16. Risk factors for HIV infection in male sexual contacts of men with AIDS or an AIDS-related condition.

    PubMed

    Coates, R A; Calzavara, L M; Read, S E; Fanning, M M; Shepherd, F A; Klein, M H; Johnson, J K; Soskolne, C L

    1988-10-01

    A total of 246 healthy male sexual contacts of men with either acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or an AIDS-related condition were recruited into a prospective study in Toronto, Canada between July 1984 and July 1985. At induction, data were collected on the sexual relationship between the contact and his primary case, sexual activities with other men, history of sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases, and use of recreational drugs. At recruitment, 144 sexual contacts had antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 102 of the contacts were seronegative at induction and at three months following recruitment. No association between HIV seropositivity and total number of sexual partners could be demonstrated. In univariate and multivariate analyses, receptive and insertive anal intercourse with the primary cases, and activities which either indicated or potentially caused anorectal mucosal injury (rectal douching, perianal bleeding, receipt of objects in ano, and receptive fisting) were strongly associated with HIV seropositivity. In the final multiple logistic regression model, two significant interaction effects were observed: the interaction between receptive anal intercourse and insertive anal intercourse and that between receptive anal intercourse and the anorectal mucosal injury index. These two interaction terms had negative regression coefficients which suggested that change in one sexual activity would not decrementally reduce risk of HIV infection without a comparable modification in the other activity. No association could be demonstrated between oral-genital and oral-anal sexual contact and odds ratios for these sexual activities declined to levels below 1.0 when adjusted for frequency of receptive anal intercourse. PMID:3421239

  17. Behavioral and molecular tracing of risky sexual contacts in a sample of Chinese HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haijiang; He, Na; Zhou, Sujuan; Ding, Yingying; Qiu, Danhong; Zhang, Tiejun; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-02-15

    Contact tracing, coupled with molecular epidemiologic investigation, is especially useful for identifying an infection with few cases in the population, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. No such research is available on Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). From 2008 to 2010 in Taizhou Prefecture in China, every newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM was invited to participate as an "index case" in a contact tracing survey by providing contact information for up to 8 sexual contacts, who themselves were approached to receive voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Those who tested HIV-positive were then subjected to another contact tracing survey. This process was repeated until no more sexual contacts were reported or tested positive. A total of 100 HIV-infected MSM served as "index cases," including the initial 49 cases identified through routine surveillance programs and 51 cases from the present survey. Traced MSM exhibited little willingness to receive voluntary counseling and testing. CRF01_AE (HIV type 1) was the dominant subtype. Seven of 49 independent sexual networks were deemed HIV transmission clusters. Fear of stigma or discrimination may deter Chinese MSM from receiving voluntary counseling and testing. Nonetheless, the integration of behavioral network analysis and HIV phylogenetic analysis provides enhanced evidence for developing tailored prevention strategies for HIV-infected MSM. PMID:23348006

  18. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are ...

  19. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  20. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patricia C; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  1. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  2. Persistent Transmission of Schistosomiasis in Southwest Nigeria: Contexts of Culture and Contact with Infected River Water.

    PubMed

    Olorunlana, Adetayo; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Morenikeji, Olajumoke; Hassan, Adesola A; Nwuba, Roseangela I; Anumudu, Chiaka I; Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of schistosomiasis is aided by human behaviour. Globally, about 800 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Data exist on biomedical understanding of the disease transmission; there is a dearth of information from the social science perspective. Hence, this study explored the social and cultural context of schistosomiasis transmission among Yewa People in Nigeria. Qualitative methods were employed with purposive sampling, using the key informant interviews and focus group discussions, among 57 participants aged 17 to 54 years. The data were content-analyzed. River water was the most reported source of water supply among others. Participants drew from the cultural milieu the use of river water for "drinking" and "swimming" as part of the continual transmission of schistosomiasis. Transmission of schistosomiasis may not be abated without behavioural change. PMID:27009769

  3. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  4. Vitamin D status and incidence of tuberculosis infection conversion in contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, A; Juan-Cerdán, J V; Romeu-García, M A; García-Ferrer, D; Holguín-Gómez, R; Iborra-Millet, J; Pardo-Serrano, F

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between serum vitamin D (VitD) status and tuberculosis (TB) infection conversion (TBIC), measured by the tuberculin skin test (TST) and an interferon-gamma release assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the contacts of pulmonary TB patients in Castellon (Spain) in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012. Initially, the participants were negative to latent TB infection after a screening that included TST and QFT-GIT tests, and other examinations. A baseline determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. After 8-10 weeks, participants were screened for a second time to determine TB infection conversion (TBIC). Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 247 participants in the cohort, 198 (80·2%) were screened twice and 18 (9·1%) were TBIC cases. The means of VitD concentration in the TBIC cases and the non-cases were 20·7±11·9 and 27·2±11·4 ng/ml (P = 0·028), respectively. Adjusted for high exposure and TB sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive index case, higher serum VitD concentration was associated with low incidence of TBIC (P trend = 0·005), and an increase of 1 ng/ml VitD concentration decreased the incidence of TBIC by 6% (relative risk 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90-0·99, P = 0·015). The results suggest that sufficient VitD level could be a protective factor of TBIC. PMID:25274036

  5. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence. PMID:25655409

  6. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection. No serum anti-ganglioside antibody was detected. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mild pleocytosis and elevated proteins. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerve were slightly reduced. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median and ulnar nerves were reduced, and sural SNAP was not evoked. Systolic blood pressure dropped 48 mmHg when the patient assumed a standing position from a supine one, demonstrating orthostatic hypotension, and a cold pressor test was abnormal, both indicating an obvious hypofunction of the sympathetic nerve. The postganglionic autonomic nerve appeared to be damaged because the accumulation of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine was reduced on myocardial scintigraphy. These findings combined together led us to make a diagnosis of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy associated with CMV infection in this case. Following an eventless administration of oral fludrocortisones, intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) was given after one month of the hospitalization with a remarkable reduction of the syncope. This case is instructive in two points. One is that there may be a couple of months with syncope alone before the sensory disturbance appearance, and the other is that IVIg may be considerably effective for the patient-annoying syncopes. To our knowledge, this

  7. Rapid Point-of-Contact Tool for Mapping and Integrated Surveillance of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus Infection.

    PubMed

    Steel, Cathy; Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric; Yokobe, Lindsay; Domingo, Gonzalo J; de los Santos, Tala; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    Elimination programs for Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus are in critical need of sensitive, specific, and point-of-contact (POC) tools that can be used for surveillance years beyond cessation of mass drug administration when infection intensities are low. Previously, Wb123 and Ov16 were identified individually as potential filarial antigens for an antibody-based POC test. The present study compares single-antigen Wb123- and Ov16-based POC tests with an integrated configuration to detect antibodies to Wb123 and Ov16 simultaneously. Wb123 and Ov16 isolates were striped onto lateral flow strips containing anti-IgG4. Sera from W. bancrofti-, O. volvulus-, and other helminth-infected or -uninfected individuals were added to the strips with buffer. Strips were read for the appearance of a positive or negative test line for both antigens at 20 min and following drying. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for the single-antigen and biplex strips. Single and biplex lateral flow strips showed nearly identical results, with >90% sensitivity for Ov16 and >92% sensitivity for Wb123. Overall specificities for the single and biplex tests were 98% and 96% for Ov16 and Wb123, respectively. Biplex tests performed as well as the single-antigen tests regardless of the intensity of patient IgG4 response. The high sensitivity and specificity make these new biplex tests extremely useful for POC long-term surveillance following mass drug administration in Africa that should reduce time and cost in areas where bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis are coendemic. PMID:26018537

  8. African great apes are naturally infected with polyomaviruses closely related to Merkel cell polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Cameron, Kenneth N; Kidega, Tonny; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Boesch, Christophe; Calvignac, Sébastien; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infects humans worldwide, but little is known about the occurrence of viruses related to MCPyV in the closest phylogenetic relatives of humans, great apes. We analyzed samples from 30 wild chimpanzees and one captive gorilla and identified two new groups of polyomaviruses (PyVs). These new viruses are by far the closest relatives to MCPyV described to date, providing the first evidence of the natural occurrence of PyVs related to MCPyV in wild great apes. Similar to MCPyV, the prevalence of these viruses is relatively high (>30%). This, together with the fact that humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates, may point toward further MCPyV-like strains spreading to, or already existing in, our species. PMID:21047967

  9. Effects of closing and reopening live poultry markets on the epidemic of human infection with avian influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Liu, Wendong; Xia, Rui; Dai, Qigang; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, yefei; Wang, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Live poultry markets (LPMs) are crucial places for human infection of influenza A (H7N9 virus). In Yangtze River Delta, LPMs were closed after the outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, and then reopened when no case was found. Our purpose was to quantify the effect of LPMs’ operations in this region on the transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus. We obtained information about dates of symptom onset and locations for all human influenza A (H7N9) cases reported from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces by May 31, 2014, and acquired dates of closures and reopening of LPMs from official media. A two-phase Bayesian model was fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to process the spatial and temporal influence of human cases. A total of 235 cases of influenza A (H7N9) were confirmed in Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang by May 31, 2014. Using these data, our analysis showed that, after LPM closures, the influenza A (H7N9) outbreak disappeared within two weeks in Shanghai, one week in Jiangsu, and one week in Zhejiang, respectively. Local authorities reopened LPMs when there was no outbreak of influenza A (H7N9), which did not lead to reemergence of human influenza A (H7N9). LPM closures were effective in controlling the H7N9 outbreak. Reopening of LPM in summer did not increase the risk of human infection with H7N9. Our findings showed that LPMs should be closed immediately in areas where the H7N9 virus is confirmed in LPM. When there is no outbreak of H7N9 virus, LPMs can be reopened to satisfy the Chinese traditional culture of buying live poultry. In the long term, local authorities should take a cautious attitude in permanent LPM closure.

  10. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3-1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5-1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  11. Contact patterns as a risk factor for bovine tuberculosis infection in a free-living adult brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula population.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, T; McKenzie, J; Stevenson, M A

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a free-roaming, capture-mark-recapture monitored possum Trichosurus vulpecula population in a 22-ha study site at Castlepoint, New Zealand from 1 April 1989 to 31 March 1994. A matched case-control design was used to evaluate the influence of sex, habitat and contact opportunities on TB risk. Cases comprised possums identified as TB-positive throughout the study period. Controls were selected from the group of possums that were captured and showed no clinical signs of TB throughout the study period. Measures derived from a social network analysis of possum capture locations such as degree, clustering coefficient (CC) and betweenness were used to represent potential contact opportunities among possums. Network analysis measures recorded for individual possums in the 12-month period before a diagnosis of TB were evaluated in a conditional logistic regression model. We found no evidence of an association between case status and the total number of possums with which there was potential contact (degree) (P=0.5). The odds of cases being exposed to unit increases in the number of TB-positive contacts was 2.50 (95% CI 1.24-5.05; P<0.01) times that of controls. This effect was conditional on the total number of potential contacts made, with a negative interaction with increasing degree. These findings indicate that potential contact with TB-positive possums increases the odds of disease whereas potential contact with large numbers of possums does not. This suggests that multiple contacts with TB-positive possum(s) are necessary for transmission of TB and this is more likely to occur in networks that are smaller. We challenge the hypothesis that contact with large numbers of individuals increases the probability of becoming TB infected and argue that individual contact behaviour is a determinant of the creation of TB foci within free-living possum populations. PMID:21550126

  12. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts. PMID:24124002

  13. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Three Zoo Elephants and a Human Contact - Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy; Vines, Jennifer; Nystrom, Laura; Lane, Lindsey; Behm, Heidi; Denny, Justin; Finnegan, Mitch; Hostetler, Trevor; Matthews, Gloria; Storms, Tim; DeBess, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, public health officials in Multnomah County, Oregon, started an investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among elephants and humans at a local zoo. The investigation ultimately identified three bull elephants with active TB and 118 human contacts of the elephants. Ninety-six (81%) contacts were evaluated, and seven close contacts were found to have latent TB infection. The three bulls were isolated and treated (elephants with TB typically are not euthanized) to prevent infection of other animals and humans, and persons with latent infection were offered treatment. Improved TB screening methods for elephants are needed to prevent exposure of human contacts. PMID:26741355

  14. Bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Francisco; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Elizalde, Maia; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Bagaza virus (BAGV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. In 2010, a disease outbreak was reported in Cádiz (Southern Spain) affecting game birds (red-legged partridges and common pheasants). In this work, red-legged partridges were inoculated experimentally with infectious BAGV isolated from this outbreak in order to make a complete clinical and analytical assessment of the disease caused by the pathogen in this species. Viral load (by real-time RT-PCR) in blood, oral and cloacal swabs, and feathers, and neutralizing antibody titres (by VNT) were measured. In order to determine direct contact transmission, non-inoculated partridges were caged together with the inoculated ones. To assess infectiousness in other species, house sparrows and mice were also inoculated with the virus. All the inoculated partridges were clinically affected, and 30% of them died. All the infected individuals lost weight, with larger losses being recorded in females. Conversely, no mortality or disease symptoms were observed in the sparrows or mice. Remarkably, all the contact partridges acquired the infection by direct (non-vectored) transmission. This study confirms that the red-legged partridge is a susceptible host for BAGV infection, and that this pathogen is transmitted by direct contact. Long-lasting viral loads detected in calami of immature feathers demonstrate that feather sampling could be a useful strategy in active surveillance programs for early detection of BAGV. PMID:26338714

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, production and viral infection in a temporarily open/closed southern African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, E. L.; Froneman, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, biomass, production, nanoflagellate abundance and the loss of bacterial production due to viral lysis were investigated in a temporarily open/closed estuary along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa over the period May 2006 to April 2007. Bacterial abundance, biomass and production ranged between 1.00 × 10 9 and 4.93 × 10 9 cells l -1, 32.43 and 108.59 μg C l -1 and 0.01 and 1.99 μg C l -1 h -1, respectively. With a few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in the values ( P > 0.05). Bacterial abundance, biomass and production, however, demonstrated a distinct temporal pattern with the lowest values consistently recorded during the winter months. Bacterial dynamics showed no effect of mouth opening events. Nanoflagellate and bacterial abundances were significantly correlated to one another ( P < 0.05) suggesting a strong predator-prey relationship. The frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells and the number of virus particles within each bacterial cell during the study demonstrated no significant temporal or spatial pattern ( P > 0.05) and ranged from 0.5 to 6.1% and 12.0 to 37.5 virus particles per bacterium, respectively. Viral infection and lysis was thus a constant source of bacterial mortality throughout the year. The estimated percentage of bacterial production removed by viral lysis ranged between 7.8 and 88.9% (mean = 30.3%) of the total which suggests that viral lysis represents a very important source of bacterial mortality during the study.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below. PMID:24889293

  17. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  18. Variation in Gamma Interferon Responses to Different Infecting Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear-Positive Patients and Household Contacts in Antananarivo, Madagascar▿

    PubMed Central

    Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Soares, Jean-Louis; Doherty, T. Mark; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Zumla, Alimuddin; Huggett, Jim; Rook, Graham; Richard, Vincent; Gicquel, Brigitte; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop tuberculosis (TB), though many may become latently infected. More precise measurement of the human immune response to M. tuberculosis infection may help us understand this difference and potentially identify those subjects most at risk of developing active disease. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production has been widely used as a proxy marker to study infection and to examine the human immune response to specific M. tuberculosis antigens. It has been suggested that genetically distinct M. tuberculosis strains may invoke different immune responses, although how these differences influence the immune responses and clinical outcome in human tuberculosis is still poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the antigen-specific IFN-γ production responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two cohorts of subjects recruited in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from 2004 to 2006 and examined the influence of the infecting M. tuberculosis strains on this response. The cohorts were sputum-positive index cases and their household contacts. Clinical strains isolated from the TB patients were typed by spoligotyping. Comparison of the IFN-γ responses with the spoligotype of the infecting clinical strains showed that “modern” M. tuberculosis strains, like Beijing and Central Asian (CAS) strains, tended to induce lower IFN-γ responses than “ancient” strains, like East African-Indian (EAI) strains, in index cases and their household contacts. These results suggest that new strains may have evolved to induce a host response different from that of ancient strains. These findings could have important implications in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. PMID:20463103

  19. Asymptomatic infection in family contacts of patients with human visceral leishmaniasis in Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanches, Marcos Antônio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Leal, Cássia Rejane Brito; Paula, Fernando Henrique de; Pereira, Luís Gustavo; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-12-01

    The Brazilian city of Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, has experienced an urban outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis since 2000. In 2002, due to the increase in the number of cases, 46 families with cases of visceral leishmaniasis were studied to verify the prevalence of asymptomatic infection in household contacts. Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA showed a 36.4% positive infection rate. There were no cases of symptomatic disease among these contacts. There was no statistically significant difference in gender or age. Median age was 21 years, and the 10-19-year age bracket was the most heavily affected (23%). As for family characteristics, no differences were observed in schooling or family income; most families (58.7%) owned their homes, which were built of masonry (97.8%) and had adequate infrastructure. All the families reported what were probably phlebotomine sand flies in the peridomicile. In conclusion, asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis infection is frequent and occurs in both males and females, regardless of age. PMID:19082273

  20. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  1. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation. PMID:24076499

  2. Recurrent skin infection associated with nasal carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus closely related to the EMRSA-15 clone.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Carla; Di Sante, Laura; Stano, Paola; Varaldo, Pietro E; Camporese, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a soldier with recurrent skin infection associated with nasal carriage of a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), closely related to the EMRSA-15 clone. MSSA isolates causing infection not requiring hospitalization usually go unnoticed; however, their typing may be useful to understand the global distribution of successful staphylococcal lineages related to epidemic clones. PVL-positive MSSA strains might serve as reservoirs from which virulent methicillin-resistant strains may evolve and spread. PMID:26674061

  3. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  4. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  5. Electrochemical characterization of AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with simulated body fluid under infection conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Danián Alejandro; Durán, Alicia; Ceré, Silvia Marcela

    2008-05-01

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are among the most frequently used materials in orthopaedic surgery. In industrialized countries, stainless steel devices are used only for temporary implants due to their lower corrosion resistance in physiologic media when compared to other alloys. However, due to economical reasons, the use of stainless steel alloys for permanent implants is very common in developing countries. The implantation of foreign bodies is sometimes necessary in the modern medical practice. However, the complex interactions between the host and the can implant weaken the local immune system, increasing the risk of infections. Therefore, it is necessary to further study these materials as well as the characteristics of the superficial film formed in physiologic media in infection conditions in order to control their potential toxicity due to the release of metallic ions in the human body. This work presents a study of the superficial composition and the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel and the influence of its main alloying elements when they are exposed to an acidic solution that simulates the change of pH that occurs when an infection develops. Aerated simulated body fluid (SBF) was employed as working solution at 37 degrees C. The pH was adjusted to 7.25 and 4 in order to reproduce normal body and disease state respectively. Corrosion resistance was measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves. PMID:17999036

  6. Asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions and hepatitis B surface antigen at sites of sexual contact in homosexual men with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Reiner, N E; Judson, F N; Bond, W W; Francis, D P; Petersen, N J

    1982-02-01

    To ascertain why active and passive oral-anal and genital anal intercourse correlate strongly with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in homosexual men, we studied 22 men with HBV infection for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in gingival and anorectal mucosa, feces, and semen. Thirteen of 22 (59%) patients had asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions consisting of punctate bleeding points. Seventy-seven percent of swabbed specimens from lesions, 62% from feces, 59% from rectal mucosa, and 50% from anal canal mucosa contained HBsAg. Sera diluted serially and tested for HBsAg by radioimmunoassay showed that men with serum titers of 105 or greater were more likely to have HBsAg in specimens from lesions (p = 0.034), feces (p = 0.032), and normal mucosa (p = 0.001) than men with titers under 10 5. Asymptomatic rectal bleeding is frequent in homosexual men with persistent HBV infection. Rectal mucosa, feces, and anal canal mucosa become contaminated with HBsAg, creating a setting for de facto parenteral transmission when there is contact with oral or urethral mucosa. PMID:7059064

  7. Vaccination against rubella: Analysis of the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and the effects of different contact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Azevedo, R. S.; Burattini, M. N.; Lopez, L. F.; Massad, E.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and incidence of rubella, after the introduction of a very specific vaccination program in a previously nonvaccinated population where rubella was in endemic steady state. We deduce an integral equation for the age-dependent force of infection, which depends on a number of parameters that can be estimated from the force of infection in a steady state prior to the vaccination program. We present the results of our simulations, which are compared with observed data. We also examine the influence of contact patterns among members of a community on the age-dependent intensity of transmission of rubella and on the results of vaccination strategies. As an example of the theory proposed, we calculate the effects of vaccination strategies for four communities from Caieiras (Brazil), Huixquilucan (Mexico), Finland, and the United Kingdom. The results for each community differ considerably according to the distinct intensity and pattern of transmission in the absence of vaccination. We conclude that this simple vaccination program is not very efficient (very slow) in the goal of eradicating the disease. This gives support to a mixed strategy, proposed by Massad et al., accepted and implemented by the government of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  8. An investigation of the simultaneously recorded occlusal contact and surface electromyographic activity of jaw-closing muscles for patients with temporomandibular disorders and a scissors-bite relationship.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kun; Guo, Shao-Xiong; Xu, YiFei; Deng, Qi; Liu, Lu; Li, Baoyong; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporalis (TA) muscles has been reported to be associated with occlusion and orofacial pain. However, our recent report did not reveal an association between the side of orofacial pain and the side showing higher or lower level of SEMG activity of masseter or TA. The present purpose was to re-test this association in patients who had unilateral scissors-bite relationship. Thirty-two unilateral scissors-bite femalepatients complaining of unilateral orofacial pain (n=15) or TMJ sounds (n=17) were enrolled to simultaneously record contacts, force distribution of occlusion, and SEMG activity of masseter and TA during centric maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). The results indicated that neither orofacial pain nor the TMJ sounds had an association with the masseter's SEMG values, while scissors-bite had (P<0.05). A lower SEMG value for masseter was found on the scissors-bite side where there was a smaller number of contacts and a lower biting force distribution (P<0.05). No such association was revealed in TA. In conclusion, in patients with unilateral TMD symptom(s) and scissors-bite, the jawclosing muscles' SEMG activity during centric MVC was associated with the scissors-bite rather than the symptoms of orofacial pain or TMJ sounds. PMID:27111032

  9. A contact mechanics based model for partially-closed randomly distributed surface microcracks and their effect on acoustic nonlinearity in Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhardt, Tobias; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2016-02-01

    This research investigates the modeling of randomly distributed surface-breaking microcracks and the dependency of higher harmonic generation in Rayleigh surface waves on microcrack density. The microcrack model is based on micromechanical considerations of rough surface contact. An effective stress-strain relationship is derived to describe the nonlinear behavior of a single microcrack and implemented into a finite-element model via a hyperelastic constitutive law. Finite-element simulations of nonlinear wave propagation in a solid with distributed surface microcracks are performed for a range of microcrack densities. The evolution of fundamental and second harmonic amplitudes along the propagation distance is studied and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is calculated. The results show that the nonlinearity parameter increases with crack density. While, for small crack densities (dilute concentration of microcracks) a proportionality between crack density and acoustic nonlinearity is observed, this is not valid for higher crack densities, as the microcracks start to interact.

  10. Close relationship between immunoglobulin secreting-cells and Epstein-Barr virus reservoir in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Tuaillon, Edouard; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Bollore, Karine; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV have higher circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load compared to healthy carriers. This study investigated whether level of spontaneous immunoglobulin secreting cells, one of the major hallmarks of HIV infection, is associated with an increase of EBV DNA load in PBMCs and the spontaneous EBV lytic cycle ex vivo in patients infected with HIV. Spontaneous virus production by cells infected with EBV and EBV DNA loads in PBMCs from which CD8(+) T-cells were removed were measured in 20 HIV-aviremic and 14 HIV-viremic patients. The number of circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells (Ig-SCs) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte activation were also investigated. Patients with detectable HIV RNA in plasma exhibited higher spontaneous ex vivo EBV secretion and higher levels of EBV DNA in PBMCs than their aviremic counterparts. In the two groups observed, a positive correlation was found between PBMCs EBV DNA viral load and Ig-SCs, CD38(bright) expression on CD8(+) T-cells and EBV DNA load in cell culture supernatants. These findings suggest that B-cell polyclonal activation and B-cell terminal differentiation into Ig-SCs may fuel EBV DNA reservoir and promote EBV production ex vivo in patients infected with HIV. PMID:24114930

  11. Close, stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast is dependent on meiotic recombination, occurs independently of synapsis, and is distinct from DSB-independent pairing contacts

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, Tamara L.; Dean, Eric; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lambourne, Lindsey; Burgess, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    A site-specific recombination system that probes the relative probabilities that pairs of chromosomal loci collide with one another in living cells of budding yeast was used to explore the relative contributions of pairing, recombination, synaptonemal complex formation, and telomere clustering to the close juxtaposition of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis. The level of Cre-mediated recombination between a pair of loxP sites located at an allelic position on homologous chromosomes was 13-fold greater than that between a pair of loxP sites located at ectopic positions on nonhomologous chromosomes. Mutations affecting meiotic recombination initiation and the processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) into single-end invasions (SEIs) reduced the levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination levels by three- to sixfold. The severity of Cre/loxP phenotypes is presented in contrast to relatively weak DSB-independent pairing defects as assayed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for these mutants. Mutations affecting synaptonemal complex (SC) formation or crossover control gave wild-type levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination. A delay in attaining maximum levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination was observed for a mutant defective in telomere clustering. None of the mutants affected ectopic levels of recombination. These data suggest that stable, close homolog juxtaposition in yeast is distinct from pre-DSB pairing interactions, requires both DSB and SEI formation, but does not depend on crossovers or SC. PMID:12101126

  12. Phytoplasma infecting cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas infecting cherry and lilac in Lithuania were found to represent two lineages related to clover phyllody phytoplasma (CPh), a subgroup 16SrI-C strain exhibiting rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. 16S rDNAs amplified from the cherry bunchy leaf (ChBL) and lilac little leaf (LcLL) p...

  13. Surface-Engineered Contact Lens as an Advanced Theranostic Platform for Modulation and Detection of Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Orban, Jenny; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Turner, Anthony P F; Griffith, May

    2015-11-18

    We have demonstrated an entirely new concept of a wearable theranostic device in the form of a contact lens (theranostic lens) with a dual-functional hybrid surface to modulate and detect a pathogenic attack, using a the corneal HSV serotype-1 (HSV-1) model. The theranostic lenses were constructed using a facile layer-by-layer surface engineering technique, keeping the theranostic lenses with good surface wettability, optically transparency, and nontoxic toward human corneal epithelial cells. The theranostic lenses were used to capture and concentrate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α), which is upregulated during HSV-1 reactivation, for sensitive, noninvasive diagnostics. The theranostic lens also incorporated an antiviral coating to serve as a first line of defense to protect patients against disease. Our strategy tackles major problems in tear diagnostics that are mainly associated with the sampling of a relatively small volume of fluid and the low concentration of biomarkers. The theranostic lenses show effective anti-HSV-1 activity and good analytical performance for the detection of IL-1α, with a limit of detection of 1.43 pg mL(-1) and a wide linear range covering the clinically relevant region. This work offers a new paradigm for "wearable" noninvasive healthcare devices combining "diagnosis" and "protection" against disease, while supporting patient compliance. We believe that this approach holds immense promise as a next-generation point-of-care and decentralized diagnostic/theranostic platform for a range of biomarkers. PMID:26512953

  14. The Avian XPR1 Gammaretrovirus Receptor Is under Positive Selection and Is Disabled in Bird Species in Contact with Virus-Infected Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carrie; Buckler-White, Alicia; Wollenberg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. Cells from avian species differ in susceptibility to X-MLVs, and 2 replacement mutations in the virus-resistant chicken XPR1 (K496Q and Q579E) distinguish it from the more permissive duck and quail receptors. These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. Mutagenesis of the chicken and duck genes confirms that residues at both sites are critical for virus entry. Among 32 avian species, the 2 disabling XPR1 mutations are found together only in the chicken, an omnivorous, ground-dwelling fowl that was domesticated in India and/or Southeast Asia, which is also where X-MLV-infected house mice evolved. The receptor-disabling mutations are also present separately in 5 additional fowl and raptor species, all of which are native to areas of Asia populated by the virus-infected subspecies Mus musculus castaneus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the avian XPR1 gene is under positive selection at sites implicated in receptor function, suggesting a defensive role for XPR1 in the avian lineage. Contact between bird species and virus-infected mice may thus have favored selection of mouse virus-resistant receptor orthologs in the birds, and our data suggest that similar receptor-disabling mutations were fixed in mammalian and avian species exposed to similar virus challenges. PMID:23843647

  15. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans. PMID:26948298

  16. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential†

    PubMed Central

    Padmawar, Prashant A.; Rogers-Haley, Joy E.; So, Grace; Canteenwala, Taizoon; Thota, Sammaiah; Tan, Loon-Seng; Pritzker, Kenneth; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wilson, Brian; Urbas, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a new class of photoresponsive C60–DCE–diphenylaminofluorene nanostructures and their intramolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer phenomena. Structural modification was made by chemical conversion of the keto group in C60(>DPAF-Cn) to a stronger electron-withdrawing 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl (DCE) unit leading to C60(>CPAF-Cn) with an increased electronic polarization of the molecule. The modification also led to a large bathochromic shift of the major band in visible spectrum giving measureable absorption up to 600 nm and extended the photoresponsive capability of C60–DCE–DPAF nanostructures to longer red wavelengths than C60(>DPAF-Cn). Accordingly, C60(>CPAF-Cn) may allow 2γ-PDT using a light wavelength of 1000–1200 nm for enhanced tissue penetration depth. Production efficiency of singlet oxygen by closely related C60(>DPAF-C2M) was found to be comparable with that of tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer. Remarkably, the 1O2 quantum yield of C60(>CPAF-C2M) was found to be nearly 6-fold higher than that of C60(>DPAF-C2M), demonstrating the large light-harvesting enhancement of the CPAF-C2M moiety and leading to more efficient triplet state generation of the C60> cage moiety. This led to highly effective killing of HeLa cells by C60(>CPAF-C2M) via photodynamic therapy (200 J cm−2 white light). We interpret the phenomena in terms of the contributions by the extended π-conjugation and stronger electron-withdrawing capability associated with the 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl group compared to that of the keto group. PMID:20890406

  18. Constructions of contact manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, Hansjörg

    1997-05-01

    1. IntroductionIt has been known for some time that contact structures show a high degree of topological flexibility in the sense that many topological operations can be performed on contact manifolds while preserving the contact property. For instance, Martinet [14] used a surgery description of 3-manifolds to show that every closed, oriented 3-manifold admits a contact structure, and alternative proofs of this result were given later by Thurston and Winkelnkemper [18], who based their proof on an open book decomposition, and Gonzalo [8], who used branched covers. These, however, are all strictly 3-dimensional constructions.

  19. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  20. Thermal contact conductance for cylindrical and spherical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, S.; Abilash, P. M.; Ramamurthi, K.

    A prediction methodology based on Monte-Carlo simulation model, developed for flat conforming surfaces in contact, is modified and extended to predict contact conductance between curvilinear surfaces like cylinders and spheres. Experiments are also conducted in vacuum for the measurement of contact conductance between stainless steel and aluminium cylindrical contacts and stainless steel spherical contacts over a range of contact pressures. The contact conductance between cylindrical and spherical bodies is, in general, about an order of magnitude lower than for flat surfaces in contact. Increase of surface roughness and decrease in contact pressure lowers the contact conductance. However, the influence of these parameters is larger than those obtained for flat surfaces. The prediction for different parametric conditions agree closely with those measured in the experiments.

  1. Impact of latent infection treatment in indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts' data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI's instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33-182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6-19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  2. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D) status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain). Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary) were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OH)D (≥ 30 ng/ml) level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OH)D levels: a:19.4% (7/36): < 20 ng/ml, b:12.5% (4/32):20-29 ng/ml, and c:0%(0/25) ≥ 30 ng/ml. A sufficient serum 25(OH)D level was a protector against TST conversion a: Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.00; b: OR = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-2.66); and c: OR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.00-0.76), trends p = 0.019, adjusted for high exposure and sputum acid-fast bacilli positive index cases. The mean of serum level 25(OH)D in TST conversion cases was lower than controls,17.5 ± 5.6 ng/ml versus 25.9 ± 13.7 ng/ml (p = 0.041). Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels protect against

  3. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  4. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections. PMID:21527380

  5. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles. PMID:26826524

  6. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most people come into contact with ... with another person. You should avoid kissing and sexual contact with an infected person. The virus may ...

  7. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark–recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, , was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals. PMID:25411407

  8. Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mossong, Joël; Hens, Niel; Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe; Auranen, Kari; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Massari, Marco; Salmaso, Stefania; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; Wallinga, Jacco; Heijne, Janneke; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Rosinska, Magdalena; Edmunds, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route (e.g., pandemic influenza) is increasingly being used to determine the impact of possible interventions. Although mixing patterns are known to be crucial determinants for model outcome, researchers often rely on a priori contact assumptions with little or no empirical basis. We conducted a population-based prospective survey of mixing patterns in eight European countries using a common paper-diary methodology. Methods and Findings 7,290 participants recorded characteristics of 97,904 contacts with different individuals during one day, including age, sex, location, duration, frequency, and occurrence of physical contact. We found that mixing patterns and contact characteristics were remarkably similar across different European countries. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age: schoolchildren and young adults in particular tended to mix with people of the same age. Contacts lasting at least one hour or occurring on a daily basis mostly involved physical contact, while short duration and infrequent contacts tended to be nonphysical. Contacts at home, school, or leisure were more likely to be physical than contacts at the workplace or while travelling. Preliminary modelling indicates that 5- to 19-year-olds are expected to suffer the highest incidence during the initial epidemic phase of an emerging infection transmitted through social contacts measured here when the population is completely susceptible. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study provides the first large-scale quantitative approach to contact patterns relevant for infections transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route, and the results should lead to improved parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies. PMID:18366252

  9. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Sarah K; Metzger, Michael J; Hudkins, Kelly L; Alpers, Charles E; York, Denis; DeMartini, James C; Miller, A Dusty

    2006-01-01

    Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is unnecessary to invoke a role for

  10. Close encounters of the infectious kind: methods to measure social mixing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    READ, J. M.; EDMUNDS, W. J.; RILEY, S.; LESSLER, J.; CUMMINGS, D. A. T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A central tenet of close-contact or respiratory infection epidemiology is that infection patterns within human populations are related to underlying patterns of social interaction. Until recently, few researchers had attempted to quantify potentially infectious encounters made between people. Now, however, several studies have quantified social mixing behaviour, using a variety of methods. Here, we review the methodologies employed, suggest other appropriate methods and technologies, and outline future research challenges for this rapidly advancing field of research. PMID:22687447

  11. Best practice contact lens care: a review of the Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Deborah; Holden, Brien; Evans, Kylie; Ng, Venice; Cho, Pauline

    2009-03-01

    Contact lens hygiene has long been recognised as key to the prevention of contact-lens associated infection and inflammation. Microbial keratitis (MK) is the only serious and potentially sight-threatening contact lens adverse event. International studies including recent research in Asia Pacific show that MK is rare but, as the consequences can be severe, it is important to minimise the risk factors. Studies continue to show that one of the key risk factors is lens and lens case hygiene. Therefore, it is also useful to review the behaviour of our patients, to see how closely they follow the recommended hygiene practices. Recent studies in various regions have shown that patients' lens care habits do not meet a required standard. Patients can become complacent and thus non-compliant with lens care instructions. Furthermore, they do not understand the high risk of some behaviour and they are not hearing the practitioner when instructions and reminders are given. Further education is important to improve patient compliance and safety. The Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit held in Singapore urged the industry and practitioners to restore the emphasis of proper lens care, including the 'rub and rinse' technique, and developed a new set of guidelines to help eye-care professionals educate their patients on the importance of proper contact lens care to avoid eye infections. The summit also presented the latest research on how to avoid corneal staining, another important element of contact lens care. This review provides a summary of the summit presentations and the science behind these guidelines. PMID:19278458

  12. Assessing the impact of a nurse-delivered home dried blood spot service on uptake of testing for household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women across two London trusts.

    PubMed

    Keel, P; Edwards, G; Flood, J; Nixon, G; Beebeejaun, K; Shute, J; Poh, J; Millar, A; Ijaz, S; Parry, J; Mandal, S; Ramsay, M; Amirthalingam, G

    2016-07-01

    Despite national guidance recommending testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women, provision and uptake of this is sub-optimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in-home dried blood spot (DBS) testing to increase testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women as an alternative approach to conventional primary-care follow-up. The study was conducted across two London maternity trusts (North Middlesex and Newham). All hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women identified through these trusts were eligible for inclusion. The intervention of in-home DBS testing for household contacts was introduced at North Middlesex Trust from November 2010 to December 2011. Data on testing and vaccination uptake from GP records across the two trusts were compared between baseline (2009) and intervention (2010-2011) periods. In-home DBS service increased testing uptake for all ages (P < 0·001) with the biggest impact seen in partners, where testing increased from 30·3% during the baseline period to 96·6% during the intervention period in North Middlesex Trust. Although impact on vaccine uptake was less marked, improvements were observed for adults. The provision of nurse-led home-based DBS may be useful in areas of high prevalence. PMID:26833270

  13. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ... symptoms include coughing and shortness of breath. Controlling rodents in and around your house is the best ...

  14. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Petra C.F.; Williamson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Plague is a notorious disease of humans, typically transmitted from rodents to man by the bite of infected fleas. However, plague can also be brought into the home by domestic animals. Cats are acutely susceptible to plague and can pose a significant hazard to close contacts. Dogs are relatively resistant to plague, but can import infected fleas into the home. This review discusses options available for vaccinating cats and dogs, to protect the animals, their owners and veterinarians from infection. Abstract Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions. PMID:26486314

  15. Fungal infections and parasitic infestations in sports: expedient identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Rebecca C; Dexter, William W

    2004-10-01

    Common fungal infections include tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, versicolor, and pedis, as well as onychomycosis. Prevention of spread is important and involves frequent skin surveillance, avoidance of shared equipment, and regular equipment cleaning. The NCAA recommends treatment of tinea corporis and capitis infections and covering any exposed infection before return to play. Parasitic infestations occur because of the close physical contact of team members and athletes in contact sports. Both scabies and pediculosis should be treated before return to play, according to NCAA guidelines. Cutaneous larva migrans, a chronic parasitic infection caused by a hookworm, may be seen in beach volleyball players. PMID:20086381

  16. JKR adhesion in cylindrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Narayan; Farris, T. N.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Planar JKR adhesive solutions use the half-plane assumption and do not permit calculation of indenter approach or visualization of adhesive force-displacement curves unless the contact is periodic. By considering a conforming cylindrical contact and using an arc crack analogy, we obtain closed-form indenter approach and load-contact size relations for a planar adhesive problem. The contact pressure distribution is also obtained in closed-form. The solutions reduce to known cases in both the adhesion-free and small-contact solution ( Barquins, 1988) limits. The cylindrical system shows two distinct regimes of adhesive behavior; in particular, contact sizes exceeding the critical (maximum) size seen in adhesionless contacts are possible. The effects of contact confinement on adhesive behavior are investigated. Some special cases are considered, including contact with an initial neat-fit and the detachment of a rubbery cylinder from a rigid cradle. A comparison of the cylindrical solution with the half-plane adhesive solution is carried out, and it indicates that the latter typically underestimates the adherence force. The cylindrical adhesive system is novel in that it possesses stable contact states that may not be attained even on applying an infinite load in the absence of adhesion.

  17. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  18. Social Contact Networks and Disease Eradicability under Voluntary Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T.

    2009-01-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior–infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  19. Contact tracing the first Middle East respiratory syndrome case in the Philippines, February 2015

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Deveraturda, Imelda; Roca, John Bobbie; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an illness caused by a coronavirus in which infected persons develop severe acute respiratory illness. A person can be infected through close contacts. This is an outbreak investigation report of the first confirmed MERS case in the Philippines and the subsequent contact tracing activities. Methods Review of patient records and interviews with health-care personnel were done. Patient and close contacts were tested for MERS-coronavirus (CoV) by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Close contacts were identified and categorized. All traced contacts were monitored daily for appearance of illness for 14 days starting from the date of last known exposure to the confirmed case. A standard log sheet was used for symptom monitoring. Results The case was a 31-year-old female who was a health-care worker in Saudi Arabia. She had mild acute respiratory illness five days before travelling to the Philippines. On 1 February, she travelled with her husband to the Philippines while she had a fever. On 2 February, she attended a health facility in the Philippines. On 8 February, respiratory samples were tested for MERS-CoV and yielded positive results. A total of 449 close contacts were identified, and 297 (66%) were traced. Of those traced, 15 developed respiratory symptoms. All of them tested negative for MERS. Discussion In this outbreak investigation, the participation of health-care personnel in conducting vigorous contact tracing may have reduced the risk of transmission. However, being overly cautious to include more contacts for the outbreak response should be further reconsidered. PMID:26668760

  20. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Motta, Davide; Compostella, Silvia; Casari, Salvatore; Bonito, Andrea; Brianese, Nigritella; Ferraresi, Alice; Rodari, Paola; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD--standard deviation--3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis. PMID:27023519

  1. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Motta, Davide; Compostella, Silvia; Casari, Salvatore; Bonito, Andrea; Brianese, Nigritella; Ferraresi, Alice; Rodari, Paola; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD—standard deviation—3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis. PMID:27023519

  2. Trematode infections in freshwater snails and cattle from the Kafue wetlands of Zambia during a period of highest cattle-water contact.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Chota, A; Monrad, J

    2007-03-01

    A total of 984 snails, comprising nine species, were collected from six areas in the Kafue wetlands between August and October 2003 to assess larval trematode infections. Of these, 135 (13.7%) were positive. Most trematode infections were recorded from Lymnaea natalensis (42.8%), which harboured four of the five morphologically different cercariae found. No trematodes were recovered from Bellamya capillata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Physa acuta and Cleopatra nswendweensis. One snail (0.2%) of 416 Bulinus snails shed brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome cercariae while three (0.7%) shed amphistomes. Gymnocephalous and longifurcate-pharyngeate distome were the commonest types of cercariae recorded while xiphidiocercaria was the least common. The highest prevalence rates of F. gigantica (68.8%) and amphistomes (50.0%) in cattle (n = 101) were in Chiyasa while those in Kaleya had the lowest (9.1 and 18.2%, respectively). In most habitats, infections were recorded in both cattle and snails. Critical determinants of infection may have been the distance of settlements and/or cattle kraals, the number of animals in nearby homesteads and the presence of susceptible host snails. This study suggests that fascioliasis and amphistomiasis could be major constraints of cattle production in the Kafue wetlands because favourable factors were available to introduce and maintain the infections. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and snail host ecology in Zambia. PMID:17381873

  3. 76 FR 57768 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Sharpsburg post office in Sharpsburg, Iowa. The petition...

  4. 76 FR 57767 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Ionia post office in Ionia, Missouri. The petition was...

  5. 76 FR 49800 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Masonville, Iowa. The petition was filed...

  6. 76 FR 31645 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... should contact the person identified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case... determination to close the Valley Falls Station in Cumberland, Rhode Island. The petition was filed online...

  7. 76 FR 48924 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Service's determination to close the post office in Thayer, Iowa. The petition was filed by Mike...

  8. 76 FR 49801 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Monroe, Arkansas. The petition was filed...

  9. 76 FR 51436 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Sublime, Texas. The petition was filed...

  10. 76 FR 49799 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Ulman, Missouri. The petition was filed...

  11. 76 FR 60559 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Smyrna post office in Smyrna, New York. The petition...

  12. 76 FR 60563 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Algoma post office in Algoma, Mississippi. The petition...

  13. 76 FR 59452 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Ellisburg post office in Ellisburg, New York. The...

  14. 76 FR 48923 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Service's determination to close the post office in Hoxie, Arkansas. The petition was filed by...

  15. 76 FR 51435 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Grant, Iowa. The petition was filed...

  16. Infection of dogs with equine influenza virus: evidence for transmission from horses during the Australian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Crispe, E; Finlaison, D S; Hurt, A C; Kirkland, P D

    2011-07-01

    During the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, respiratory disease was observed in dogs that were in close proximity to infected horses. Investigations were undertaken to exclude influenza virus infection. Of the 23 dogs that were seropositive in tests using the influenza A/Sydney/2007 virus as the test antigen, 10 showed clinical signs. EI virus appeared to be readily transmitted to dogs that were held in close proximity to infected horses, but there was no evidence of lateral transmission of the virus to other dogs that did not have contact with or were not held in close proximity to horses. PMID:21711279

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  18. The Efficacy of Continuous Negative Pressure and Irrigation Treatment Inside the Wound by a Closed System in Reconstruction of All Layers of the Cranium Accompanying Infection and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Mai; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Migita, Hisashi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    There have been many reports to date with respect to treatments on reconstruction of the cranium without accompanying infections following trauma and tumor resection. The morality is, however, high in patients observed with generation of cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and moreover, there are barely any reports on such cases because of the reconstruction thereof being very difficult. In this study, the authors were able to cure such 2 cases by carrying out continuous negative pressure and irrigation treatment inside the wound by a closed system following transplant of free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. This method is believed to be very effective for cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, in which treatment was determined to be very difficult. PMID:26674903

  19. Rate of tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents with household contact with adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis as assessed by tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, M A G; Spina, F G; Weckx, L Y; Lederman, H M; De Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection was evaluated in Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents exposed and unexposed (control group) to adults with active pulmonary TB. Both groups were analysed by clinical and radiological assessment, TST, QFT-IT and T-SPOT.TB. The three tests were repeated after 8 weeks in the TB-exposed group if results were initially negative. Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were treated and tests were repeated after treatment. Fifty-nine TB-exposed and 42 controls were evaluated. Rate of infection was 69·5% and 9·5% for the exposed and control groups, respectively. The exposed group infection rate was 61% assessed by TST, 57·6% by T-SPOT.TB, and 59·3%, by QFT-IT. No active TB was diagnosed. Agreement between the three tests was 83·1% and 92·8% in the exposed and control groups, respectively. In the exposed group, T-SPOT.TB added four TB diagnoses [16%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·6-30·4] and QFT-IT added three TB diagnoses (12%, 95% CI 0-24·7) in 25 individuals with negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk factors associated to TB infection were contact with an adult with active TB [0-60 days: odds ratio (OR) 6·9; >60 days: OR 27·0] and sleeping in the same room as an adult with active TB (OR 5·2). In Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents, TST had a similar performance to interferon-gamma release assays and detected a high rate of LTBI. PMID:26234295

  20. An adenovirus 4 outbreak amongst staff in a pediatric ward manifesting as keratoconjunctivitis-a possible failure of contact and aerosol infection control.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Elizabeth; Erez, Joanne C; Kirk-Granger, Helen R; Collins, Elizabeth; Tang, Julian W

    2016-05-01

    An adenovirus serotype 4 outbreak was identified on a pediatric ward involving 4 members of the health care staff. Two inpatients on the ward at the time (1 immunocompromised) were shedding this virus from their respiratory tracts and could have acted as independent index cases for the staff infections. Significantly, upon investigation, it was found that staff members were unaware that adenoviruses are not completely eliminated by alcohol gel handrubs and that soap and water handwashing is also required. PMID:26804304

  1. Design an easy-to-use infection screening system for non-contact monitoring of vital-signs to prevent the spread of pandemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Miyata, Keisuke; Chen, Chris; Ueda, Akiko; Kim, Seokjin; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Abe, Shigeto; Takei, Osamu; Matsui, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of infectious diseases such as influenza, dengue fever, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are threatening the global health. Especially, developing countries in the South-East Asia region have been at serious risk. Rapid and highly reliable screening of infection is urgently needed during the epidemic season at mass gathering places, such as airport quarantine facilities, public health centers, and hospital outpatients units, etc. To meet this need, our research group is currently developing a multiple vital-signs based infection screening system that can perform human medical inspections within 15 seconds. This system remotely monitors facial temperature, heart and respiration rates using a thermopile array and a 24-GHz microwave radar, respectively. In this work, we redesigned our previous system to make a higher performance with a user-friendly interface. Moreover, the system newly included a multivariable logistic regression model (MLRM) to determine the possibility of infection. We tested the system on 34 seasonal influenza patients and 35 normal control subjects at the Japan Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening system using the MLRM were 85.3% and 88.6%, respectively. PMID:25571068

  2. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  3. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  4. OXA-48 Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Household Contact of a Previously Infected Patient: Person-to-Person Transmission or Coincidental Community Acquisition?

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Erlangga; Huang, Te-Din; Schallier, Anneleen; Trémérie, Jean-Marie; Mertens, Rembert; Jans, Beatrice; Glupczynski, Youri; Piérard, Denis

    2016-03-01

    We reported a woman with urinary-tract infection caused by OXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Using molecular techniques, we showed that she might acquire this bacterium from another family member who lived in the same house. The two isolates, although different by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, carried blaOXA-48 in a similar IncL/M plasmid. This case report shows that community spreading of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae occurs in the low endemic area not only in nosocomial setting but also in the community. PMID:26954370

  5. Close proximity gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1986-04-01

    Intuitively, a hand held in close proximity to a firearm at the instant of discharge will intercept a significant amount of gunshot residue, even though the hand did not actually come into contact with the weapon. There is, however, little information specifically described in the forensic science literature concerning the residue levels which might be encountered in such an instance. The present work confirms that antimony levels consistent with an individual having fired or handled a firearm may be intercepted by a hand held in close proximity. PMID:3711843

  6. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  7. A live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine based on subtype 2b is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with PPV and PRRSV and is efficacious in a triple challenge co-infection model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new live-attenuated chimeric PCV1/2b vaccine. Forty-six, 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups (Negative controls, positive controls, Vac-0, Vac-0-PCV2, Contact-PCV2, Vac-28-PCV2). All pigs we...

  8. Outbreak-related Hendra virus infection in a NSW pet dog.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sherly; Polkinghorne, Ben; Bell, Greg; van den Berg, Debra; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) infection is a zoonosis of importance in Australia. An outbreak of HeV occurred on the mid-north coast region of New South Wales (NSW) in June and July 2013. Four unvaccinated horses on four separate properties were confirmed to have HeV infection. A pet dog that had close contact with one of the horses was also confirmed to be infected with HeV. This paper documents the response to the canine infection and the resulting change to the public health management of HeV infection. PMID:26536509

  9. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  10. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lala, Sanjay G.; Little, Kristen M.; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Moore, David P.; Msandiwa, Reginah; van der Watt, Martin; Chaisson, Richard E.; Martinson, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB), is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa. Methods Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years) with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts. Results Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3%) self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9%) of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1%) caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0%) caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341), the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART. Conclusion In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings–integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed

  11. A record system for contact tracing.

    PubMed Central

    Satin, A

    1977-01-01

    A system for recording information on patients and contacts was developed during a research project designed to measure the effectiveness of contact tracing. The record system has proved valuable in contact tracing, cross-referencing patients and their contacts, defining the characteristics of the patient and contact populations, and providing information for research and management. The value of a standardised system has been accepted by health workers who appreciate that its purpose is to increase efficiency and improve the care of infected persons. By October 1976 health workers in 16 clinics in the United Kingdom had started to use the system. PMID:576849

  12. The French Connection: The First Large Population-Based Contact Survey in France Relevant for the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Guillaume; Kazmercziak, Sabine; Beutels, Philippe; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Lenne, Xavier; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Hens, Niel; Dervaux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical social contact patterns are essential to understand the spread of infectious diseases. To date, no such data existed for France. Although infectious diseases are frequently seasonal, the temporal variation of contact patterns has not been documented hitherto. Methods COMES-F is the first French large-scale population survey, carried out over 3 different periods (February-March, April, April-May) with some participants common to the first and the last period. Participants described their contacts for 2 consecutive days, and reported separately on professional contacts when typically over 20 per day. Results 2033 participants reported 38 881 contacts (weighted median [first quartile-third quartile]: 8[5–14] per day), and 54 378 contacts with supplementary professional contacts (9[5–17]). Contrary to age, gender, household size, holidays, weekend and occupation, period of the year had little influence on the number of contacts or the mixing patterns. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age, irrespective of the location of the contact, and gender, with women having 8% more contacts than men. Although most contacts occurred at home and at school, the inclusion of professional contacts modified the structure of the mixing patterns. Holidays and weekends reduced dramatically the number of contacts, and as proxies for school closure, reduced R0 by 33% and 28%, respectively. Thus, school closures could have an important impact on the spread of close contact infections in France. Conclusions Despite no clear evidence for temporal variation, trends suggest that more studies are needed. Age and gender were found important determinants of the mixing patterns. Gender differences in mixing patterns might help explain gender differences in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. PMID:26176549

  13. [Natural history of the infection for human papillomavirus: an actualization].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gerardo González; Troconis, José Núñez

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the biology and natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Most papillomavirus infections are transmitted by close contact of either skin to skin or mucosa to mucosa. Sexual intercourse is not a requirement for genital HPV infection. Digital-oral infections occur and there is evidence that digital-genital and oral-genital contacts can result in the transmission of HPV, although in a relatively low percentage. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus is a common route of infection; in fact, it is recognized that more than 80% of infants born from mothers infected with genital HPV will be positive for HPV DNA determination in the nasal-pharyngeal region and oral mucosa. Women with transient infections often develop cytological abnormalities that take place while there is active HPV replication. This occurs because productive HPV infections result in cytological abnormalities in infected epithelial cells. The strong association between the risk of HPV infection and increased immune suppression, supports a direct biological effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on the natural history of HPV. PMID:24758104

  14. Biocidal textiles can help fight nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The rates of nosocomial infections, especially by those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, are increasing alarmingly over the globe. Although more rigorous infection control measures are being implemented, it is clear that the current modalities to reduce nosocomial infections are not sufficient. Textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial growth under appropriate moisture and temperature conditions. Patients shed bacteria and contaminate their pyjamas and sheets. The temperature and humidity between the patients and the bed are appropriate conditions allowing for effective bacterial proliferation. Several studies have found that personnel in contact with contaminated textiles were the source of transmission of the micro-organisms to susceptible patients. Furthermore, it has been reported that bed making in hospitals releases large quantities of micro-organisms into the air, which contaminate the immediate and non-immediate surroundings. Contaminated textiles in hospitals can thus be an important source of microbes contributing to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. We hypothesize that the use of antimicrobial textiles, especially in those textiles that are in close contact with the patients, may significantly reduce bioburden in clinical settings and consequently reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. These textiles should possess broad spectrum biocidal properties. They should be safe for use and highly effective against antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, including those that are commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections, and they should not permit the development of resistant micro-organisms to the active compound. PMID:17959322

  15. Impact of Latent Infection Treatment in Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts’ data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI’s instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59–3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07–1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33–182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6–19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  16. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed. PMID:24109144

  17. Latent TB Infection Diagnosis in Population Exposed to TB Subjects in Close and Poor Ventilated High TB Endemic Zone in India

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S.; Nayak, Amit R.; Gaherwar, Hari M.; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Shekhawat, Seema D.; Jain, Ruchika K.; Panchbhai, Milind S.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate the utility of Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) and Tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) in high crowding TB endemic zone of Nagpur, India and their comparison with associated risk factors. Methods Out of 342 eligible participants, QFT-G and TST were performed in 162 participants. Results The prevalence of LTBI observed according to QFT-G and TST was 48% and 42% respectively, with an agreement of 52.47%. QFT-G positivity was associated with age while TST positivity was associated with body mass index (BMI). Duration of exposure emerged as a key risk factor significantly associated with both the tests. Conclusion The prevalence of LTBI was quite high in the studied zone as detected by both the evaluated tests and thus, the combination of both the tests will be best predictive for LTBI in such high TB endemic regions. PMID:24614179

  18. Staphylococcus intermedius infections: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nancy; Neilan, Anne M; Klompas, Michael

    2013-01-22

    Staphylococcus intermedius is part of the normal skin and oral flora of dogs. Case reports of human infections are rare, but the true incidence is unknown because the pathogen is frequently misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. Reported cases range from soft tissue infections to brain abscess. Most reported cases in humans have been related to dog exposure. We report a case of a 73 year old female with S. intermedius surgical wound infection one month following a left elbow total arthroplasty. This is the first reported human case of S. intermedius infection of a mechanical prosthesis. The presumed source of infection was the patient's dog. The patient was treated with vancomycin, then switched to cefazolin and rifampin once susceptibilities were known. Case reports suggest that patients generally respond well to tailored antibiotics with complete or near-complete recovery. S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis of invasive infection amongst patients with close contact with dogs. PMID:24470954

  19. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  20. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  1. Diabetes and contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Clare; Efron, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    The literature suggests that diabetic patients may have altered tear chemistry and tear secretion as well as structural and functional changes to the corneal epithelium, endothelium and nerves. These factors, together with a reported increased incidence of corneal infection, suggest that diabetic patients may be particularly susceptible to developing ocular complications during contact lens wear. Reports of contact lens-induced complications in diabetic patients do exist, although a number of these reports concern patients with advanced diabetic eye disease using lenses on an extended wear basis. Over the past decade or so, there have been published studies documenting the response of the diabetic eye to more modern contact lens modalities. The results of these studies suggest that contact lenses can be a viable mode of refractive correction for diabetic patients. Furthermore, new research suggests that the measurement of tear glucose concentration could, in future, be used to monitor metabolic control non-invasively in diabetic patients. This could be carried out using contact lenses manufactured from hydrogel polymers embedded with glucose-sensing agents or nanoscale digital electronic technology. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the anterior ocular manifestations of diabetes, particularly that pertaining to contact lens wear. PMID:22537249

  2. Complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group A giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Helen; Mulherin, Emily; Matthijnssens, Jelle; McCusker, Matthew P; Collins, P J; Cashman, Olivia; Gunn, Lynda; Beltman, Marijke E; Fanning, Séamus

    2014-05-14

    Group A Rotaviruses (RVA) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. In 2008, we described the first RVA strain detected in a giraffe calf (RVA/Giraffe-wt/IRL/GirRV/2008/G10P[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. Molecular characterisation of the VP7 and VP4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes G10 and P[11], respectively. To further investigate the origin of this giraffe RVA strain, the 9 remaining gene segments were sequenced and analysed, revealing the following genotype constellation: G10-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. This genotype constellation is very similar to RVA strains isolated from cattle or other members of the artiodactyls. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the close relationship between GirRV and RVA strains with a bovine-like genotype constellation detected from several host species, including humans. These results suggest that RVA strain GirRV was the result of an interspecies transmission from a bovine host to the giraffe calf. However, we cannot rule out completely that this bovine-like RVA genotype constellation may be enzootic in giraffes. Future RVA surveillance in giraffes may answer this intriguing question. PMID:24582453

  3. Thermal contact conductance of pressed contacts at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, S.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2004-10-01

    The influence of variations of interface temperature in the range 50-300 K on the thermal contact conductance between aluminium and stainless steel joints was determined. Predictions were done by modeling the deformation at the interface for different values of surface finish and contact pressure over the range of interface temperatures. Both elastic and plastic deformation was considered. Experiments were carried out in a closed loop cryostat and the results were shown to compare well with the predictions. A reduction of the interface temperature resulted in a smaller value of thermal contact conductance. Interfacial pressure variation had much lower influence at the smaller value of temperatures. The role of surface roughness at the contact was also seen to be less significant at lower interface temperatures and the zone of hysteresis was smaller. A correlation was developed for estimating thermal contact conductance at joints over this temperature range. An explicit dependence of contact conductance on temperature was not seen to be necessary as long as the changes in the hardness and thermal conductivity of the material with temperature are incorporated in the correlation.

  4. A Novel Alpha Cardiac Actin (ACTC1) Mutation Mapping to a Domain in Close Contact with Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to a Variety of Congenital Heart Defects, Arrhythmia and Possibly Midline Defects

    PubMed Central

    Augière, Céline; Mégy, Simon; El Malti, Rajae; Boland, Anne; El Zein, Loubna; Verrier, Bernard; Mégarbané, André; Deleuze, Jean-François; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Background A Lebanese Maronite family presented with 13 relatives affected by various congenital heart defects (mainly atrial septal defects), conduction tissue anomalies and midline defects. No mutations were found in GATA4 and NKX2-5. Methods and Results A set of 399 poly(AC) markers was used to perform a linkage analysis which peaked at a 2.98 lod score on the long arm of chromosome 15. The haplotype analysis delineated a 7.7 meganucleotides genomic interval which included the alpha-cardiac actin gene (ACTC1) among 36 other protein coding genes. A heterozygous missense mutation was found (c.251T>C, p.(Met84Thr)) in the ACTC1 gene which changed a methionine residue conserved up to yeast. This mutation was absent from 1000 genomes and exome variant server database but segregated perfectly in this family with the affection status. This mutation and 2 other ACTC1 mutations (p.(Glu101Lys) and p.(Met125Val)) which result also in congenital heart defects are located in a region in close apposition to a myosin heavy chain head region by contrast to 3 other alpha-cardiac actin mutations (p.(Ala297Ser),p.(Asp313His) and p.(Arg314His)) which result in diverse cardiomyopathies and are located in a totally different interaction surface. Conclusions Alpha-cardiac actin mutations lead to congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies and eventually midline defects. The consequence of an ACTC1 mutation may in part be dependent on the interaction surface between actin and myosin. PMID:26061005

  5. Contact lens related corneal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection), severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss. PMID:25606178

  6. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  7. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  8. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  9. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  10. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  11. Anti-Mastigina activities of eight contact lens solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Niszl, I A; Markus, M B; van Deventer, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of eight contact lens solutions on a Mastigina sp., which was associated with the infected eye of a patient, were studied. The solutions which killed the organism promptly were those which are used for gas-permeable and hard contact lenses. Some solutions for soft contact lenses were more effective than others. PMID:8619600

  12. 76 FR 68795 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received three petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Rembrandt...

  13. 76 FR 72728 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Swaledale post office in...

  14. 76 FR 69297 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the East Poland...

  15. 76 FR 68793 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives... Commission received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the...

  16. 76 FR 76774 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Spring Lake post...

  17. 76 FR 72727 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Lafayette post office...

  18. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek; Szkody, P.; Gies, D.; Kang, Y.-W.; Linsky, J.; Livio, M.; Morrell, N.; Hilditch, R.; Nordström, B.; Ribas, I.; Sion, E.; Vrielman, S.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report from Commission 42 covers various topics like massive binaries, contact systems, cataclysmic variables and low-mass binary stars. We try in a number of sections to provide an update on the current status of the main research areas in the field of close binaries. It is not a formal review, even complete or comprehensive, but an attempt to bring the main topics on recent research to astronomers working in other fields. References are also not comprehensive and simply added to the text to help the reader looking for deeper information on the subject. For this reason, we have chosen to include references (sometimes incomplete for ongoing work) not in a list at the end but integrated with the main text body. Complete references and additional sources can be easily obtained through web access of ADS or SIMBAD. Furthermore, the summary of papers on close-binary research contained in the Bibliography of Close Binaries (BCB) can be accessed from the web site of Commission 42. I would like to express the gratitude of the commission for the careful work of Colin Scarfe as Editor-in-Chief of BCB and Andras Holl and Attila Sragli for maintaining the web pages of the Commission within the structure of Division V. Finally, K. Olah and J. Jurcsik are gratefully acknowledged for their continued support as editors of the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), also accessible through the commission web page.

  19. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. PMID:26353052

  20. Tuberculosis Contact Investigations--United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Young, Kai H; Ehman, Melissa; Reves, Randall; Peterson Maddox, Brandy L; Khan, Awal; Chorba, Terence L; Jereb, John

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is transmitted through the air from an infectious patient (index patient) to other persons (contacts) who share space. Exposure to M. tuberculosis can result in tuberculosis (TB) disease or latent TB infection (LTBI), which has no clinical symptoms or radiologic evidence of disease. The cycle of transmission can be ended by isolating and treating patients with TB disease, examining contacts, and treating LTBI to prevent progression to TB disease. CDC systematically collects aggregate data on contact investigations from the 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico. Data from 2003-2012 were analyzed for trends in yields from contact investigations, in terms of numbers of contacts elicited and examined and the estimated number of TB cases averted through treatment of LTBI among contacts in 2012. During 2003-2012, the number of TB cases decreased, while the number of contacts listed per index patient with contacts elicited increased. In 2012, U.S. public health authorities reported 9,945 cases of TB disease (1) and 105,100 contacts. Among these contacts, 84,998 (80.9%) were examined; TB was diagnosed in 532 (0.6%) and LTBI in 15,411 (18.1%). Among contacts with LTBI, 10,137 (65.8%) started treatment, and 6,689 (43.4% of all contacts with LTBI) completed treatment. By investigating contacts in 2012, an estimated 128 TB cases (34% of all potential cases) over the initial 5 years were averted, but an additional 248 cases (66%) might have been averted if all potentially contagious TB patients had contacts elicited, all contacts were examined, and all infected contacts completed treatment. Enhancing contact investigation activities, particularly by ensuring completion of treatment by contacts recently infected with M. tuberculosis, is essential to achieve the goal of TB elimination. PMID:26720627

  1. Contact Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit

  2. Sibling Relationships in Adulthood: Contact Patterns and Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Thomas R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    General contact patterns, obligatory contact motivation, and discretionary contact motivation were examined regarding sibling relationships among 313 urban adults aged 25 or older. Emotional closeness, sibling responsibility expectations, and geographic proximity were most important in explaining dimensions of sibling interaction. (Author/TE)

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  5. Diagnosing and treating asymptomatic tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize relevant parts of the guidelines recommended by the Canadian and American Thoracic Societies for diagnosis and management of asymptomatic tuberculosis (TB) infection. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The latest guidelines published by the Canadian and American Thoracic Societies were reviewed. Unfortunately, neither of these guidelines state explicitly how recommendations were derived. The references accompanying each set of guidelines, however, suggest that they were developed by extensive literature review of the subject and consensus among expert panels. MAIN MESSAGE: Only higher-risk patients should receive a TB screening test (Mantoux test) to minimize the possibility of false-positive test results. The cutoff points for positive tests vary to reflect the pretest likelihood of TB infection. An induration 5 mm or greater is considered positive in patients at highest risk of TB infection, that is, HIV-infected patients, close contacts of active TB cases, and patients with chest x-ray abnormalities suggestive of previous untreated TB. All other patients are considered positive if they have induration greater than 10 mm according to the Canadian guideline. A 15-mm cutoff point, however, is used for patients without risk factors in the American guideline. All patients with positive Mantoux test results should be considered infected with TB. Infected patients should be offered 6 to 12 months of isoniazid prophylaxis if they have HIV infection, if they have medical conditions that increase the risk of TB activation, or if they are younger than 35 years. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment of infected individuals effectively prevents the spread of TB infection. Family physicians, who most often see patients in the asymptomatic stage of TB infection, are uniquely situated to prevent secondary cases of TB by offering appropriate patients prophylactic treatment. Patients should be counseled about the risk and benefit of prophylactic treatment so they give

  6. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A Text Size What's ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  7. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min; Song, Tie; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-09-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  8. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-01-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  9. Host contact and shedding patterns clarify variation in pathogen exposure and transmission in threatened tortoise Gopherus agassizii: implications for disease modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Christina M; Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C; Emblidge, Patrick G; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, Shweta; Hudson, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Most directly transmitted infections require some form of close contact between infectious and susceptible hosts to spread. Often disease models assume contacts are equal and use mean field estimates of transmission probability for all interactions with infectious hosts. Such methods may inaccurately describe transmission when interactions differ substantially in their ability to cause infection. Understanding this variation in transmission risk may be critical to properly model and manage some infectious diseases. In this study, we investigate how varying exposure and transmission may be key to understanding disease dynamics in the threatened desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii. We created heterogeneity in Mycoplasma agassizii exposure (the putative bacterial agent of a respiratory disease) by varying the duration of interactions between naturally infected and uninfected captive desert tortoises. Using qPCR, we identified new infections and compared models of transmission probability as a function of contact duration and pathogen load. We then examined the contact patterns of a wild tortoise population using proximity loggers to identify heterogeneity in contact duration. The top-ranked model predicting M. agassizii transmission included a dose term defined as the product of the number of days in proximity to an infected host and the infection level of that host. Models predicted low transmission probability for short interactions, unless the infectious host had a high load of M. agassizii: such hosts were predicted to transmit infection at higher rates with any amount of contact. We observed predominantly short-lived interactions in a free-ranging tortoise population and thus, expect transmission patterns in this population to vary considerably with the frequency and duration of high infection levels. Mean field models may misrepresent natural transmission patterns in this and other populations depending on the distribution of high-risk contact and shedding

  10. Six challenges in measuring contact networks for use in modelling.

    PubMed

    Eames, K; Bansal, S; Frost, S; Riley, S

    2015-03-01

    Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in epidemiology. A contact network represents individuals in a host population as nodes and the interactions among them that may lead to the transmission of infection as edges. New avenues for data collection in recent years have afforded us the opportunity to collect individual- and population-scale information to empirically describe the patterns of contact within host populations. Here, we present some of the current challenges in measuring empirical contact networks. We address fundamental questions such as defining contact; measurement of non-trivial contact properties; practical issues of bounding measurement of contact networks in space, time and scope; exploiting proxy information about contacts; dealing with missing data. Finally, we consider the privacy and ethical issues surrounding the collection of contact network data. PMID:25843388

  11. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  12. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  13. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection. PMID:23668532

  14. Mathematical model of electrical contact bouncing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical model of a contact bouncing takes into account elastic-plastic and electrodynamic forces, phase transformations during interaction of electrical arc with the contact surface as a result of increasing temperature. It is based on the integro-differential equations for the contact motion and Stefan problem for the temperature field. These equations describe four consecutive stages of the contact vibration from the impact at contact closing up to opening after bouncing including effects of penetration and restitution. The new method for the solution of the Stefan problem is elaborated, which enables us to get the information about dynamics of zones of elasticity, plasticity and phase transformations during contact vibration. It is shown that the decrement of damping depends on the coefficient of plasticity and the moment of inertia only, while the frequency of vibration depends also on the hardness of contact, its temperature, properties of contact spring, and geometry of rotational mechanism. It is found also from the solution of Stefan problem that the relationship between dynamical zones of plasticity and melting explains the decrease of current density and contact welding. The results of calculations are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  16. What can we offer to 3 million MDRTB household contacts in 2016?

    PubMed

    Moore, David A J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in any individual is the beginning of a prolonged and difficult therapeutic journey. It also marks the moment from which to begin consideration of how to manage close contacts. Preventive therapy for drug-susceptible latent tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to be effective at reducing the risk of future disease; the stakes are higher when considering prevention of MDR-TB because treatment of active disease is more prolonged and toxic and much less effective. This has encouraged exploration of the potential utility of preventive therapy, with second-line agents, in reducing future incident drug-resistant TB.Three clinical trials of preventive therapy for contacts of patients with MDR-TB are starting in 2015/16; results will not be available until at least 2020, so what should be offered to exposed contacts in the interim?A recent policy brief, arising from a global consultation meeting of international experts, recommended preventive therapy based upon very limited available observational data. However the many known unknowns associated with this approach, include the high proportion of index-contact pairs with discordant drug susceptibility profiles and (even if susceptibilities are shared) the lack of data supporting the use of the selected agents in the treatment of latent infection (rather than active disease).It is important to acknowledge that the alternative to offering preventive therapy is not doing nothing. On the contrary, identified contacts should be maintained under close, active surveillance for 24 months, enabling early detection of active disease in the small proportion amongst whom this may occur. Such patients should benefit from less extensive disease at diagnosis and early access to individualized therapeutic regimens with improved treatment outcomes. Moreover the vast majority of contacts that do not develop disease will benefit from avoidance of potentially toxic

  17. Potential impact of a ventilation intervention for influenza in the context of a dense indoor contact network in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolei; Wei, Jianjian; Cowling, Benjamin J; Li, Yuguo

    2016-11-01

    Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks. We constructed a simple but novel dual-contact network model to account for both airborne contact and close contact of individuals in the densely populated city of Hong Kong. The model was then integrated with an existing epidemiological susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, and we used a revised Wells-Riley model to estimate infection risks by the airborne route and an exponential dose-response model for risks by the contact and droplet routes. A potential outbreak of partially airborne influenza was examined, assuming different proportions of transmission through the airborne route. Our results show that building ventilation can have significant effects in airborne transmission-dominated conditions. Moreover, even when the airborne route only contributes 20% to the total infection risk, increasing the ventilation rate has a strong influence on transmission dynamics, and it also can achieve control effects similar to those of wearing masks for patients, isolation and vaccination. PMID:27351145

  18. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  19. Border disease in sheep caused by transmission of virus from cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, U

    1991-02-16

    Two outbreaks of border disease occurred on farms with sheep flocks and breeding cattle. The infection of the pregnant sheep was probably caused by transmission of virus from calves persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) which were kept in close confinement with the ewes during mid-pregnancy. Border disease was also induced experimentally in eight lambs by exposing their dams at 38 to 78 days of gestation to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV. Both the natural and the experimental infections were characterised by typical signs such as 'hairy-shaker' lambs and high lamb mortality. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolations from live-born lambs, seroconversion and pathology. The study supports the assertion that cattle persistently infected with BVDV and in close contact with pregnant sheep, are an important source of strains of virus capable of causing border disease. PMID:1851350

  20. Social contacts, vaccination decisions and influenza in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ibuka, Yoko; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie; Chapman, Gretchen B; Yamin, Dan; Atkins, Katherine E; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-01-01

    Background Contact patterns and vaccination decisions are fundamental to transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. We report on age-specific contact patterns in Japan and their effect on influenza vaccination behaviour. Methods Japanese adults (N=3146) were surveyed in Spring 2011 to assess the number of their social contacts within a 24 h period, defined as face-to-face conversations within 2 m, and gain insight into their influenza-related behaviour. We analysed the duration and location of contacts according to age. Additionally, we analysed the probability of vaccination and influenza infection in relation to the number of contacts controlling for individual's characteristics. Results The mean and median reported numbers of daily contacts were 15.3 and 12.0, respectively. School-aged children and young adults reported the greatest number of daily contacts, and individuals had the most contacts with those in the same age group. The age-specific contact patterns were different between men and women, and differed between weekdays and weekends. Children had fewer contacts between the same age groups during weekends than during weekdays, due to reduced contacts at school. The probability of vaccination increased with the number of contacts, controlling for age and household size. Influenza infection among unvaccinated individuals was higher than for those vaccinated, and increased with the number of contacts. Conclusions Contact patterns in Japan are age and gender specific. These contact patterns, as well as their interplay with vaccination decisions and infection risks, can help inform the parameterisation of mathematical models of disease transmission and the design of public health policies, to control disease transmission. PMID:26424846

  1. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  2. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  3. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease. PMID:26341945

  4. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  5. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  6. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  7. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David B.; WrightIII, Hugh E.; Rosenbaum, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment. PMID:26889155

  8. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  9. Electrical Contacts to Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, P R; Faraby, H; DiBattista, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficient passage of electrical current from an external contact to a nanomaterial is necessary for harnessing characteristics unique to the nanoscale, such as those relevant to energy quantization. However, an intrinsic resistance pertinent to dimensionality crossover and the presence of impurities precludes optimal electrical contact formation. In this review, we first discuss the relevant principles and contact resistance measurement methodologies, with modifications necessary for the nanoscale. Aspects related to the deposition of the contact material are deemed to be crucial. Consequently, the use of focused ion beam (FIB) based deposition, which relies on the ion-induced decomposition of a metallorganic precursor, and which has been frequently utilized for nanoscale contacts is considered in detail. PMID:26682353

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...