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Sample records for closed field unbalanced

  1. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  2. High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sproul, William D.; Rudnik, Paul J.; Graham, Michael E.; Rohde, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to an opposed cathode sputtering system constructed with the ability to coat parts with a size up to 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Initial trials with this system revealed very low substrate bias currents. When the AlNiCo magnets in the two opposed cathodes were arranged in a mirrored configuration, the plasma density at the substrate was low, and the substrate bias current density was less than 1 mA/sq cm. If the magnets were arranged in a closed-field configuration where the field lines from one set of magnets were coupled with the other set, the substrate bias current density was as high as 5.7 mA/sq cm when NdFeB magnets were used. In the closed-field configuration, the substrate bias current density was related to the magnetic field strength between the two cathodes and to the sputtering pressure. Hard well-adhered TiN coatings were reactively sputtered in the opposed cathode system in the closed-field configuration, but the mirrored configuration produced films with poor adhesion because of etching problems and low plasma density at the substrate.

  3. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface. PMID:20355462

  4. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zh. Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.

    2005-11-01

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiNx films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N2 mixture. The effect of N2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24° to 49.6°. To some extent, the SiNx films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiNx films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap Eopt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiNx films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiNx films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiNx films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiNx films experienced only fatigue wear.

  5. Aluminium nitride piezoelectric thin films reactively deposited in closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering for elevated temperature 'smart' tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood

    "Smart" high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering using DC; pulsed-DC, and deep oscillation modulated pulsed power (DOMPP) systems on variety of substrate materials. Process optimization was performed to obtain highly c-axis texture films with improved piezoelectric response via studying the interplay between process parameters, microstructure and properties. AlN thin films were sputtered with DC and pulsed-DC systems to investigate the effect of various deposition parameters such as reactive gas ratio, working pressure, target power, pulsing frequency, substrate bias, substrate heating and seed layers on the properties and performance of the film device. The c-axis texture, orientation, microstructure, and chemical composition of AlN films were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. Thin films with narrow AlN-(002) rocking curve of 2.5° were obtained with preliminary studies of DOMPP reactive sputtering. In-situ high temperature XRD showed excellent thermal stability and oxidation resistance of AlN films up to 1000 °C. AlN films with optimized processing parameters yielded an inverse piezoelectric coefficient, d33 of 4.9 pm/V close to 90 percent of its theoretical value.

  6. Structural and tribological properties of CrTiAlN coatings on Mg alloy by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongjing; Long, Siyuan; Yang, Shicai; Pan, Fusheng

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, a series of multi-layer hard coating system of CrTiAlN has been prepared by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique in a gas mixture of Ar + N 2. The coatings were deposited onto AZ31 Mg alloy substrates. During deposition step, technological temperature and metallic atom concentration of coatings were controlled by adjusting the currents of different metal magnetron targets. The nitrogen level was varied by using the feedback control of plasma optical emission monitor (OEM). The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), micro-hardness tester, and scratch and ball-on-disc tester. The experimental results show that the N atomic concentration increases and the oxide on the top of coatings decreases; furthermore the modulation period and the friction coefficient decrease with the N 2 level increasing. The outstanding mechanical property can be acquired at medium N 2 level, and the CrTiAlN coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates outperform the uncoated M42 high speed steel (HSS) and the uncoated 316 stainless steel (SS).

  7. Multilayered TiAlN films on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating process.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Huang, Jiaqiang

    2016-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used as a suitable material for surgical implants such as artificial hip joints. In this study, a series of multilayered gradient TiAlN coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) process. Taguchi design of experiment approach was used to reveal the influence of depositing parameters to the film composition and performance of TiAlN coatings. The phase structure and chemical composition of the TiAlN films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties, including hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient, wear rate and adhesion strength were systematically evaluated. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples in Ringer's solution at 37°C to simulate human body environment. Comprehensive performance of TiAlN films was evaluated by assigning different weight according to the application environment. S8, deposited by Ti target current of 8A, Al target current of 6A, bias voltage of -60V and nitrogen content with OEM (optical emission monitor) value of 45%, was found to achieve best performance in orthogonal experiments. Depositing parameters of S8 might be practically applied for commercialization of surgical implants. PMID:26652421

  8. Microstructure, Mechanical, and Scratch Resistance Properties of TiAlCrNbN-Graded Composite Coating Deposited on AISI H13 Steel Substrate with Pulsed DC Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Levent; Küçükömeroğlu, Tevfik; Baran, Özlem; Efeoğlu, İhsan; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-04-01

    Structure and adhesion properties of TiAlCrNbN coatings were investigated. These coatings were deposited onto AISI H13 steel substrate using pulsed dc closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering at different deposition parameters including duty cycle, bias voltage, and working pressure. The coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The TiAlCrNbN-graded composite coatings have a dense and columnar structure. The X-ray diffraction patterns of coatings exhibited predominantly c-TiAlCrN, h-NbN, and h-TiAlN reflections. Scratch resistance test showed that the highest adhesion strength was attained as 68 N at 2.5 μs duty time, 100 V bias voltages, and 3 × 10-3 Torr deposition parameters. The lowest adhesion strength was obtained as 55 N at 0.5 μs duty time, 50V bias voltage, and 2 × 10-3 Torr deposition parameters.

  9. Growth and characterisation of NiAl and N-doped NiAl films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating using elemental ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Abuain, T; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) has been used to deposit undoped and nitrogen doped NiAI thin films onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates. These films have potential applications in tribological, electronic media and thermal barrier coatings. The surface characteristics, composition, mechanical and structural properties have been investigated using stylus profilometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 microm. The X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the presence of the beta NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the undoped and nitrogen doped NiAl thin films exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl composition with the best results being achieved using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. AFM results of both types of films deposited on glass samples exhibited a surface roughness of less than 100 nm. The nanoindenter results for coatings on glass substrates displayed hardness and elastic modulus of 7.7 GPa and 100 GPa respectively. The hardest coatings obtained were obtained at 10% of nitrogen. PMID:20355470

  10. Closed string field theory from polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Maha; Zwiebach, Barton

    1989-05-01

    A fully nonpolynomial framework for closed string field theory is studied. All interactions are geometrical, the pattern of string overlaps gives polyhedra with equal perimeter faces and three edges at each vertex. All interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The three point vertex used is that of Witten which is seen to be quite natural in the framework of quadratic differentials and to induce a very symmetric decomposition of moduli space.

  11. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  12. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  13. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  14. Quantum fields on closed timelike curves

    SciTech Connect

    Pienaar, J. L.; Myers, C. R.; Ralph, T. C.

    2011-12-15

    Recently, there has been much interest in the evolution of quantum particles on closed timelike curves (CTCs). However, such models typically assume pointlike particles with only two degrees of freedom; a very questionable assumption given the relativistic setting of the problem. We show that it is possible to generalize the Deutsch model of CTCs to fields using the equivalent circuit formalism. We give examples for coherent, squeezed, and single-photon states interacting with the CTC via a beamsplitter. The model is then generalized further to account for the smooth transition to normal quantum mechanics as the CTC becomes much smaller than the size of the modes interacting on it. In this limit, we find that the system behaves like a standard quantum-mechanical feedback loop.

  15. Effects of an unbalanced magnetron in a unique dual-cathode, high rate reactive sputtering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, S. L.; Petrov, I.; Sproul, W. D.; Barnett, S. A.; Rudnik, P. J.; Graham, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple plasma and magnetic field measurements are presented to illustrate the opportunities afforded by using unbalanced magnetrons in a dual-cathode system. The system employs a pair of opposed cathodes, 38 cm x 13 cm, placed 27.5 cm apart, to coat specimens mounted on a rotational substrate holder. Comparisons are drawn between the original 'balanced' magnetron and several unbalanced configurations in terms of field strengths, deposition rates, etching characteristics, and substrate ion current densities for the growth of TiN films. The effects of 'unbalancing' on the nature of the plasma within the 3D geometry of the deposition chamber are elucidated via plasma probe and magnetic field studies performed under a variety of conditions. All the unbalanced configurations examined provided enhanced ion bombardment at the surface of the growing film. The closed-field or opposed magnet geometry resulted in a threefold or greater increase in current density when compared with that obtained using the corresponding mirrored geometry under the same conditions.

  16. Closed string cohomology in open string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo

    2011-07-01

    We show that closed string states in bosonic string field theory are encoded in the cyclic cohomology of cubic open string field theory (OSFT) which, in turn, classifies the deformations of OSFT. This cohomology is then shown to be independent of the open string background. Exact elements correspond to closed string gauge transformations, generic boundary deformations of Witten's 3-vertex and infinitesimal shifts of the open string background. Finally it is argued that the closed string cohomology and the cyclic cohomology of OSFT are isomorphic to each other.

  17. Magnetic field perturbartions in closed-field-line systems with zero toroidal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mauel, M; Ryutov, D; Kesner, J

    2003-12-02

    In some plasma confinement systems (e.g., field-reversed configurations and levitated dipoles) the confinement is provided by a closed-field-line poloidal magnetic field. We consider the influence of the magnetic field perturbations on the structure of the magnetic field in such systems and find that the effect of perturbations is quite different from that in the systems with a substantial toroidal field. In particular, even infinitesimal perturbations can, in principle, lead to large radial excursions of the field lines in FRCs and levitated dipoles. Under such circumstances, particle drifts and particle collisions may give rise to significant neoclassical transport. Introduction of a weak regular toroidal magnetic field reduces radial excursions of the field lines and neoclassical transport.

  18. NS-NS sector of closed superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2014-08-01

    We give a construction for a general class of vertices in superstring field theory which include integration over bosonic moduli as well as the required picture changing insertions. We apply this procedure to find a covariant action for the NS-NS sector of Type II closed superstring field theory.

  19. Unbalanced translocation (1;7) in childhood myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Horsman, D E; Massing, B G; Chan, K W; Kalousek, D K

    1988-03-01

    We have identified an unusual pediatric patient among twelve patients with myelodysplasia and an unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7: -7, +der(1)t(1;7)(p11;p11). This 16-year-old male patient developed myelodysplasia and evolving acute leukemia, which were preceded by a 7-year history of marrow hypoplasia. The remaining patients were adults with clinical and hematologic findings similar to other reported cases with this chromosomal abnormality. The late appearance of this unbalanced clonal abnormality in this patient with marrow hypoplasia documents the importance of close cytogenetic follow-up of all patients with suspected bone marrow injury. PMID:3348202

  20. Closed expressions for the magnetic field of toroidal multipole configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1983-04-01

    Closed analytic expressions for the vector potential and the magnetic field for the lower order toroidal multipoles are presented. These expressions can be applied in the study of tokamak plasma cross section shaping. An example of such an application is included. These expressions also allow the vacuum fields required for plasma equilibrium to be specified in a general form independent of a particular coil configuration.

  1. Modeling and Verification of Distributed Generation and Voltage Regulation Equipment for Unbalanced Distribution Power Systems; Annual Subcontract Report, June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. W.; Broadwater, R.; Hambrick, J.

    2007-07-01

    This report summarizes the development of models for distributed generation and distribution circuit voltage regulation equipment for unbalanced power systems and their verification through actual field measurements.

  2. Computation of unbalanced radial force in permanent magnet motors

    SciTech Connect

    Salon, S.J.; Howe, M.; Slavik, C.J.; DeBortoli, M.J.; Nevins, R.J.

    1998-10-01

    Nonuniformity in magnet strength in permanent magnet motors results in a vibration-inducing unbalanced force acting on the rotor. This force is the difference of two large numbers and as such is difficult to determine precisely with numerical models. In this paper, a permanent magnet motor with unbalanced magnets is analyzed by the finite element method. Three different techniques for computing the net force on the rotor, including a recently developed field-correction approach, are compared. Sensitivities of the techniques to computational limitations and finite element mesh characteristics are discussed.

  3. Hamiltonian description of closed configurations of the vacuum magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skovoroda, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Methods of obtaining and using the Hamiltonians of closed vacuum magnetic configurations of fusion research systems are reviewed. Various approaches to calculate the flux functions determining the Hamiltonian are discussed. It is shown that the Hamiltonian description allows one not only to reproduce all traditional results, but also to study the behavior of magnetic field lines by using the theory of dynamic systems. The potentialities of the Hamiltonian formalism and its close relation to traditional methods are demonstrated using a large number of classical examples adopted from the fundamental works by A.I. Morozov, L.S. Solov'ev, and V.D. Shafranov.

  4. Hamiltonian description of closed configurations of the vacuum magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Skovoroda, A. A.

    2015-05-15

    Methods of obtaining and using the Hamiltonians of closed vacuum magnetic configurations of fusion research systems are reviewed. Various approaches to calculate the flux functions determining the Hamiltonian are discussed. It is shown that the Hamiltonian description allows one not only to reproduce all traditional results, but also to study the behavior of magnetic field lines by using the theory of dynamic systems. The potentialities of the Hamiltonian formalism and its close relation to traditional methods are demonstrated using a large number of classical examples adopted from the fundamental works by A.I. Morozov, L.S. Solov’ev, and V.D. Shafranov.

  5. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulware, David G.

    1992-11-01

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 2π. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the noncausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the noncausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  6. Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byington, B. M.; Brummell, N. H.; Stone, J. M.; Gough, D. O.

    2014-08-01

    Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter κ representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where κ is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a

  7. The electric field close to an undulating interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallunki, Jouni; Alava, Mikko; Hellén, E. K. O.

    2006-07-01

    The electric potential close to a boundary between two dielectric material layers reflects the geometry of such an interface. The local variations arise from the combination of material parameters and from the nature of the inhomogeneity. Here, the arising electric field is considered for both a sinusoidally varying boundary and for a "rough," Gaussian test case. We discuss the applicability of a one-dimensional model with the varying layer thickness as a parameter and the generic scaling of the results. As an application we consider the effect of paper roughness on toner transfer in electrophotographic printing.

  8. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Harada, Yuki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced above Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes above CA are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (<150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution representing bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  9. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Harada, Yuki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced above Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes above CA are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (< 150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution representing bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  10. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, M. N.; Saito, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Fujimoto, M.; Yokota, S.; Harada, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced over Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes over the CA anomaly are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (< 150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution that represents bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  11. A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Since cell membranes are weak sources of electrostatic fields, this ECG interpretation relies on the analogy between cells and electrets. It is here assumed that cell-bound electric fields unite, reach the body surface and the surrounding space and form the thoracic electric field that consists from two concentric structures: the thoracic wall and the heart. If ECG leads measure differences in electric potentials between skin electrodes, they give scalar values that define position of the electric field center along each lead. Repolarised heart muscle acts as a stable positive electric source, while depolarized heart muscle produces much weaker negative electric field. During T-P, P-R and S-T segments electric field is stable, only subtle changes are detectable by skin electrodes.Diastolic electric field forms after ventricular depolarization (T-P segments in the ECG recording). Telediastolic electric field forms after the atria have been depolarized (P-Q segments in the ECG recording). Systolic electric field forms after the ventricular depolarization (S-T segments in the ECG recording). The three ECG waves (P, QRS and T) can then be described as unbalanced transitions of the heart electric field from one stable configuration to the next and in that process the electric field center is temporarily displaced. In the initial phase of QRS, the rapidly diminishing septal electric field makes measured potentials dependent only on positive charges of the corresponding parts of the left and the right heart that lie within the lead axes. If more positive charges are near the "DOWN" electrode than near the "UP" electrode, a Q wave will be seen, otherwise an R wave is expected. Repolarization of the ventricular muscle is dampened by the early septal muscle repolarization that reduces deflection of T waves. Since the "UP" electrode of most leads is near the usually larger left ventricle muscle, T waves are in these leads positive, although of smaller amplitude and longer

  12. Analysis on the roundness of bulb turbine generator based on the unbalanced magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Yang, F. Y.; Chen, J. H.; Si, G. L.

    2012-11-01

    Because of design, manufacture, installation and operation, there are some relatively eccentric in bulb tubular turbine units under operating condition. It easily caused uneven air gap, unbalanced magnetic field, unbalanced magnetic pull and torque. It could also increase the bending and torsion vibration of generator,at the same time, the roundness of stator and rotor would be aggravated which often caused by accidents such as generator sweep chamber. In this paper, basing on the design, installation and operation experience, the reasons of the unbalanced magnetic pull, mechanism and operation research were analyzed by theoretical calculation and the prototype test.

  13. Anomalies in non-polynomial closed string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Michio

    1990-11-01

    The complete classical action for the non-polynomial closed string field theory was written down last year by the author and the Kyoto group. It successfully reproduces all closed string tree diagrams, but fails to reproduce modular invariant loop amplitudes. In this paper we show that the classical action is also riddled with gauge anomalies. Thus, the classical action is not really gauge invariant and fails as a quantum theory. The presence of gauge anomalies and the violation of modular invariance appear to be a disaster for the theory. Actually, this is a blessing in disguise. We show that by adding new non-polynomial terms to the action, we can simultaneously eliminate both the gauge anomalies and the modular-violating loop diagrams. We show this explicitly at the one loop level and also for an infinite class of p-puncture, genus- g amplitudes, making use of a series of non-trivial identities. The theory is thus an acceptable quantum theory. We comment on the origin of this strange link between local gauge anomalies and global modular invariance.

  14. Multi-cathode unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sproul, William D.

    1991-01-01

    Ion bombardment of a growing film during deposition is necessary in many instances to ensure a fully dense coating, particularly for hard coatings. Until the recent advent of unbalanced magnetron (UBM) cathodes, reactive sputtering had not been able to achieve the same degree of ion bombardment as other physical vapor deposition processes. The amount of ion bombardment of the substrate depends on the plasma density at the substrate, and in a UBM system the amount of bombardment will depend on the degree of unbalance of the cathode. In multi-cathode systems, the magnetic fields between the cathodes must be linked to confine the fast electrons that collide with the gas atoms. Any break in this linkage results in electrons being lost and a low plasma density. Modeling of the magnetic fields in a UBM cathode using a finite element analysis program has provided great insight into the interaction between the magnetic fields in multi-cathode systems. Large multi-cathode systems will require very strong magnets or many cathodes in order to maintain the magnetic field strength needed to achieve a high plasma density. Electromagnets offer the possibility of independent control of the plasma density. Such a system would be a large-scale version of an ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) system, but, for the UBM system where the plasma would completely surround the substrate, the acronym IBED might now stand for Ion Blanket Enhanced Deposition.

  15. Dynamics of the Open Closed Field Line Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanswick, E.; Roy, E.; Nishimura, T.; Unick, C.; Jackel, B. J.; Donovan, E.

    2015-12-01

    In most cases, large-scale features of the auroral distribution are the projection, along magnetic field lines, of corresponding magnetospheric features. The poleward boundary of the oval is a key example of such a feature. At almost all local times, this is most often interpreted as the ionospheric marker of the latitudinal transition between open lobe and closed central plasma sheet field lines. Earlier work by Blanchard et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 1995 & 1997] used ground-based photometric observations of 630 nm "redline" aurora and in situ particle observations from simultaneous DMSP overflights to demonstrate that the poleward boundary of the redline aurora is a particularly robust signature of the poleward boundary of the plasma sheet. Owing to the orbits of the DMSP spacecraft and the relative newness of the photometer program (CANOPUS) that provided the optical observations, the Blanchard results represent a limited sampling of magnetic local time and a limited number of events. In this paper we revisit the Blanchard et al study, using particle data from the NASA FAST satellite and the DMSP program, together with redline observations obtained by ground-based All-Sky Imagers. Our results indicate that the Blanchard technique for identifying the polar cap boundary holds true for essentially all magnetic local times on the night side, but that the picture is more nuanced than previously appreciated. Here we present these results, and discuss specific examples where the technique does not work (and explore why). Furthermore, this work is motivated by a new extensive network of highly sensitive redline imagers that has been deployed across northern and central Canada which provides high time resolution large-scale snapshots of the instantaneous polar cap boundary. This in turn enables us to explore magnetospheric dynamics at the interface between the lobe and central plasma sheet in fundamentally new and exciting ways.

  16. Closed Field Coronal Heating Models Inspired by Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Velli, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    To simulate the energy balance of coronal plasmas on macroscopic scales, we often require the specification of the coronal heating mechanism in some functional form. To go beyond empirical formulations and to build a more physically motivated heating function, we investigate the wave-turbulence dissipation (WTD) phenomenology for the heating of closed coronal loops. To do so, we employ an implementation of non-WKB equations designed to capture the large-scale propagation, reflection, and dissipation of wave turbulence along a loop. The parameter space of this model is explored by solving the coupled WTD and hydrodynamic equations in 1D for an idealized loop, and the relevance to a range of solar conditions is established by computing solutions for several hundred loops extracted from a realistic 3D coronal field. Due to the implicit dependence of the WTD heating model on loop geometry and plasma properties along the loop and at the footpoints, we find that this model can significantly reduce the number of free parameters when compared to traditional empirical heating models, and still robustly describe a broad range of quiet-sun and active region conditions. The importance of the self-reflection term in producing realistic heating scale heights and thermal non-equilibrium cycles is discussed, and preliminary 3D thermodynamic MHD simulations using this formulation are presented. Research supported by NASA and NSF.

  17. THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD CLOSE TO THE SUN. II

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, P. C.; Andersson, B-G; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; DeMajistre, R.; Funsten, H. O.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic field in the local interstellar medium (ISM) provides a key indicator of the galactic environment of the Sun and influences the shape of the heliosphere. We have studied the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) in the solar vicinity using polarized starlight for stars within 40 pc of the Sun and 90 Degree-Sign of the heliosphere nose. In Frisch et al. (Paper I), we developed a method for determining the local ISMF direction by finding the best match to a group of interstellar polarization position angles obtained toward nearby stars, based on the assumption that the polarization is parallel to the ISMF. In this paper, we extend the analysis by utilizing weighted fits to the position angles and by including new observations acquired for this study. We find that the local ISMF is pointed toward the galactic coordinates l, b =47 Degree-Sign {+-} 20 Degree-Sign , 25 Degree-Sign {+-} 20 Degree-Sign . This direction is close to the direction of the ISMF that shapes the heliosphere, l, b =33 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign , 55 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign , as traced by the center of the 'Ribbon' of energetic neutral atoms discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission. Both the magnetic field direction and the kinematics of the local ISM are consistent with a scenario where the local ISM is a fragment of the Loop I superbubble. A nearby ordered component of the local ISMF has been identified in the region l Almost-Equal-To 0 Degree-Sign {yields} 80 Degree-Sign and b Almost-Equal-To 0 Degree-Sign {yields} 30 Degree-Sign , where PlanetPol data show a distance-dependent increase of polarization strength. The ordered component extends to within 8 pc of the Sun and implies a weak curvature in the nearby ISMF of {approx}0.{sup 0}25 pc{sup -1}. This conclusion is conditioned on the small sample of stars available for defining this rotation. Variations from the ordered component suggest a turbulent component of {approx}23 Degree-Sign . The ordered

  18. The motion of closed hypersurfaces in the central force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the large time existence for the motion of closed hypersurfaces in a radially symmetric potential. Physically, this surface can be considered as an electrically charged membrane with a constant charge per area in a radially symmetric potential. The evolution of such surface has been investigated by Schnürer and Smoczyk [20]. To study its motion, we introduce a quasi-linear degenerate hyperbolic equation which describes the motion of the surfaces extrinsically. Our main results show the large time existence of such Cauchy problem and the stability with respect to small initial data. When the radially symmetric potential function v ≡ 1, the local existence and stability results have been obtained by Notz [18]. The proof is based on a new Nash-Moser iteration scheme.

  19. Influence of strike object grounding on close lightning electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2008-06-01

    Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have calculated vertical electric field Ez, horizontal (radial) electric field Eh, and azimuthal magnetic field Hϕ produced on the ground surface by lightning strikes to 160-m- and a 553-m-high conical strike objects representing the Peissenberg tower (Germany) and the CN Tower (Canada), respectively. The fields were computed for a typical subsequent stroke at distances d' from the bottom of the object ranging from 5 to 100 m for the 160-m tower and from 10 to 300 m for the 553-m tower. Grounding of the 160-m object was assumed to be accomplished by its underground basement represented by a 10-m-radius and 8-m-long perfectly conducting cylinder with or without a reference ground plane located 2 m below. The reference ground plane simulates, to some extent, a higher-conducting ground layer that is expected to exist below the water table. The configuration without reference ground plane actually means that this plane is present, but is located at an infinitely large depth. Grounding of the 553-m object was modeled in a similar manner but in the absence of reference ground plane only. In all cases considered, waveforms of Eh and Hϕ are not much influenced by the presence of strike object, while waveforms of Ez are. Waveforms of Ez are essentially unipolar (as they are in the absence of strike object) when the ground conductivity σ is 10 mS/m (the equivalent transient grounding impedance is several ohms) or greater. Thus, for the CN Tower, for which σ ≥ 10 mS/m, the occurrence of Ez polarity change is highly unlikely. For the 160-m tower and for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m, waveforms of Ez become bipolar (exhibit polarity change) at d' ≤ 10 m and d' ≤ 50 m, respectively, regardless of the presence of the reference ground plane. The corresponding equivalent transient grounding impedances are about 30 and 50 Ω in the absence of the reference ground plane and smaller than 10 Ω in the presence of the reference

  20. Phenotypic Signatures Arising from Unbalanced Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify “phenotypic signatures” by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains. PMID:25101949

  1. Performance Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshihiro; Fukami, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

    This paper presents electrical and magnetic characteristics of a permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) under unbalanced grid voltages. The method of symmetrical components and two-dimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA) are used to calculate these characteristics and the results are confirmed through experiments. Even if the voltage of power grids is unbalanced, the PMIG can operate at high efficiency over a wide range of slip and the built-in permanent-magnet (PM) rotor is little affected by the negative-sequence rotating field.

  2. Existence of standard models of conic fibrations over non-algebraically-closed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Avilov, A A

    2014-12-31

    We prove an analogue of Sarkisov's theorem on the existence of a standard model of a conic fibration over an algebraically closed field of characteristic different from two for three-dimensional conic fibrations over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero with an action of a finite group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  3. Testable Hypotheses for Unbalanced Neuroimaging Data

    PubMed Central

    McFarquhar, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced group-level models are common in neuroimaging. Typically, data for these models come from factorial experiments. As such, analyses typically take the form of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) within the framework of the general linear model (GLM). Although ANOVA theory is well established for the balanced case, in unbalanced designs there are multiple ways of decomposing the sums-of-squares of the data. This leads to several methods of forming test statistics when the model contains multiple factors and interactions. Although the Type I–III sums of squares have a long history of debate in the statistical literature, there has seemingly been no consideration of this aspect of the GLM in neuroimaging. In this paper we present an exposition of these different forms of hypotheses for the neuroimaging researcher, discussing their derivation as estimable functions of ANOVA models, and discussing the relative merits of each. Finally, we demonstrate how the different hypothesis tests can be implemented using contrasts in analysis software, presenting examples in SPM and FSL. PMID:27378839

  4. Electric-field effects on the closed orbits of the diamagnetic Kepler problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleasdale, C.; Bruno-Alfonso, A.; Lewis, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The nonrelativistic closed orbits of an electron interacting with a unit positive charge in the presence of homogeneous magnetic and electric fields are investigated. A simplified theoretical model is proposed utilizing appropriate initial conditions in semiparabolic coordinates for arbitrary magnetic- and electric-field alignments. The evolution of both the angular spectrum of orbits and the shape and duration of individual orbits, as the electric-field intensity and scaled energy are increased, is shown for the cases of both parallel and crossed fields. Orbit mixing in the high-field regime is investigated in the case of parallel fields, giving an indication of the system moving from the quasi-Landau chaotic regime to the electric-field-induced (Stark effect) regular regime. For crossed fields, it is shown that the Garton-Tomkins orbits lead to a pair of orbits that have opposite behaviors as a function of the electric-field intensity.

  5. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  6. Tongues, bottles, and disconnected loops: The opening and closing of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    For years the field of Space Physics has had a problem, a really big problem for it occurs on the largest spatial scales in Space physics -- across the entire region under the Sun`s influence, the heliosphere. The problem is that the Sun appears to keep opening new magnetic flux into interplanetary space with no obvious way for this flux to close back off again. This state of affairs, without some previously unknown method for closing the open interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), leads to an ever growing amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space: the magnetic flux catastrophe. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding why this catastrophic state is not the observed state of the heliosphere. This brief article paints the newly emerging picture of the opening and closing of the IMF and how these processes may account for the observed variation in the amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space over the solar cycle.

  7. 78 FR 24765 - Notice of Intent To Close 16 Field Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Memorandum 2010-07--Disposing of Unneeded Federal Real Estate (75 FR 33987, June 16, 2010), HUD is publishing... following 16 field offices: Camden, NJ; Syracuse, NY; Orlando, FL; Tampa, FL; Springfield, IL; Cincinnati... closed are: Camden, NJ; Syracuse, NY; Orlando, FL; Tampa, FL; Springfield, IL; Cincinnati, OH; Flint,...

  8. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. I - Biphase Costas loop with passive arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) is an attractive means for transmitting two digital data streams which in general have different average powers, data rates, and data formats. Previous analyses of the tracking performance of Costas loop demodulators of unbalanced QPSK have accounted only for the filtering effect produced by the loop's two arm filters on the equivalent additive noise perturbing the loop. When the bandwidth of these filters is selected on the basis of the order of the data rate, as is typical of optimum Costas loop design, the filtering degradations of the data modulations themselves and the cross-modulation noise produced by their multiplication in the loop often cannot be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate these additional filtering effects into the analysis. Many of the results obtained herein are in the form of closed-form expressions which can easily be evaluated numerically for design and performance prediction purposes.

  9. Cassini Multi-instrument Assessment of the Open-closed Field Line Boundary of Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinks, S. L.; Bunce, E. J.; Provan, G.; Yeoman, T. K.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Arridge, C. S.; Krupp, N.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Wahlund, J. E.; Morooka, M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-09-01

    In gas giant magnetospheres the balance between external solar wind driving and internal driving due to the planet's rotation is a critical issue which needs to be addressed. Following the high-latitude orbits of Cassini during 2006/7, 2008 and 2009 a region where magnetic field lines are "open" to the solar wind has been tentatively identified at Saturn. However, precisely where and how the open-closed field line boundary is determined from the various in situ instrument data sets has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a Cassini multi-instrument assessment (using magnetic field analysis, CAPS-ELS electrons, MIMI-LEMMS electrons, Langmuir Probe electron density, and RPWS measurements of the auroral hiss) of the location between "open" and "closed" magnetic field lines for the high-latitude orbits. We discuss the extent to which the different instruments can locate a common boundary and identify the average co-latitude of the boundary region in each hemisphere. The average co-latitude of the upward field-aligned current region is identified equatorward of the open-closed field line boundary in each hemisphere. There is possible evidence of displacement of the boundary equatorward towards midnight in both hemispheres indicating a local time dependence of the boundary location. Variation in southern co-latitude of the open-closed field line boundary with respect to the southern magnetic oscillation phase is shown to follow a sine relationship with an amplitude of ~2.4° co-latitude. Initial investigation shows no clear relationship in ordering the data by the northern magnetic oscillation phase.

  10. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Elphinstone, R. D.; Stern, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The boundary between open and closed field lines is investigated in the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) magnetic field model. All field lines extending to distances beyond -70 R(E), the tailward velocity limit of the Tsyganenko model are defined as open, while all other field lines, which cross the equatorial plane earthward of -70 R(E) and are connected with the earth at both ends, are assumed closed. It is found that this boundary at the surface of the earth, identified as the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the sun, which is found in horse collar auroras. For increasing activity levels, the polar cap increases in area and becomes rounder, so that the arrowhead shape is less pronounced. The presence of a net B(y) component can also lead to considerable rounding of the open flux region. The arrowhead shape is found to be closely associated with the increase of B(z) from the midnight region to the flanks of the tail, consistent with a similar increase of the plasma sheet thickness.

  11. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hones, E.W. Jr. ); Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A. ); Elphinstone, R.D. ); Stern, D.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Using the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) long model as a prime example of a megnetospheric field model, the authors have attempted to identify the boundary between open and closed field lines. They define as closed all field lines that are connested with the Earth at both ends and cross the equatorial plane earthward of x = {minus}70 R{sub E}, the tailward validity limit of the Tsyganenko model. They find that the form of the open/closed boundary at the Earth's surface, identified with the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the Sun, observed in horse collar auroras (Hones et al., 1989). The polar cap size in the Tsyganenko model increases with increasing K{sub p} values, and it becomes rounder and less pointed. The superposition of a net B{sub y} field, which is the expected consequence of an IMF B{sub y}, rotates the polar cap pattern and, for larger values, degrades the arrowhead shape, resulting in polar cap configurations consistent with known asymmetries in the aurora. The pointedness of the polar cap shape also diminishes or even completely disappears if the low-latitude magnetopause is assumed open and located considerably inside of the outermost magnetic flux surface in the Tsyganenko model. The arrowhead shape of the polar cap is found to be associated with a strong increase of B{sub z} from midnight toward the tail flanks, which is observed independently, and is possibly related to the NBZ field-aligned current system, observed during quiet times and strongly northward IMF B{sub z}. The larger B{sub z} values near the flanks of the tail cause more magnetic flux to close through these regions than through the midnight equatorial region.

  12. Observations of the Ion Signatures of Double Merging and the Formation of Newly Closed Field Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael O.; Avanov, Levon A.; Craven, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Observations from the Polar spacecraft, taken during a period of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) show magnetosheath ions within the magnetosphere with velocity distributions resulting from multiple merging sites along the same field line. The observations from the TIDE instrument show two separate ion energy-time dispersions that are attributed to two widely separated (-20Re) merging sites. Estimates of the initial merging times show that they occurred nearly simultaneously (within 5 minutes.) Along with these populations, cold, ionospheric ions were observed counterstreaming along the field lines. The presence of such ions is evidence that these field lines are connected to the ionosphere on both ends. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that double merging can produce closed field lines populated by solar wind plasma. While the merging sites cannot be unambiguously located, the observations and analyses favor one site poleward of the northern cusp and a second site at low latitudes.

  13. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves. [Gott space

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27[pi]. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  14. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, D.G.

    1992-12-31

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27{pi}. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  15. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulware, D. G.

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27(pi). A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  16. Dynamic effects of restoring footpoint symmetry on closed magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, J. P.; Østgaard, N.; Tenfjord, P.; Laundal, K. M.; Snekvik, K.; Haaland, S.; Milan, S. E.; Oksavik, K.; Frey, H. U.; Grocott, A.

    2016-05-01

    Here we present an event where simultaneous global imaging of the aurora from both hemispheres reveals a large longitudinal shift of the nightside aurora of about 3 h, being the largest relative shift reported on from conjugate auroral imaging. This is interpreted as evidence of closed field lines having very asymmetric footpoints associated with the persistent positive y component of the interplanetary magnetic field before and during the event. At the same time, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observes the ionospheric nightside convection throat region in both hemispheres. The radar data indicate faster convection toward the dayside in the dusk cell in the Southern Hemisphere compared to its conjugate region. We interpret this as a signature of a process acting to restore symmetry of the displaced closed magnetic field lines resulting in flux tubes moving faster along the banana cell than the conjugate orange cell. The event is analyzed with emphasis on Birkeland currents (BC) associated with this restoring process, as recently described by Tenfjord et al. (2015). Using data from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) during the same conditions as the presented event, the large-scale BC pattern associated with the event is presented. It shows the expected influence of the process of restoring symmetry on BCs. We therefore suggest that these observations should be recognized as being a result of the dynamic effects of restoring footpoint symmetry on closed field lines in the nightside.

  17. Spontaneous Formation of Closed-Field Torus Equilibrium via Current Jump Observed in an Electron-Cyclotron-Heated Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2006-03-31

    Spontaneous current jump resulting in the formation of closed field equilibrium has been observed in electron-cyclotron-heated toroidal plasmas under steady external fields composed of a toroidal field and a relatively weak vertical field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment device. This bridges the gap between the open field equilibrium maintained by a pressure-driven current in the external field and the closed field equilibrium at a larger current. Experimental results and theoretical analyses suggest a current jump model that is based on the asymmetric electron confinement along the field line appearing upon simultaneous transitions of field topology and equilibrium.

  18. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  19. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Muhammad; Beseler, Cheryl L; Hall, James B; LeVan, Tricia; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2014-05-15

    Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:24170413

  20. Future missions for observing Earth's changing gravity field: a closed-loop simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. N.

    2008-12-01

    The GRACE mission has successfully demonstrated the observation from space of the changing Earth's gravity field at length and time scales of typically 1000 km and 10-30 days, respectively. Many scientific communities strongly advertise the need for continuity of observing Earth's gravity field from space. Moreover, a strong interest is being expressed to have gravity missions that allow a more detailed sampling of the Earth's gravity field both in time and in space. Designing a gravity field mission for the future is a complicated process that involves making many trade-offs, such as trade-offs between spatial, temporal resolution and financial budget. Moreover, it involves the optimization of many parameters, such as orbital parameters (height, inclination), distinction between which gravity sources to observe or correct for (for example are gravity changes due to ocean currents a nuisance or a signal to be retrieved?), observation techniques (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry, accelerometers), and satellite control systems (drag-free?). A comprehensive tool has been developed and implemented that allows the closed-loop simulation of gravity field retrievals for different satellite mission scenarios. This paper provides a description of this tool. Moreover, its capabilities are demonstrated by a few case studies. Acknowledgments. The research that is being done with the closed-loop simulation tool is partially funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). An important component of the tool is the GEODYN software, kindly provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  1. Close intramolecular sulfur-oxygen contacts: modified force field parameters for improved conformation generation.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Dmitry; Abramov, Yuriy A; Sherman, Woody

    2012-11-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) offers an excellent data source to study small molecule conformations and molecular interactions. We have analyzed 130 small molecules from the CSD containing an intramolecular sulfur-oxygen distance less than the sum of their van der Waals (vdW) radii. Close S···O distances are observed in several important medicinal chemistry motifs (e.g. a carbonyl oxygen connected by a carbon or nitrogen linker to a sulfur) and are not treated well with existing parameters in the MMFFs or OPLS_2005 force fields, resulting in suboptimal geometries and energetics. In this work, we develop modified parameters for the OPLS_2005 force field to better treat this specific interaction in order to generate conformations close to those found in the CSD structures. We use a combination of refitting a force field torsional parameter, adding a specific atom pair vdW term, and attenuating the electrostatic interactions to obtain an improvement in the accuracy of geometry minimizations and conformational searches for these molecules. Specifically, in a conformational search 58 % of the cases produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å from the CSD crystal conformation with the modified OPLS force field parameters developed in this work. In contrast, 25 and 37 % produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å with the MMFFs and OPLS_2005 force fields, respectively. As an application of the new parameters, we generated conformations for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (trade name Inlyta) that could be correctly repacked into three observed polymorphic structures, which was not possible with conformations generated using MMFFs or OPLS_2005. The improved parameters can be mapped directly onto physical characteristics of the systems that are treated inadequately with the molecular mechanics force fields used in this study and potentially other force fields as well. PMID:23053737

  2. Impact of close habitat on the entomological diversity and abundance in carrot open fields.

    PubMed

    Colignon, P; Gaspar, C; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and reduces the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Carrot represents an important cultivated species in Wallonia. To asses the impact of close habitat on both pest (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects, carrot fields were investigated during all the production duration in 2000. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weekly from June to October. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined to the family level. Approximately 90,000 insects belonging to 109 families were identified. Significant differences linked to field closed habitat were observed on 31 families. An increase of biodiversity in term of family number near set-asides and woody borders was observed. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density in vegetable crops was discussed to promote future IPM program. PMID:12696415

  3. Directly transmitted unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and euchromatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Barber, J

    2005-01-01

    In total, 200 families were reviewed with directly transmitted, cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosome abnormalities (UBCAs) or euchromatic variants (EVs). Both the 130 UBCA and 70 EV families were divided into three groups depending on the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype in parents and offspring. No detectable phenotypic effect was evident in 23/130 (18%) UBCA families ascertained mostly through prenatal diagnosis (group 1). In 30/130 (23%) families, the affected proband had the same UBCA as other phenotypically normal family members (group 2). In the remaining 77/130 (59%) families, UBCAs had consistently mild consequences (group 3). In the 70 families with established EVs of 8p23.1, 9p12, 9q12, 15q11.2, and 16p11.2, no phenotypic effect was apparent in 38/70 (54%). The same EV was found in affected probands and phenotypically normal family members in 30/70 families (43%) (group 2), and an EV co-segregated with mild phenotypic anomalies in only 2/70 (3%) families (group 3). Recent evidence indicates that EVs involve copy number variation of common paralogous gene and pseudogene sequences that are polymorphic in the normal population and only become visible at the cytogenetic level when copy number is high. The average size of the deletions and duplications in all three groups of UBCAs was close to 10 Mb, and these UBCAs and EVs form the "Chromosome Anomaly Collection" at http://www.ngrl.org.uk/Wessex/collection. The continuum of severity associated with UBCAs and the variability of the genome at the sub-cytogenetic level make further close collaboration between medical and laboratory staff essential to distinguish clinically silent variation from pathogenic rearrangement. PMID:16061560

  4. A New Bench Concept for Measuring Magnetic Fields of Big Closed Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Ribó, Llibert; Colldelram, Carles; Becheri, Fulvio; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    The measurement of big closed magnetic structures is becoming a challenge of great interest. The main reason is the tendency towards building accelerators with high magnetic fields produced by small gap magnets, as well as the development of cryogenic or superconducting narrow-gap insertion devices. Usual approach, based on side-measurements made with a Hall probe mounted on the tip of a motorized arm based on a long granite bench is no more applicable to such closed structures. So, new concepts and approaches have been developed, mainly based on complex devices that insert a Hall probe inside the magnetic structure maintaining the desired position by close-loop controls. We present in this paper the characterization of a new bench that has been built at ALBA synchrotron that is simple, multi-purpose and can be a general solution for measuring big closed structures. Motion control is done via ICEpap motion driver system using the new trigger feature that has been implemented in this motor controller.

  5. Low beta equilibrium and stability for anisotropic pressure closed field line plasma confinement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.; Subbotin, A.A.

    1994-05-01

    General formalism is developed to analyze the equilibrium and stability of low beta anisotropic pressure plasmas confined in closed field line magnetic systems. The formalism allows one to consider rather general magnetic systems with nonuniform axis curvature and longitudinal profiles of toroidal and multipole poloidal field. It also allows having a strong pressure anisotropy corresponding to enhanced plasma pressure in mirror cells of the system. As an example of such a system the authors consider the recently proposed linked mirror neutron source (LMNS). Application of the above formalism to the LMNS analysis confirms most of the preliminary results, however, they obtain a considerable reduction of mirror cell axis curvature and an appreciable ellipticity of plasma cross-section in the mirror cell midplane. They have also optimized the longitudinal pressure and magnetic field distribution.

  6. Closed star product on noncommutative ℝ 3 and scalar field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurić, Tajron; Poulain, Timothé; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    We consider the noncommutative space ℝ θ 3 , a deformation of ℝ 3 for which the star product is closed for the trace functional. We study one-loop IR and UV properties of the 2-point function for real and complex noncommutative scalar field theories with quartic interactions and Laplacian on ℝ 3 as kinetic operator. We find that the 2-point functions for these noncommutative scalar field theories have no IR singularities in the external momenta, indicating the absence of UV/IR mixing. We also find that the 2-point functions are UV finite with the deformation parameter θ playing the role of a natural UV cut-off. The possible origin of the absence of UV/IR mixing in noncommutative scalar field theories on ℝ θ 3 as well as on ℝ λ 3 , another deformation of ℝ 3, is discussed.

  7. Formation of accretion disks in close-binary systems with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilkin, A. G.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional numerical model and applied it to simulate plasma flows in semi-detached binary systems whose accretor possesses a strong intrinsic magnetic field. The model is based on the assumption that the plasma dynamics are determined by the slow mean flow, which forms a backdrop for the rapid propagation of MHD waves. The equations describing the slow motion of matter were obtained by averaging over rapidly propagating pulsations. The numerical model includes the diffusion of magnetic field by current dissipation in turbulent vortices, magnetic buoyancy, and wave MHD turbulence. A modified three-dimensional, parallel, numerical code was used to simulate the flow structure in close binary systems with various accretor magnetic fields, from 105 to 108 G. The conditions for the formation of the accretion disk and the criteria distinguishing the two types of flow corresponding to intermediate polars and polars are discussed.

  8. The close classical T Tauri binary V4046 Sgr: complex magnetic fields and distributed mass accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Gregory, S. G.; Montmerle, T.; Maggio, A.; Argiroffi, C.; Sacco, G.; Hussain, G.; Kastner, J.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Damiani, F.; Güdel, M.; Huenemoerder, D.; Wade, G. A.

    2011-11-01

    We report here the first results of a multi-wavelength campaign focusing on magnetospheric accretion processes within the close binary system V4046 Sgr, hosting two partly convective classical T Tauri stars of masses ≃0.9 M⊙ and age ≃12 Myr. In this paper, we present time-resolved spectropolarimetric observations collected in 2009 September with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and covering a full span of 7 d or ≃2.5 orbital/rotational cycles of V4046 Sgr. Small circularly polarized Zeeman signatures are detected in the photospheric absorption lines but not in the accretion-powered emission lines of V4046 Sgr, thereby demonstrating that both system components host large-scale magnetic fields weaker and more complex than those of younger, fully convective classical T Tauri stars (cTTSs) of only a few Myr and similar masses. Applying our tomographic imaging tools to the collected data set, we reconstruct maps of the large-scale magnetic field, photospheric brightness and accretion-powered emission at the surfaces of both stars of V4046 Sgr. We find that these fields include significant toroidal components, and that their poloidal components are mostly non-axisymmetric with a dipolar component of 50-100 G strongly tilted with respect to the rotation axis; given the similarity with fields of partly convective main-sequence stars of similar masses and rotation periods, we conclude that these fields are most likely generated by dynamo processes. We also find that both stars in the system show cool spots close to the pole and extended regions of low-contrast, accretion-powered emission; it suggests that mass accretion is likely distributed rather than confined in well-defined high-contrast accretion spots, in agreement with the derived magnetic field complexity.

  9. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  10. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  11. The {open_quotes}INVERSE PROBLEM{close_quotes} to the evaluation of the magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Blot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative ({open_quotes}inverse{close_quotes}) procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. By evaluating the specified potential in the region interior to the winding along the interface, the authors have determined that a relaxation solution to the potential in the region outside the winding can be converged and used to calculate wire location. They have demonstrated this method by applying a slightly modified version of the program POISSON to a periodic alternating sinusoidal quadrupole field.

  12. Acceleration of plasma flows in the closed magnetic fields: Simulation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Shatashvili, Nana L.; Mikeladze, Solomon V.; Sigua, Ketevan I.

    2006-06-15

    Within the framework of a two-fluid description, possible pathways for the generation of fast flows (dynamical as well as steady) in the closed magnetic fields are established. It is shown that a primary plasma flow (locally sub-Alfvenic) is accelerated while interacting with ambient arcade-like closed field structures. The time scale for creating reasonably fast flows (> or approx. 100 km/s) is dictated by the initial ion skin depth, while the amplification of the flow depends on local plasma {beta}. It is shown that distances over which the flows become 'fast' are {approx}0.01R{sub 0} from the interaction surface (R{sub 0} being a characteristic length of the system); later, the fast flow localizes (with dimensions < or approx. 0.05R{sub 0}) in the upper central region of the original arcade. For fixed initial temperature, the final speed (> or approx. 500 km/s) of the accelerated flow and the modification of the field structure are independent of the time duration (lifetime) of the initial flow. In the presence of dissipation, these flows are likely to play a fundamental role in the heating of the finely structured stellar atmospheres; their relevance to the solar wind is also obvious.

  13. Nonequilibrium problems in quantum field theory and Schwinger`s closed time path formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, F.

    1995-05-01

    We review the closed time path formalism of Schwinger using a path integral approach. We apply this formalism to the study of pair production from strong external fields as well as the time evolution of a nonequilibrium chiral phase transition. In 1961 in his classic paper ``Brownian Motion of a Quantum Particle,`` Schwinger solved the formidable technical problem of how to use the action principle to study initial value problems. Previously, the action principle was formulated to study only transition matrix elements from an earlier time to a later time. The elegant solution of this problem was the invention of the closed time path (CTP) formalism. This formalism was first used to study field theory problems by Mahanthappa and Bakshi. With the advent of supercomputers, it has now become possible to use this formalism to numerically solve important field theory questions which are presented as initial value problems. Two of these problems we shall review here. They are (1) The time evolution of the quark- gluon plasma. (2) Dynamical evolution of a non-equilibrium chiral phase transition following a relativistic heavy ion collision.

  14. The Influence of Magnetic Field Geometry on the Formation of Close-in Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.

    2016-08-01

    Approximately half of Sun-like stars harbor exoplanets packed within a radius of ∼0.3 au, but the formation of these planets and why they form in only half of known systems are still not well understood. We employ a one-dimensional steady-state model to gain physical insight into the origin of these close-in exoplanets. We use Shakura & Sunyaev α values extracted from recent numerical simulations of protoplanetary disk accretion processes in which the magnitude of α, and thus the steady-state gas surface density, depend on the orientation of large-scale magnetic fields with respect to the disk’s rotation axis. Solving for the metallicity as a function of radius, we find that for fields anti-aligned with the rotation axis, the inner regions of our model disk often fall within a region of parameter space that is not suitable for planetesimal formation, whereas in the aligned case, the inner disk regions are likely to produce planetesimals through some combination of streaming instability and gravitational collapse, though the degree to which this is true depends on the assumed parameters of our model. More robustly, the aligned field case always produces higher concentrations of solids at small radii compared to the anti-aligned case. In the in situ formation model, this bimodal distribution of solid enhancement leads directly to the observed dichotomy in exoplanet orbital distances.

  15. The Influence of Magnetic Field Geometry on the Formation of Close-in Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.

    2016-08-01

    Approximately half of Sun-like stars harbor exoplanets packed within a radius of ˜0.3 au, but the formation of these planets and why they form in only half of known systems are still not well understood. We employ a one-dimensional steady-state model to gain physical insight into the origin of these close-in exoplanets. We use Shakura & Sunyaev α values extracted from recent numerical simulations of protoplanetary disk accretion processes in which the magnitude of α, and thus the steady-state gas surface density, depend on the orientation of large-scale magnetic fields with respect to the disk’s rotation axis. Solving for the metallicity as a function of radius, we find that for fields anti-aligned with the rotation axis, the inner regions of our model disk often fall within a region of parameter space that is not suitable for planetesimal formation, whereas in the aligned case, the inner disk regions are likely to produce planetesimals through some combination of streaming instability and gravitational collapse, though the degree to which this is true depends on the assumed parameters of our model. More robustly, the aligned field case always produces higher concentrations of solids at small radii compared to the anti-aligned case. In the in situ formation model, this bimodal distribution of solid enhancement leads directly to the observed dichotomy in exoplanet orbital distances.

  16. Application of closed-form solutions to a mesh point field in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation method is discussed that provides for equivalent simulation accuracy, but that exhibits significantly lower CPU running time per bias point compared to other techniques. This new method is applied to a mesh point field as is customary in numerical integration (NI) techniques. The assumption of a linear approximation for the dependent variable, which is typically used in the finite difference and finite element NI methods, is not required. Instead, the set of device transport equations is applied to, and the closed-form solutions obtained for, each mesh point. The mesh point field is generated so that the coefficients in the set of transport equations exhibit small changes between adjacent mesh points. Application of this method to high-efficiency silicon solar cells is described; and the method by which Auger recombination, ambipolar considerations, built-in and induced electric fields, bandgap narrowing, carrier confinement, and carrier diffusivities are treated. Bandgap narrowing has been investigated using Fermi-Dirac statistics, and these results show that bandgap narrowing is more pronounced and that it is temperature-dependent in contrast to the results based on Boltzmann statistics.

  17. A closed cycle-cryostat for high-field Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoschka, A.; Svenconis, G.; Schünemann, V.

    2010-03-01

    A closed cycle-cryostat coupled to a Mössbauer spectrometer has been installed at the University of Kaiserslautern and is in full operation since march 2007. The setup is equipped with a low vibrating two-stage pulse tube cooler and has a cool down time of 48 h. The sample can be top loaded without the need to shut off the refrigerator. With the static helium exchange gas in the variable temperature insert the sample may be cooled down from room temperature to 50 K within several hours. Dynamic exchange gas with external supply of gaseous helium is used to cool the sample down to 2 K. The superconducting self-shielding split-coil generates a magnetic field of up to 5 Tesla and a stray field of ca. 60 mT at the outer cryostat walls. Mössbauer measurements can be performed in perpendicular or parallel field orientations. The sample holder and the Mössbauer drive are rigidly connected to the cryostat. In this way a line width of the two inner α-Fe lines of 0.32 mm/s has been currently achieved.

  18. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. P. Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  19. Wide field adaptive optics laboratory demonstration with closed-loop tomographic control.

    PubMed

    Costille, Anne; Petit, Cyril; Conan, Jean-Marc; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; Fusco, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    HOMER, the new bench developed at ONERA devoted to wide field adaptive optics (WFAO) laboratory research, has allowed the first experimental validations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and laser tomography adaptive optics (LTAO) concepts with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control approach. Results obtained in LTAO in closed loop show the significant gain in performance brought by LQG control, which allows tomographic reconstruction. We present a calibration and model identification strategy. Experimental results are shown to be consistent with end-to-end simulations. These results are very encouraging and demonstrate robustness of performance with respect to inevitable experimental uncertainties. They represent a first step for the study of very large telescope (VLT) and extremely large telescopes (ELT) instruments. PMID:20208937

  20. Derivation of clones close to met by preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, F.; Burmeister, M.; Lehrach, H.

    1987-06-05

    The molecular analysis of genes identified by mutations is a major problems in mammalian genetics. As a step toward this goal, preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) was used to selectively isolate clones from the environment of genetically linked markers, and to select a subset of these clones containing sequences next to specific restriction sites rare in mammalian DNA. This approach has been used to generate a library highly enriched in sequences closely linked to the cystic fibrosis marker met. One clone derived from the end of a Not I restriction fragment containing the met sequence was analyzed in detail and localized within a long range map to a position of 300 kilobase pairs 5' of the metD sequence.

  1. Computational model for calculating the dynamical behaviour of generators caused by unbalanced magnetic pull and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennacchi, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    The modelling of the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in generators and the experimental validation of the proposed method are presented in this paper. The UMP is one of the most remarkable effects of electromechanical interactions in rotating machinery. As a consequence of the rotor eccentricity, the imbalance of the electromagnetic forces acting between rotor and stator generates a net radial force. This phenomenon can be avoided by means of a careful assembly and manufacture in small and stiff machines, like electrical motors. On the contrary, the eccentricity of the active part of the rotor with respect to the stator is unavoidable in big generators of power plants, because they operate above their first critical speed and are supported by oil-film bearings. In the first part of the paper, a method aimed to calculate the UMP force is described. This model is more general than those available in literature, which are limited to circular orbits. The model is based on the actual position of the rotor inside the stator, therefore on the actual air-gap distribution, regardless of the orbit type. The closed form of the nonlinear UMP force components is presented. In the second part, the experimental validation of the proposed model is presented. The dynamical behaviour in the time domain of a steam turbo-generator of a power plant is considered and it is shown that the model is able to reproduce the dynamical effects due to the excitation of the magnetic field in the generator.

  2. Closing the wildland fire heat budget - measurements in the field at intermediate and operational scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, M.; Kremens, R.; Bova, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Closing the wildland fire heat budget involves characterizing the heat source and energy dissipation across the range of variability in fuels and fire behavior. Meeting this challenge will lay the foundation for predicting direct ecological effects of fires and fire-atmosphere coupling. Here, we focus on the relationships between the fire radiation field, as measured from the zenith, fuel consumption, and the behavior of spreading flame fronts. Experiments were conducted in 8 m x 8 m outdoor plots using pre-conditioned wildland fuels characteristic of mixed-oak forests of the eastern United States. Using dual-band radiometers with a field of view of about 18.5 m^2 at a height of 4.2 m, we found a near-linear increase in fire radiative energy density (FRED) over a range of fuel consumption between 0.15 kg m^-2 to 3.25 kg m^-2. Using an integrated heat budget, we estimate that the fraction of total theoretical combustion energy density radiated from the plot averaged 0.17, the fraction of latent energy transported in the plume averaged 0.08, and the fraction accounted for by the combination of fire convective energy transport and soil heating averaged 0.72. Future work will require, at minimum, instantaneous and time-integrated estimates of energy transported by radiation, convection, and soil heating across a range of fuels. We introduce the Rx-CADRE project through which such measurements are being made.

  3. Methods of Using a Magnetic Field Response Sensor Within Closed, Electrically Conductive Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields, and when electrically active, respond with their own magnetic fields with attributes dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. A magnetic field response recorder powers and interrogates the magnetic sensors [see Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement- Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 30, No, 6 (June 2006, page 28)]. Electrically conductive containers have low transmissivity for radio frequency (RF) energy and thus present problems for magnetic field response sensors. It is necessary in some applications to have a magnetic field response sensor s capacitor placed in these containers. Proximity to conductive surfaces alters the inductance and capacitance of the sensors. As the sensor gets closer to a conductive surface, the electric field and magnetic field energy of the sensor is reduced due to eddy currents being induced in the conductive surface. Therefore, the capacitors and inductors cannot be affixed to a conductive surface or embedded in a conductive material. It is necessary to have a fixed separation away from the conductive material. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the desired sensor response signal to noise ratio. Although the inductance is less than what it would be if it were not in proximity to the conductive surface, the inductance is fixed. As long as the inductance is fixed, all variations of the magnetic field response are due to capacitance changes. Numerous variations of inductor mounting can be utilized, such as providing a housing that provides separation from the conductive material as well as protection from impact damage. The sensor can be on the same flexible substrate with a narrow throat portion of the sensor between the inductor and the capacitor, Figure 1. The throat is of sufficient length to allow the capacitor to be appropriately placed within the container and the inductor

  4. Are Environmental Professors Unbalanced? Evidence from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teisl, Mario F.; Anderson, Mark W.; Noblet, Caroline L.; Criner, George K.; Rubin, Jonathan; Dalton, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Most outcomes assessment in higher education has focused on content knowledge or skills development; however, attitudinal change is also a legitimate focus of assessment. We use the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) to test whether courses designed to meet the same university environmental literacy requirement changed student environmental attitudes,…

  5. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B.

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  6. Determination of magnetic-field components from inner-corona closed-loop propagation and IPS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bernard; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo; Hick, P.; Buffington, Andrew; Hong, Sunhak; Bisi, Mario M.; Kim, Jaehun; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2016-07-01

    We find that a portion of the interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. The Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), extrapolate magnetogram-derived fields upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities and densities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS), matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation, then provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU using the UCSD tomography model that assumes conservation of mass and mass flux. All three field components at 1 AU are present including the north-south (or Bn) component field, and are compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ (RTN) field coordinate. A significant positive daily correlation variation sometimes as high as 0.8 exists between these closed loop components and those determined by in-situ measurement over the last ten years for individual Carrington rotations. We determine that a consistent small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux (˜2%), that includes the Bn component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. However, this percentage of closed projected fields relative to those measured in situ at Earth varies somewhat, indicating that a more efficient process for this flux propagation exists at the peak of the solar cycle than at its minimum. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects of using this technique for space weather predictions are being actively developed.

  7. Measured close lightning leader-step electric-field-derivative waveforms.

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Doug M.; Hill, Dustin; Biagi, Christopher J.; Howard, Joseph Sean; Uman, Martin A.; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2010-12-01

    We characterize the measured electric field-derivative (dE/dt) waveforms of lightning stepped-leader steps from three negative lightning flashes at distances of tens to hundreds of meters. Electromagnetic signatures of leader steps at such close distances have rarely been documented in previous literature. Individual leader-step three-dimensional locations are determined by a dE/dt TOA system. The leader-step field derivative is typically a bipolar pulse with a sharp initial half-cycle of the same polarity as that of the return stroke, followed by an opposite polarity overshoot that decays relatively slowly to background level. This overshoot increases in amplitude relative to the initial peak and becomes dominant as range decreases. The initial peak is often preceded by a 'slow front,' similar to the slow front that precedes the fast transition to peak in first return stroke dE/dt and E waveforms. The overall step-field waveform duration is typically less than 1 {micro}s. The mean initial peak of dE/dt, range-normalized to 100 km, is 7.4 V m{sup -1} {micro}s{sup -1} (standard deviation (S.D.), 3.7 V m{sup -1} {micro}s{sup -1}, N = 103), the mean half-peak width is 33.5 ns (S.D., 11.9 ns, N = 69), and the mean 10-to-90% risetime is 43.6 ns (S.D., 24.2 ns, N = 69). From modeling, we determine the properties of the leader step currents which produced two typical measured field derivatives, and we use one of these currents to calculate predicted leader step E and dE/dt as a function of source range and height, the results being in good agreement with our observations. The two modeled current waveforms had maximum rates of current rise-to-peak near 100 kA {micro}s{sup -1}, peak currents in the 5-7 kA range, current half-peak widths of about 300 ns, and charge transfers of {approx}3 mC. As part of the modeling, those currents were propagated upward at 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m s{sup -1}, with their amplitudes decaying exponentially with a decay height constant of 25 m.

  8. Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic-Field Component from Inner-Corona Closed-Loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Lee, B.; Yi, J.; Yun, J.

    2015-12-01

    We find that a portion of the north-south interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), these lower coronal fields are extrapolated upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU from a model assuming conservation of mass and mass flux. The north-south field component at 1 AU is compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ Normal (RTN) or Bn field coordinate (Jackson et al., 2015, ApJL, 803:L1). From a significant positive correlation between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in-situ measurements over a three-year period during the last solar minimum, we find that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux (~1%) regularly escapes from closed-field regions. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects for its determination using this technique for space weather use are being actively developed by our many colleague groups.

  9. Practical Method for Transient Stability with Unbalanced Condition based on Symmetric Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Shuhei; Kono, Yoshiyuki; Kitayama, Masashi; Goda, Tadahiro

    The symmetric coordinates are very popular method to model unbalanced faults in power system analysis. It is not only easy to handle with a single fault, but also it can be extended to multiple faults. But it is not easy to model situations that those unbalanced situation will continuously change, like a SVC (Static Var Compensator) with unbalanced fault in power system or an unbalanced nonlinear load. Under these situations, we propose a practical use of multiple fault calculation method based on symmetric coordinates that can handle with these kinds of unbalanced situations.

  10. Basic characterization of TORPEX electrostatic modes in closed field line configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Avino, F. Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Jolliet, S.; Ricci, P.

    2014-12-15

    Electrostatic coherent modes are studied in the TORPEX device [Fasoli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 52, 124020 (2010)], in closed flux surfaces. The accessibility to this magnetic geometry is provided by a current-carrying in-vessel toroidal conductor developed to generate a poloidal magnetic field [Avino et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033506 (2014)]. The background plasma parameters are measured, and the ion saturation current fluctuations are characterized in terms of power spectral density to identify the dominant coherent modes and their spatial localization. A statistical approach is implemented to determine the mode spectral properties by computing the statistical dispersion relation. The poloidal wave number k{sub θ} and the toroidal wave number k{sub ϕ} are obtained, as well as the corresponding mode numbers. A three-dimensional linear code based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations is used to investigate the nature of the instabilities. The linear analysis suggests a dominant ballooning character of the modes.

  11. Optical coatings and thin films for display technologies using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Desmond R.; Brinkley, Ian; Walls, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers high throughput, flexible deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, depositing films over a large surface area at a high rate with excellent and reproducible properties. Machines based on CFM are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished using time, although quartz crystal or optical monitoring are used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a special rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited coatings relevant to displays, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and color and thermal control filters, graded coatings, barrier coatings as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM process for a range of display technologies; OLED, EL and projection are described.

  12. A Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic Field Component from Inner Corona Closed-loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X.

    2015-04-01

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north-south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north-south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  13. Processing of Signals from Fiber Bragg Gratings Using Unbalanced Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeff; Floyd, Bertram

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) have become preferred sensory structures in fiber optic sensing system. High sensitivity, embedability, and multiplexing capabilities make FBGs superior to other sensor configurations. The main feature of FBGs is that they respond in the wavelength domain with the wavelength of the returned signal as the indicator of the measured parameter. The wavelength is then converted to optical intensity by a photodetector to detect corresponding changes in intensity. This wavelength-to-intensity conversion is a crucial part in any FBG-based sensing system. Among the various types of wavelength-to-intensity converters, unbalanced interferometers are especially attractive because of their small weight and volume, lack of moving parts, easy integration, and good stability. In this paper we investigate the applicability of unbalanced interferometers to analyze signals reflected from Bragg gratings. Analytical and experimental data are presented.

  14. Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Maha

    1991-01-01

    The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  15. Real-space observation of unbalanced charge distribution inside a perovskite-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Victor W; Weber, Stefan A L; Javier Ramos, F; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Li, Dan; Domanski, Anna L; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Ahmad, Shahzada; Berger, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite-sensitized solar cells have reached power conversion efficiencies comparable to commercially available solar cells used for example in solar farms. In contrast to silicon solar cells, perovskite-sensitized solar cells can be made by solution processes from inexpensive materials. The power conversion efficiency of these cells depends substantially on the charge transfer at interfaces. Here we use Kelvin probe force microscopy to study the real-space cross-sectional distribution of the internal potential within high efficiency mesoscopic methylammonium lead tri-iodide solar cells. We show that the electric field is homogeneous through these devices, similar to that of a p-i-n type junction. On illumination under short-circuit conditions, holes accumulate in front of the hole-transport layer as a consequence of unbalanced charge transport in the device. After light illumination, we find that trapped charges remain inside the active device layers. Removing these traps and the unbalanced charge injection could enable further improvements in performance of perovskite-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25242041

  16. Closed-form SEM solution to the transient far-field response of a thin-wire antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoorfar, Ahmad

    1994-05-01

    A closed-form SEM representation for the transient far-field response of a thin-wire cylindrical antenna is derived, and explicit expressions for all of the corresponding SEM parameters are presented. In particular, a so-called time-dependent natural far-field mode is introduced, and its corresponding integral is analytically evaluated. Excellent agreements with the numerical results are obtained.

  17. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  18. Bi-directional electron distributions as tracers for the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Radioti, A.; Roussos, E.; Grodent, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2011-10-01

    In this presentation we use bi-directional energetic electron distributions from the MIMI-LEMMS instrument onboard Cassini, auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and data from the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini to characterize the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's magnetosphere. The high-latitude open-closed field line boundary at Saturn is thought to be related to the main auroral ring of emission of the planet varying in location, intensity and latitudinal extent as well as in its homogeneity. This study extends the work on the plasmapause/open-closed field line boundary published by [1] by covering a larger data set at different local times and comparing the electron distributions with auroral observations. Based on energetic electron data we characterize the open-closed field line boundary in terms of temporal, local time variations and other parameters and we correlate the Cassini in-situ measurements to the observations of the main auroral ring at Saturn.

  19. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A.; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuealas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N:P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N:P mass ratios of respectively, 1:0.29, 1:0.15, and 1:0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg/ha), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N:P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N/ha), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N:P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1:0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources.

  20. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-04-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N : P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N : P mass ratios of respectively, 1 : 0.29, 1 : 0.15, and 1 : 0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg ha(-1)), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N : P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N ha(-1)), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N : P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1 : 0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources. PMID:24470387

  1. Comparison of hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments for plasma flow along closed field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Wilson, G. R.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments of plasma flow along closed geomagnetic field lines are compared. The hydrodynamic treatment is based on a simplified 16-moment set of transport equations as the equations for the heat flows are not solved; the heat flows are treated heuristically. The semi-kinetic treatment is based on a particle code. The comparison deals with the distributions of the plasma density, flow velocity, and parallel and perpendicular temperatures as obtained from the two treatments during the various stages of the flow. In the kinetic treatment, the appropriate boundary condition is the prescription of the velocity distribution functions for the particles entering the flux tubes at the ionospheric boundaries; those particles leaving the system are determined by the processes occurring in the flux tube. The prescribed distributions are half-Maxwellian with temperature T(sub 0) and density n(sub 0). In the hydrodynamic model, the prescribed boundary conditions are on density (n(sub 0)), flow velocity (V(sub 0)) and temperature (T(sub 0). It was found that results from the hydrodynamic treatment critically depend on V(sub 0); for early stages of the flow this treatment yields results in good agreement with those from the kinetic treatment, when V(sub 0) = square root of (kT(sub 0)/2 (pi)m), which is the average velocity of particles moving in a given direction for a Maxwellian distribution. During this early stage, the flows developing form the conjugate ionospheres show some distinct transitions. For the first hour or so, the flows are highly supersonic and penetrate deep into the opposite hemispheres, and both hydrodynamics and kinetic treatments yield almost similar features. It is found that during this period heatflow effects are negligibly small. When a flow penetrates deep into the opposite hemisphere, the kinetic treatment predicts reflection and setting up of counterstreaming. In contrast, the hydrodynamic treatment yields a shock in the

  2. Closed-form near-field expressions for electromagnetic scattering by an electrically small circular aperture on a conducting screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, M. A.; Polycarpou, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    Closed-form expressions were derived for the near-zone scattered fields caused by an obliquely incident plane wave of arbitrary polarization on a sub-wavelength circular aperture on an infinite conducting screen with an infinitesimal thickness. The analysis is based on a quasi-static model of the governing fields in the aperture which was published in the mid 40's by Bethe and improved by Bouwkamp a few years later by incorporating additional terms. Starting with first-order analytical expressions for the magnetic surface current density in the aperture, the scattering problem was formulated using the vector potential F →, the equivalence principle, and the image theory resulting in surface integrals over the aperture which involve the free-space Green's function. Using valid approximations for the near-zone field formulation, closed-form analytical expressions were derived for the corresponding scattered fields along the axis of the aperture. Obtained results based on these closed-form expressions were compared with published data obtained using the spectral-domain method indicating a very good agreement.

  3. An accurate magnetic field solution for medical electromagnetic tracking coils at close range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    Electromagnetic tracking uses transmitter field models to determine position and orientation of an object. An important application of this technology is surgical navigation, where instruments are frequently tracked at short distances from the transmitter. At short distances, conventional and widely used dipole field models can lead to errors in tracked position and orientation. To increase tracking accuracy in this scenario, this work describes a novel transmitter field model and compares its performance against the dipole model. Demonstrated tracking accuracy improvements could have far-reaching benefits for medical navigation applications.

  4. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  5. Microarray analysis of unbalanced translocation in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Bao, Liming; Cheng, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by deletions involving chromosome region 4p16.3, which is characterized by growth delay, mild-to-severe mental retardation, hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and shows extensive phenotypic variability include feeding difficulties, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. Variation in the size of the deletion involving chromosome region 4p16.3 may explain the clinical variation. However, previous studies indicate that duplication for another chromosome region due to an unbalanced translocation elucidate approximately 40-45% WHS patients. Therefore, we used whole genomic cytogenetics array to analyze the entire genome at a significantly higher resolution over conventional cytogenetics to characterize the exact subtelomeric aberration region of one patient with developmental delay and several facial characteristics reminiscent Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Here we report that our patient had 3.7 Mb deletion at the 4p16.2 and 6.8 Mb duplication at 8p23.1 resulted from the unbalanced translocations der(4)t(4;8)(p16.2;p23.1). We confirmed that our patient with monosomy 4p16.2 which is consistent with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and trisomy 8p23.1. The combination of the 4p deletion with 8p partial trisomy explains the complex phenotype presented by our patient. PMID:23782367

  6. On the Effects of a Spacecraft Subcarrier Unbalanced Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents mathematical models with associated analysis of the deleterious effects which a spacecraft's subcarrier unbalanced modulator has on the performance of a phase-modulated residual carrier communications link. The undesired spectral components produced by the phase and amplitude imbalances in the subcarrier modulator can cause (1) potential interference to the carrier tracking and (2) degradation in the telemetry bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A suitable model for the unbalanced modulator is developed and the threshold levels of undesired components that fall into the carrier tracking loop are determined. The distribution of the carrier phase error caused by the additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN) and undesired component at the residual RF carrier is derived for the limiting cases. Further, this paper analyses the telemetry bit signal-to-noise ratio degradations due to undesirable spectral components as well as the carrier tracking phase error induced by phase and amplitude imbalances. Numerical results which indicate the sensitivity of the carrier tracking loop and the telemetry symbol-error rate (SER) to various parameters of the models are also provided as a tool in the design of the subcarrier balanced modulator.

  7. Using phasors to analyze power system negative phase sequence voltages caused by unbalanced loads

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwich, G. ); George, T.A. )

    1994-08-01

    An analytical method is demonstrated which allows the level of negative phase sequence (NPS) voltage at a busbar to be expressed as a sum of phasors representing independent sources. The method is extended to enable the balancing capability of Static Var Compensators (SVCs) with individual phase voltage control to be assessed. The capability of such SVCs and the allowable levels of NPS voltage on the system, including any short term limits, can be combined in a capability chart showing the unbalanced loads which can be supplied from a substation. The approach facilitates the treatment of fixed unbalances due to filters or intentional offsets designed to maximize the SVC balancing range for specific loads. Field test results are presented which validate the analytical methods used.

  8. Fast closed-form calculation of THz field enhancement in a metal nanoslit

    SciTech Connect

    Novitsky, A. V.; Lavrinenko, A. V.

    2010-10-07

    Strong electric field enhancement in a metal nanoslit with THz field illumination is hardly calculated using the standard simulation packages. It is explained by the considerable difference of the values of nano sizes of the slit and the wavelength of the incident radiation (up to 10000 times). Therefore, significant computational resources or/and the home-made simulation code is needed. We offer the simple single-parameter model as an alternative to the time consuming calculations. The single parameter can be calculated either from the experimental or simulation data (one reference point is necessary to determine one parameter). Then we can find the field enhancement for different slit geometries and light wavelengths.

  9. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOEpatents

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.; Haefner, K.B.

    1992-11-24

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

  10. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    SciTech Connect

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; King, Robert D.; Sanza, Peter C.; Haefner, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation.

  11. Can a {open_quotes}superconductor{close_quotes} always expel the generalized magnetic field?

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M.

    1998-03-10

    The conservation of generalized helicity in a perfectly conducting fluid may act as an electrodynamic barrier for the transition to the London (superconducting) state when the system is immersed in a topologically nontrival magnetic field (with a nonzero generalized helicity). An experiment is proposed to test whether the mechanism responsible (quantum correlations) for superconductivity respects the electrodynamic constraint.

  12. Closing of the Midcontinent-Rift - a far-field effect on Grenvillian compression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcontinent rift formed in the Laurentian supercontinent between 1109 and 1094 Ma. Soon after rifting, stresses changed from extensional to compressional, and the central graben of the rift was partly inverted by thrusting on original extensional faults. Thrusting culminated at about 1060 Ma but may have begun as early as 1080 Ma. On the southwest-trending arm of the rift, the crust was shortened about 30km; on the southeast-trending arm, strike-slip motion was dominant. The rift developed adjacent to the tectonically active Grenville province, and its rapid evolution from an extensional to a compressional feature at c1080 Ma was coincident with renewal of northwest-directed thrusting in the Grenville, probably caused by continent-continent collision. A zone of weak lithosphere created by rifting became the locus for deformation within the otherwise strong continental lithosphere. Stresses transmitted from the Grenville province utilized this weak zone to close and invert the rift. -Author

  13. Frequency Shift and Sub-band Effect in Pair-Production Process Under Adiabatic Closing the External Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xinfang; Wang, Wenyuan; Fu, Libin

    2016-04-01

    Oscillating electric field is chosen to investigate the electron-positron pair production process by using a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050402 (2014)]. The particle yield exhibits a characteristic oscillatory structure which is related to the multi-photon thresholds. The true peak positions are typically slightly above the naive threshold estimate, which is defined as frequency shift. During the numerical calculations, we find the frequency shift can be affected by the system parameters under adiabatic closing the external field, it is worthwhile to study in detail. In this paper, we investigate the frequency shift and the sub-band effect in electron-positron pair production with oscillating electric field. First, a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass are presented to obtain the frequency shift, the results are fitted very well. And we find the frequency shift and the sub-band effect can be influenced by pulse duration, photon number, and strength of the external field. The frequency shift becomes evident as increases of photon number and the external field strength. The sub-band width is relatively lower at longer pulse duration, higher photon number region, and weaker external field. The results shown in the paper are helpful for understanding multi-photon pair production process in the strong field.

  14. Frequency Shift and Sub-band Effect in Pair-Production Process Under Adiabatic Closing the External Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xinfang; Wang, Wenyuan; Fu, Libin

    2016-09-01

    Oscillating electric field is chosen to investigate the electron-positron pair production process by using a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050402 (2014)]. The particle yield exhibits a characteristic oscillatory structure which is related to the multi-photon thresholds. The true peak positions are typically slightly above the naive threshold estimate, which is defined as frequency shift. During the numerical calculations, we find the frequency shift can be affected by the system parameters under adiabatic closing the external field, it is worthwhile to study in detail. In this paper, we investigate the frequency shift and the sub-band effect in electron-positron pair production with oscillating electric field. First, a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass are presented to obtain the frequency shift, the results are fitted very well. And we find the frequency shift and the sub-band effect can be influenced by pulse duration, photon number, and strength of the external field. The frequency shift becomes evident as increases of photon number and the external field strength. The sub-band width is relatively lower at longer pulse duration, higher photon number region, and weaker external field. The results shown in the paper are helpful for understanding multi-photon pair production process in the strong field.

  15. Open-loop and closed-loop control of dissociative ionization of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Hiroki; Tanabe, Takasumi; Okamoto, Tatsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Mio; Kannari, Fumihiko; Itakura, Ryuji; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2006-05-28

    The relative yield of the C-O bond breaking with respect to the C-C bond breaking in ethanol cation C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH{sup +} is maximized in intense laser fields (10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) by open-loop and closed-loop optimization procedures. In the open-loop optimization, a train of intense laser pulses are synthesized so that the temporal separation between the first and last pulses becomes 800 fs, and the number and width of the pulses within a train are systematically varied. When the duration of 800 fs is filled with laser fields by increasing the number of pulses or by stretching all pulses in a triple pulse train, the relative yield of the C-O bond breaking becomes significantly large. In the closed-loop optimization using a self-learning algorithm, the four dispersion coefficients or the phases of 128 frequency components of an intense laser pulse are adopted as optimized parameters. From these optimization experiments it is revealed that the yield ratio of the C-O bond breaking is maximized as far as the total duration of the intense laser field reaches as long as {approx}1 ps and that the intermittent disappearance of the laser field within a pulse does not affect the relative yields of the bond breaking pathways.

  16. Tunable Lattice Coupling of Multipole Plasmon Modes and Near-Field Enhancement in Closely Spaced Gold Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Xian; Ringe, Emilie; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering the nanogap and lattice effects, there is an attractive structure in plasmonics: closely spaced metallic nanoarrays. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes for closely spaced gold nanorod arrays, offering a new insight into the higher order cavity modes coupled with each other in the lattice. The resonances can be greatly tuned by changes in inter-rod gaps and nanorod heights while the influence of the nanorod diameter is relatively insignificant. Experimentally, pronounced suppressions of the reflectance are observed. Meanwhile, the near-field enhancement can be further enhanced, as demonstrated through surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We then confirm the correlation between the near-field and far-field plasmonic responses, which is significantly important for maximizing the near-field enhancement at a specific excitation wavelength. This lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes is of broad interest not only for SERS but also for other plasmonic applications, such as subwavelength imaging or metamaterials. PMID:26983501

  17. Tunable Lattice Coupling of Multipole Plasmon Modes and Near-Field Enhancement in Closely Spaced Gold Nanorod Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Xian; Ringe, Emilie; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    Considering the nanogap and lattice effects, there is an attractive structure in plasmonics: closely spaced metallic nanoarrays. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes for closely spaced gold nanorod arrays, offering a new insight into the higher order cavity modes coupled with each other in the lattice. The resonances can be greatly tuned by changes in inter-rod gaps and nanorod heights while the influence of the nanorod diameter is relatively insignificant. Experimentally, pronounced suppressions of the reflectance are observed. Meanwhile, the near-field enhancement can be further enhanced, as demonstrated through surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We then confirm the correlation between the near-field and far-field plasmonic responses, which is significantly important for maximizing the near-field enhancement at a specific excitation wavelength. This lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes is of broad interest not only for SERS but also for other plasmonic applications, such as subwavelength imaging or metamaterials.

  18. Tunable Lattice Coupling of Multipole Plasmon Modes and Near-Field Enhancement in Closely Spaced Gold Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Xian; Ringe, Emilie; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering the nanogap and lattice effects, there is an attractive structure in plasmonics: closely spaced metallic nanoarrays. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes for closely spaced gold nanorod arrays, offering a new insight into the higher order cavity modes coupled with each other in the lattice. The resonances can be greatly tuned by changes in inter-rod gaps and nanorod heights while the influence of the nanorod diameter is relatively insignificant. Experimentally, pronounced suppressions of the reflectance are observed. Meanwhile, the near-field enhancement can be further enhanced, as demonstrated through surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We then confirm the correlation between the near-field and far-field plasmonic responses, which is significantly important for maximizing the near-field enhancement at a specific excitation wavelength. This lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes is of broad interest not only for SERS but also for other plasmonic applications, such as subwavelength imaging or metamaterials. PMID:26983501

  19. Transverse field effect close to the critical point in the TGS ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugiel, Bogusław; Kikuta, Toshio; Wojtków, Katarzyna

    2011-10-01

    A hysteresis loop was measured in a round-plate sample of triglycine sulfate (TGS) ferroelectric using two measurement and one side electrode. Due to a non-zero electric potential, V s, applied to the side electrode the hysteresis loop gradually decayed with time. It was shown that the higher the V s value, the shorter time t d is required for the hysteresis loop to disappear. The value of ? turned out to be proportional to the electric potential V s, generating a transverse field at a constant temperature. Within the limits of experimental error, the inverse of the slope of the dependence ? versus V s is proportional to the difference T C - T. A relationship between the temperature T, the spontaneous polarisation P ± (positive or negative) and the freezing parameter f has been proposed. The parameter f describes the influence of the transverse electric field. Arguments in favour of considering the transverse field effect as occurring due to free electric charges flowing into the crystal are given. A method is proposed by which the parameters of the hysteresis loop can be easily adjusted by an electric potential of an additional side electrode.

  20. Hydrous pyrolysis in the field: closed-system diagenesis at high fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, I.; Abercrombie, H.; Shevalier, M.; Nahnybida, C.

    1989-03-01

    Diagenetic processes are studied by observing natural systems or by experimental hydrous pyrolysis of water-organic-rock mixtures. Steam-enhanced recovery is similar to hydrous pyrolysis but is done in a previously undisturbed geological setting with mass, time, and temperature closer to natural diagenetic systems. Chemical and isotopic compositions of produced water and gas were determined for wellhead samples obtained from quartz-rich and lithic reservoirs. Estimates of reservoir temperature were made using the silica and Na-K geothermometers and agree with temperatures estimated from /sup 13/C//sup 13/C partitioning between bicarbonate and CO/sub 2/. Temperature and fluid composition data are portrayed on activity diagrams and show that minerals (illite, chalcedony, chlorite, analcime, and smectite) rapidly reach equilibrium with waters. Mineral reactions inferred from produced waters are different in quartz-rich and lithic reservoirs and agree with mineral reactions observed in post-steam cores. Carbon isotopic data indicate that carbonate minerals are the source of produced CO/sub 2/. Comparison of the buffering potential of aqueous carbonate species, carbonate minerals, organic acids, and silicate hydrolysis shows that silicates have the greatest potential to buffer pH. The authors data are consistent with pH control by silicate hydrolysis and indicate that silicate-carbonate reactions may be a major source of CO/sub 2/ during diagenesis. More generally, their results show that a diagenetic system of high fluid flow can be approximated by closed-system behavior.

  1. Large unbalanced credit scoring using Lasso-logistic regression ensemble.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data. PMID:25706988

  2. Accurate parameter estimation for unbalanced three-phase system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; So, Hing Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent power generation and control console in modern electricity networks, where the unbalanced three-phase power system is the commonly used model. Here, parameter estimation for this system is addressed. After converting the three-phase waveforms into a pair of orthogonal signals via the α β-transformation, the nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is developed for accurately finding the frequency, phase, and voltage parameters. The estimator is realized by the Newton-Raphson scheme, whose global convergence is studied in this paper. Computer simulations show that the mean square error performance of NLS method can attain the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Moreover, our proposal provides more accurate frequency estimation when compared with the complex least mean square (CLMS) and augmented CLMS. PMID:25162056

  3. Large Unbalanced Credit Scoring Using Lasso-Logistic Regression Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data. PMID:25706988

  4. Transient analysis of unbalanced short circuits of the ERDA-NASA 100 kW wind turbine alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Unbalanced short-circuit faults on the alternator of the ERDA-NASA Mod-O100-kW experimental wind turbine are studied. For each case, complete solutions for armature, field, and damper-circuit currents; short-circuit torque; and open-phase voltage are derived directly by a mathematical analysis. Formulated results are tabulated. For the Mod-O wind turbine alternator, numerical calculations are given, and results are presented by graphs. Comparisons for significant points among the more important cases are summarized. For these cases the transients are found to be potentially severe. The effect of the alternator neutral-to-ground impedance is evaluated.

  5. Contact-free measurement of the flow field of a liquid metal inside a closed container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinicke, Christiane

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of flow velocities inside metal melts is particularly challenging. Due to the high temperatures of the melts it is impossible to employ measurement techniques that require either mechanical contact with the melt or are only adaptable to translucent fluids. In the past years a number of electromagnetic techniques have been developed that allows a contact-free measurement of volume flows. One of these techniques is the so-called Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV) in which the metal flow is exposed to an external, permanent magnetic field. The interaction between the metal and the magnet not only leads to a force on the fluid, but also on the magnet. The force can be measured and is proportional to the velocity of the melt. Moreover, by using a small permanent magnet it is possible to resolve spatial structures inside the flow.We will demonstrate this using a model experiment that has been investigated with different reference techniques previously. The experimental setup is a cylindrical vessel filled with a eutectic alloy which is liquid at room temperature. The liquid metal can be set into motion by means of a propeller at the top of the liquid. Depending on the direction of rotation of the propeller, the flow inside the vessel takes on different states. Beside the vessel, we place a Lorentz Force Flowmeter (LFF) equipped with a small permanent magnet. By measuring the force on the magnet at different positions and different rotation speeds, we demonstrate that we can qualitatively and quantitatively reconstruct the flow field inside the vessel.

  6. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Canonical quantisation via conditional symmetries of the closed FLRW model coupled to a scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampeli, Adamantia

    2015-09-01

    We study the classical, quantum and semiclassical solutions of a Robertson-Walker spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field. The Lagrangian of these minisuperspace models is singular and the application of the theory of Noether symmetries is modified to include the conditional symmetries of the corresponding (weakly vanishing) Hamiltonian. These are found to be the simultaneous symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantisation is performed adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems. The innovation in the approach we use is that the integrals of motion related to the conditional symmetries are promoted to operators together with the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. These additional conditions imposed on the wave function render the system integrable and it is possible to obtain solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Finally, we use the wave function to perform a semiclassical analysis following Bohm and make contact with the classical solution. The analysis starts with a modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation from which the semiclassical momenta are defined. The solutions of the semiclassical equations are then studied and compared to the classical ones in order to understand the nature and behaviour of the classical singularities.

  8. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  9. Closed-loop tomographic control on HOMER wide-field AO bench: experimental results and identification issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, Amelie; Costille, Anne; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) has a limited corrected field of view because of the anisoplanatism effect. Wide Field AO (WFAO) concepts, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), have been developed to overcome this limitation. These complex WFAO systems raise critical challenges such as tomographic control and calibrations. We present new results obtained in closed-loop configuration with the laboratory bench HOMER which is devoted to implementation and validation of these WFAO concepts in the perspective of future VLT/ELT AO systems. Turbulence is generated with rotating phase screens and multi-directional analysis is performed. Tomographic control relies on Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG). The correction can be applied thanks to two Deformable Mirrors (DM). We also focus on calibration issues and models identification. We investigate in particular identification of relative geometry of the wave front sensors, DM altitude and asterism and its impact on performance.

  10. Pc 3-4 Pulsations Near the Cusp: Latitude dependence near the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Clausen, L. B.; Engebretson, M.; Lu, F.; Posch, J.; Lessard, M.; Kim, H.

    2008-12-01

    Dayside ground magnetometer records at high latitudes frequently show evidence of Pc 3-4 pulsations (f ~ 10-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind. Previous studies have noted increased Pc 3-4 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3-4 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard. Three intervals are chosen when the upstream conditions are favourable for Pc3-4 generation, clear band-limited Pc3-4 wave power is observed near local noon, and an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. A stereo mode of radar operation is employed, such that 3 s time resolution is available on one radar beam, whilst the high latitude convection is revealed with 1 min. resolution. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3-4 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations. The radar data show clear evidence of transient ionospheric flows and high spectral widths associated with field lines newly- opened by dayside reconnection processes, but no evidence of oscillations in the Pc3-4 frequency range. In the ground magnetic field a peak in Pc3-4 power is generally observed in the equatormost magnetometer, except when the cusp is significantly poleward of the stations, consistent with a peak in wave power ~4 degrees equatorward of the cusp, but suggesting a modest dependence of wave power with latitude on closed field lines When the cusp does move equatorward of the magnetometer stations the Pc3-4 power drops rapidly, and does so earliest at the most poleward magnetometer station, suggesting a sharp drop in

  11. Nuclear volume differences between balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa in chromosomal translocation carriers.

    PubMed

    Rouen, Alexandre; Lavillaureix, Alinoë; Hyon, Capucine; Heide, Solveig; Clède, Sylvain; Balet, Richard; Kott, Esther; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    While chromosomal translocations are usually associated with a normal phenotype, they can still cause male infertility as well as recurrent miscarriages and fetal malformations related to their transmission in an unbalanced state. The distinction between balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa on morphological criteria is still unfeasible. However, we previously showed that: i) spermatozoa with an unbalanced content have a higher rate of DNA fragmentation; and ii) that density gradient centrifugation partially separates balanced from unbalanced sperm cells. We hypothesized that a chromosomal imbalance could alter the fine spermatic nuclear architecture and consequently the condensation of DNA, thus modifying normal sperm density. Spermatic nuclear volumes in four translocation carriers were analyzed using confocal microscopy. Secondarily, FISH analysis was used to establish the segregation mode of each spermatozoon. We found the average spermatic nuclei size to be higher among unbalanced spermatozoa in all patients but one. All the unbalanced modes were associated with larger nuclei in two patients, while this was the case for the 3:1 mode only in the other two, suggesting an abnormal condensation. This could be the first step in elaborating a procedure to completely eliminate unbalanced spermatozoa from semen prior to in vitro fertilization. PMID:25599825

  12. Field Performance Verification of Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Nitrous Oxide Closed-Path Eddy Covariance Systems with Vortex Intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgon, R. P., Jr.; Sargent, S.; Zha, T.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Closed-path eddy covariance systems measure the flux of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide. The challenge is to make accurate field measurements at sites around the world, even in extreme environmental conditions. Sites with dirty air present a particular challenge. Gas concentration measurements may be degraded as dust or debris is deposited on the optical windows in the sample cell. The traditional solution has been to add an in-line filter upstream of the sample cell to keep the windows clean. However, these filters clog over time and must be changed periodically. An in-line filter also acts as a mixing volume and in some cases limits the frequency response of the analyzer. A novel eddy-covariance system that includes a vortex air cleaner at the inlet has been developed and field tested. This new system eliminates the need for a traditional in-line filter to keep the sample cell windows clean. The new system reduces system maintenance and down time. Eddy covariance systems with the vortex intake were tested at several sites ranging from sites with extremely dirty urban air to sites with relatively clean mountain air, and in agricultural areas. These flux systems were monitoring either CO2 and H2O, or N2O. Results show that the closed-path eddy covariance systems with a vortex intake perform very well and require lower maintenance compared to similar systems with in-line filters.

  13. Leaf Length Tracker: a novel approach to analyse leaf elongation close to the thermal limit of growth in the field

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Yates, Steven; Hiltpold, Maya; Walter, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Leaf growth in monocot crops such as wheat and barley largely follows the daily temperature course, particularly under cold but humid springtime field conditions. Knowledge of the temperature response of leaf extension, particularly variations close to the thermal limit of growth, helps define physiological growth constraints and breeding-related genotypic differences among cultivars. Here, we present a novel method, called ‘Leaf Length Tracker’ (LLT), suitable for measuring leaf elongation rates (LERs) of cereals and other grasses with high precision and high temporal resolution under field conditions. The method is based on image sequence analysis, using a marker tracking approach to calculate LERs. We applied the LLT to several varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), summer barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), grown in the field and in growth cabinets under controlled conditions. LLT is easy to use and we demonstrate its reliability and precision under changing weather conditions that include temperature, wind, and rain. We found that leaf growth stopped at a base temperature of 0°C for all studied species and we detected significant genotype-specific differences in LER with rising temperature. The data obtained were statistically robust and were reproducible in the tested environments. Using LLT, we were able to detect subtle differences (sub-millimeter) in leaf growth patterns. This method will allow the collection of leaf growth data in a wide range of future field experiments on different graminoid species or varieties under varying environmental or treatment conditions. PMID:26818912

  14. Leaf Length Tracker: a novel approach to analyse leaf elongation close to the thermal limit of growth in the field.

    PubMed

    Nagelmüller, Sebastian; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Yates, Steven; Hiltpold, Maya; Walter, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Leaf growth in monocot crops such as wheat and barley largely follows the daily temperature course, particularly under cold but humid springtime field conditions. Knowledge of the temperature response of leaf extension, particularly variations close to the thermal limit of growth, helps define physiological growth constraints and breeding-related genotypic differences among cultivars. Here, we present a novel method, called 'Leaf Length Tracker' (LLT), suitable for measuring leaf elongation rates (LERs) of cereals and other grasses with high precision and high temporal resolution under field conditions. The method is based on image sequence analysis, using a marker tracking approach to calculate LERs. We applied the LLT to several varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), summer barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), grown in the field and in growth cabinets under controlled conditions. LLT is easy to use and we demonstrate its reliability and precision under changing weather conditions that include temperature, wind, and rain. We found that leaf growth stopped at a base temperature of 0°C for all studied species and we detected significant genotype-specific differences in LER with rising temperature. The data obtained were statistically robust and were reproducible in the tested environments. Using LLT, we were able to detect subtle differences (sub-millimeter) in leaf growth patterns. This method will allow the collection of leaf growth data in a wide range of future field experiments on different graminoid species or varieties under varying environmental or treatment conditions. PMID:26818912

  15. Effect of unbalanced magnetic pull and hydraulic seal force on the vibration of large rotor-bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z.; Guo, P.; Liu, Y.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) and hydraulic seal force on the vibration of large rotor-bearing systems is studied. The UMP caused by rotor eccentricity imposes important effects on rotating machinery, especially for large generators such as water turbine generator sets, because these machines operate above their first critical speed in some instances and are supported by oil film bearings. A magnetic stiffness matrix for studying the effects of the UMP is proposed. The magnetic stiffness matrix can be generated by decomposing the expression of air gap magnetic field energy. Two vibration models are constructed using the Lagrange equation. The difference between the two models lies in the boundary support condition: one has rigid support and the other has elastic bearing support. The influence of the magnetic stiffness and elastic support on the critical speed of the rotor is studied using Lyapunov nonlinear vibration stability theory. The vibration amplitude of the rotor is calculated, taking the magnetic stiffness and horizontal centrifugal force into account. The unbalanced hydraulic seal force is produced because of the asymmetry of seal clearance. This imbalance is one of the factors that causes self-excited vibration in rotating machinery, and is as important as the UMP for large water turbine generator sets. The rotor-bearing system is supported by an oil film journal bearing, whose characteristic also impose considerable influence on vibration. On the basis of the above-mentioned conditions, a three-dimensional finite element model of the rotating system that includes the oil film journal bearing is constructed. The effect of the UMP and unbalanced hydraulic seal force is considered in the construction, and studied in relation to the magnetic parameters, seal parameters, journal bearing stiffness, and outer diameter of the rotating machine critical speed. Conclusions may benefit the dynamic design and optimized operation of large rotating

  16. Magnetic field effects in RF magnetron sputtering of CdS/CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compaan, A.D.; Shao, M.; Tabory, C.N.; Feng, Z.; Fischer, A.; Shen, F.; Narayanswami, C.; Bohn, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied effects of magnetic field strength and configuration on rf planar magnetron sputtering of CdS and CdTe. This study was carried out with one sputter gun having an unbalanced magnetic field and a second gun having an approximately balanced magnetic field. The unbalanced field gun produces significantly higher ion and electron bombardment of the film during growth and slightly higher electron kinetic energies. Films produced with the unbalanced gun show much stronger photoluminescence and cell performance is much better when the CdTe is deposited with the unbalanced gun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. The BinaMIcS project: understanding the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars through close binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Mathis, S.; Bohlender, D.; Cébron, D.; Folsom, C.; Grunhut, J.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Petit, V.; Sana, H.; Tkachenko, A.; ud-Doula, A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that a fraction of the massive (M > 8 M ⊙) star population hosts strong, organised magnetic fields, most likely of fossil origin. The details of the generation and evolution of these fields are still poorly understood. The BinaMIcS project takes an important step towards the understanding of the interplay between binarity and magnetism during the stellar formation and evolution, and in particular the genesis of fossil fields, by studying the magnetic properties of close binary systems. The components of such systems are most likely formed together, at the same time and in the same environment, and can therefore help us to disentangle the role of initial conditions on the magnetic properties of the massive stars from other competing effects such as age or rotation. We present here the main scientific objectives of the BinaMIcS project, as well as preliminary results from the first year of observations from the associated ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimetric surveys.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of two different unbalanced forms of an inherited (Y;12) translocation.

    PubMed

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Madrigal, Irene; Margarit, Ester; Bruguera, Jordi; Clusellas, Núria; Martínez, José M; Borrell, Antoni; Sánchez, Aurora; Soler, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The identification of an unexpected structural chromosome rearrangement at prenatal diagnosis can be problematic and raises unique genetic counseling issues. We describe two consecutive prenatal cases within a family with an inherited unbalanced (Y;12) translocation and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. The first fetus presented with 12qter monosomy and pseudoautosomal region 2 trisomy, while the second fetus had the alternative unbalanced state. Although the first fetus had a structural heart defect, such small imbalances might not give sonographic findings, making their prenatal diagnosis difficult. However, congenital abnormalities are expected in both unbalanced forms of the translocation, including mental retardation, which could be explained by the gene dosage variation of P2RX2. To our knowledge, these are the first published cases reporting this subtype of (Y;12) translocation, in both balanced and unbalanced states. PMID:19921651

  19. A balanced perspective on unbalanced growth and thymineless death

    PubMed Central

    Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The early history of the esoteric phenomenon of thymineless death (TLD) is recounted, from the pioneering discovery by Seymour Cohen and Hazel Barner, through my graduate studies at Yale and postdoctoral research in Copenhagen. My principal contribution was the discovery that restricted synthesis of protein and RNA permits cultures of Escherichia coli to complete their DNA replication cycles without initiating new ones, and that cells held in this physiological state are immune to the lethality of thymine deprivation; unbalanced growth is not the fundamental cause of TLD. The successful synchronization of the DNA replication cycle contributed to formulation of the replicon concept. Studies at Stanford revealed a specific requirement for transcription and led to the discovery of a TLD-resistant mutant in a new gene, termed recQ, with important homologs in humans and most other organisms. The lessons learned from research on TLD underscore the value of basic research in bacterial systems that can have profound implications for human health. PMID:26097468

  20. Use of unbalanced laminates as a screening method for microcracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    State-of-the-art, high temperature polyimide matrix composites, reinforced with continuous graphite fibers are known to be susceptible to intraply cracking when thermally cycled over their useful service temperature range. It is believed that the transply cracking, in part, results from residual stresses caused by differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the polymer matrix and the reinforcement. Thermal cycling tests to investigate this phenomenon involve expensive time and energy consuming programs which are not economically feasible for use as a part of a materials screening process. As an alternative to thermal cycling studies, a study of unbalanced crossply graphite fiber reinforcement composites was conducted to assess the effect of the composite ply layup and surface condition on the residual stresses that remain after the processing of these materials. The residual stresses were assessed by measuring the radii of curvature of the types of laminates that were studied. The temperature at which stress-free conditions existed were determined and a dye penetrant method was used to observe surface damage resulting from excessive residual stress buildup. These results are compared with some published results of thermal cycling tests that were previously conducted on balanced polyimide composites.

  1. Overdose Intake of Curcumin Initiates the Unbalanced State of Bodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric and widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food. However, its safety evaluation has been little investigated. To evaluate the 90-day subchronic toxicity of curcumin in rats, its general observation, clinical biochemistry, pathology, and metabolomics were evaluated. The results showed that curcumin induced liver injury through the generation of the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and the decreases of the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD and detoxified enzyme GST. Meanwhile, for the self-protection of rats, curcumin treatment activated the transcription of Nrf-2 and elevated the expression of HO-1 to reduce tissue damage. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased key mRNA levels of HK2, PKM2, LDHA, CES, Cpt1, Cpt2, FASN, and ATP5b and decreased levels of GLUT2 and ACC1 to enhance glycolysis and inhibit lipid metabolism and TCA cycle. Therefore, overdose or long-term intake of curcumin could initiate the unbalanced state of bodies through oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, which induces liver injury. Intermittent administration of curcumin is necessary in our daily lives. PMID:26978516

  2. A New Linearization Method of Unbalanced Electrical Distribution Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract--- With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. As DN control and operation strategies are mostly based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages, line currents, power loss) and control variables (e.g., power injections, transformer tap positions), efficient and precise calculation of these sensitivity coefficients, i.e. linearization of DN, is of fundamental importance. In this paper, the derivation of the node voltages and power loss as functions of the nodal power injections and transformers' tap-changers positions is presented, and then solved by a Gauss-Seidel method. Compared to other approaches presented in the literature, the proposed method takes into account different load characteristics (e.g., constant PQ, constant impedance, constant current and any combination of above) of a generic multi-phase unbalanced DN and improves the accuracy of linearization. Numerical simulations on both IEEE 13 and 34 nodes test feeders show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Enabling Unbalanced Fermentations by Using Engineered Electrode-Interfaced Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jeffrey M.; Ross, Daniel E.; Hunt, Kristopher A.; Bond, Daniel R.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular metabolism is a series of tightly linked oxidations and reductions that must be balanced. Recycling of intracellular electron carriers during fermentation often requires substrate conversion to undesired products, while respiration demands constant addition of electron acceptors. The use of electrode-based electron acceptors to balance biotransformations may overcome these constraints. To test this hypothesis, the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis was engineered to stoichiometrically convert glycerol into ethanol, a biotransformation that will not occur unless two electrons are removed via an external reaction, such as electrode reduction. Multiple modules were combined into a single plasmid to alter S. oneidensis metabolism: a glycerol module, consisting of glpF, glpK, glpD, and tpiA from Escherichia coli, and an ethanol module containing pdc and adh from Zymomonas mobilis. A further increase in product yields was accomplished through knockout of pta, encoding phosphate acetyltransferase, shifting flux toward ethanol and away from acetate production. In this first-generation demonstration, conversion of glycerol to ethanol required the presence of an electrode to balance the reaction, and electrode-linked rates were on par with volumetric conversion rates observed in engineered E. coli. Linking microbial biocatalysis to current production can eliminate redox constraints by shifting other unbalanced reactions to yield pure products and serve as a new platform for next-generation bioproduction strategies. PMID:21060736

  4. Unbalanced quantized multiple description video transmission using path diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekci, Sila; Sikora, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    Multiple Description Coding is a forward error correction scheme where two or more descriptions of the source are sent to the receiver over different channels. If only one channel is received the signal can be reconstructed with distortion D1 or D2. On the other hand, if both channels rae received the combined information is used to achieve a lower distortion D0. Our approach is based on the Multiple State Video Coding with the novelty that we achieve a flexible unbalance rate of the two streams by varying the quantization step size while keeping the original frame rate constant. The total bitrate Rτ is fixed which is to be allocated between the two streams. If the assigned bitratres are not balanced there will be PSNR variations between neighboring frames after reconstruction. Our goal is to find the optimal rate allocation while maximizing the average reconstructed frame PSNR and minimizing the PSNR variations given the total bitrate Rτ and the packet loss probabilities p1 and p2 over the two paths. The reconstruction algorithm is also taken into account in the optimization process. The paper will report results presenting optimal system designs for balanced but also for unbalanced path conditions.

  5. Maps of average ionospheric vorticity ordered by relationship with the open-closed magnetic field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisham, Gareth

    2015-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of ionospheric vorticity are a measure of the dynamical coupling of the magnetosphere to the ionosphere via magnetic field-aligned currents (FACs). Indeed, ionospheric vorticity measurements have often been used as proxy measurements for FACs. Previously, we have determined statistical models of ionospheric vorticity using 6 years of ionospheric convection velocity measurements made by the SuperDARN HF radar network in the northern hemisphere ionosphere and shown that the spatial variation of these probability distributions is well organised according to the well-established large-scale FAC structure in the polar ionosphere. However, to date, these statistical models have been parameterised solely by the state of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and as such do not account for the range of polar cap sizes that occur for a single IMF state. This leads to a distortion of the shape of the resulting statistical maps that makes features in the statistical variations appear smoother than those in instantaneous/short-time averaged measurements. This is because the averaging process does not consider the variable size of the polar cap, by which spatial features in the ionospheric vorticity variation are ordered. Using open-closed magnetic field line boundary measurements determined from FUV imager data from the IMAGE spacecraft, we investigate the parameterisation of the statistical ionospheric vorticity models with polar cap size in addition to the state of the IMF. The results of this analysis have implications for other statistical models determined in this way, such as those for FACs and ionospheric convection.

  6. Pointing and Scanning Control of Instruments Using Rotating Unbalanced Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, John Y.

    1996-01-01

    Motions of telescopes, satellites, and other flight bodies have been controlled by various means in the past. For example, gimbal mounted devices can use electric motors to produce pointing and scanning motions. Reaction wheels, control moment gyros, and propellant-charged reaction jets are other technologies that have also been used. Each of these methods has its advantages, but all actuator systems used in a flight environment face the challenges of minimizing weight, reducing energy consumption, and maximizing reliability. Recently, Polites invented and patented the Rotating Unbalanced Mass (RUM) device as a means for generation scanning motion on flight experiments. RUM devices have been successfully used to generate various scanning motions. The basic principle: a RUM rotating at constant annular velocity exerts a cyclic centrifugal force on the instrument or main body, thus producing a periodic scanning motion. A system of RUM devices exerts no reaction forces on the main body, requires very little energy, and is very simple to construct and control. These are significant advantages over electric motors, reaction wheels, and control moment gyroscopes. Although the RUM device very easily produces scanning motion, an auxiliary control system may be required to maintain the proper orientation, or pointing of the main body. It has been suggested that RUM devices can be used to control pointing dynamics, as well as generate the desired periodic scanning motion. The idea is that the RUM velocity will not be constant, but will vary over the period of one RUM rotation. The thought is that the changing angular velocity produces a centrifugal force having time-varying magnitude and direction. The scope of the present research project is to further study the pointing control concept, and to implement a microcontroller program to control an experimental hardware system. This report is subdivided into three themes. The basic dynamic modeling and control principles are

  7. A closed-form solution of wake-fields in an elliptical pill-box by using an elliptical coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. S.; Chen, K. W.

    1989-10-01

    It was known from a complete model analysis1,2 that the wake potential in the pill-box cavity is predominantly determined by a few longitudinal modes counting from the fundamental longitudinal mode. An approach to find the longitudinal modes of an elliptical cavity is developed by means of the coordinate transformation method. It is found that the field configuration and eigenfrequencies of the elliptical cavity can be expressed in a closed form in terms of Mathieu functions. Inserting the closed form solution of modes into the previous analytical formula for the wake field, the wake field is expressed too in a closed form solution, which is convenient for numerical calculation. Thus, a numerical method to calculate expediently the wake field is developed, and a model calculation is presented.

  8. Measured current and close electric field changes associated with the initiation of upward lightning from a tall tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Helin; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Thottappillil, Rajeev; Pichler, Hannes; Mair, Martin

    2012-04-01

    We examine in detail the simultaneous lightning current waveforms, close electric field changes, and lightning location system data for upward lightning discharges initiated from the Gaisberg Tower (GBT) from 2005 to 2009. Out of 205 upward flashes, most of them (87% or 179/205) were initiated from the tower top without any nearby preceding lightning activity (called "self-initiated"), whereas 26 upward flashes (13%) were initiated from the tower top with immediately preceding nearby lightning activity (called "nearby-lightning-triggered"), including 15 positive ground flashes, one negative ground flashes, and 10 cloud discharges. The possible reasons for self-initiated upward flashes dominating at the GBT could be the field enhancement due to the Gaisberg Mountain above the surrounding terrain and low altitude of charge region during non-convective season (September to March), since we note that self-initiated lightning at the GBT occurred predominantly (79% or 142/179) during non-convective season. On the other hand the majority (85% or 22/26) of nearby-lightning-triggered upward flashes at the GBT occurring during convective season (April to August) and 80 nearby-lightning-triggered upward flashes out of 81 upward flashes observed at the ten tall towers in Rapid City in South Dakota of USA occurring during summer seasons, could be due to the result of high altitude of charge region. The triggering flashes were detected to be within 1 and 18 km distance and the time intervals between them and upward lightning initiation are in the range of 0.3 to 90.7 ms.

  9. Dynamic Models of Instruments Using Rotating Unbalanced Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, John Y.; Gallaspy, Jason M.; Bishop, Carlee A.

    1998-01-01

    The motion of telescopes, satellites, and other flight bodies have been controlled by various means in the past. For example, gimbal mounted devices can use electric motors to produce pointing and scanning motions. Reaction wheels, control moment gyros, and propellant-charged reaction jets are other technologies that have also been used. Each of these methods has its advantages, but all actuator systems used in a flight environment face the challenges of minimizing weight, reducing energy consumption, and maximizing reliability. Recently, Polites invented and patented the Rotating Unbalanced Mass (RUM) device as a means for generation scanning motion on flight experiments. RUM devices together with traditional servomechanisms have been successfully used to generate various scanning motions: linear, raster, and circular. The basic principle can be described: A RUM rotating at constant angular velocity exerts a cyclic centrifugal force on the instrument or main body, thus producing a periodic scanning motion. A system of RUM devices exerts no reaction forces on the main body, requires very little energy to rotate the RUMS, and is simple to construct. These are significant advantages over electric motors, reaction wheels, and control moment gyroscopes. Although the RUM device very easily produces scanning motion, an auxiliary control system has been required to maintain the proper orientation, or pointing of the main body. It has been suggested that RUM devices can be used to control pointing dynamics, as well as generate the desired periodic scanning motion. The idea is that the RUM velocity will not be kept constant, but will vary over the period of one RUM rotation. The thought is that the changing angular velocity produces a centrifugal force having time-varying magnitude and direction. The scope of this ongoing research project is to study the pointing control concept, and recommend a direction of study for advanced pointing control using only RUM devices. This

  10. Non-inductive initiation of closed flux surfaces by ECH/ECCD on KSTAR using an oblique fundamental O-mode injection from the low-field side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.; Bae, Y.-S.; Joung, M.; Jeong, J. H.; KSTAR Team

    2016-04-01

    An experiment on non-inductive plasma current start-up by electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD) has been carried out on KSTAR by injecting the fundamental O-mode wave from the low-field side obliquely to the toroidal magnetic field. A plasma current up to 14.5 kA is generated by 180 kW of 84 GHz microwave power and the magnetic measurement shows the formation of a large last-closed flux surface with a diameter of 0.4 m. The soft x-ray emission profile and fast CCD images also support the existence of closed flux surfaces. The current of the cross-field-passing electrons (CFPEs) is calculated according to the paper Nucl. Fusion 52 083008 in these experimental conditions, and it is shown that a CFPE current can produce the initial closed flux surfaces. The observed large increase of EC emission supports the generation of energetic electrons, like CFPEs. After the formation of the closed flux surfaces, the pressure-driven current and CFPE current do not flow in the closed flux surfaces. EC-driven current should flow in these surfaces and ramp up the plasma current. It is estimated that an EC-driven current of about one third of the total plasma current flows in the closed flux surface at the last stage.

  11. A global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic solar model with a unified treatment of open and closed magnetic field topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Landi, E.; Jin, M.; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    We describe, analyze, and validate the recently developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model, a three-dimensional global model starting from the top of the chromosphere and extending into interplanetary space (out to 1-2 AU). This model solves the extended, two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics equations coupled to a wave kinetic equation for low-frequency Alfvén waves. In this picture, heating and acceleration of the plasma are due to wave dissipation and to wave pressure gradients, respectively. The dissipation process is described by a fully developed turbulent cascade of counterpropagating waves. We adopt a unified approach for calculating the wave dissipation in both open and closed magnetic field lines, allowing for a self-consistent treatment in any magnetic topology. Wave dissipation is the only heating mechanism assumed in the model; no geometric heating functions are invoked. Electron heat conduction and radiative cooling are also included. We demonstrate that the large-scale, steady state (in the corotating frame) properties of the solar environment are reproduced, using three adjustable parameters: the Poynting flux of chromospheric Alfvén waves, the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence, and a pseudoreflection coefficient. We compare model results for Carrington rotation 2063 (2007 November-December) with remote observations in the extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray ranges from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Hinode spacecraft and with in situ measurements by Ulysses. The results are in good agreement with observations. This is the first global simulation that is simultaneously consistent with observations of both the thermal structure of the lower corona and the wind structure beyond Earth's orbit.

  12. Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2013-02-01

    One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

  13. Integrated ExoMars PanCam, Raman, and close-up imaging field tests on AMASE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss Amundsen, Hans Erik; Westall, Frances; Steele, Andrew; Vago, Jorge; Schmitz, Nicole; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire; Rull, Fernando; Sansano, Antonio; Midtkandal, Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) uses Mars analog field sites on the Arctic islands of Svalbard (Norway) for research within astrobiology and for testing of payload instruments onboard Mars missions Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars and Mars Sample Return. AMASE 2009 marked the seventh consecutive year of field testing. Instrument shakedowns were arranged to mimic rover operations on Mars and included the panoramic camera (PanCam), mineral- and organic chemistry sensors (Raman-LIBS) and ground penetrating radar (Wisdom) onboard ExoMars together with CheMin and SAM instruments onboard MSL and testing of sampling and caching protocols using JPĹs Fido rover. Test sites included volcanic rocks within the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) with carbonate deposits identical to those in ALH84001 and Carboniferous sandstones and paleosols at Ismåsestranda. In view of the 2018 ExoMars mission, field models of the PanCam and Raman instruments, as well as an Olympus E410 camera having similar technical specifications to the ExoMars Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) were used in an integrated exercise to characterise the geology and habitability of the different field sites. The BVC locality consisted of volcanclastic sediments deposited on the flanks of the 1 Ma old Sverrefjell volcano. This volcano is constructed of primitive alkaline basalt with abundant mantle xenoliths. The sediments were a mixture of hyaloclastite, ash, volcanic bombs, lava detritus, and xenoliths (peridotites, granulites) deposited in a roughly laminated fashion on the slopes of the volcano. Late stage carbonate deposits were also present. The Ismåsestranda locality consisted of fine-grained sandstone deposited in a littoral environment. The sandstones were characterised by a variety of sedimentary structures reflecting a marginal marine depositional environment. They were highly variegated in colour due to diagenetic remobilisation of trace elements. PanCam made general context observations using

  14. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  15. Unbalanced-flow, fluid-mixing plug with metering capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A fluid mixer plug has holes formed therethrough such that a remaining portion is closed to fluid flow. The plug's inlet face defines a central circuit region and a ring-shaped region with the ring-shaped region including at least some of the plug's remaining portion so-closed to fluid flow. This remaining portion or closed region at each radius R of the ring shaped region satisfies a radius independent, flow-based relationship. Entry openings are defined in the plug's inlet face in correspondence with the holes. The entry openings define an open flow area at each radius of the ring-shaped region. The open flow area at each such radius satisfies the inverse of the flow-based relationship defining the closed regions of the plug.

  16. Two brothers with an unbalanced 8;17 translocation and infantile pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, S V; Berry, A C; Dunbar, H M

    1995-12-01

    Two half-brothers are described who had developmental delay and minor dysmorphic features, both of whom had operative treatment for pyloric stenosis. They had identical unbalanced karyotypes: 46,XY,-17,+der(17)t(8;17) (q24;q25). This was inherited from their mother who had the balanced form of the translocation. She was of normal intelligence and had no history of pyloric stenosis herself or in her extended family. It is suggested that the unbalanced chromosomal rearrangement could have been associated with the development of pyloric stenosis in these two brothers. PMID:8835331

  17. Genotype by environment interaction and the use of unbalanced historical data for genomic selection in an international wheat breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) offers breeders the possibility of using historic data and unbalanced breeding trials to form training populations for predicting the performance of new lines. However, in using datasets that are unbalanced over time and space, there is increasing exposure to particular genoty...

  18. Magnetic field induced lattice effects in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor close to the Mott metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Mariano; Brühl, Andreas; Strack, Christian; Schweitzer, Dieter; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-01

    We present ultra-high-resolution dilatometric studies in magnetic fields on a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(D8-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, which is located close to the Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition. The obtained thermal expansion coefficient, α(T), reveals two remarkable features: (i) the Mott MI transition temperature TMI=(13.6±0.6) K is insensitive to fields up to 10 T, the highest applied field; (ii) for fields along the interlayer b axis, a magnetic field induced (FI) phase transition at TFI=(9.5±0.5) K is observed above a threshold field Hc˜1 T, indicative of a spin reorientation with strong magnetoelastic coupling.

  19. The Status of the "Weaker" Language in Unbalanced French/German Bilingual Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnesen, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the status of the so-called "weaker" language, French, in French/German bilingual first language acquisition, using data from two children from the DuFDE-corpus (see Schlyter, 1990a), Christophe and Francois. Schlyter (1993, 1994) proposes that the "weaker" language in the unbalanced children she studied has the status…

  20. Unbalanced Nature, Unbounded Bodies, and Unlimited Technology: Ecocriticism and Karen Traviss' Wess'har Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Heather I.

    2010-01-01

    While nature is often claimed to be a space of harmonized balance or an antidote to the chaos of the modern world, we need a more grounded assessment of nature as endlessly changing and much less predictable than we like to assume. In this essay, I explore Karen Traviss' provocative exploration of unbalanced nature and unbounded bodies in her…

  1. Is This Object Balanced or Unbalanced? Judgments Are on the Safe Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Francoise; Kerzel, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Do we perceive correctly whether a 2-D object is balanced or unbalanced? What would be the cause of biased equilibrium judgments? In two psychometric studies, we varied independently the characteristics of the objects and the equilibrium states. First, we observed that observers were excessively sensitive to the eccentricity of the object top.…

  2. Tests of Hypotheses for Unbalanced Factorial Designs under Various Regression/ Coding Method Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, R. Clifford; Higgins, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy surrounding regression methods for unbalanced factorial designs is addressed. The statistical hypotheses being tested under the various methods, as well as salient issues in the use of these methods, are discussed. The use of statistical computer packages is also discussed. (Author/JKS)

  3. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Rare Familial Unbalanced Translocation of Chromosomes 7 and 12

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Berrin; Bredaki, Foteini Emmanouella

    2015-01-01

    Case Details. We report rare familial unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 7 and 12, which was diagnosed prenatally at 20+3 weeks of gestation. Woman's partner had been tested in the past and was found to be a carrier of a balanced translocation; his karyotype showed a balanced reciprocal translocation of 46, XY, t(7;12)(q34;q24,32). Partner's brother had an unbalanced form of the translocation with severe learning disability. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and microarray analysis. Ultrasonography findings included fetal microcephaly and alobar holoprosencephaly, dysmorphic face (flat occiput, absent nasal bone, microphthalmia, hypotelorism, and single nostril), and hyperechogenic bowel. Genome-wide array analysis and cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid showed unbalanced translocation in chromosomes 7 and 12 with deletion of an approximately 16.5 Mb and a duplication of 6.1 Mb, respectively, Arr 7q34q36.3(142,668,576-159,161,648)x1,12q24.32q24.33(127,708,720-133,777,560)x3, karyotype (der (7) t(7;12) (q34;q24)pat). This unbalanced translocation was due to the segregation of the father's balanced translocation. In this particular case, the recurrence of an unbalanced translocation in the subsequent pregnancies is estimated to be 20%. Understanding the individuals' phenotype in association with the gain and loss of copy number is important and can further provide us with information on that particular region of the named chromosomes. PMID:26294991

  5. Closing the Performance Gap in a 4th Wave and Post-Modern Society: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. Q.

    2005-01-01

    The USA is undergoing tremendous cultural changes as we open the first decade of the 21st century. In this paper the author discusses the need to close the performance gap that exists between White, African American, and Latino/a students. To do so, educators must carefully consider several important cultural forces. The author examines the shift…

  6. Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Rhodes, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a model which gives the effects of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell. The fields arise from the return currents to the cathode as well as from neighboring devices such as amplifier flashlamps. In effect, electrons are treated as a static, planar fluid moving under the influence of magnetic fields, the electric field of the discharge, electron pressure gradients, and electron-atom elastic collisions. This leads to a closed two- dimensional equation for the electron density, which is solved subject to appropriate boundary collisions. The model is applied to four cases-. the baseline NIF configuration with magnetic fields due to balanced return currents; a case with unbalanced return currents; the reverser configuration containing an external field parallel to the main plasma current; and a configuration with a field perpendicular to both the current and the optical direction.

  7. Shielding of longitudinal magnetic fields with thin, closely, spaced concentric cylindrical shells with applications to atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. A.; Gubser, D. U.; Cox, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A general formula is given for the longitudinal shielding effectiveness of N closed concentric cylinders. The use of these equations is demonstrated by application to the design of magnetic shields for hydrogen maser atomic clocks. Examples of design tradeoffs such as size, weight, and material thickness are discussed. Experimental results on three sets of shields fabricated by three manufacturers are presented. Two of the sets were designed employing the techniques described. Agreement between the experimental results and the design calculations is then demonstrated.

  8. Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D; Javedani, J B

    2010-12-07

    The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the detonator bridge wire. This is called the common-mode voltage. The explosive component

  9. Nature of the boundary between open and closed magnetic field line regions at the Sun revealed by composition data and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Arik; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Gloeckler, George; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Riley, Pete

    2001-08-01

    Recently, Fisk et al. [1999] have presented a theory that describes a number of features of the large-scale coronal and heliospheric magnetic field. This theory predicts large-scale transport of magnetic flux across the boundaries of the polar coronal holes, which leads to reconnection processes of open field lines with preliminary closed magnetic structures. Reconnection processes reveal themselves in solar wind composition data: Plasma released out of previously closed magnetic field structures exhibits hotter charge state distributions and has a tendency to be enriched by elements with low first ionization potentials. The idea of reconnection at the boundaries of coronal holes is not new. For example, Wang and Sheeley [1993] and Luhmann et al. [1999] found evidence for that mechanism by comparison of observations of the rotation and evolution of coronal holes with potential field models of the solar corona. We use Ulysses Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer composition measurements and sophisticated numerical models [Linker et al., 1999; Riley et al., 1999] to accurately map these observations back to the solar surface. We then constrain the thickness of the stream interface at the Sun and compare the location of the source region with SOHO observations of the low corona. The results are discussed in the context of the global structure of the heliospheric magnetic field.

  10. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.H.; Dwyer, B.

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained.

  11. Interpretation of Galileo's Io plasma and field observations: I0, I24, and I27 flybys and close polar passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Joachim; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.

    2002-12-01

    We interpret plasma and magnetic field observations taken during the Galileo spacecraft Io flybys I0 in December 1995, I24 in October 1999, and I27 in February 2000, and we give predictions for a generic pass over Io's northern pole with a three-dimensional, two-fluid plasma model. We show that all previous field and plasma observations by the Galileo spacecraft can be explained without the assumption of an internal magnetic field of Io in contrast to claims by [1996a, 1996b] and [1997]. We are also able to reproduce both the magnitude and the structure of the double-peak magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby. The origin of this structure can be attributed to diamagnetic and inertia currents. Observations by a polar flyby should answer Io's internal magnetic field question decisively. We also study the effect of different neutral atmosphere models on Io's electrodynamic interaction. Our analysis suggests that Io's atmosphere is longitudinally asymmetric with the scale height on the upstream side smaller than on the downstream side due to the drag force of the flowing plasma on Io's atmosphere. We also show how the Hall effect in Io's ionosphere generates rotated Alfvén wings. In addition, the high-energy electrons observed by [1996, 1999] and [1999] might play an important role for the formation of Io's downstream wake.

  12. A Parallel Biological Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Unbalanced Assignment Problem Based on DNA Molecular Computing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation. PMID:26512650

  13. A Parallel Biological Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Unbalanced Assignment Problem Based on DNA Molecular Computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation. PMID:26512650

  14. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Merigó, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

  15. Frequency Noise Suppression of a Single Mode Laser with an Unbalanced Fiber Interferometer for Subnanometer Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency. PMID:25587980

  16. What drives health care expenditure?--Baumol's model of 'unbalanced growth' revisited.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Jochen

    2008-05-01

    The share of health care expenditure in GDP rises rapidly in virtually all OECD countries, causing increasing concern among politicians and the general public. Yet, economists have to date failed to reach an agreement on what the main determinants of this development are. This paper revisits Baumol's [Baumol, W.J., 1967. Macroeconomics of unbalanced growth: the anatomy of urban crisis. American Economic Review 57 (3), 415-426] model of 'unbalanced growth', showing that the latter offers a ready explanation for the observed inexorable rise in health care expenditure. The main implication of Baumol's model in this context is that health care expenditure is driven by wage increases in excess of productivity growth. This hypothesis is tested empirically using data from a panel of 19 OECD countries. Our tests yield robust evidence in favor of Baumol's theory. PMID:18164773

  17. Frequency noise suppression of a single mode laser with an unbalanced fiber interferometer for subnanometer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency. PMID:25587980

  18. Circular whirling and stability due to unbalanced magnetic pull and eccentric force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Baisheng; Sun, Weipeng; Li, Zhengguang; Li, Zhihe

    2011-10-01

    This rapid communication is concerned with the circular whirling and stability of a model rotor in a synchronous generator under no load, subjected to unbalanced magnetic pull and mass eccentric force. The analysis is focused on the synchronous whirling of the rotor. Based on the existing analytical expression for unbalanced magnetic pull with any pole-pair number, the nonautonomous system of differential equations of motion with parametrically exciting force is transformed to an autonomous one by introducing a rotating coordinate frame. The circular whirlings of the model rotor are thus converted into equilibrium solutions to the autonomous system, which can be obtained by solving a system of polynomial equations with two unknowns only. Furthermore, stability of these equilibrium solutions is determined by applying the linearized stability criterion. An example is used to illustrate the proposed analytical method.

  19. Prader-Willi syndrome with an unusually large 15q deletion due to an unbalanced translocation t(4;15).

    PubMed

    Varela, Monica C; Lopes, Graziela M P; Koiffmann, Celia P

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by deletions in the 15q11-q13 region, by maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 or by imprinting defects. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 have been described in about 5% of the patients with typical or atypical PWS phenotype. An 8-year-old boy with a clinical diagnosis of PWS, severe neurodevelopmental delay, absence of speech and mental retardation was studied by cytogenetic and molecular techniques, and an unbalanced de novo karyotype 45,XY,der(4)t(4;15)(q35;q14),-15 was detected after GTG-banding. The patient was diagnosed by SNURF-SNRPN exon 1 methylation assay, and the extent of the deletions on chromosomes 4 and 15 was investigated by microsatellite analysis of markers located in 4qter and 15q13-q14 regions. The deletion of chromosome 4q was distal to D4S1652, and that of chromosome 15 was located between D15S1043 and D15S1010. Our patient's severely affected phenotype could be due to the extent of the deletion, larger than usually seen in PWS patients, although the unbalance of the derivative chromosome 4 cannot be ruled out as another possible cause. The breakpoint was located in the subtelomeric region, very close to the telomere, a region that has been described as having the lowest gene concentrations in the human genome. PMID:15337472

  20. A Thermodynamic-Based Interpretation of Protein Expression Heterogeneity in Different Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumors Identifies Tumor-Specific Unbalanced Processes.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Johnson, Hannah; White, Forest M; Heath, James R; Levine, R D

    2016-07-01

    We describe a thermodynamic-motivated, information theoretic analysis of proteomic data collected from a series of 8 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. GBMs are considered here as prototypes of heterogeneous cancers. That heterogeneity is viewed here as manifesting in different unbalanced biological processes that are associated with thermodynamic-like constraints. The analysis yields a molecular description of a stable steady state that is common across all tumors. It also resolves molecular descriptions of unbalanced processes that are shared by several tumors, such as hyperactivated phosphoprotein signaling networks. Further, it resolves unbalanced processes that provide unique classifiers of tumor subgroups. The results of the theoretical interpretation are compared against those of statistical multivariate methods and are shown to provide a superior level of resolution for identifying unbalanced processes in GBM tumors. The identification of specific constraints for each GBM tumor suggests tumor-specific combination therapies that may reverse this imbalance. PMID:27035264

  1. Three-Phase Unbalanced Transient Dynamics and Powerflow for Modeling Distribution Systems With Synchronous Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike transmission systems, distribution feeders in North America operate under unbalanced conditions at all times, and generally have a single strong voltage source. When a distribution feeder is connected to a strong substation source, the system is dynamically very stable, even for large transients. However if a distribution feeder, or part of the feeder, is separated from the substation and begins to operate as an islanded microgrid, transient dynamics become more of an issue. To assess the impact of transient dynamics at the distribution level, it is not appropriate to use traditional transmission solvers, which generally assume transposed lines and balanced loads. Full electromagnetic solvers capture a high level of detail, but it is difficult to model large systems because of the required detail. This paper proposes an electromechanical transient model of synchronous machine for distribution-level modeling and microgrids. This approach includes not only the machine model, but also its interface with an unbalanced network solver, and a powerflow method to solve unbalanced conditions without a strong reference bus. The presented method is validated against a full electromagnetic transient simulation.

  2. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested. PMID:26766702

  3. Endotoxin deposits on the inner surfaces of closed-face cassettes during bioaerosol sampling: a field investigation at composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Simon, Xavier; Demange, Valérie; Harper, Martin; Wild, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    A set of 270 bioaerosol samples was taken from 15 composting facilities using polystyrene closed-face filter cassettes (CFCs). The objective was to measure the quantity of endotoxin deposits on the inner surfaces of the cassettes (sometimes referred to as 'wall deposits'). The results show that endotoxins are deposited on the inner surfaces of the CFCs through sampling and/or handling of samples. The quantity of endotoxins measured on inner surfaces range between 0.05 (the limit of detection of the method) and 3100 endotoxin units per cassette. The deposits can represent a large and variable percentage of the endotoxins sampled. More than a third of the samples presented a percentage of inner surface deposits >40% of the total quantity of endotoxins collected (filter + inner surfaces). Omitting these inner surface deposits in the analytical process lead to measurement errors relative to sampling all particles entering the CFC sampler, corresponding to a developing consensus on matching the inhalable particulate sampling convention. The result would be underestimated exposures and could affect the decision as to whether or not a result is acceptable in comparison to airborne concentration limits defined in terms of the inhalability convention. The results of this study suggest including the endotoxins deposited on the inner surfaces of CFCs during analysis. Further researches are necessary to investigate endotoxin deposits on the inner cassette surfaces in other working sectors. PMID:25535181

  4. Serially-Connected Compensator for Eliminating the Unbalanced Three-Phase Voltage Impact on Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.; Hsu, P.; Muljadi, E.; Gao, W.

    2015-04-06

    Untransposed transmission lines, unbalanced tap changer operations, and unbalanced loading in weak distribution lines can cause unbalanced-voltage conditions. The resulting unbalanced voltage at the point of interconnection affects proper gird integration and reduces the lifetime of wind turbines due to power oscillations, torque pulsations, mechanical stresses, energy losses, and uneven and overheating of the generator stator winding. This work investigates the dynamic impact of unbalanced voltage on the mechanical and electrical components of integrated Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST) wind turbine generation systems (WTGs) of Type 1 (squirrel-cage induction generator) and Type 3 (doubly-fed induction generator). To alleviate this impact, a serially-connected compensator for a three-phase power line is proposed to balance the wind turbine-side voltage. Dynamic simulation studies are conducted in MATLAB/Simulink to compare the responses of these two types of wind turbine models under normal and unbalanced-voltage operation conditions and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed compensator.

  5. Characterization of vertical electric fields and associated voltages induced on a overhead power line from close artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Marcos; Uman, Martin A.; Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were characterized of simultaneous vertical electric fields and voltages induced at both ends of a 448 m overhead power line by artificially initiated lightning return strokes. The lightning discharges struck ground about 20 m from one end of the line. The measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories: those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which are called oscillatory; and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which are called impulsive. Voltage amplitudes range from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages.

  6. Evaluation of two new arsenic field test kits capable of detecting arsenic water concentrations close to 10 microg/L.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig M; George, Christine M; Kalman, David A; Smith, Allan H

    2006-05-15

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Arsenic field test kits may offer a cost-effective approach for measuring these exposures in the field, although the accuracy of some kits used in the past has been poor. In this study, arsenic concentrations were measured in 136 water sources in western Nevada using two relatively new arsenic test kits and compared to laboratory measurements using atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the Quick Arsenic and Hach EZ kits to laboratory measurements were 0.96 (p < 0.001) and 0.95 (p < 0.001), respectively. When analyzed in seven exposure categories (0-9, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499, and > or = 500 microg/L), test kit and AFS measurements were in the same category in 71% (Quick Arsenic) and 62% (Hach EZ) of samples, and within one category of each other in 99% (Quick Arsenic) and 97% (Hach EZ) of samples. Both kits identified all water samples with high arsenic concentrations (> 15 microg/L) as being above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard and the World Health Organization's guideline value for arsenic of 10 microg/L. These results suggestthatthese easily portable kits can be used to identify water sources with high arsenic concentrations and may provide an important tool for arsenic surveillance and remediation programs. PMID:16749706

  7. A close look on the lithosphere of Central North Africa with the new global gravity and gravity-gradient fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C. F.; Pivetta, T.; Mariani, P.

    2011-12-01

    The gravity satellite missions GRACE and GOCE have boosted the resolution of the global Earth gravity models (EGM), opening new possibilities of investigation. The EGMs must be distinguished in models based on pure satellite or mixed satellite-terrestrial observations. Satellite-only models are truly global, whereas satellite-terrestrial models have inhomogeneous quality, depending on availability and accuracy of the terrestrial data set. The advantage of the mixed models (e.g. EGM2008 by Pavlis et al. 2008) is their greater spatial resolution, reaching nominally 9 km, against the 80 km of the pure satellite models of satellite GOCE. The disadvantage is the geographically varying reliability due to problems in the terrestrial data, compiled from different measuring campaigns, using various acquisition methods, and different national geodetic reference systems. We present a method for quality assessment of the higher-resolution fields through the lower-resolution GOCE-field and apply it to northern Africa. We find that the errors locally are as great as 40 mGal, but can be flagged as "bad areas" by our method, leaving the "good areas" for reliable geophysical modeling and investigation. We analyze gravity and gravity gradients and their invariants over North-Central Africa derived from the EGM2008 and GOCE (e.g. Migliaccio et al., 2010) and quantify the resolution in terms of density variations associated to crustal thickness variations, rifts and magmatic underplating. We focus on the Benue rift and the Chad lineament, a 1300 km arcuate feature which links the Benue to the Tibesti Volcanic province. The existing seismological investigations are integrated to constrain the lithosphere structure in terms of seismic velocities, crustal thickness and top asthenosphere boundary, together with physical constraints based on thermal and isostatic considerations (McKenzie stretching model). Our modeling shows that the gravity signal can only be explained if the Benue rift

  8. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  9. Dynamic power balance for nonlinear waves in unbalanced gain and loss landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominis, Yannis

    2015-12-01

    The presence of losses in nonlinear photonic structures necessitates the introduction of active parts for wave power compensation resulting in unbalanced gain and loss landscapes where localized beam propagation is, in general, dynamically unstable. Here we provide generic sufficient conditions for the relation between the gain-loss and the refractive index profiles in order to ensure efficient wave trapping and stable propagation for a wide range of beam launching conditions such as initial power, angle of incidence, and position. The stability is a consequence of an underlying dynamic power balance mechanism related to a conserved quantity of wave dynamics.

  10. Unbalanced 5;16 translocation in a boy with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.; Maynard, S.; Sheldon, S.; Innis, J.

    1994-02-01

    This is the first reported case of an unbalanced chromosome rearrangement resulting in trisomy 5q35.5{r_arrow}qter and monosomy 16p 13.3{r_arrow}pter, in a boy with mental and growth retardation, minor anomalies, and a history of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. This was the result of a familial balanced translocation. The clinical and cytogenetic manifestations of the case are presented and the possible role of the chromosomal rearrangement in the etiology of the thyroid carcinoma is discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Secondary wavelength stabilization of unbalanced Michelson interferometers for the generation of low-jitter pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Shalloo, R J; Corner, L

    2016-09-01

    We present a double unbalanced Michelson interferometer producing up to four output pulses from a single input pulse. The interferometer is stabilized with the Hänsch-Couillaud method using an auxiliary low power continuous wave laser injected into the interferometer, allowing the stabilization of the temporal jitter of the output pulses to 0.02 fs. Such stabilized pulse trains would be suitable for driving multi-pulse laser wakefield accelerators, and the technique could be extended to include amplification in the arms of the interferometer. PMID:27607974

  12. Three new cases with a mosaicism involving a normal cell line and a cryptic unbalanced autosomal reciprocal translocation.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Antoinet C J; Dauwerse, Johannes G; Bosch, Cathy A J; Boon, Elles M J; van den Ende, Wilco; Kant, Sarina G; Hansson, Kerstin M B; Breuning, Martijn H; Bakker, Egbert; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L

    2011-01-01

    Mosaicism involving a normal cell line and an unbalanced autosomal translocation are rare. In this study we present three new cases with such a mosaicism, which were detected by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array analysis in our routine diagnostic setting. These cases were further characterized using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) analysis and conventional karyotyping. The first case is a mentally retarded male who carries an unbalanced translocation in 87% of his cells. The phenotypically normal mother carries the balanced form of the translocation in all her cells. The second case is a phenotypically normal female who has an unbalanced translocation in 52% of her cells. The inheritance could not be determined. The third case is a female referred for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome who carries an unbalanced translocation in 60% of her cells. Both parents of this case showed a normal karyotype. The mechanisms that might be responsible for these mosaic karyotypes are discussed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that high-resolution whole-genome SNP array is a powerful tool to reveal cryptic unbalanced translocations and mosaicisms, including the more rare cases. PMID:21664500

  13. Closed-loop stimulation of a delayed neural fields model of parkinsonian STN-GPe network: a theoretical and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2015-01-01

    Several disorders are related to pathological brain oscillations. In the case of Parkinson's disease, sustained low-frequency oscillations (especially in the β-band, 13–30 Hz) correlate with motor symptoms. It is still under debate whether these oscillations are the cause of parkinsonian motor symptoms. The development of techniques enabling selective disruption of these β-oscillations could contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and could be exploited for treatments. A particularly appealing technique is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). With clinical electrical DBS, electrical currents are delivered at high frequency to a region made of potentially heterogeneous neurons (the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the case of Parkinson's disease). Even more appealing is DBS with optogenetics, which is until now a preclinical method using both gene transfer and deep brain light delivery and enabling neuromodulation at the scale of one given neural network. In this work, we rely on delayed neural fields models of STN and the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) to develop, theoretically validate and test in silico a closed-loop stimulation strategy to disrupt these sustained oscillations with optogenetics. First, we rely on tools from control theory to provide theoretical conditions under which sustained oscillations can be attenuated by a closed-loop stimulation proportional to the measured activity of STN. Second, based on this theoretical framework, we show numerically that the proposed closed-loop stimulation efficiently attenuates sustained oscillations, even in the case when the photosensitization effectively affects only 50% of STN neurons. We also show through simulations that oscillations disruption can be achieved when the same light source is used for the whole STN population. We finally test the robustness of the proposed strategy to possible acquisition and processing delays, as well as parameters uncertainty. PMID:26217171

  14. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. PMID:27322306

  15. A lognormal distribution-based exposure assessment method for unbalanced data.

    PubMed

    Lyles, R H; Kupper, L L; Rappaport, S M

    1997-01-01

    We present a generalization of existing statistical methodology for assessing occupational exposures while explicitly accounting for between- and within-worker sources of variability. The approach relies upon an intuitively reasonable model for shift-long exposures, and requires repeated exposure measurements on at least some members of a random sample of workers from a job group. We make the methodology more readily applicable by providing the necessary details for its use when the exposure data are unbalanced (that is, when there are varying numbers of measurements per worker). The hypothesis testing strategy focuses on the probability that an arbitrary worker in a job group experiences a long-term mean exposure above the occupational exposure limit (OEL). We also provide a statistical approach to aid in the determination of an appropriate intervention strategy in the event that exposure levels are deemed unacceptable for a group of workers. We discuss important practical considerations associated with the methodology, and we provide several examples using unbalanced sets of shift-long exposure data-taken on workers in various sectors of the nickel-producing industry. We conclude that the statistical methods discussed afford sizable practical advantages, while maintaining similar overall performance to that of existing methods appropriate for balanced data only. PMID:9072951

  16. Neighborhood functions alter unbalanced facilitation on a stress gradient in an alpine treeline simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanson, G. P.; Resler, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The stress-gradient hypothesis states that individual and species competitive and facilitative effects change in relative importance or intensity along environmental gradients of stress. The importance of the number of facilitators in the neighborhood of a potential beneficiary has not been explored. Evenly distributed and stress-correlated facilitation and the increase in the intensity of facilitation with neighbors as linear, logarithmic, and unimodal functions is simulated for two species such as Pinus albicaulis and Abies lasiocarpa. The mutualism is unbalanced in that the establishment of one species is enhanced by neighbors more than the other. Compared to no facilitation or evenly distributed facilitation, the stress gradient produces more edges in the spatially advancing population, more overall intensity of facilitation, and more individuals further advanced into the area of higher stress; the more enhanced species has increased population relative to the other - to the point where they are equal. Among three neighborhood functions, little difference exists in outcomes between the linear and logarithmic functions, but the unimodal function, which shifts peak facilitation intensity to fewer neighbors, increases the above state variables more than the differences between the even and stress gradient facilitation scenarios. The unbalanced mutualism may be important at treeline ecotones where the spatial pattern becomes central to facilitation.

  17. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. PMID:27322306

  18. Nonlinear model of a distribution transformer appropriate for evaluating the effects of unbalanced loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Matej; Štumberger, Gorazd; Štumberger, Bojan; Dolinar, Drago

    Power packages for calculation of power system transients are often used when studying and designing electromagnetic power systems. An accurate model of a distribution transformer is needed in order to obtain realistic values from these calculations. This transformer model must be derived in such a way that it is applicable when calculating those operating conditions appearing in practice. Operation conditions where transformers are loaded with nonlinear and unbalanced loads are especially challenging. The purpose of this work is to derive a three-phase transformer model that is appropriate for evaluating the effects of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. A lumped parameter model instead of a finite element (FE) model is considered in order to ensure that the model can be used in power packages for the calculation of power system transients. The transformer model is obtained by coupling electric and magnetic equivalent circuits. The magnetic equivalent circuit contains only three nonlinear reluctances, which represent nonlinear behaviour of the transformer. They are calculated by the inverse Jiles-Atherton (J-A) hysteresis model, while parameters of hysteresis are identified using differential evolution (DE). This considerably improves the accuracy of the derived transformer model. Although the obtained transformer model is simple, the simulation results show good agreement between measured and calculated results.

  19. Impact Assessment of V2G on the Power Loss of Unbalanced Radial Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwu, Uwakwe Christian; Mahajan, Satish M.

    2013-08-01

    Electric distribution feeders are inherently unbalanced and therefore have potential for severe power loss. The penetration of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) into the distribution feeders is expected to impact the power losses in the system. This is a pressing issue since power loss affects the operations, economics, and quality of service for the electric power systems. In this article, the impact of V2G parking lots on power losses of a radial distribution network is investigated. Two test networks were used in the study, namely: IEEE 13 and IEEE 123 Node test feeder networks. The test feeders and the V2G facilities were modeled in Radial Distribution Analysis Package (RDAP). Load flow results provided information on the power losses of the network. Results show that for a given penetration level, the impact of 3-phase and system-wide V2G integration on the power loss results in less power losses than 1-phase V2G integration. Results also indicate that operating the entire system such that V2G facilities will not compromise "near-balanced" state of operation and will have an improved impact on the power loss than highly unbalanced operation. The results obtained will be a useful tool for studying the impact of V2G on the power loss of a distribution network.

  20. Effect of control surface mass unbalance on the stability of a closed-loop active control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on stability of inertial forces arising from closed-loop activation of mass-unbalanced control surfaces are studied analytically using inertial energy approach, similar to the aerodynamic energy approach used for flutter suppression. The limitations of a single control surface like a leading-edge (LE) control or a trailing-edge (TE) control are demonstrated and compared to the superior combined LE-TE mass unbalanced system. It is shown that a spanwise section for sensor location can be determined which ensures minimum sensitivity to the mode shapes of the aircraft. It is shown that an LE control exhibits compatibility between inertial stabilization and aerodynamic stabilization, and that a TE control lacks such compatibility. The results of the present work should prove valuable, both for the purpose of flutter suppression using mass unbalanced control surfaces, or for the stabilization of structural modes of large space structures by means of inertial forces.

  1. Adaptive Phase Synchronization Techniques for Unbalanced and Distorted Three-Phase Voltage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woinowsky-Krieger, Alexis

    Interfacing and operating AC power electronic systems requires rapid and accurate estimation of the phase angle of the power source, and specifically of the positive sequence of the three-phase utility grid voltage. This is needed to ensure reliable operation of the power control devices and of the resulting power flow. However, the quality of this information is undermined by various distortions and unbalanced conditions of the three-phase grid voltage. Phase estimation and power control can both be performed in real time by a DSP, but a DSP typically has limited computational resources, especially in regards to speed and memory, which motivates the search for computationally efficient algorithms to accomplish these tasks. In contrast to conventional PLL techniques, recent approaches have used adaptive amplitude estimation to enhance the acquisition of the phase information, resulting in faster response and improved performance. This thesis presents a novel technique to estimate the phase of the positive sequence of a three-phase voltage in the presence of frequency variations and unbalanced conditions, referred to as hybrid negative sequence adaptive synchronous amplitude estimation with PLL, or H-NSASAE-PLL. The key feature consists of a feedback structure which embeds a positive sequence PLL and an adaptive synchronous negative sequence estimator to enhance the performance of the PLL. The resulting benefits include faster estimation of the phase of the positive sequence under unbalanced conditions with zero steady state error, simplified tuning of PLL parameters to address a wide range of application requirements, robust performance with respect to distortions and PLL parameters, a structure of minimal dynamical order (fifth) to estimate the main signal parameters of interest, simplified discretization, and reduced computational costs, making the proposed technique suitable for real time execution on a DSP. The H-NSASAE-PLL is developed in the Matlab

  2. Disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade may explain the microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.B.

    1995-03-13

    The microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation (3;10)(q21;q26) may be explained as the disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade, rather than simply a two-hit hypothesis for the development of tumor cells. 5 refs.

  3. Accuracy of DIF Estimates and Power in Unbalanced Designs Using the Mantel-Haenszel DIF Detection Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu; Guo, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how much improvement was attainable with respect to accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) measures and DIF detection rates in the Mantel-Haenszel procedure when employing focal and reference groups with notably unbalanced sample sizes where the focal group has a fixed small sample which does not satisfy the minimum…

  4. Assumption or Fact? Line-to-Neutral Voltage Expression in an Unbalanced 3-Phase Circuit during Inverter Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrur, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the situation in a 3-phase motor or any other 3-phase system operating under unbalanced operating conditions caused by an open fault in an inverter switch. A dc voltage source is assumed as the input to the inverter, and under faulty conditions of the inverter switch, the actual voltage applied between the line to neutral…

  5. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties. PMID:27483857

  6. Speckle level suppression using an unbalanced nulling interferometer in a high-contrast imaging system.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, Kaito; Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Tamura, Motohide; Tavrov, Alexander V; Takeda, Mistuo; Kurokawa, Takashi

    2011-03-14

    High-contrast imaging systems with a stellar halo suppression level of 10(-10) are required for direct detection of Earth-like extra-solar planets. We investigated a novel high-contrast imaging system with an unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) followed by phase and amplitude correction (PAC), which not only can reduce starlight but also can suppress the speckle level caused by wavefront aberrations. We successfully demonstrated that wavefront aberrations were sufficiently magnified by the UNI and the magnified aberrations were effectively corrected in amplitude and phase with two deformable mirrors. We confirmed that the suppression level of the speckle pattern with the proposed optics was beyond the limit of the adaptive optics performance. PMID:21445131

  7. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  8. A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K.; Tiruthani, Karthik

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. PMID:22303139

  9. Minority language education in unbalanced bilingual situations: a case for the linguistic interdependence hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Huguet, A; Vila, I; Llurda, E

    2000-05-01

    This paper is placed in the linguistic and sociocultural context of Eastern Aragon, a region of Spain where two contact languages (Spanish and Catalan) coexist in an unbalanced situation favoring Spanish. The research was prompted by the regulation for the teaching of Catalan in that area, by means of the Cooperation Agreement signed by the Spanish Educational Ministry (MEC) and the local autonomous Cultural and Educational Department of the Diputación General de Aragon in November 1986. A comparative analysis is made between Eastern Aragon students' linguistic competence in Catalan and Spanish; a further comparison is established between these students and others living in bilingual Catalonia and in monolingual Aragon. We conclude by pointing out that the Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis accounts for the results obtained in the study. PMID:10937367

  10. Analysis of motion stability of the flexible rotor-bearing system with two unbalanced disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenhui, Xie; Yougang, Tang; Yushu, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The complicated dynamical behavior of a flexible rotor-bearing system is studied in this paper. The unsteady oil-film force model described by three functions is considered. The bifurcation and chaos behaviors were revealed by calculating the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the system. Two new phenomena were found in this system: first, the chaos with two attracting areas which cannot be distinguished from the stable period doubling motion on Poincarè section; second, for the flexible rotor system with two unbalanced disks, the response varies in a large extent when the phase angle between the eccentricities of disks is different. The experiments were also carried out. Comparison between experimental and calculated results shows that the significant use of the max Lyapunov exponent in revealing the bifurcation and chaos characteristics of the rotor-bearing system.

  11. Unbalanced three-way chromosomal translocation leading to deletion 18q and duplication 20p.

    PubMed

    Oegema, Renske; van Zutven, Laura J C M; van Hassel, Daniella A C M; Huijbregts, Guido C M; Hoogeboom, A Jeannette M

    2012-04-01

    In 1980, a case report on a boy with cleft palate, club feet, dysmorphic features, and developmental delay was published by Bijlsma as a possible distinct syndrome. This case is listed in the London Medical Databases version 1.0. We have reevaluated this patient at adult age. Using high resolution karyotyping and Affymetrix 250k SNP array analysis we identified an unbalanced three-way translocation with breakpoints at 17q22, 18q22.1, and 20p12.2 leading to deletion 18q and duplication 20p. Also, a 715 kb duplication in 1p34.2 and a 245 kb deletion at 1p21.1 were found. Mental retardation, cleft palate, and club feet have repeatedly been reported in deletion 18q patients and therefore we conclude that most of the patient's features can be explained by an 18q deletion. PMID:22406089

  12. Gray Mold Populations in German Strawberry Fields Are Resistant to Multiple Fungicides and Dominated by a Novel Clade Closely Related to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W. S.; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments. PMID:23087030

  13. Computing the External Magnetic Scalar Potential due to an Unbalanced Six-Pole Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaggi J, Salon S, Kwon O, Chari MVK

    2007-02-12

    The accurate computation of the external magnetic field from a permanent magnet motor is accomplished by first computing its magnetic scalar potential. In order to find a solution which is valid for any arbitrary point external to the motor, a number of proven methods have been employed. Firstly, A finite element model is developed which helps generate magnetic scalar potential values valid for points close to and outside the motor. Secondly, charge simulation is employed which generates an equivalent magnetic charge matrix. Finally, an equivalent multipole expansion is developed through the application of a toroidal harmonic expansion. This expansion yields the harmonic components of the external magnetic scalar potential which can be used to compute the magnetic field at any point outside the motor.

  14. Electrostatic Interpretation of Electric Fields Observed at Close Range from Intra-Cloud Stepped Leader and Mechanisms of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Winn et al. [JGR, 116, D23115, 2011] have reported time resolved observations of electric field components parallel and perpendicular to the intra-cloud (IC) stepped leader that passed within 200 m of a balloon-borne electric field change instrument at 9.1 km altitude and covered total length of ~11.6 km, with an average velocity of ~10^5 m/s. The stepping distances ranged between 50 m and 600 m and during each step the electric field component perpendicular to the channel exhibited a fast (during several 10s of microseconds) decrease on the order of 2 kV/m, followed by a slow recovery. We report quantitative modeling results allowing interpretation of these observations using the electrostatic moment method solutions for charges induced on a long (overall charge neutral) conducting leader channel placed in an external electric field, closely following approaches recently developed for calculations of electric fields and potential differences developing near tips of long lightning leaders that lead to terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) [e.g., Celestin et al., JGR, 117, A05315, 2012, and references cited therein]. It is demonstrated that the observed reduction of the electric field component perpendicular to the channel during step of the negative leader is a result of spatial shift of the negative charge in the direction of travel of the negative leader head, followed by the slow recovery to approximately pre-step levels during continuous advancement of the positive leader on the opposite end of the bi-directional leader system. In context of TGFs, results of Winn et al. [2011] are of special interest as they provide better understanding of step phenomenology and temporal evolution of large-scale charge distributions on long IC lightning leaders. In the considered electrostatic modeling the leader electric dipole moment is a quadratic function of the leader length, and the dipole moment changes due to the leader steps increase proportionally to the overall leader

  15. Simultaneous ground-based optical and HF radar observations of the ionospheric footprint of the open/closed field line boundary along the geomagnetic meridian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.-C.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Baddeley, L. J.

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that the equatorward boundaries of OI 630.0 nm auroral emissions and broad Doppler spectral widths in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data, the so-called spectral width boundary (SWB), are good empirical proxies for the dayside open/closed field line boundary (OCB) in the ionosphere. However, both observational techniques are associated with mapping errors. SuperDARN uses a virtual height model for mapping, but it is not well known how the mapping error responds to a changing background ionosphere or transient reconnection events. Optical instruments, such as the meridian-scanning photometers, have high spatial resolution near zenith, where the mapping error due to the assumed OI 630.0 nm auroral emission height becomes small by comparison. In this work, an adjusted method is introduced to identify the SWB, which does not require temporal smoothing across several scans. The difference in latitude between the SWB, as identified using this method, and the simultaneously observed OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary along a common line of sight is compared. Utilizing the OI 630.0 nm boundary as a reference location, we present two case studies observed at different levels of solar activity. In both instances the latitude offset of SWB from the reference location is discussed in relation to the background ionospheric electron density. The compared results indicate that the intake of high-density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from subauroral latitudes causes a refraction of the HF radar beam path, which results in an overestimation of range mapping. The adjusted method would thus be a useful tool for identifying the OCB under changing ionospheric conditions in the cusp region.

  16. CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Project: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utilitiy for a new community college campus

    SciTech Connect

    Chevron Energy Solutions; Matt Rush; Scott Shulda

    2011-01-03

    Colorado Northwestern Community College (CNCC) is working collaboratively with recipient vendor Chevron Energy Solutions, an energy services company (ESCO), to develop an innovative GHP project at the new CNCC Campus constructed in 2010/2011 in Craig, Colorado. The purpose of the CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program scope was to utilize an energy performance contracting approach to develop a geothermal system with a shared closed-loop field providing geothermal energy to each building's GHP mechanical system. Additional benefits to the project include promoting good jobs and clean energy while reducing operating costs for the college. The project has demonstrated that GHP technology is viable for new construction using the energy performance contracting model. The project also enabled the project team to evaluate several options to give the College a best value proposition for not only the initial design and construction costs but build high performance facilities that will save the College for many years to come. The design involved comparing the economic feasibility of GHP by comparing its cost to that of traditional HVAC systems via energy model, financial life cycle cost analysis of energy savings and capital cost, and finally by evaluating the compatibility of the mechanical design for GHP compared to traditional HVAC design. The project shows that GHP system design can be incorporated into the design of new commercial buildings if the design teams, architect, contractor, and owner coordinate carefully during the early phases of design. The public also benefits because the new CNCC campus is a center of education for the much of Northwestern Colorado, and students in K-12 programs (Science Spree 2010) through the CNCC two-year degree programs are already integrating geothermal and GHP technology. One of the greatest challenges met during this program was coordination of multiple engineering and development stakeholders. The leadership of Principle Investigator

  17. A prescription and fast code for the long-term evolution of star clusters - II. Unbalanced and core evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieles, Mark; Alexander, Poul E. R.; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Baumgardt, Holger

    2014-01-01

    We introduce version two of the fast star cluster evolution code Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS (EMACSS). The first version (Alexander and Gieles) assumed that cluster evolution is balanced for the majority of the life cycle, meaning that the rate of energy generation in the core of the cluster equals the diffusion rate of energy by two-body relaxation, which makes the code suitable for modelling clusters in weak tidal fields. In this new version, we extend the model to include an unbalanced phase of evolution to describe the pre-collapse evolution and the accompanying escape rate such that clusters in strong tidal fields can also be modelled. We also add a prescription for the evolution of the core radius and density and a related cluster concentration parameter. The model simultaneously solves a series of first-order ordinary differential equations for the rate of change of the core radius, half-mass radius and the number of member stars N. About two thousand integration steps in time are required to solve for the entire evolution of a star cluster and this number is approximately independent of N. We compare the model to the variation of these parameters following from a series of direct N-body calculations of single-mass clusters and find good agreement in the evolution of all parameters. Relevant time-scales, such as the total lifetimes and core collapse times, are reproduced with an accuracy of about 10 per cent for clusters with various initial half-mass radii (relative to their Jacobi radii) and a range of different initial N up to N = 65 536. The current version of EMACSS contains the basic physics that allows us to evolve several cluster properties for single-mass clusters in a simple and fast way. We intend to extend this framework to include more realistic initial conditions, such as a stellar mass spectrum and mass-loss from stars. The EMACSS code can be used in star cluster population studies and in models that consider the co-evolution of (globular

  18. Effects of unbalanced carrier injection on the performance characteristics of InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Pyo; Shim, Jong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo; Kim, Kyu-Sang

    2016-08-01

    Two kinds of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having different electron concentrations in the n-GaN injection layer are investigated in order to understand the effects of unbalanced carrier injection on LED performance characteristics. Electrical and optical characteristics such as capacitance–voltage, current–voltage, external quantum efficiency, and electroluminescence spectrum are compared and analyzed. It is shown that the unbalanced carrier distribution in multiple quantum wells affects the forward operating voltage since a large disparity of injection rate between electrons and holes can induce a small effective active volume, thus leading to the severe overflow of electrons to the p-(Al)GaN layer in the LED devices.

  19. Effects of magnetic flux density and substrate bias voltage on Ni films prepared on a flexible substrate material using unbalanced magnetron sputtering assisted by inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koda, Tatsunori; Toyota, Hiroshi

    2014-03-15

    The authors fabricated Ni films on a flexible substrate material using unbalanced magnetron sputtering assisted by inductively coupled plasma. The effects of magnetic flux density B{sub C} and substrate DC bias voltage V{sub S} on the Ni film structures were investigated. For V{sub S} = −40 V, the average surface grain size D{sub G} measured by atomic force microscopy for B{sub C} = 0, 3, and 5 mT was 88.2, 95.4, and 104.4 nm, respectively. In addition, D{sub G} increased with V{sub S}. From x-ray diffraction measurements, the (111) and (200) peaks were clearly visible for the fabricated Ni films. The ratio of the integrated intensities of I(111)/I(200) increased with V{sub S}. For V{sub S} = −40 V and B{sub C} = 3 mT, a film resistivity ρ of 8.96 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm was observed, which is close to the Ni bulk value of 6.84 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm. From these results, the authors determined that the structure of the fabricated Ni films on the flexible substrate material was affected by the values of B{sub C} and V{sub S}.

  20. Tracking performance of the polarity-type costas loop at low SNR for UQPSK signal. [Unbalanced Quadri-PSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    Carrier tracking performance of the polarity type costas loop is analyzed for unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keyed (UQPSK) signals at low SNR. Squaring losses for various SNR, IF bandwidth, and data rate ratios are presented. The RMS phase jitter for a particular loop is computed for various I and Q channel power and data rate ratios. Experimental results using a breadboard costas loop are also included.

  1. Unbalanced X-chromosome inactivation in haemopoietic cells from normal women.

    PubMed

    Tonon, L; Bergamaschi, G; Dellavecchia, C; Rosti, V; Lucotti, C; Malabarba, L; Novella, A; Vercesi, E; Frassoni, F; Cazzola, M

    1998-09-01

    We studied X-chromosome inactivation patterns in blood cells from normal females in three age groups: neonates (umbilical cord blood), 25-32 years old (young women group) and >75 years old (elderly women). Using PCR, the differential allele methylation status was evaluated on active and inactive X chromosomes at the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) loci. A cleavage ratio (CR) > or = 3.0 was adopted as a cut-off to discriminate between balanced and unbalanced X-chromosome inactivation. In adult women this analysis was also performed on hair bulbs. The frequency of skewed X-inactivation in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells increased with age: CR > or = 3.0 was found in 3/36 cord blood samples, 5/30 young women and 14/31 elderly women. Mathematical analysis of patterns found in neonates indicated that X-chromosome inactivation probably occurs when the total number of haemopoietic stem cell precursors is 14-16. The inactivation patterns found in T lymphocytes were significantly related to those observed in PMNs in both young (P < 0.001) and elderly women (P < 0.01). However, the use of T lymphocytes as a control tissue for distinguishing between skewed inactivation and clonal proliferation proved to be reliable in young females, but not in elderly women, where overestimation of the frequency of clonal myelopoiesis may appear. PMID:9734650

  2. Unbalanced magnetron ion-assisted deposition and property modification of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Savvides, N.; Window, B.

    1986-05-01

    Unbalanced magnetron (UM-gun) sputtering sources with the unique characteristic of a high deposition rate and concomitant high ion flux represent an exciting new development in ion-assisted deposition of thin films. We have used a UM-gun capable of producing ion current densities up to 5 mA cm/sup -2/ (ion flux 3 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) when operated at a power of 500 W to produce a variety of thin films of amorphous and crystalline materials by varying both the bombarding ion energy in the range 2--100 eV and the ion/atom arrival rate ratio in the range 0.4--10. The great flexibility and usefulness of UM-guns is demonstrated with examples which include (a) hard diamondlike a-C films prepared under very low ion energy (13--16 eV) bombardment which possess a metastable bonding configuration consisting of a mixture of tetrahedral and trigonal coordination that varies with ion energy, (b) hard and wear-resistant TiN films whose electrical and optical properties change dramatically with ion bombardment, and (c) Ni/Cr alloy films showing ion-induced structural modifications.

  3. Carbon film deposition on SnO{sub 2}/Si(111) using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S.; Darma, Y.

    2013-09-09

    In this paper, carbon deposition on SnO{sub 2} layer using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique at low temperature has been systematically studied. Sputtering process were carried out at pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr by keeping the substrate temperature at 300 °C. SnO{sub 2} were growth on silicon (111) substrate using thermal evaporation and continuing with dry oxidation of Sn at 225 °C. Thermal evaporation for high purity Sn was conducted by maintain the current source as high as 40 ampere. The quality of SnO{sub 2} on Si(111) and the characteristic of carbon thin film on SnO{sub 2} were analized by mean XRD, FTIR and Raman spectra. XRD analysis shows that SnO{sub 2} film is growth uniformly on Si(111). FTIR and Raman spectra confirm the formation of thin film carbon on SnO{sub 2}. Additionally, thermal annealing for some sample series have been performed to study their structural stability. The change of atomic structure due to thermal annealing were analized by Raman and XRD spectra.

  4. Breakpoint Features of Genomic Rearrangements in Neuroblastoma with Unbalanced Translocations and Chromothripsis

    PubMed Central

    Daveau, Romain; Combaret, Valérie; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; Cazes, Alex; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Ferrand, Sandrine; Pierron, Gaëlle; Lermine, Alban; Frio, Thomas Rio; Raynal, Virginie; Vassal, Gilles; Barillot, Emmanuel; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the peripheral nervous system in which structural chromosome aberrations are emblematic of aggressive tumors. In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of somatic rearrangements in two neuroblastoma cell lines and two primary tumors using paired-end sequencing of mate-pair libraries and RNA-seq. The cell lines presented with typical genetic alterations of neuroblastoma and the two tumors belong to the group of neuroblastoma exhibiting a profile of chromothripsis. Inter and intra-chromosomal rearrangements were identified in the four samples, allowing in particular characterization of unbalanced translocations at high resolution. Using complementary experiments, we further characterized 51 rearrangements at the base pair resolution that revealed 59 DNA junctions. In a subset of cases, complex rearrangements were observed with templated insertion of fragments of nearby sequences. Although we did not identify known particular motifs in the local environment of the breakpoints, we documented frequent microhomologies at the junctions in both chromothripsis and non-chromothripsis associated breakpoints. RNA-seq experiments confirmed expression of several predicted chimeric genes and genes with disrupted exon structure including ALK, NBAS, FHIT, PTPRD and ODZ4. Our study therefore indicates that both non-homologous end joining-mediated repair and replicative processes may account for genomic rearrangements in neuroblastoma. RNA-seq analysis allows the identification of the subset of abnormal transcripts expressed from genomic rearrangements that may be involved in neuroblastoma oncogenesis. PMID:23991058

  5. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, A. S.; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  6. Severe encephalopathy associated to pyruvate dehydrogenase mutations and unbalanced coenzyme Q10 content.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Claudio; Rodríguez-Hernandez, María A; Briones, Paz; Montoya, Julio; Cortés, Ana; Emperador, Sonia; Gavilán, Angela; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Yubero, Dèlia; Montero, Raquel; Pineda, Mercedes; O'Callaghan, María M; Alcázar-Fabra, María; Salviati, Leonardo; Artuch, Rafael; Navas, Plácido

    2016-03-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is associated to a variety of clinical phenotypes including neuromuscular and nephrotic disorders. We report two unrelated boys presenting encephalopathy, ataxia, and lactic acidosis, who died with necrotic lesions in different areas of brain. Levels of CoQ10 and complex II+III activity were increased in both skeletal muscle and fibroblasts, but it was a consequence of higher mitochondria mass measured as citrate synthase. In fibroblasts, oxygen consumption was also increased, whereas steady state ATP levels were decreased. Antioxidant enzymes such as NQO1 and MnSOD and mitochondrial marker VDAC were overexpressed. Mitochondria recycling markers Fis1 and mitofusin, and mtDNA regulatory Tfam were reduced. Exome sequencing showed mutations in PDHA1 in the first patient and in PDHB in the second. These genes encode subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) that could explain the compensatory increase of CoQ10 and a defect of mitochondrial homeostasis. These two cases describe, for the first time, a mitochondrial disease caused by PDH defects associated with unbalanced of both CoQ10 content and mitochondria homeostasis, which severely affects the brain. Both CoQ10 and mitochondria homeostasis appears as new markers for PDH associated mitochondrial disorders. PMID:26014431

  7. Sparse Coding and Lateral Inhibition Arising from Balanced and Unbalanced Dendrodendritic Excitation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; Hines, Michael L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2014-01-01

    The precise mechanism by which synaptic excitation and inhibition interact with each other in odor coding through the unique dendrodendritic synaptic microcircuits present in olfactory bulb is unknown. Here a scaled-up model of the mitral–granule cell network in the rodent olfactory bulb is used to analyze dendrodendritic processing of experimentally determined odor patterns. We found that the interaction between excitation and inhibition is responsible for two fundamental computational mechanisms: (1) a balanced excitation/inhibition in strongly activated mitral cells, leading to a sparse representation of odorant input, and (2) an unbalanced excitation/inhibition (inhibition dominated) in surrounding weakly activated mitral cells, leading to lateral inhibition. These results suggest how both mechanisms can carry information about the input patterns, with optimal level of synaptic excitation and inhibition producing the highest level of sparseness and decorrelation in the network response. The results suggest how the learning process, through the emergent development of these mechanisms, can enhance odor representation of olfactory bulb. PMID:25297097

  8. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  9. 40 Gbit/s Metropolitan networks using power unbalanced polarization division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayee, M. I.; Zhang, Qun

    2006-05-01

    The feasibility of a 40 Gbit/s wavelength division multiplexed system using a power unbalanced polarization division multiplexing (PUPDM) scheme has been explored for metropolitan distances using the standard single mode fiber and erbium doped fiber amplifiers. PUPDM is a quaternary communication scheme in which two subchannels, each carrying 20 Gbit/s information data, are combined on the same wavelength to effectively communicate 40 Gbits/s using only binary transmitters and binary receivers. PUPDM not only reduces the cost of the optics and electronics in metropolitan networks but also reduces the degrading effect of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) by actually transmitting at half of the effective data rate. The effects of fiber nonlinearity and PMD are extensively analyzed for each of two 20 Gbit/s subchannels for an aggregate 40 Gbit/s capacity per wavelength channel. The analysis suggests that a 40 Gbit/s PUPDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing is feasible for up to 600 km of transmission distance on single mode fiber, using 7% Reed-Solomon forward error correction and 20 Gbit/s electronics.

  10. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S. Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  11. Rotating Unbalanced-Mass devices for scanning: Results from the proof-of-concept test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Polites, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices are a new way to scan space-based, balloon-borne, and ground-based gimbaled payloads, like x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes. They can also be used to scan free-flying spacecraft. Circular scans, linear scans, and raster scans can be generated. A pair of RUM devices generates the basic scan motion and an auxiliary control system using torque motors, control moment gyros, or reaction wheels keeps the scan centered on the target and produces some complementary motion for raster scanning. Previous analyses and simulation results show that this approach offers significant power savings compared to scanning only with the auxiliary control system, especially with large payloads and high scan frequencies. However, these claims have never been proven until now. This paper describes a laboratory experiment which tests the concept of scanning a gimbaled payload with RUM devices. The test results are compared with those from a computer simulation model of the experiment and the differences are discussed.

  12. Effect of noisy phase reference on coherent detection of unbalanced QPSK signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A phase error in the reference signal used in coherent detection of PSK signals causes a degradation in performance; this effect on bit error probability has been much discussed in the literature for BPSK and balanced QPSK systems. For unbalanced QPSK (UQPSK) systems, where the power and data rates in the two channels are unequal, and where the channel data symbols might also be different, the problem of computing the error probability is more complex, and only approximate solutions have been previously given. In this paper, exact expressions are derived for the conditional probability of error for the I and Q channels as a function of the channel power and data rate ratio. This is done for all combinations of Manchester and NRZ signalling schemes, and it is shown that in some cases the low data rate channel can be more seriously affected by a phase offset. Numerical results are also given for the average probability of error, assuming a biphase Costas loop is used for carrier synchronization.

  13. Unbalanced der(5)t(5;20) translocation associated with Megalencephaly, perisylvian Polymicrogyria, Polydactyly and Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, Annemieke J.M.H.; Schot, Rachel; van Waterschoot, Laura; Douben, Hannie; Poddighe, Pino J.; Lequin, Maarten H.; de Vries, Linda S.; Terhal, Paulien; Hahnemann, Johanne M.D.; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; de Wit, Marie-Claire Y.; Wafelman, Leontien S.; Garavelli, Livia; Dobyns, William B.; Van der Spek, Peter J.; de Klein, Annelies; Mancini, Grazia M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of megalencephaly, perisylvian polymicrogyria, polydactyly and hydrocephalus (MPPH) is a rare syndrome of unknown cause. We observed two first cousins affected by an MPPH-like phenotype with a submicroscopic chromosome 5q35 deletion as a result of an unbalanced der(5)t(5;20)(q35.2;q13.3) translocation, including the NSD1 Sotos syndrome locus. We describe the phenotype and the deletion breakpoints of the two MPPH-like patients and compare these with five unrelated MPPH and Sotos patients harboring a 5q35 microdeletion. Mapping of the breakpoints in the two cousins was performed by MLPA, FISH, high density SNP-arrays and Q-PCR for the 5q35 deletion and 20q13 duplication. The 5q35 deletion area of the two cousins almost completely overlaps with earlier described patients with an atypical Sotos microdeletion, except for the DRD1 gene. The five unrelated MPPH patients neither showed submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations nor DRD1 mutations. We reviewed the brain MRI of 10 Sotos patients and did not detect polymicrogyria in any of them. In our two cousins, the MPPH-like phenotype is probably caused by the contribution of genes on both chromosome 5q35 and 20q13. Some patients with MPPH may harbor a submicroscopic chromosomal aberration and therefore high-resolution array analysis should be part of the diagnostic workup. PMID:20503325

  14. Unbalanced oil filled sphere as rolling pendulum on a flat surface to damp horizontal structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bransch, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The passive damping of horizontal structural vibrations by means of an unbalanced oil filled sphere as a tuned mass damper (TMD) is examined. Due to the unbalance contained in the TMD, a pendulum-like motion is produced. The TMD lies unconstrained on the structure. As a result, forces are only transferred through the static friction between the TMD and the structure. The TMD is filled with oil to enable energy dissipation. This paper investigates the mechanical system of the proposed TMD and calculation methods for its tuning. Furthermore, experimental results of the TMD are presented. To determine the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed TMD, it will be compared to other passive tuned mass dampers. The advantages of the presented TMD are its robust design, simple mounting/demounting onto the main system and its adjustability after mounting. The oil filling makes the damper construction simple, as an additional container for the oil is no longer needed. Furthermore, the energy dissipating effect of breaking waves is used when the oil level inside the TMD is shallow. The disadvantages of the presented TMD when compared to a conventional tuned mass damper (linear spring-mass-damper-system) are its slightly lower performance and its complex tuning.

  15. Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, Kenneth A.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Roche, Martin W.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001). PMID:25210632

  16. Dynamic response and stability analysis of an unbalanced flexible rotating shaft equipped with n automatic ball-balancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehyaei, J.; Moghaddam, Majid M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents analytical and numerical investigations of a system of unbalanced flexible rotating shaft equipped with n automatic ball-balancers, where the unbalanced masses are distributed in the length of the shaft. It includes the derivation of the equations of motion, the stability analysis on the basis of linearized equations of motion around the equilibrium position, and the results of the time responses of the system. The Stodola-Green rotor model, of which the shaft is assumed flexible, is proposed for the analysis step. The rotor model includes the influence of rigid-body rotations, due to the shaft flexibility. Utilizing Lagrange's method, the nonlinear equations of motion are derived. The study shows that for the angular velocities more than the first natural frequency and selecting the suitable values for the parameters of the automatic ball-balancers, which are in the stability region, the auto ball-balancers tend to improve the vibration behavior of the system, i.e., the partial balancing, but the complete balancing was achieved in a special case, where the imbalances are in the planes of the auto ball-balancers. Furthermore, it is shown that if the auto ball-balancers are closer to the unbalanced masses, a better vibration reduction is achieved.

  17. Simultaneous unbalanced shared local oscillator heterodyne interferometry for high signal-to-noise-ratio, minimally destructive dispersive detection of time-dependent atomic spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Mary; Fertig, Chad

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate "Simultaneous Unbalanced Shared Local Oscillator Heterodyne Interferometry (SUSHI)," a new method for minimally destructive, high SNR dispersive detection of atomic spins. In SUSHI a dual-frequency probe laser interacts with atoms in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, then beats against a bright local oscillator beam traversing the other arm, resulting in two simultaneous, independent heterodyne measurements of the atom-induced phase shift. Measurement noise due to mechanical disturbances of beam paths is strongly rejected by the technique of \\emph{active subtraction} in which anti-noise is actively written onto the local oscillator beam via an optical phase-locked-loop. In SUSHI, technical noise due to phase, amplitude, and frequency fluctuations of the various laser fields is strongly rejected (i) for any mean phase bias between the interferometer arms, (ii) without the use of piezo actuated mirrors, and (iii) without signal balancing. We experimentally demonstrate an ultra-low technical noise limited sensitivity of 51 nrad$/\\sqrt{\\R{Hz}}$ over a measurement bandwidth of 60 Hz to 8 kHz using a 230 $\\mu$W probe, and stay within $\\sim$3 dB of the standard quantum limit as probe power is reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude to as low as 650 pW. SUSHI is therefore well suited to performing QND measurements for preparing spin squeezed states and for high SNR, truly continuous observations of ground-state Rabi flopping in cold atom ensembles.

  18. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    means to produce nanoscale device elements, such as carbon nanotube transistors [5] and high-density memory crossbar circuits [6]. Recently, the use of scanning tunnelling microscopes has broached a new field of research, which is currently attracting enormous interest—single molecule detection. In issue 25 of Nanotechnology researchers in Houston reported unprecedented sensitivities using localized surface plasmon resonance shifts of gold bipyramids to detect concentrations of substances down to the single molecule level [7]. In issue 26 a collaboration of researchers from the US and Czech Republic describe a different approach, namely tunnelling recognition. In their topical review they describe hydrogen-bond mediated tunnelling and the associated experimental methods that facilitate the detection of single molecules in a tunnel junction using chemically functionalized electrodes [8]. The nanoworld depicted by scanning probe microgaphs over 20 years ago may have looked as extraterrestrial as any science fiction generated alien terrain, but though study and analysis these nano-landscapes have become significantly less alien territory. The work so far to unveil the intricacies of electronic contact has been a story of progress in investigating this new territory and manipulating the mechanisms that govern it to formulate new devices and delve deeper into phenomena at the nanoscale. References [1] Binning G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch and Weibel E 1982 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 57-61 [2] X D Cui, X Zarate, J Tomfohr, O F Sankey, A Primak, A L Moore, T A Moore, D Gust, G~Harris and S M Lindsay 2002 Nanotechnology 13 5-14 [3] Martin C A, van Ruitenbeek J M and van der Zant S J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265201 [4] Davis J J and Hanyu Y 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265302 [5] Tans S J, Verschueren A R M and Dekker C 1998 Nature 393 49-52 [6] Chen Y, Jung G-Y, Ohlberg D A A, Li X, Stewart D R, Jeppesen J O, Nielsen K A, Stoddart J F and Williams R S 2003 Nanotechnology 14 462-8 [7] Mayer K M

  19. Recommendations for choosing an analysis method that controls Type I error for unbalanced cluster sample designs with Gaussian outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacqueline L; Kreidler, Sarah M; Catellier, Diane J; Murray, David M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2015-11-30

    We used theoretical and simulation-based approaches to study Type I error rates for one-stage and two-stage analytic methods for cluster-randomized designs. The one-stage approach uses the observed data as outcomes and accounts for within-cluster correlation using a general linear mixed model. The two-stage model uses the cluster specific means as the outcomes in a general linear univariate model. We demonstrate analytically that both one-stage and two-stage models achieve exact Type I error rates when cluster sizes are equal. With unbalanced data, an exact size α test does not exist, and Type I error inflation may occur. Via simulation, we compare the Type I error rates for four one-stage and six two-stage hypothesis testing approaches for unbalanced data. With unbalanced data, the two-stage model, weighted by the inverse of the estimated theoretical variance of the cluster means, and with variance constrained to be positive, provided the best Type I error control for studies having at least six clusters per arm. The one-stage model with Kenward-Roger degrees of freedom and unconstrained variance performed well for studies having at least 14 clusters per arm. The popular analytic method of using a one-stage model with denominator degrees of freedom appropriate for balanced data performed poorly for small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation. Because small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation are common features of cluster-randomized trials, the Kenward-Roger method is the preferred one-stage approach. PMID:26089186

  20. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek; Szkody, P.; Gies, D.; Kang, Y.-W.; Linsky, J.; Livio, M.; Morrell, N.; Hilditch, R.; Nordström, B.; Ribas, I.; Sion, E.; Vrielman, S.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report from Commission 42 covers various topics like massive binaries, contact systems, cataclysmic variables and low-mass binary stars. We try in a number of sections to provide an update on the current status of the main research areas in the field of close binaries. It is not a formal review, even complete or comprehensive, but an attempt to bring the main topics on recent research to astronomers working in other fields. References are also not comprehensive and simply added to the text to help the reader looking for deeper information on the subject. For this reason, we have chosen to include references (sometimes incomplete for ongoing work) not in a list at the end but integrated with the main text body. Complete references and additional sources can be easily obtained through web access of ADS or SIMBAD. Furthermore, the summary of papers on close-binary research contained in the Bibliography of Close Binaries (BCB) can be accessed from the web site of Commission 42. I would like to express the gratitude of the commission for the careful work of Colin Scarfe as Editor-in-Chief of BCB and Andras Holl and Attila Sragli for maintaining the web pages of the Commission within the structure of Division V. Finally, K. Olah and J. Jurcsik are gratefully acknowledged for their continued support as editors of the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), also accessible through the commission web page.

  1. The Unbalanced Magnetic Pull and its Effects on Vibration in a Three-Phase Generator with Eccentric Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, D.; CHU, F.; CHEN, D.

    2002-07-01

    The unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in a three-phase generator under no-load, caused by dynamic and static eccentricity, is calculated theoretically. The air-gap permeance is expressed as a Fourier series. Analytical expressions of the UMP for any pole-pair number are obtained. Effects of relative eccentricity and pole number on the magnitude of the UMP are obtained. The vibration of a model rotor in a three-phase generator under the action of the UMP and the eccentric force is analyzed by the numerical method and the harmonic analysis.

  2. Definition and design of an experiment to test raster scanning with rotating unbalanced-mass devices on gimbaled payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Alhorn, D. C.; Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment designed to test the feasibility of using rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices for line and raster scanning gimbaled payloads, while expending very little power is described. The experiment is configured for ground-based testing, but the scan concept is applicable to ground-based, balloon-borne, and space-based payloads, as well as free-flying spacecraft. The servos used in scanning are defined; the electronic hardware is specified; and a computer simulation model of the system is described. Simulation results are presented that predict system performance and verify the servo designs.

  3. Temporal manipulation of light propagation via cross-intensity modulation in unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhixin; Liu, Jinmei; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Li

    2015-11-16

    We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach to achieve temporal manipulation of light propagation via cross-intensity modulation (XIM) effect in an unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). By changing the optical loss indices (which can also be gain indices theoretically) discrepantly in the two branches of the MZI, we can obtain the largest time shifts at the minima of the transmission frequency spectrum, while there shows no time shifts at the maxima. This scheme provides a flexibility of ultra-wide bandwidth operation both on optical wavelength and modulation frequency. PMID:26698441

  4. Unbalanced upregulation of ryanodine receptor 2 plays a particular role in early development of daunorubicin cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kucerova, Dana; Doka, Gabriel; Kruzliak, Peter; Turcekova, Katarina; Kmecova, Jana; Brnoliakova, Zuzana; Kyselovic, Jan; Kirchhefer, Uwe; Müller, Frank U; Krenek, Peter; Boknik, Peter; Klimas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .05), but not of other examined Ca2+ regulating proteins remained. In addition, we observed a significant reduction in alpha-tubulin (by 46% when compared to CON P<0.05). Indicators of oxidative injury were unaffected. In conclusion, unbalanced RyR2 overexpression plays a particular role in early development of daunorubicin cardiomyopathy characterized by discrepant in situ versus in vitro cardiac performance. PMID:26328012

  5. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  6. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia. PMID:26554614

  7. Two encounters with the flank low-latitude boundary layer - Further evidence for closed field topology and investigation of the internal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traver, D. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the flank low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is examined through differential energy spectra and particle angular anisotropies for traversals of the dawn flank (December 19, 1977) and dusk flank (July 7, 1978) during periods of predominantly northward magnetosheath field orientation. Spectra are presented that were obtained from combined ISEE 1 low-energy-proton and electron-differential-energy-analyzer and medium-energy-particle-instrument data extending over the 200-eV/q to 2-MeV energy range for the plasma sheet, stagnation region, outer LLBL, and magnetosheath regions. The stagnation region and the outer LLBL are each a mixture of plasma-sheet and magnetosheath populations, but the stagnation region contains a relatively higher fraction of plasma sheet particles, consistent with its placement earthward of the outer LLBL. Evidence for energization of thermal electrons appears during the dusk flank crossing. Bidirectional field-aligned ion distributions are observed with typically 5-to-1 enhancement of the flux along the magnetic field during certain portions of the dusk flank crossing.

  8. The role of growth form and correlated traits in competitive ranking of six perennial ruderal plant species grown in unbalanced mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Hansjörg; Steinlein, Thomas; Ullmann, Isolde

    1998-02-01

    The competitive abilities of six perennial ruderal plants of three different growth forms were compared via yield measures using an additive diallel experimental design with unbalanced mixtures (9:3 or 3:9 plants per pot, respectively). Thus, in a given mixture species A was grown in two configurations: three individuals in centre position of the pot together with nine plants of species B in border position and vice versa. Effect competitive abilities as well as response competitive abilities of the species were significantly related to canopy height and plant biomass. The species with lower rosette growth form and smaller biomasses were weaker competitors than the species possessing elevated canopies along with higher biomasses, whereas total leaf area was not significantly correlated with competitive ability between species. Species differences in competitive ability were stronger between the plants grown in the central position than between those grown in the border position. Furthermore, interactions between species-specific traits and configuration could be observed, indicating the importance of species proportions and arrangement patterns for evaluation of competitive outcome in the field. The degree of complete transitivity of the competitive network of the six ruderal species, which was significantly higher than expected under the null model in our experimental design, also seemed to depend on species proportions in mixture. Shifts in root:shoot ratio of the centre plants when faced with competition by the border plants were in the direction of higher shoot allocation for the weak competitors with rosette growth form irrespective of the neighbour species, except for Bunias orientalis, which showed a more plastic response. The stronger competitors showed higher root allocation ( Urtica dioica) or were hardly affected at all. Consistent with the results of our experiment, the weaker competitors occur at rather frequently disturbed and therefore transient

  9. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J.; Anderson, J. K.; Hanson, J. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; et al

    2016-03-25

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch(RFP)plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFPplasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other andmore » the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.« less

  10. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Boguski, J.; Anderson, J. K.; Hanson, J. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit Bθ measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of Bθ at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.

  11. Lidar Sensor Performance in Closed-Loop Flight Testing of the Morpheus Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Brewster, Paul F.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a suite of three lidar sensors have been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying test bed to a safe landing on the hazard field. The lidar sensors and GN&C system are part of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project which has been seeking to develop a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The 3-D imaging flash lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA and is used as part of the ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) to scan the hazard field and build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM) in near-real time for identifying safe sites. The flash lidar is capable of identifying a 30 cm hazard from a slant range of 1 km with its 8 cm range precision at 1 sigma. The flash lidar is also used in Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) to provide position updates down to a 250m slant range to the ALHAT navigation filter as it guides Morpheus to the safe site. The Doppler Lidar system has been developed within NASA to provide velocity measurements with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/sec and range measurements with an accuracy of 17 cm both from a maximum range of 2,200 m to a minimum range of several meters above the ground. The Doppler Lidar's measurements are fed into the ALHAT navigation filter to provide lander guidance to the safe site. The Laser Altimeter, also developed within NASA, provides range measurements with an accuracy of 5 cm from a maximum operational range of 30 km down to 1 m and, being a separate sensor from the flash lidar, can provide range along a separate vector. The Laser Altimeter measurements are also

  12. Field campaigns of the autonomous, closed-path, airborne TDLAS Hygrometer SEALDH-II and traceability to the German Primary Humidity Standards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Airborne hygrometry is often demanded in scientific flight campaigns to provide datasets for environmental modeling or to correct for water vapor dilution or cross sensitivity effects in other gas analytical techniques. Water vapor measurements, however, are quite challenging due to the large dynamic range in the atmosphere (between 2 and 40000 ppmv) and the high spatio-temporal variability. Airborne hygrometers therefore need to combine a large measurement range with high temporal resolution to resolve - at typical airspeeds of 500 to 900 km/h - atmospheric gradients of several 1000 ppmv/s. Especially during the ascent into the upper troposphere, hygrometers need to work at high gas exchange rates to minimize water vapor adsorption effects. On the other hand, water vapor sensors are difficult to calibrate due to the strong water adsorption and the lack of bottled reference gas standards, which requires pre- or/and post-flight field calibrations. Recently in-flight calibration using an airborne H2O generator was demonstrated, which minimizes calibration drift but still imposes a lot of additional work and hardware to the experiments, since these kind of calibrations just transfer the accuracy level issues to the in-flight calibration-source. To make things worse, the low gas flow (1-5 std l/min, compared with up to 100 std l/min in flight for fast response instruments) adheres critical questions of wall absorption/desorption of the source and instrument even during the calibration process. The national metrological institutes (NMIs) maintain a global metrological water vapor scale which is defined via national primary humidity generators. These provide for calibration purposes well-defined, accurate water vapor samples of excellent comparability and stability traced back to the SI-units. The humidity calibration chain is maintained via high accuracy (but rather slow) Dew-Point-Mirror-Hygrometers as transfer standards. These provide a traceable performance and

  13. Lidar Sensor Performance in Closed-Loop Flight Testing of the Morpheus Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, V. Eric; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Brewster, Paul F.; Kempton, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a suite of three lidar sensors have been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The lidar sensors and GN&C system are part of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project which has been seeking to develop a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The 3-D imaging Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, aircooled instrument developed from a number of components from industry and NASA and is used as part of the ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) to scan the hazard field and build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM) in near-real time for identifying safe sites. The Flash Lidar is capable of identifying a 30 cm hazard from a slant range of 1 km with its 8 cm range precision (1-s). The Flash Lidar is also used in Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) to provide position updates down to a 250m slant range to the ALHAT navigation filter as it guides Morpheus to the safe site. The Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) system has been developed within NASA to provide velocity measurements with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/sec and range measurements with an accuracy of 17 cm both from a maximum range of 2,200 m to a minimum range of several meters above the ground. The NDLâ€"TM"s measurements are fed into the ALHAT navigation filter to provide lander guidance to the safe site. The Laser Altimeter (LA), also developed within NASA, provides range measurements with an accuracy of 5 cm from a maximum operational range of 30 km down to 1 m and, being a separate sensor from the Flash Lidar, can provide range along a separate vector. The LA measurements are also fed

  14. Accounting for minor storage terms in an attempt to close the measured surface energy balance over a winter wheat field in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshonkulov, Ravshan; Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Studies of energy and water exchange between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer are important to understand weather dynamics and climate change. Energy and water fluxes were measured on a winter wheat field in Kraichgau, Southern Germany, using the eddy covariance (EC) method. It is well known that EC measurements suffer from incomplete closure of the energy budget. In addition to the common ground heat flux measurements we measured heat storage in soil and the wheat canopy using high-precision temperature loggers within the EC footprint. Ground heat flux was re-calculated by calorimetric and harmonic analysis. First results obtained by the two methods will be compared. Based on measured data we calculated the contribution of photosynthesis, the air heat storage inside the canopy as well as the atmospheric moisture change to the energy budget. Our results show that accounting for minor storage terms improves the closure of the energy budget, but only to a limited extent. Further investigations will be necessary to identify additional sources of the energy gap typical for EC measurements.

  15. Gaseous deposition contributes to the contamination of surface waters by pesticides close to treated fields. A process-based model study.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Carole; Loubet, Benjamin; Barriuso, Enrique

    2013-12-17

    The contribution of atmospheric pathways to surface waters contamination by pesticides has been demonstrated. At the local scale, modeling approaches as well as measurements show situations where the contribution of gaseous dry deposition is of the same order or even higher than the drift contribution. The approach presented here consists in estimating the gaseous emissions of pesticides applied in the field, their atmospheric dispersion, and finally their gaseous deposition into aquatic ecosystems at the local scale by running process-based models, that is, the one-dimensional model for pesticide volatilization following application on bare soil (Volt'Air) and the local-scale dispersion and deposition model (FIDES-2D), adapted for pesticides. A significant number of scenarios describes contrasted situations in terms of pedoclimatic conditions (covering 9 years of meteorological data), periods of pesticide application per year, physicochemical properties of the pesticides, and spatial configurations. The identification of the main factors governing gaseous deposition led to the definition of an effective emission factor which explains a large part of the deposition variability. Based on the model outputs, deposition curves are proposed, as a base for a new tool to assess the contribution of gaseous deposition to nontarget ecosystem contamination. PMID:24206530

  16. Unbalanced chromosome 1 abnormalities leading to partial trisomy 1q in four infants with Down syndrome and acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Luiza Macedo; do Socorro Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria; Raimondi, Susana C; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Abdelhay, Eliana; de Figueiredo, Amanda Faria; de Souza, Mariana Tavares; Garcia, Daniela Ribeiro Ney; de Ventura, Eliane Maria Soares; de Sousa, Adriana Martins; Liehr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of childhood acute leukemia, especially acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) also called acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type M7. Here four yet unreported infants with such malignancies are reported. Results An unbalanced translocation involving chromosome 1 was identified by GTG banding in all cases. These were characterized in more detail by molecular cytogenetic approaches. Additional molecular analysis revealed in three of the four cases mutations in exon 2 of the GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1), located in Xp11.23. Conclusion Our results corroborate that abnormalities of chromosome 1 are common in DS-associated AMKL. Whether this chromosomal region contains gene(s) involved in hematopoietic malignant transformation remains to be determined. PMID:19228396

  17. Improved power control using optimal adjustable coefficients for three-phase photovoltaic inverter under unbalanced grid voltage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software. PMID:25243215

  18. Regulation of the unbalanced redox state in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe tert-butyl hydroperoxide-resistant mutant.

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Z; Kálmán, Nikoletta; Blaskó, Agnes; Virág, Eszter; Belágyi, J; Pesti, M

    2014-06-01

    The one-gene mutation in the tert-butyl hydroperoxide-resistant mutant hyd1-190 of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to a 4-fold increase in resistance to t-BuOOH and decreased specific concentrations of superoxide and total thiols in comparison with the parental strain hyd+. It suggested an unbalanced redox state of the cells, which induced continuously increased specific activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to regulate the redox balance of the mutation-induced permanent, low-level but tolerable internal stress. These results may contribute to the understanding of internal, oxidative stress-related human diseases. PMID:24873914

  19. Improved Power Control Using Optimal Adjustable Coefficients for Three-Phase Photovoltaic Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software. PMID:25243215

  20. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping. PMID:27483841

  1. Q-GDEMAR: a general method for the identification of differentially expressed genes in microarrays with unbalanced groups.

    PubMed

    Guebel, Daniel V; Perera-Alberto, Montserrat; Torres, Néstor V

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis is a powerful tool to simultaneously determine the pattern of transcription of large amounts of genes. For data post-processing distinct computational methods are currently used that, however, lead to different results regarding the genes expressed differentially. Herein, a new methodology for microarray data analysis named Q-GDEMAR is presented. It combines the quantile characterization of the entire distribution together with the Gaussian deconvolution of the central region of the microarray data distribution. Three discriminant variable variants are proposed that allow us to summarize data and compare groups even when their size is strongly unbalanced. In addition, a simple procedure to compute the false discovery rate (FDR) is also presented. The performance of the method is compared with that observed when using LIMMA (Linear Models Microarray) software as reference. In 58 out of 68 cases, Q-GDEMAR showed a higher sensitivity than LIMMA to detect differentially expressed genes (p = 1 × 10(-10)). The proposed method does not produce biased information, detecting genes with high sensitivity equally well at both tails of the distribution (p = 0.7428). Moreover, all detected genes were associated with very low levels of FDR (median value = 0.67%, interquartile range = 0.87%). Q-GDEMAR can be used as a general method for microarray analysis, but is particularly indicated when the conditions to be compared are unbalanced. The superior performance of Q-GEDEMAR is the consequence of its higher discriminative power and, the fact that it yields a univocal correspondence between the p-values and the values of the discriminating variable. Q-GDEMAR was tested only using Affymetrix microarrays. However, given that it operates after the step of data standardization, it can be used with the same quality features on any of the available mono- or dual-channel microarray platforms. PMID:26563436

  2. First-trimester combined screening is effective for the detection of unbalanced chromosomal translocations at 11 to 12 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shangyu; Chang, Chialin; Cheng, Pojen; Hsiao, Chinghua; Soong, Yungkuei; Duan, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The first trimester combined screening, which analyzes fetal nuchal translucency and levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in maternal serum, is routinely used to detect abnormal pregnancies associated with Down syndrome and other trisomy aneuploidies. Based on the hypothesis that major chromosomal translocations could lead to similar biochemical and developmental outcomes during early embryo development, we compared these markers among pregnancies with normal, balanced, or unbalanced fetal karyotypes. Among the parents, 71 (73%) carry balanced reciprocal translocation and 26 (27%) have Robertsonian translocation. Of the 97 pregnancies tested, 39 (40%), 37 (37%), and 22 (23%) fetuses had normal karyotype, balanced chromosomal translocations, and unbalanced chromosomal translocations, respectively. Importantly, we found that pregnancies with an unbalanced translocation had significantly higher free β-hCG multiple of the median (MoM) and larger nuchal translucency thickness than those with normal karyotype or balanced translocations. Analysis showed that the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.716, 0.820, and 0.936 for free β-hCG MoM, PAPP-A MoM, and fetal nuchal translucency, respectively. When these 3 independent factors were combined, the AUC reached 0.976. In addition, logistic regression showed that the most optimal model for predicting an unbalanced chromosomal translocation is a combination of PAPP-A and nuchal translucency with an AUC of 0.980. Therefore, the first trimester combined screening is not only effective in the screening of Down syndrome and other trisomy abnormalities but also has high sensitivity for the detection of unbalanced chromosomal translocations in fetuses. PMID:24177714

  3. Closed N=2 Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    We study the action of picture-changing and spectral flow operators on a ground ring of ghost number zero operators in the chiral BRST cohomology of the closed N=2 string and describe an infinite set of symmetry charges acting on physical states. The transformations of physical string states are compared with symmetries of self-dual gravity which is the effective field theory of the closed N=2 string. We derive all infinitesimal symmetries of the self-dual gravity equations in (2+2)-dimensional space-time and introduce an infinite hierarchy of commuting flows on the moduli space of self-dual metrics. The dependence on moduli parameters can be recovered by solving the equations of the SDG hierarchy associated with an infinite set of Abelian symmetries generated recursively from translations. These nonlocal Abelian symmetries are shown to coincide with the hidden Abelian string symmetries responsible for the vanishing of most scattering amplitudes. Therefore, N=2 string theory ``predicts'' not only self-dual gravity but also the SDG hierarchy.

  4. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  5. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  6. PROBA2/SWAP EUV images of the large-scale EUV corona up to 3 solar radii: Can we close the gap in coronal magnetic field structure between 1.3 and 2.5 solar radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Groof, Anik; Seaton, Daniel B.; Rachmeler, Laurel; Berghmans, David

    2015-04-01

    The EUV telescope PROBA2/SWAP has been observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since February 2010. SWAP's wide field-of-view provides a unique and continuous view of the extended EUV corona up to 2-3 solar radii. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, low-noise composites were produced that reveal large-scale, EUV-emitting, coronal structures. These extended structures appear mainly above or at the edges of active regions and typically curve towards the poles. As they persist for multiple Carrington rotations and cannot easily be related to white-light features, they give an interesting view on how the coronal magnetic field is structured between 1.3 and 2-3 solar radii, in the gap between SDO/AIA’s FOV and typical lower boundaries of coronagraph FOVs. With the help of magnetic field models, we analyse the geometry of the extended EUV structures in more detail and compare with sporadic EUV coronagraph measurements up to as close as 1.5Rs. The opportunities that Solar Orbiter’s future observations will bring are explored.

  7. Closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging

  8. Unbalanced interchromosomal insertion diagnosed prenatally by FISH, with carrier mother, previously misdiagnosed as having a balanced reciprocal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.T.; Leiber, E.; Qazi, Q.

    1994-09-01

    Insertion translocations are rare. A carrier with a balanced insertion translocation is most likely to be detected through offspring with an unbalanced translocation. We with to report a case where a correct diagnosis, made prenatally with FISH, corrected the initial misdiagnosis of the mother in another institute. PDL received an amniotic fluid sample from a 28 y.o. woman (G5P2Sab1TOP1) at 19 wks gestation. The indications were a reported balanced translocation, t(6;13), in the mother and a previous daughter with an unbalanced translocation. Chromosome analysis of the amniocytes showed a female karyotype with an abnormal chr. 13. Since the mother was diagnosed as having t(6;13)(q21;q34), the der(13) in the amniocytes was initially assumed to result from an adjacent segregation of the t(6;13). However, the banding patterns of this abnormal chr. 13 did not fit into the above defined translocation. With FISH and a chr. 13 painting probe, this der(13) was painted in the proximal and the distal thirds, but NOT in the middle region. This indicates that the middle section of the der(13) must have originated from 6q. The banding pattern is compatible with a direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into 13q21.2. Thus, the fetus has partial trisomy 6q. After counseling, the mother elected to terminate the pregnancy but later changed her mind. An 8 lb 12 oz baby girl was born at 36 wks. (mother diabetic). Chromosome analysis of the newborn blood confirmed the dx. The mother was studied, using multicolor painting probes for chromosomes 13 and 6, a balanced direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into chr. 13q21.2 was clearly shown. The previous affected daughter with a 13q+ is now 4 y.o. (a restudy is planned). She has microcephaly, severe developmental delay and other dysmorphic features. This case illustrates the advantage of using FISH to arrive at a definitive diagnosis of an insertion translocation.

  9. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Small Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Closed cell clouds are formed under conditions of widespread sinking of the air above. ...

  10. The study of the action of self-friction field on the atom and molecular structures by using combined Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory for closed and open shells of any symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, B. A.; Çopuroğlu, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we study the effects of self-friction field on the states of a single configuration of closed and open shells by using the Combined Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equations for atomic-molecular and nuclear systems. Here, we present a program that implements the evaluation of the various properties of atoms and molecular systems with respect to the various values of self-friction quantum numbers. An especially fast and accurate algorithm for the calculation of the self-friction multicenter molecular integrals is obtained by using one-range addition theorems. To demonstrate the action of self-friction field on the atomic and molecular systems we have performed the calculations of H2O, CH3, CH2 and NH3 molecules. For the derivations of the orbital, kinetic and total energies and linear combination coefficients, the results are given for various values of self-friction quantum numbers. For various values of self-friction quantum numbers the obtained results of the orbital, kinetic and total energies and linear combination coefficients have been analyzed.

  11. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to…

  12. The theory of a noncontact gyroscope with an unbalanced spherical rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Iu. G.; Medvedev, A. V.

    1985-08-01

    Reference is made to earlier studies in which the dynamics of a gyroscope with a noncontact suspension has been investigated with allowance for both the motion of the center of mass and the angular motion of the rotor around the center of mass. It has been assumed in these studies that the resultant of the force field of the suspension depends linearly on the displacement of the geometric center of the rotor. In the present paper, an analysis is made of the drifts of the gyroscope due to a nonlinear dependence of the resultant of the force field on the rotor displacements. Numerical results are presented for a noncontact gyroscope with a spherical beryllium rotor used in an inertial navigation system.

  13. Familial translocation resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in two related unbalanced individuals: Clinical evaluation of a 39-year-old man with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, P.G.; Weaver, D.D.; Palmer, C.G.

    1995-02-13

    A chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 4 and 8 resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in 2 individuals has been traced through 4 generations of a family. Ascertainment of the family was through a newborn infant with evident Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome who had an unbalanced chromosomal translocation (46,XY,-4,+der(4),t(4;8) (p15.32;p22)). Discussion with the family documented a paternal great-uncle who also had a similar phenotype and profound mental retardation. Subsequently this individual was found to have the same unbalanced chromosome constitution as the propositus. The 39-year-old great-uncle is the oldest reported individual with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. The importance of chromosome evaluation of older individuals with mental retardation syndromes is emphasized. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Thickness Effects of TiC Interlayer on Tribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Lee, Jaehyeong; Park, Yong Seob

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared with TiC interlayer of various thicknesses as the adhesive layer. DLC and TiC thin films were prepared using unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering method using graphite and titanium as targets. TiC films as the interlayer were deposited under DLC films and various physical, tribological, and structural properties of the films fabricated with various TiC interlayer thicknesses were investigated. With various TiC interlayer thicknesses under DLC films, the tribological properties of films were improved with increasing thickness and the DLC/TiC layer fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering method are exhibited maximum high hardness over 27 GPa and high elastic modulus over 242 GPa, and a smooth surface below 0.09 nm. PMID:26726633

  15. Effect of population size and unbalanced data sets on QTL detection using genome-wide association mapping in barley breeding germplasm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyun; Smith, Kevin P; Combs, Emily; Blake, Tom; Horsley, Richard D; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected; however, very few have been incorporated into breeding programs. The recent development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants provides the opportunity to detect QTL in germplasm collections such as unstructured populations from breeding programs. The overall goal of the barley Coordinated Agricultural Project was to conduct GWAS with the intent to couple QTL detection and breeding. The basic idea is that breeding programs generate a vast amount of phenotypic data and combined with cheap genotyping it should be possible to use GWAS to detect QTL that would be immediately accessible and used by breeding programs. There are several constraints to using breeding program-derived phenotype data for conducting GWAS namely: limited population size and unbalanced data sets. We chose the highly heritable trait heading date to study these two variables. We examined 766 spring barley breeding lines (panel #1) grown in balanced trials and a subset of 384 spring barley breeding lines (panel #2) grown in balanced and unbalanced trials. In panel #1, we detected three major QTL for heading date that have been detected in previous bi-parental mapping studies. Simulation studies showed that population sizes greater than 384 individuals are required to consistently detect QTL. We also showed that unbalanced data sets from panel #2 can be used to detect the three major QTL. However, unbalanced data sets resulted in an increase in the false-positive rate. Interestingly, one-step analysis performed better than two-step analysis in reducing the false-positive rate. The results of this work show that it is possible to use phenotypic data from breeding programs to detect QTL, but that careful consideration of population size and experimental design are required. PMID:21898052

  16. Recurrence, submicroscopic complexity, and potential clinical relevance of copy gains detected by array CGH that are shown to be unbalanced insertions by FISH

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Nicholas J.; Ballif, Blake C.; Lamb, Allen N.; Parikh, Sumit; Ravnan, J. Britt; Schultz, Roger A.; Torchia, Beth S.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.

    2011-01-01

    Insertions occur when a segment of one chromosome is translocated and inserted into a new region of the same chromosome or a non-homologous chromosome. We report 71 cases with unbalanced insertions identified using array CGH and FISH in 4909 cases referred to our laboratory for array CGH and found to have copy-number abnormalities. Although the majority of insertions were non-recurrent, several recurrent unbalanced insertions were detected, including three der(Y)ins(Y;18)(q?11.2;p11.32p11.32)pat inherited from parents carrying an unbalanced insertion. The clinical significance of these recurrent rearrangements is unclear, although the small size, limited gene content, and inheritance pattern of each suggests that the phenotypic consequences may be benign. Cryptic, submicroscopic duplications were observed at or near the insertion sites in two patients, further confounding the clinical interpretation of these insertions. Using FISH, linear amplification, and array CGH, we identified a 126-kb duplicated region from 19p13.3 inserted into MECP2 at Xq28 in a patient with symptoms of Rett syndrome. Our results demonstrate that although the interpretation of most non-recurrent insertions is unclear without high-resolution insertion site characterization, the potential for an otherwise benign duplication to result in a clinically relevant outcome through the disruption of a gene necessitates the use of FISH to determine whether copy-number gains detected by array CGH represent tandem duplications or unbalanced insertions. Further follow-up testing using techniques such as linear amplification or sequencing should be used to determine gene involvement at the insertion site after FISH has identified the presence of an insertion. PMID:21383316

  17. An unbalanced translocation unmasks a recessive mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and causes FSH resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kuechler, Amla; Hauffa, Berthold P; Köninger, Angela; Kleinau, Gunnar; Albrecht, Beate; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Gromoll, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mediated by its receptor (FSHR) is pivotal for normal gametogenesis. Inactivating FSHR mutations are known to cause hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with disturbed follicular maturation in females. So far, only very few recessive point mutations have been described. We report on a 17-year-old female with primary amenorrhea, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and disturbed folliculogenesis. Chromosome analysis detected a seemingly balanced translocation 46,XX,t(2;8)(p16.3or21;p23.1)mat. FSHR sequence analysis revealed a novel non-synonymous point mutation in exon 10 (c.1760C>A, p.Pro587His), but no wild-type allele. The mutation was also found in the father, but not in the mother. Furthermore, molecular-cytogenetic analyses of the breakpoint region on chromosome 2 showed the translocation to be unbalanced, containing a deletion with one breakpoint within the FSHR gene. The deletion size was narrowed down by array analysis to approximately 163 kb, involving exons 9 and 10 of the FSHR gene. Functional studies of the mutation revealed the complete lack of signal transduction presumably caused by a changed conformational structure of transmembrane helix 6. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a compound heterozygosity of an inactivating FSHR point mutation unmasked by a partial deletion. This coincidence of two rare changes caused clinical signs consistent with FSH resistance. PMID:20087398

  18. Association of affect with vertical position in L1 but not in L2 in unbalanced bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Degao; Liu, Haitao; Ma, Bosen

    2015-01-01

    After judging the valence of the positive (e.g., happy) and the negative words (e.g., sad), the participants' response to the letter (q or p) was faster and slower, respectively, when the letter appeared at the upper end than at the lower end of the screen in Meier and Robinson's (2004) second experiment. To compare this metaphorical association of affect with vertical position in Chinese-English bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2) (language), we conducted four experiments in an affective priming task. The targets were one set of positive or negative words (valence), which were shown vertically above or below the center of the screen (position). The primes, presented at the center of the screen, were affective words that were semantically related to the targets, affective words that were not semantically related to the targets, affective icon-pictures, and neutral strings in Experiment 1–4, respectively. In judging the targets' valence, the participants showed different patterns of interactions between language, valence, and position in reaction times across the experiments. We concluded that metaphorical association between affect and vertical position works in L1 but not in L2 for unbalanced bilinguals. PMID:26074847

  19. Time dependence of carbon film deposition on SnO{sub 2}/Si using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Alfiadi, H. Aji, A. S. Darma, Y.

    2014-02-24

    Carbon deposition on SnO{sub 2} layer has been demonstrated at low temperature using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique for various time depositions. Before carbon sputtering process, SnO{sub 2} thin layer is grown on silicon substrate by thermal evaporation method using high purity Sn wire and then fully oxidizes by dry O{sub 2} at 225°C. Carbon sputtering process was carried out at pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr by keeping the substrate temperature of 300 °C for sputtering deposition time of 1 to 4 hours. The properties of SnO{sub 2}/Si structure and carbon thin film on SnO{sub 2} is characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, and Raman Spectra. SEM images and XRD spectra show that SnO2 thin film has uniformly growth on Si substrate and affected by annealing temperature. Raman and FTIR results confirm the formation of carbon-rich thin film on SnO{sub 2}. In addition, XRD spectra indicate that some structural change occur by increasing sputtering deposition time. Furthermore, the change of atomic structure due to the thermal annealing is analized by XRD spectra and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–B–C–N–Si nanocomposite films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jaeho; An, Eunsol; Park, In-Wook; Nam, Dae-Geun; Jo, Ilguk; Lin, Jianliang; Moore, John J.; Ho Kim, Kwang; Park, Ikmin

    2013-11-15

    Quinary Ti–B–C–N–Si nanocomposite thin films were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by d.c. unbalanced magnetron sputtering from a TiB{sub 2}–TiC compound target and a pure Si target. The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of the films was investigated in terms of the nanosized crystallites/amorphous system. The synthesized Ti–B–C–N–Si films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the Ti–B–C–N–Si films were nanocomposites composed of nanosized TiB{sub 2}, TiC, and TiSi{sub 2} crystallites (2-3 nm in size) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The addition of Si to the Ti–B–C–N film led to precipitation of nanosized crystalline TiSi{sub 2} and percolation of amorphous SiC phases. The Ti–B–C–N–Si films with up to 7 at. % Si content presented high hardness (≥35 GPa), H/E (≥0.0095), and W{sub e} (>50%) with compressive residual stress (∼0.5 GPa). A systematic investigation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–B–C–N–Si films containing different Si contents is reported.

  1. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-12-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary.

  2. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Bethencourt, M.; Olaya, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    ZrOxNy/ZrO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO2 was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a Φair/ΦAr flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrOxNy rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr2ON2 crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride-containing media.

  3. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Interface Behavior of Balanced and Unbalanced E-Glass/Polyester Woven Fabric Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, E.; Zouari, B.; Jarraya, A.; Dammak, F.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of weave structure on the crack growth behavior of thick E-glass/polyester woven fabric composites laminates. Two different types of laminates were fabricated: (i) balanced: plain weave (taffetas T)/chopped strand mat weave (M) [T/M]6 and (ii) unbalanced: 4-hardness satin weave (S)/chopped strand mat weave [S/M]7. In order to accurately predict damage criticality in such structures, mixed mode fracture toughness data is required. So, the experiments were conducted using standards delamination tests under mixed mode loading and pure mode loading. These tests were carried out in mode II using End Load Split (ELS) tests and in mixed-mode I+II by Mixed Mode Flexure (MMF) tests under static conditions. The test methodology used for the experiments will be presented. The experimental results have been expressed in terms of total strain energy release rate and R-curves. The fracture toughness results show that the T/M interface is more resistant to delamination than the S/M interface.

  5. Allocation of Capacitors and Voltage Regulators in Unbalanced Distribution Systems: A Multi-objective Problem in Probabilistic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpinelli, Guido; Noce, Christian; Russo, Angela; Varilone, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Capacitors and series voltage regulators are used extensively in distribution systems to reduce power losses and improve the voltage profile along the feeders. This paper deals with the problem of contemporaneously choosing optimal locations and sizes for both capacitors and series voltage regulators in three-phase, unbalanced distribution systems. This is a mixed, non-linear, constrained, multi-objective optimization problem that usually is solved in deterministic scenarios. However, distribution systems are stochastic in nature, which can lead to inaccurate deterministic solutions. To take into account the unavoidable uncertainties that affect the input data related to the problem, in this paper, we have formulated and solved the multi-objective optimization problem in probabilistic scenarios. To address the multi-objective optimization problem, algorithms were used in which all the objective functions were combined to form a single function. These algorithms allow us to transform the original multi-objective optimization problem into an equivalent, single-objective, optimization problem, an approach that appeared to be particularly suitable since computational time was an important issue. To further reduce the computational efforts, a linearized form of the equality constraints of the optimization model was used, and a micro-genetic algorithm-based procedure was applied in the solution method.

  6. Second Tumor Induction Risk in IMRT for Prostate Cancer: An Unbalanced Comparison Between Surgery and Radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Calandrino, Riccardo; Perna, Lucia; Belli, Maria Luisa; Botti, Andrea; Cattaneo, Mauro; Fiorino, Claudio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Iori, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of second tumor induction for prostate patients treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy in age classes 50-70. Based on both age-dependent models and doses to critical organs, the risk of second tumor induction was evaluated simulating the small field (prostate and seminal vesicles) and large field (whole pelvis) for Helical Tomotherapy and Rapid Arc. The doses to the organs closest to the treatment volume were derived from treatment planning system data. Whereas, due to the lack of calculation algorithms where leakage and internal radiation scattering are unreliable at a large distance from target, the doses to the organs outside the treatment volume were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses from Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) were also assessed on phantom measurements. The Lifetime Attributable Risk (LAR) for second tumor induction increases from 2.2 to 13.7% as irradiated volume increases and age decreases. IGRT could add a non-negligible factor to the risk when daily set-up verification with high-resolution modality is included. As prostate cancer is detected earlier, the probability of an increase in early stage patients rises, and life expectancy thus increases. Radiotherapy has improved its capability in the tailoring of the dose around the target at the cost of a greater dose to surrounding organs, thus increasing the risk of second tumor induction, especially for those patients expected to survive 15 y or more. PMID:26509622

  7. Role of InxGa1-xAs Layer Composition in Modifying Strain Fields and Carrier Confinement Potentials in a Close-stacked InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong; Yoo, Yo-Han; Shin, Hyunho; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2005-05-01

    Role of the composition of InxGa1-xAs strain-relief layer (SRL) in controlling the strain fields and consequent modification of band structures in a close-stacked multi-layer InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) system was investigated within the framework of continuum elasticity and model solid theory. It was predicted that strains in the QDs are significantly relieved in proportion to the In concentration in the InxGa1-xAs SRLs between InAs QD and GaAs cap layer. The relaxation of strains caused substantial shift of the conduction band edge in the QDs mainly by the relief of hydrostatic strain component resulting in narrower bandgap within the QDs with increasing In concentration. It is interpreted that such strain relaxation and subsequent band structure modifications are responsible for the experimentally observed redshift of photo-luminescence (PL) spectra elsewhere. Therefore, together with existing experimental work, it is confirmed that conduction band edges of QD systems can be tailored by the control of the SRL composition allowing more flexibility in bandgap engineering.

  8. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  9. The accuracy of using the spectral width boundary measured in off-meridional SuperDARN HF radar beams as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisham, G.; Freeman, M. P.; Sotirelis, T.; Greenwald, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB) is crucial for making accurate measurements of magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of spectral width boundaries (SWBs) measured by different beams of the Goose Bay radar of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), with the latitudes of OCBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, in order to determine whether the accuracy of the SWB as a proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB depends on the line-of-sight direction of the radar beam. The latitudes of SWBs and OCBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997 2001) of data measured in the 1000 1400 magnetic local time (MLT) range. Six different Goose Bay radar beams were used, ranging from those aligned in the geomagnetic meridional direction to those aligned in an almost zonal direction. The results show that the SWB is a good proxy for the OCB in near-meridionally-aligned beams but becomes progressively more unreliable for beams greater than 4 beams away from the meridional direction. We propose that SWBs are identified at latitudes lower than the OCB in the off-meridional beams due to the presence of high spectral width values that result from changes in the orientation of the beams with respect to the gradient in the large-scale ionospheric convection pattern. Keywords. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques; Plasma convection) Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers)

  10. Unbalanced Peptidergic Inhibition in Superficial Neocortex Underlies Spike and Wave Seizure Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S.; Hunt, M.; Simon, A.; Cunnington, L.G.; Carracedo, L.M.; Schofield, I.S.; Forsyth, R.; Traub, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Slow spike and wave discharges (0.5–4 Hz) are a feature of many epilepsies. They are linked to pathology of the thalamocortical axis and a thalamic mechanism has been elegantly described. Here we present evidence for a separate generator in local circuits of associational areas of neocortex manifest from a background, sleep-associated delta rhythm in rat. Loss of tonic neuromodulatory excitation, mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine or serotonin (5HT3A) receptors, of 5HT3-immunopositive interneurons caused an increase in amplitude and slowing of the delta rhythm until each period became the “wave” component of the spike and wave discharge. As with the normal delta rhythm, the wave of a spike and wave discharge originated in cortical layer 5. In contrast, the “spike” component of the spike and wave discharge originated from a relative failure of fast inhibition in layers 2/3—switching pyramidal cell action potential outputs from single, sparse spiking during delta rhythms to brief, intense burst spiking, phase-locked to the field spike. The mechanisms underlying this loss of superficial layer fast inhibition, and a concomitant increase in slow inhibition, appeared to be precipitated by a loss of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated local circuit inhibition and a subsequent increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated disinhibition. Blockade of NPY Y1 receptors was sufficient to generate spike and wave discharges, whereas blockade of VIP receptors almost completely abolished this form of epileptiform activity. These data suggest that aberrant, activity-dependent neuropeptide corelease can have catastrophic effects on neocortical dynamics. PMID:26109655

  11. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  12. Molecular marker-based prediction of hybrid performance in maize using unbalanced data from multiple experiments with factorial crosses.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Tobias A; Möhring, Jens; Maurer, Hans Peter; Dhillon, Baldev S; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Sørensen, Anker P; Frisch, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    In hybrid breeding, the prediction of hybrid performance (HP) is extremely important as it is difficult to evaluate inbred lines in numerous cross combinations. Recent developments such as doubled haploid production and molecular marker technologies have enhanced the prospects of marker-based HP prediction to accelerate the breeding process. Our objectives were to (1) predict HP using a combined analysis of hybrids and parental lines from a breeding program, (2) evaluate the use of molecular markers in addition to phenotypic and pedigree data, (3) evaluate the combination of line per se data with marker-based estimates, (4) study the effect of the number of tested parents, and (5) assess the advantage of haplotype blocks. An unbalanced dataset of 400 hybrids from 9 factorial crosses tested in different experiments and data of 79 inbred parents were subjected to combined analyses with a mixed linear model. Marker data of the inbreds were obtained with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Cross-validation was used to assess the performance prediction of hybrids of which no or only one parental line was testcross evaluated. For HP prediction, the highest proportion of explained variance (R (2)), 46% for grain yield (GY) and 70% for grain dry matter content (GDMC), was obtained from line per se best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimates plus marker effects associated with mid-parent heterosis (TEAM-LM). Our study demonstrated that HP was efficiently predicted using molecular markers even for GY when testcross data of both parents are not available. This can help in improving greatly the efficiency of commercial hybrid breeding programs. PMID:19048224

  13. Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) associated with unbalanced inactivation of the X chromosomes in a karyotypically normal girl.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, J T; Greer, W L; Strasberg, P M; Pearce, R D; Skomorowski, M A; Ray, P N

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of profound generalized iduronate sulfatase (IDS) deficiency in a developmentally delayed female with clinical Hunter syndrome was studied. Methylation-sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patient, using MspI/HpaII digestion and probing with M27 beta, showed that the paternal allele was resistant to HpaII digestion (i.e., was methylated) while the maternal allele was digested (i.e., was hypomethylated), indicating marked imbalance of X-chromosome inactivation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. Similar studies on DNA from maternal lymphocytes showed random X-chromosome inactivation. Among a total of 40 independent maternal fibroblast clones isolated by dilution plating and analyzed for IDS activity, no IDS- clone was found. Somatic cell hybrid clones containing at least one active human X chromosome were produced by fusion of patient fibroblasts with Hprt- hamster fibroblasts (RJK88) and grown in HAT-ouabain medium. Methylation-sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from the hybrids showed that of the 22 clones that retained the DXS255 locus (M27 beta), all contained the paternal allele in the methylated (active) form. No clone was isolated containing only the maternal X chromosome, and in no case was the maternal allele hypermethylated. We postulate from these studies that the patient has MPS II as a result of a mutation resulting in both the disruption of the IDS locus on her paternal X chromosome and unbalanced inactivation of the nonmutant maternal X chromosome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1678247

  14. Unbalanced recovery of regulatory and effector T cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation contributes to chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Ana C.; Kim, Haesook T.; Chammas, Marie J.; Reynolds, Carol G.; Matos, Tiago R.; Forcade, Edouard; Whangbo, Jennifer; Nikiforow, Sarah; Cutler, Corey S.; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T.; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Lacerda, Joao F.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires the balanced reconstitution of donor-derived CD4 regulatory T cells (CD4Tregs) as well as effector CD4 (conventional CD4 T cells [CD4Tcons]) and CD8 T cells. To characterize the complex mechanisms that lead to unbalanced recovery of these distinct T-cell populations, we studied 107 adult patients who received T-replete stem cell grafts after reduced-intensity conditioning. Immune reconstitution of CD4Treg, CD4Tcon, and CD8 T cells was monitored for a 2-year period. CD3 T-cell counts gradually recovered to normal levels during this period but CD8 T cells recovered more rapidly than either CD4Tregs or CD4Tcons. Reconstituting CD4Tregs and CD4Tcons were predominantly central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) cells and CD8 T cells were predominantly terminal EM cells. Thymic generation of naive CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells was maintained but thymic production of CD4Tregs was markedly decreased with little recovery during the 2-year study. T-cell proliferation was skewed in favor of CM and EM CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells, especially 6 to 12 months after HSCT. Intracellular expression of BCL2 was increased in CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells in the first 3 to 6 months after HSCT. Early recovery of naive and CM fractions within each T-cell population 3 months after transplant was also strongly correlated with the subsequent development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These dynamic imbalances favor the production, expansion, and persistence of effector T cells over CD4Tregs and were associated with the development of chronic GVHD. PMID:26670634

  15. Growth and characterization of chromium oxide coatings prepared by pulsed-direct current reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshilia, Harish C.; Rajam, K. S.

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 0.2-3.2 μm thick single phase chromium oxide (Cr 2O 3) coatings with different oxygen flow rates were deposited on silicon and mild steel substrates at low substrate temperature (˜60 °C) by pulsed-direct current (DC) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Two asymmetric bipolar-pulsed DC generators were used to co-sputter two Cr targets, in Ar + O 2 plasma. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation hardness tester, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The XRD data showed the presence of mixture of crystalline (rhombohedral Cr 2O 3) and amorphous phases for the coatings prepared with oxygen flow rate less than 10 sccm. A complete transformation to amorphous phase was observed at higher oxygen flow rates. The XRD results were supported by Raman spectroscopy data. The XPS data suggested that the chemical state of Cr was in the form of Cr 3+. The chromium oxide coatings exhibited a maximum hardness of 22 GPa and an elastic modulus of 208 GPa. The coatings exhibited high thermal stability upon annealing in vacuum up to 500 °C and retained hardness as high as 17 GPa. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data indicated that coatings prepared at higher oxygen flow rates were dielectric in nature and those prepared at low oxygen flow rates exhibited an intermediate character, i.e., a transition between the dielectric and the metallic behavior. The corrosion behavior of Cr 2O 3 coating deposited on mild steel substrates was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results indicated that Cr 2O 3 coating exhibited superior corrosion resistance as compared to the uncoated substrate.

  16. Noncommutative via closed star product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.; Vitale, P.

    2015-08-01

    We consider linear star products on of Lie algebra type. First we derive the closed formula for the polydifferential representation of the corresponding Lie algebra generators. Using this representation we define the Weyl star product on the dual of the Lie algebra. Then we construct a gauge operator relating the Weyl star product with the one which is closed with respect to some trace functional, Tr ( f ⋆ g) = Tr ( f · g). We introduce the derivative operator on the algebra of the closed star product and show that the corresponding Leibniz rule holds true up to a total derivative. As a particular example we study the space R {/θ 3} with type noncommutativity and show that in this case the closed star product is the one obtained from the Duflo quantization map. As a result a Laplacian can be defined such that its commutative limit reproduces the ordinary commutative one. The deformed Leibniz rule is applied to scalar field theory to derive conservation laws and the corresponding noncommutative currents.

  17. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  18. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) as a novel strategy for identification of the skewed X inactivation pattern in balanced and unbalanced X-rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Sisdelli, Luiza; Vidi, Angela Cristina; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Di Battista, Adriana; Bortolai, Adriana; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; da Silva, Magnus R Dias; Melaragno, Maria Isabel; Carvalheira, Gianna

    2016-02-01

    X-chromosome inactivation occurs randomly in normal female cells. However, the inactivation can be skewed in patients with alterations in X-chromosome. In balanced X-autosome translocations, normal X is preferentially inactivated, while in unbalanced X alterations, the aberrant X is usually inactivated. Here, we present a novel strategy to verify the skewed X inactivation pattern through the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into cells, in 11 patients: five carriers of balanced X-autosome translocations and six of unbalanced X-chromosome alterations. Since EdU is a labeled nucleoside analog of thymidine, its incorporation during DNA synthesis can reveal late replication regions and the inactive X-chromosome. All EdU findings were validated by the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) assay. The late replication regions were easily and quickly visualized in all cells, where inactive Xs are marked with strong green fluorescence. It was observed that the normal X-chromosome was preferentially inactivated in patients with balanced X-autosome translocations; while the aberrant X-chromosome was inactivated in most cells from patients with unbalanced alterations. By performing the fluorescence-based EdU assay, the differences between the active and inactive X-chromosomes are more easily recognizable than by classic cytogenetic methods. Furthermore, EdU incorporation allows the observation of the late replication regions in autosomal segments present in X derivatives from X-autosome translocations. Therefore, EdU assay permits an accurate and efficient cytogenetic evaluation of the X inactivation pattern with a low-cost, easy to perform and highly reproducible technique. PMID:26670424

  19. Dietary self-selection of protein-unbalanced diets supplemented with three essential amino acids in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Silva, R; Rosa, P V; Zamora, S; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2012-02-01

    Animals do not eat whatever food item they encounter, but choose different foods that best match their requirements. Fish exhibit such "nutritional wisdom" and adapt their feeding behaviour and food intake according to their needs and the nutritional properties of diets. In this paper, we tested the ability of Nile tilapia to select between diets with a balanced or unbalanced composition of essential amino acids. To this end, three different diets were prepared: a gelatine based diet (D(1)), a gelatine diet supplemented with three essential amino acids (EAA, l-tryptophane, l-methionine, l-threonine) (D(2)), and a diet containing only cellulose and the three crystalline EAA (D(3)). In addition, the putative role of both orosensorial factors (using pellets vs capsules) and social interactions (single vs groups of ten fish) was investigated. To this end, a total of 68 male tilapia of about 141±48 g (mean±S.D.) were challenged, individually or in groups, to select between D(1)vs D(2) using pellets dispensed by self-feeders (exp. 1). In another experiment (exp. 2), 11 individual fish were challenged to select encapsulated diets with non flavour or smell proprieties (D(1)vs D(2)), and in exp. 3 fish were challenged to self-supplementation in EAA (D(1)vs D(3)). The results showed the ability of tilapia to avoid the EAA-deficient diet, choosing 82.2% D(2) in the case of individual fish, and 80.8% D(2) in the case of fish groups. Dietary selection was not directly driven by the orosensorial characteristics of food, since tilapia sustained a higher preference for D(2) when fed with encapsulated diets. Finally, in exp. 3 tilapia self-supplemented the EAA deficiency by selecting a synchronised combination of D(1) and D(3) that matched their nutritional requirements. These findings highlighted the capacity of fish to make dietary selection based on the EAA content, which should be considered when discussing food intake regulation mechanisms, and diet formulation and

  20. An Unbalanced Crucible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Long regarded by the vanguard of America's universities as antiquated and even dangerous, civic education is suddenly fashionable again. With the publication of "A Crucible Moment," a long battle in the culture wars appears to be winding down. It appears that everyone supports civic education today. For the past three decades, the ideal of civic…

  1. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  2. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Thomas J.; Palmer, Byron A.; Hof, Douglas E.

    1990-01-01

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy.

  3. Close encounters between two nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, J Britt; Aizpurua, Javier; Hernandez, Luis I; Brandl, Daniel W; Romero, Isabel; Lal, Surbhi; Hafner, Jason H; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2008-04-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticle pairs known as "dimers" embody a simple system for generating intense nanoscale fields for surface enhanced spectroscopies and for developing an understanding of coupled plasmons. Individual nanoshell dimers in directly adjacent pairs and touching geometries show dramatically different plasmonic properties. At close distances, hybridized plasmon modes appear whose energies depend extremely sensitively on the presence of a small number of molecules in the interparticle junction. When touching, a new plasmon mode arising from charge transfer oscillations emerges. The extreme modification of the overall optical response due to minute changes in very reduced volumes opens up new approaches for ultrasensitive molecular sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:18345644

  4. Simple Genetic Distance-Optimized Field Deployments for Clonal Seed Orchards Based on Microsatellite Markers: As a Case of Chinese Pine Seed Orchard.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huwei; Niu, Shihui; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese pine seed orchards are in a period of transition from first-generation to advanced-generations. How to effectively select populations for second-generation seed orchards and significantly increase genetic gain through rational deployment have become major issues. In this study, we examined open- and control-pollinated progeny of the first-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning (Gansu Province, China) and Xixian (Shanxi Province, China) to address issues related to phenotypic selection for high volume growth, genetic diversity analysis and genetic distance-based phylogenetic analysis of the selections by simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and phylogenetic relationship-based field deployment for advanced-generation orchards. In total, 40, 28, 20, and 13 superior individuals were selected from the large-scale no-pedigree open-pollinated progeny of Zhengning (ZN-NP), open-pollinated families of Zhengning (ZN-OP), open-pollinated families of Xixian (XX-OP), and control-pollinated families of Xixian, with mean volume dominance ratios of 0.83, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.20, respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of the ZN-NP and XX-OP populations showed that the 40 superior individuals in the ZN-NP selected population belonged to 23 families and could be further divided into five phylogenetic groups, and that families in the same group were closely related. Similarly, 20 families in the XX-OP population were related to varying degrees. Based on these results, we found that second-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning and Xixian should adopt a grouped, unbalanced, complete, fixed block design and an unbalanced, incomplete, fixed block design, respectively. This study will provide practical references for applying molecular markers to establishing advanced-generation seed orchards. PMID:27310437

  5. Simple Genetic Distance-Optimized Field Deployments for Clonal Seed Orchards Based on Microsatellite Markers: As a Case of Chinese Pine Seed Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huwei; Niu, Shihui; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese pine seed orchards are in a period of transition from first-generation to advanced-generations. How to effectively select populations for second-generation seed orchards and significantly increase genetic gain through rational deployment have become major issues. In this study, we examined open- and control-pollinated progeny of the first-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning (Gansu Province, China) and Xixian (Shanxi Province, China) to address issues related to phenotypic selection for high volume growth, genetic diversity analysis and genetic distance-based phylogenetic analysis of the selections by simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and phylogenetic relationship-based field deployment for advanced-generation orchards. In total, 40, 28, 20, and 13 superior individuals were selected from the large-scale no-pedigree open-pollinated progeny of Zhengning (ZN-NP), open-pollinated families of Zhengning (ZN-OP), open-pollinated families of Xixian (XX-OP), and control-pollinated families of Xixian, with mean volume dominance ratios of 0.83, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.20, respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of the ZN-NP and XX-OP populations showed that the 40 superior individuals in the ZN-NP selected population belonged to 23 families and could be further divided into five phylogenetic groups, and that families in the same group were closely related. Similarly, 20 families in the XX-OP population were related to varying degrees. Based on these results, we found that second-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning and Xixian should adopt a grouped, unbalanced, complete, fixed block design and an unbalanced, incomplete, fixed block design, respectively. This study will provide practical references for applying molecular markers to establishing advanced-generation seed orchards. PMID:27310437

  6. Determining satellite close approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore; Negron, David, Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical method to evaluate close approaches of two satellites. The algorithm is based on a space curve modeling technique originally developed by Overhauser, presented here as an independent derivation. The method to determine minimum spacing between two space objects is based on creating a relative distance waveform, delta(t), versus time. The waveform is produced from either uniform or arbitrarily spaced data points, from which intervals of close approach are obtained by extracting the real roots of a localized cubic polynomial. This method is free of both transcendental equations and the computation of acceleration terms of the two objects of interest. For this study, a close approach truth table is constructed using a 0.1 second sequential step along the orbits, then differencing the two position vectors. The close approach entrance and exit times for an ellipsoidal quadric surface are then located using a piecewise linear interpolator, and serve as a benchmark for comparison. The simulation results show this algorithm produces encounter times almost identical to those in the truth table, with a 99.84 percent reduction in computer runtime. The results, created from real orbital data, include solution sets for three operational uses of close-approach logic. For this study, satellite orbital motion is modeled using first-order secular perturbations caused by mass anomalies.

  7. Close proximity gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1986-04-01

    Intuitively, a hand held in close proximity to a firearm at the instant of discharge will intercept a significant amount of gunshot residue, even though the hand did not actually come into contact with the weapon. There is, however, little information specifically described in the forensic science literature concerning the residue levels which might be encountered in such an instance. The present work confirms that antimony levels consistent with an individual having fired or handled a firearm may be intercepted by a hand held in close proximity. PMID:3711843

  8. Unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature differences among the cells in a lithium-ion battery pack with parallel combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Naixing; Zhang, Xiongwen; Shang, BinBin; Li, Guojun

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells. A thermal-electrochemical model is developed for the parallel-connected battery pack. The effects of temperature difference on the unbalanced discharging performances are studied by simulations and experiments. For the parallel-connected cells, the cell at higher temperature experiences a larger current in the early discharging process before approximately 75% of depth of discharge (DOD). When the discharge process approaches the voltage turn point of the battery pack, the discharge current through the cell at higher temperature begins to decrease significantly. After the DOD reaches approximately 90%, the discharge current of the cell at higher temperature rises again. Correspondingly, the changes in the discharging current through the cell at lower temperature are opposite to that of the cell at higher temperature. Simulations also show that the temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells greatly aggravates the imbalance discharge phenomenon between the cells, which accelerates the losses of the battery pack capacity. For the parallel-connected battery pack, the capacity loss rate approximately increases linearly as the temperature difference between the cells increases. This trend is magnified with the increase of operating temperature.

  9. Review: The Closing Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Two views of prominent biologists are presented side-by-side. Focal point is Barry Commoner's book, The Closing Circle, with a subsequent review by Paul Ehrlich. Growth of population, increases in affluence, and increased pollution from products of technology are considered. (BL)

  10. Closed Captioning: Students' Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasenforth, Donald L.

    A study investigated the attitudes of adult university students of English as a Second Language (ESL) toward use of closed captioned television (CCTV) as an instructional tool. Students at the intermediate (n=51) and advanced (n=55) levels of ESL study in classes using CCTV were administered a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of the…

  11. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  12. Closing the Loop Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

  13. When a Library Closes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Mary Ann

    1984-01-01

    This review of case studies of five academic libraries in institutions that have ceased operation notes background, time factors, disposition of library collections, and nature of bankruptcy. Guidelines for closing (stabilizing and documenting collection, estimating worth of collection, obligations to government) are presented. Eight sources are…

  14. Closing the pseudogap quietly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    The physical properties of hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors are heavily influenced by an energy gap known as the pseudogap whose origin remains a mystery second only to that of superconductivity itself. A key question is whether the pseudogap closes at a temperature T* . The absence of a specific heat anomaly, together with persistent entropy losses up to 300 K, have long suggested that the pseudogap does not vanish at T* . However, amid a growing body of evidence from other techniques pointing to the contrary we revisit this question. Here we investigate if, by adding a temperature dependence to the pseudogap energy and quasiparticle lifetime in the resonating-valence-bond spin-liquid model of Yang, Rice and Zhang, we can close the pseudogap quietly in the specific heat.

  15. Close encounters with PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. V.

    1988-07-01

    Aspects of the Soviet mission to Phobos are examined, including the objectives of the mission, the spapcecraft, experiments, and landers. Past Mars research and unanswered questions concerning Mars and its satellites are discussed. The spacecraft is expected to reach Mars in early 1989 and to observe the planet from two orbits, coming as close as 500 km from the surface, before moving into a third path close to Phobos. After studying the Phobos terrain from above, the craft will jettison one or two small long-duration automated landers, which will perform surface experiments, including work on celestial mechanics, the history of the Phobos orbit, surface composition, and mechanical properties. In addition to studying Phobos and Mars, the craft will examine the interplanetary medium, make observations of the Sun, and possibly study Deimos.

  16. Moessbauer Close-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up image of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the donut-shaped plate on the Moessbauer spectrometer. This image makes it easy to recognize the imprint left by the instrument in the martian soil at a location called 'Peak' on sol 43 (February 16, 2004). This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 39 (February 11, 2004).

  17. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  18. Reheating for closed string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  19. Coherent laser control in attosecond sum-frequency polarization beats using twin noisy driving fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Gan, Chenli; Song, Jianping; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Ruiqiong; Ge, Hao; Li, Chuangshe; Lu, Keqing

    2005-02-01

    Based on the phase-conjugate polarization interference between two-pathway excitations, we obtained an analytic closed form for the second-order or fourth-order Markovian stochastic correlation of the V three-level sum-frequency polarization beat (SFPB) in attosecond scale. Novel interferometric oscillatory behavior is exposed in terms of radiation-radiation, radiation-matter, and matter-matter polarization beats. The phase-coherent control of the light beams in the SFPB is subtle. When the laser has broadband linewidth, the homodyne detected SFPB signal shows resonant-nonresonant cross correlation, a drastic difference for three Markovian stochastic fields, and the autocorrelation of the SFPB exhibits hybrid radiation-matter detuning terahertz damping oscillation. As an attosecond ultrafast modulation process, it can be extended intrinsically to any sum frequency of energy levels. It has been also found that the asymmetric behaviors of the polarization beat signals due to the unbalanced controllable dispersion effects between the two arms of interferometer do not affect the overall accuracy in case using the SFPB to measure the Doppler-free energy-level sum of two excited states.

  20. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  1. [Chronic closed-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2004-06-01

    Five times more frequent than the acute form, chronic closed-angle glaucoma often goes unrecognized for a long time, resulting in considerable visual field deficiencies, even in loss of the eye. It is sometimes confused with chronic glaucoma and treated as such, which is inadequate to halt the progression of the disease. Only gonioscopy can diagnose it. If doubt persists, UBM (ultrasound biomicroscopy) can detect goniosynechiae, a malposition of the ciliary body or of the lens, or the existence of iridociliary cysts. Nine times out of ten, pupillary block initiates the process and an iridotomy should always be done to remediate it, even if this procedure alone does not always suffice to solve the problem. PMID:15319750

  2. Close encounters with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  3. Molecular Cytogenetics Detect an Unbalanced t(2;13)(q36;q14) and PAX3-FOXO1 Fusion in Rhabdomyosarcoma With Mixed Embryonal/Alveolar Features.

    PubMed

    La Starza, Roberta; Nofrini, Valeria; Pierini, Tiziana; Pierini, Valentina; Zin, Angelica; Bisogno, Gianni; Cerri, Carla; Caniglia, Maurizio; Sidoni, Angelo; Ludwig, Kathrin; Mecucci, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing between alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is crucial because treatment and prognosis are different. We describe a case of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which was classified as mixed ERMS/ARMS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detected losses of 3'PAX3 and 5'FOXO1, suggesting they had undergone an unbalanced rearrangement that probably produced the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion. Double-color FISH and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed PAX3-FOXO1, which is characteristic of high-risk RMS. This finding highlights the importance of supplementing histology with genetics so that atypical RMS is appropriately classified and patients are correctly stratified and treated. PMID:26179572

  4. Simulative and experimental investigation on stator winding turn and unbalanced supply voltage fault diagnosis in induction motors using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Negin; Poshtan, Javad; Azgomi, Hamid Fekri

    2015-11-01

    The three-phase shift between line current and phase voltage of induction motors can be used as an efficient fault indicator to detect and locate inter-turn stator short-circuit (ITSC) fault. However, unbalanced supply voltage is one of the contributing factors that inevitably affect stator currents and therefore the three-phase shift. Thus, it is necessary to propose a method that is able to identify whether the unbalance of three currents is caused by ITSC or supply voltage fault. This paper presents a feedforward multilayer-perceptron Neural Network (NN) trained by back propagation, based on monitoring negative sequence voltage and the three-phase shift. The data which are required for training and test NN are generated using simulated model of stator. The experimental results are presented to verify the superior accuracy of the proposed method. PMID:26412499

  5. Jacobsen syndrome due to an unbalanced translocation between 11q23 and 22q11.2 identified at age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ikuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sawada, Kenichi; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    A woman with psychomotor developmental delay, congenital glaucoma, and distinctive facial features, and a short neck was diagnosed with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) at age 40 years. A previously reported balanced translocation between chromosome 11 and 22 instead showed an unbalanced translocation by a microarray-based comparative hybridization analysis with the final karyotype of 46,XX,der(11)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.21),del(22)(q11.21) dn. The breakpoint of chromosome 11 was determined to be at TECTA and not near the apolipoprotein gene cluster site or the fragile site (FRA11B), which are commonly seen in patients with t(11;22) and patients with typical 11q deletions, respectively. Although the phenotypic features of the patient, including psychomotor developmental delay, distinctive features, and mild thrombocytopenia, were consistent with JBS, congenital glaucoma, which is an uncommon finding of JBS, was the most prominent condition during her natural history. PMID:22139980

  6. Data on affected cancer-related genes in pediatric t(12;21)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients harboring unbalanced der(6)t(X;6) translocations.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2016-09-01

    The t(12;21)(p13;q22), leading to ETV6/RUNX1 fusion, is of importance for leukemogenesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia but is not sufficient for the leukemic transformation. Acquired secondary chromosomal aberrations are necessary for overt leukemia but their complete nature and genes involved are still elusive. In our recent publication, "Oligo-based aCGH analysis reveals cryptic unbalanced der(6)t(X;6) in pediatric t(12;21)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia", we identified acquired common concurrent regions with 6q deletion and Xq duplication E. Kjeldsen (2016) [1]. The present article provides data on genes that are associated with hematological malignancy and other cancers located in these common regions of chromosomal aberrations. PMID:27508240

  7. Rotating-unbalanced-mass Devices for Scanning Balloon-borne Experiments, Free-flying Spacecraft, and Space Shuttle/space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is presented for scanning balloon-borne experiments, free-flying spacecraft, and gimballed experiments mounted to the space shuttle or the space station. It uses rotating-unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices for generating circular, line, or raster scan patterns and an auxiliary control system for target acquisition, keeping the scan centered on the target, and producing complementary motion for raster scanning. It is ideal for applications where the only possible way to accomplish the required scan is to physically scan the entire experiment or spacecraft as in x ray and gamma ray experiments. In such cases, this new method should have advantages over prior methods in terms of either power, weight, cost, performance, stability, or a combination of these.

  8. Estimation of the proportion of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa in the semen of boars carrying chromosomal rearrangements using FISH on sperm nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Alain; Ducos, Alain; Yerle, Martine

    2004-01-01

    Many chromosomal rearrangements are detected each year in France on young boars candidates for reproduction. The possible use of these animals requires a good knowledge of the potential effect of the rearrangements on the prolificacy of their mates. This effect can be estimated by an accurate determination of the rate of unbalanced spermatozoa in the semen of boars which carry the rearrangements. Indeed, these spermatozoa exhibiting normal fertilizing ability are responsible for an early embryonic mortality, and then, for a decrease of the litter sizes. The "spermFISH" technique, i.e. fluorescent in situ hybridization on decondensed sperm heads, has been used on several occasions in Man, in this perspective. In livestock species, this method was formerly used mainly for semen sexing purposes. We used it, for the first time, to estimate the rates of imbalance in the semen of four boars carrying chromosomal rearrangements: two reciprocal translocations, rcp(3;15)(q27;q13) and rcp(12;14)(q13;q21), as well as two independent cases of trisomy 18 mosaicism. The rates of unbalanced gametes were relatively high for the two reciprocal translocations (47.83% and 24.33%, respectively). These values differed from the apparent effects of the rearrangements estimated using a limited number of litters: a decrease in prolificacy of 23% (estimation obtained using the results of 6 litters) and 39% (57 litters), respectively for the 3/15 and 12/14 translocations. The imbalance rates were much lower for the trisomy mosaics (0.58% and 1.13%), suggesting a very moderate effect of this special kind of chromosomal rearrangement. PMID:14713414

  9. Close Call: Marloes Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Teachers on a high school field trip used quick thinking when rescuing two students trapped in a small bay by a rising tide and a rocky coastline. Emphasizes that teachers should never assume that students will follow rules and must check frequently when supervising student groups. (LP)

  10. Field induced domain switching as the origin of anomalous lattice strain along non-polar direction in rhombohedral BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} close to the morphotropic phase boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, K. V.; Ranjan, Rajeev; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2015-08-03

    The lattice strain and domain switching behavior of xBiScO{sub 3}–(1-x)PbTiO{sub 3} (x = 0.40) was investigated as a function of cyclic field and grain orientation by in situ X-ray diffraction during application of electric fields. The electric field induced 200 lattice strain was measured to be five times larger than the 111 lattice strain in pseudorhombohedral xBiScO{sub 3}–(1-x)PbTiO{sub 3} (x = 0.40). It is shown that the anomalous 200 lattice strain is not an intrinsic phenomenon, but arises primarily due to stress associated with the reorientation of the 111 domains in dense polycrystalline ceramic.

  11. Bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than 80 eV - ISEE evidence for a closed-field structure within the driver gas of an interplanetary shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    In near time coincidence with the arrival of helium enriched plasma driving the shock wave disturbance of November 12-13, 1978, strong bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than about 80 eV was observed with Los Alamos instrumentation on ISEE 3. The streaming persisted for many hours simultaneously parallel and anti-parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field which was directed roughly perpendicular to the sun-satellite line. This example of bidirectional streaming cannot be explained by field line connection to the earth's bow shock or the outward propagating interplanetary shock which passed ISEE 3 approximately 16 hours earlier. The event is explained if the local interplanetary field was a part of a magnetic bottle rooted at the sun or a disconnected loop propagating outward.

  12. Trajectories in Close Proximity to Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft motion in close proximity to irregularly shaped, rotating bodies such as asteroids presents a unique dynamical environment as compared to most space missions. There are several fundamental novelties in this environment that spacecraft must deal with. These include the possibility of orbital instabilities that can act over very short time spans (on the order of hours for some systems), possible non-uniform rotation of the central gravity field, divergence of traditional gravity field representations when close to the asteroid surface, dominance of perturbing forces, an extremely large asteroid model parameter space that must be prepared for in the absence of reliable information, and the possibility of employing new and novel trajectory control techniques such as hovering and repeated landings on the asteroid surface. An overview of how these novelties impact the space of feasible close proximity operations and how different asteroid model properties will affect their implementation is given. In so doing, four fundamental types of close proximity operations will be defined. Listed in order of increasing technical difficulty these are: (1) close, stable orbits; (2) low-altitude flyovers; (3) landing trajectories; and (4) hovering trajectories. The feasibility and difficulty of implementing these operations will vary as a function of the asteroid shape, size, density, and rotation properties, and as a function of the spacecraft navigation capability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Ganymede - close up photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two close-up photos of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 moons, were obtained on July 8 by Voyager 2 from 86,000 miles (top) and 192,000 miles. They show different views of the largest block of dark, heavily cratered terrain seen on the giant moon. The bottom image shows objects three to four miles across; has a resolution of about 1.5 miles. The light, linear stripes recurring across the dark region resemble the outer rings of the large ring structure on Callisto. If these features are in fact related to an ancient ring structure formed by a large impact, their small curvature suggests that the original structure was even larger than one seen on Callisto. There is no apparent trace now of the center of this suggested structure, which must have been destroyed by the resurfacing evident over most of Ganymede in the grooved terrain. Another interpretation is that these features are not impact-related rings but are internally produced fractures crossing the dark terrain, similar to the grooved bands.

  14. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  15. Open-closed homotopy algebra in mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiura, Hiroshige; Stasheff, Jim

    2006-02-15

    In this paper we discuss various aspects of open-closed homotopy algebras (OCHAs) presented in our previous paper, inspired by Zwiebach's open-closed string field theory, but that first paper concentrated on the mathematical aspects. Here we show how an OCHA is obtained by extracting the tree part of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory. We clarify the explicit relation of an OCHA with Kontsevich's deformation quantization and with the B-models of homological mirror symmetry. An explicit form of the minimal model for an OCHA is given as well as its relation to the perturbative expansion of open-closed string field theory. We show that our open-closed homotopy algebra gives us a general scheme for deformation of open string structures (A{sub {infinity}} algebras) by closed strings (L{sub {infinity}} algebras)

  16. Xerosis - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Xerosis - close-up: Xerosis refers to abnormally dry skin or membranes, such as those found in the mouth or the conjunctiva of the eye. This picture shows a close-up of xerotic skin. Note the dry and scaly ...

  17. Close to the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  18. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  19. The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method based on a closed-shell-type multiconfiguration self - consistent field reference state and its application to the LiH molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagane, Kotoku; Mori, Kazuhide; Ichihara, Akira; Itoh, Reikichi

    1990-03-01

    The linear response calculations in the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) approximation with a closed-shell-type MCSCF state as the time-independent reference state are discussed. The application to the LiH molecule with a small basis set ([4s2p1d/2s1p]) shows validity of our MCTDHF approach to the singlet ground state. Our MCSCF correlation energy is 97% of the total (=full CI) correlation energy and the MCTDHF excitation energies are in good agreements with the Δ full CI excitation energies. The Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curves for the lowest three singlet states of LiH and the corresponding vibrational level spacings, the transition moments, the oscillator strengths, and the frequency-dependent dipole polarizabilities are reported. All of these results imply the potentiality of our MCTDHF method for the future work with the larger basis set. One of such basis sets ([9s8p4d/8s7p1d]) is referentially used only at the single-configuration TDHF level, and the resultant near-Hartree-Fock polarizability and Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is very promising.

  20. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence. PMID:24942489

  1. Ecuador project closes shop.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has discontinued its contraceptive social marketing project in Ecuador after 2 1/2 years without a sale. USAID had awarded a 3-year US$1.2 million grant to the program's contractor, the John Snow Public Health Group Inc. The project was run by Ecuador's national family planning association. This is only the 3rd time USAID has terminated a social marketing program since entering this field in 1973. Impediments to the program's operation included product price hikes and supply shortages as a result of teh inflation and currency devaluation in Ecuador in recent years. Government opposition to the sales of donated contraceptive supplies further set back the program. The name chosen for the condom distributed by the program, Liber, had to be changed since a company importing sanitary napkins was using the name Liberty and objected. The program's peculiar organizational structur is also considered to have played a role in the program's failure. Rather than having a single authority responsible for the program, a 2-headed organizational design was used. Program funds were controlled by the contractor, but the family planning organization managed day to day operations. Unified management has enabled programs in other countries to survive problems such as inflation, brand registration, and product and price approvals. PMID:12266996

  2. Real time closed orbit correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.H.; Biscardi, R.; Bittner, J.; Bozoki, E.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Nawrocky, R.; Singh, O.; Vignola, G.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a global closed orbit feedback experiment, based upon a real time harmonic analysis of both the orbit movement and the correction magnetic fields. The feedback forces the coefficients of a few harmonics near the betatron tune to vanish, and significantly improves the global orbit stability. We present the results of the experiment in the UV ring using 4 detectors and 4 trims, in which maximum observed displacement was reduced by a factor of between 3 and 4. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Closed inflationary universe in patch cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del Herrera, Ramon Saavedra, Joel Labrana, Pedro

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, we study closed inflationary universe models using the Gauss-Bonnet Brane. We determine and characterize the existence of a universe with {omega}>1, with an appropriate period of inflation. We have found that this model is less restrictive in comparison with the standard approach where a scalar field is considered. We use recent astronomical observations to constrain the parameters appearing in the model.

  4. Acase history of a close call

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, R.G.; Hines, D.W. )

    1989-01-01

    When a brand-new galvanized cooling tower was placed in service using a commercial molybdate program at elevated pH, globules and streaks of a waxy solid material, later found to be a hydrated basic zinc carbonate, unexpectedly appeared on the galvanized surfaces. This caused serious concern until the deposition process was reversed. Meanwhile, similar galvanized towers, which were also being closely watched because of this incident, did not exhibit the phenomenon. This paper traces more than two years of field history before and after the solids disappeared, leaving behind scars of discolored metal. Additional data substantiate the field observations and support the conclusions drawn.

  5. Results of a laboratory experiment that tests rotating unbalanced-mass devices for scanning gimbaled payloads and free-flying spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Polites, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices are a new way to scan space-based, balloon-borne, and ground-based gimbaled payloads, like x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes. They can also be used to scan free-flying spacecraft. Circular scans, linear scans, and raster scans can be generated. A pair of RUM devices generates the basic scan motion and an auxiliary control system using torque motors, control moment gyros, or reaction wheels keeps the scan centered on the target and produces some complementary motion for raster scanning. Previous analyses and simulation results show that this approach offers significant power savings compared to scanning only with the auxiliary control system, especially with large payloads and high scan frequencies. However, these claims have never been proven until now. This paper describes a laboratory experiment which tests the concept of scanning a gimbaled payload with RUM devices. A description of the experiment is given and test results that prove the concept are presented. The test results are compared with those from a computer simulation model of the experiment and the differences are discussed.

  6. Sustained exposure to diets with an unbalanced macronutrient proportion alters key genes involved in energy homeostasis and obesity-related metabolic parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Caimari, Antoni; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the effects of long term intake of two unbalanced diets (rich in fat -HF- or protein -HP-) administered under isocaloric conditions to a control balanced diet (pair-feeding) to adult rats. Isocaloric intake of a HF diet did not affect the body weight but increased adiposity, liver-fat deposition, and induced insulin resistance. Gene expression changes in the liver and adipose tissue (increased lipolytic and decreased lipogenic gene expression) could try to compensate for increased adiposity. The HP diet decreased caloric intake, the body weight, the size of subcutaneous adipocytes, and circulating cholesterol. Higher insulin levels apparently not related to insulin resistance were observed. Changes at the gene expression level reflected an adaptation to lower diet carbohydrate content and to the use of amino acids as the energy source. The kidney size increased in HP-fed animals but serum creatinine was not affected. Circulating TNF-alpha levels were higher in both dietary models. Thus, a long-term increase in dietary fat proportion produces alterations related to metabolic syndrome even in the absence of increased body weight, whereas an increase in diet protein content reduces the body weight but alters metabolic parameters and kidney size which could be linked to an increased risk of suffering from different pathologies. PMID:25266916

  7. Unbalanced translocation 8;Y (45,X,dic(Y;8)(q11.23;p23.1)): case report and review of terminal 8p deletions.

    PubMed

    Bosse, K; Eggermann, T; Van der Ven, K; Raff, R; Engels, H; Schwanitz, G

    2004-01-01

    A boy with a rare unbalanced de novo Y/autosome translocation is presented. Main clinical features in the boy comprised a psychomotor delay, talipes planus, a dolichocephalus, low set and retroverted ears, supraorbital fullness of subcutaneous tissue and a bulbous nasal tip. Chromosomal analysis on amniocytes showed a single X chromosome and a derivative 8p (Karyotype: 45,X,der(8)GTG). The following DAPI staining revealed the inactivated centromere of the chromosome Y located on 8p and the absence of heterochromatic material Yq. Microsatellite analysis on fetal blood DNA using markers between SRY on Yp and DYS 240 on Yq proved presence of the spermatogenetic relevant factors. A terminal deletion of 8p was confirmed by FISH postnatally. Molecular genetic reassessment revealed the monosomy 8p to be of maternal origin; the translocation can thus be proven to have occurred in the zygote. The breakpoint in 8p was localised distal to GATA4, a gene which is involved in heart development; the finding that our patient did not suffer from cardiac problems agrees with the disomic presence of GATA4. Only the application of FISH combined with microsatellite analysis allowed a precise correlation between clinical phenotype and a subtle deletion of terminal 8p; furthermore, a recurrence risk for the parents could be excluded. PMID:15183753

  8. Structural, chemical and nanomechanical investigations of SiC/polymeric a-C:H films deposited by reactive RF unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomastik, C.; Lackner, J. M.; Pauschitz, A.; Roy, M.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (or diamond-like carbon, DLC) films have shown a number of important properties usable for a wide range of applications for very thin coatings with low friction and good wear resistance. DLC films alloyed with (semi-)metals show some improved properties and can be deposited by various methods. Among those, the widely used magnetron sputtering of carbon targets is known to increase the number of defects in the films. Therefore, in this paper an alternative approach of depositing silicon-carbide-containing polymeric hydrogenated DLC films using unbalanced magnetron sputtering was investigated. The influence of the C2H2 precursor concentration in the deposition chamber on the chemical and structural properties of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis. Roughness, mechanical properties and scratch response of the films were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation. The Raman spectra revealed a strong correlation of the film structure with the C2H2 concentration during deposition. A higher C2H2 flow rate results in an increase in SiC content and decrease in hydrogen content in the film. This in turn increases hardness and elastic modulus and decreases the ratio H/E and H3/E2. The highest scratch resistance is exhibited by the film with the highest hardness, and the film having the highest overall sp3 bond content shows the highest elastic recovery during scratching.

  9. Towards a general method for estimating the unbalanced magnetic pull in mixed eccentricities motion including sufficiently large eccentricities in a hydropower generator and their validation against EM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing; Jauregui, Ricardo; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations.

  10. Effect of Si addition on the structure and corrosion behavior of NbN thin films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, L.; Olaya, J. J.; Rodil, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, nanostructured NbxSiyNz thin films were deposited onto stainless steel AISI 304 substrates by co-sputtering a Nb target with Si additions while using unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the chemical composition was identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The hardness was measured by nanoindentation, and the corrosion resistance was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a 3 wt% NaCl solution. The addition of Si in the NbN thin films changed the microstructure from a crystalline to an amorphous phase. The chemical analysis showed the presence of both Si3N4 and NbN phases. The hardness decreased from 20 GPa (NbN) to 15 GPa for the film with the highest Si concentration (28.6 at.%). Nevertheless, the corrosion properties were significantly improved as the Si concentration increased; the polarization resistance after 168 h of immersion was two orders of magnitude larger in comparison with the substrate.

  11. A new 17p13.3 microduplication including the PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE genes resulting from an unbalanced X;17 translocation.

    PubMed

    Hyon, Capucine; Marlin, Sandrine; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Mabboux, Philippe; Beaujard, Marie-Paule; Al Ageeli, Essam; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Portnoï, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Submicroscopic duplications of the genomic interval deleted in Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) were recently identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) studies, describing new genomic disorders in the MDS locus. These rearrangements of varying size, from 59-88 kb to 4 Mb, were non-recurrent, and appear to result from diverse molecular mechanisms. Only five patients had overlapping 17p13.3 duplications including the entire MDS critical region. We describe here a 13-year-old girl with a novel microduplication of the MDS critical region, involving the PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE genes. She presented with moderate psychomotor retardation, speech delay, behavioral problems, and bilateral cleft lip and palate, a previously unreported manifestation. Initially diagnosed as having an apparently simple terminal Xq26 deletion on standard cytogenetic analysis, she was found to have an associated terminal 4.2 Mb 17p13.3 submicroscopic duplication, identified by subtelomere FISH analysis, further characterized by high-resolution array CGH, resulting from an unbalanced X;17 translocation. Phenotypic comparison with the 5 other patients previously described, revealed common phenotypic features, such as hypotonia, mild to moderate developmental delay/mental retardation, speech abnormalities, behavioral problems, recurrent infections, relatively increase of body weight, discrete facial dysmorphism including downslanting palpebral fissures, broad midface, pointed chin, contributing to further delineate this new 17p13.3 microduplication syndrome. PMID:21195811

  12. Regulation of unbalanced redox homeostasis induced by the expression of wild-type HIV-1 viral protein R (NL4-3Vpr) in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Zoltán; Stromájer-Rácz, Timea; Belagyi, Joseph; Zhao, Richard Y; Elder, Robert T; Virág, Eszter; Pesti, Miklós

    2015-09-01

    The wild-type viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 exerts multiple effects on cellular activities during infection, including the induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and the death of human cells and cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, wild-type Vpr (NL4-3Vpr) integrated as a single copy gene in S. pombe chromosome was used to investigate the molecular impact of Vpr on cellular oxidative stress. NL4-3Vpr triggered an atypical response in early (14-h), and a wellregulated oxidative stress response in late (35-h) log-phase cultures. Specifically, NL4-3Vpr expression induced oxidative stress in the 14-h cultures leading, to decreased levels of superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and glutathione (GSH), and significantly decreased activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase. In the 35-h cultures, elevated levels of O(2)(·-) and peroxides were accompanied by increased activities of most antioxidant enzymes, suggesting that the Vpr-induced unbalanced redox state of the cells might contribute to the adverse effects in HIV-infected patients. PMID:26344028

  13. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  14. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  15. School Closings Policy. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research For Action, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The nation's largest school districts have increasingly turned to building closures to address budget deficits, demographic shifts, and the movement of students to charter schools. Over the past decade, 70 large or mid-sized cities closed schools--averaging 11 buildings per closure. This trend shows no signs of slowing. Washington, D.C. closed 23…

  16. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  17. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  18. Quantum coherence and closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1995-11-01

    Various calculations of the S matrix have shown that it seems to be nonunitary for interacting fields when there are closed timelike curves. It is argued that this is because there is loss of quantum coherence caused by the fact that part of the quantum state circulates on the closed timelike curves and is not measured at infinity. A prescription is given for calculating the superscattering matrix on spacetimes whose parameters can be analytically continued to obtain a Euclidean metric. It is illustrated by a discussion of a spacetime in which two disks in flat space are indentified. If the disks have an imaginary time separation, this corresponds to a heat bath. An external field interacting with the heat bath will lose quantum coherence. One can then analytically continue to an almost real separation of the disks. This will give closed timelike curves but one will still get loss of quantum coherence. A comparison is made with the work of authors who find a nonunitary S matrix. It is shown that this is because the does not factor into an S matrix and its adjoint when the spacetime does not have the property of asymptotic completeness.

  19. Close relationships research: a resource for couple and family therapists.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Susan S

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relatively new field of close relationships research, offering a representative list of topics studied by relationship researchers. Some of the common interests shared by both close relationships researchers and couple and family therapists are described, with the shared emphasis on relationships as an anchor for both fields. Some representative love theories are discussed, and Love Styles theory and research are presented in considerable detail. A clinical case example indicates how love styles research may be employed to advantage by couple therapists, and the utility of other close relationships theories and measures for therapy is briefly discussed. PMID:14763206

  20. Geo-spatial modelling with unbalanced data: modelling the spatial pattern of human activity during the Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiewicz, Jarosław; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing availability of data, geoscience provides many methods to model the spatial extent of various phenomena.Acquiring representative, high quality data is the most important criterion to assess the value of any spatial analysis, however, there are many situations in which these criteria cannot be fulfilled. Archived data, collected in the past, for which analysis cannot be repeated or supplemented is a very common information source. Archaeological data collected at a regional extent during years of field work and superficial observations are an additional example. Such data rarely provide representative samples and are usually imbalanced; only very few examples contain useful data, while many examples remain without any archaeological traces. In spite of these limitations archaeological information presented in the form of maps can be a useful and helpful tool to analyse the spatial patterns of some phenomena and, from a more practical point of view, a tool to predict the location of undiscovered occurrences. The primary goal of this paper is to present a methodology for modelling spatial patterns based on imbalanced categorical data which do not fulfil the criteria of spatial representation and incorporates uncertainty in its decision process. This concept will be discussed using a collection of Stone Age sites and set of environmental variables from the postglacial lowlands in Western Poland. We will propose a machine-learning system which adopts CART through bootstrap simulation to incorporate uncertainty into the spatial model and utilise that uncertainty in the decision-making process. Finally, we will describe the relationships between the model and environmental variables and present our results in cartographic form using the principles of decision-tree cartography.

  1. Spectroscopy analysis of graphene like deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S. Darma, Y.

    2014-02-24

    In this work, graphene-like deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at low temperature has been systematically studied. The γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was growth on silicon substrate using thermal evaporation of Al wire and continuing with dry oxidation of Al at 550 °C. Sputtering process were carried out using Fe-doped carbon pellet as a target by maintain the chamber pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr at substrate temperature of 300 °C for time deposition range of 1 to 4 hours. The quality of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Si(100) and the characteristic of carbon thin film on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were analized by mean XRD, opctical microscopy, EDAX, FTIR, and Raman spectra. XRD and optical microscopy analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is growth uniformly on Si substrate and forming the γ phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Raman and FTIR spectra confirm the formation of graphene like carbon layer on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Additionally, thermal annealing for some sample series have been performed to study their structural stability. The change of atomic structure due to thermal annealing were analized by XRD spectra. The quality and the number of graphene layers are investigated by using Raman spectra peaks analysis.

  2. Myotubular Myopathy in a girl with a deletion of Xq27-q28 and unbalanced X inactivation assigns the MTM1 gene to a 600-kb region

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, N.; Mandel, J.L.; Chery, M.; Gilgenkrantz, S.; Fardeau, M.; Nivelon-Chevallier, A.; Sidaner-Noisette, I.; Mugneret, F.; Gouyon, J.B.; Gal, A.

    1995-05-01

    A young girl with a clinically moderate form of myotubular myopathy was found to carry a cytogenetically detectable deletion in Xq27-q28. The deletion had occurred de novo on the paternal X chromosome. It encompasses the fragile X (FRAXA) and Hunter syndrome (IDS) loci, and the DXS304 and DXS455 markers, in Xq27.3 and proximal Xq28. Other loci from the proximal half of Xq28 (DXS49, DXS256, DXS258, DXS305, and DXS497) were found intact. As the X-linked myotubular myopathy locus (MTM1) was previously mapped to Xq28 by linkage analysis, the present observation suggested that MTM1 is included in the deletion. However, a significant clinical phenotype is unexpected in a female MTM1 carrier. Analysis of inactive X-specific methylation at the androgen receptor gene showed that the deleted X chromosome was active in {approximately}80% of leukocytes. Such unbalanced inactivation may account for the moderate MTM1 phenotype and for the mental retardation that later developed in the patient. This observation is discussed in relation to the hypothesis that a locus modulating X inactivation may lie in the region. Comparison of this deletion with that carried by a male patient with a severe Hunter syndrome phenotype but no myotubular myopathy, in light of recent linkage data on recombinant MTM1 families, led to a considerable refinement of the position of the MTM1 locus, to a region of {approximately}600 kb, between DXS304 and DXS497. 46 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Unusually mild manifestations of dup(15) (q21.2-qter) in a patient with an unbalanced t(X;15) (q26;q21.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Bawle, E.V.; Conard, J.V.; Ebrahim, S.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    A 4.5 year old girl was noted to have seizures from age 6 months to 18 months. Delayed psychomotor development was noted by 14 months. At 4.5 years of age, she functioned at 2.5-3 year old level. Her gross motor skills were at 4 year level but expressive language was at 1 year level. Clinical manifestations at 4.5 years included normal physical growth (the weight, height, head circumference were consistently at 50th centile since birth), mild micrognathia, alternating esotropia, deeply grooved philtrum like her mother, slightly low set ears, clinodactyly of left 5th finger and 2nd toes. EEG repeatedly showed generalized paroxysmal activity although no more clinical seizures were noted. Karyotype showed 46,X,der(X)t(X;15)(q26.1;q21.2)mat chromosome consititution resulting in a net duplication of 15q21.2-qter and deletion of Xq26-qter. Karyotypes of the mother and maternal grandmother were 46,X,t(X;15)(q26;q21.2). Review of the literature showed about 38 cases of duplication of distal 15q, only 1 of which involved an X;autosome translocation. These showed moderate to severe mental deficiency and significant dysmorphic features. X inactivation studies using R-banding after BrDU incorporation showed the der(X) to be late replicating (genetically active). In the mother, the normal X appeared to be late replicating. The milder phenotype of the proband suggests that the preferential inactivation of the der(X) spread to the 15q portion even though the autosomal segment was not late replicating. Thus the replication pattern of der(X) in unbalanced X-autosome translocations may be independent of activation or inactivation of autosomal genes.

  4. Effect of oxygen incorporation on structural and properties of Ti-Si-N nanocomposite coatings deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X.Z.; Zeng, X.T.; Liu, Y.C.; Zhao, L.R.

    2006-07-15

    Ti-Si-N-O nanocomposite coatings with different contents of oxygen were deposited by a combined dc/rf reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process in an Ar+N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} mixture atmosphere. The composition, structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments, respectively. It was found that in the range of lower oxygen content with atomic ratio of O/N{<=}0.72, the tribological properties of the Ti-Si-N-O coatings are evidently improved, in comparison with the coating without oxygen incorporation. At O/N=0.72, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the as-deposited coatings are reduced to 20% and 45%, respectively. Meanwhile, however, their hardness was not reduced, but, on the contrary, slightly increased. With increasing oxygen content further to O/N{>=}0.72, coating hardness decreased significantly. The friction coefficient of the as-deposited coatings decreased monotonously with the increase of oxygen content in the whole composition range investigated. The wear rate of the coatings exhibited a minimum value at around O/N=0.72. In the lower range of O/N, wear rate decreased significantly due to the lubricant effect of oxygen incorporation, while in the higher range of O/N, wear rate increased gradually due to the weakening of coating hardness. XRD patterns revealed that the as-deposited coatings were mainly crystallized in cubic TiN phase, accompanied with minority of rutile structure titania in the case of higher oxygen incorporation.

  5. Close-up of SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test at the John C. Stennis Space Center shows how the engine is gimballed, or rotated, to evaluate the performance of its components under simulated flight conditions.

  6. Covariant Closed String Coherent States

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

  7. Covariant closed string coherent states.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564

  8. [Selected medical closed claims in the field of regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Paul; Schaffartzik, Walter; Neu, Johann

    2016-05-01

    Legal malpractice cases in regional anaesthesia comprise a significant number of all cases before the expert commissions and arbitration boards of the state medical associations. One reason for this is the increasing use of neuraxial and peripheral regional blocks in orthopaedics and traumatology. Only in about one fourth of the reviewed cases could either a causal relationship between substandard performance and patient injury or an inadequate obtaining of informed consent be established. In the great majority of cases patients' claims were unfounded, since the patients' injuries were adjudged to be unavoidable and adequate consent had been abtained prior to performance of the blocks. PMID:27213606

  9. Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollins, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…

  10. Closed Paths of Light Trapped in a Closed Fermat Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Naiman, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Geometric constructions have previously been shown that can be interpreted as rays of light trapped either in polygons or in conics, by successive reflections. The same question, trapping light in closed Fermat curves, is addressed here. Numerical methods are used to study the behaviour of the reflection points of a triangle when the degree of the…

  11. Electric-field-induced assembly and propulsion of chiral colloidal clusters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fuduo; Wang, Sijia; Wu, David T; Wu, Ning

    2015-05-19

    Chiral molecules with opposite handedness exhibit distinct physical, chemical, or biological properties. They pose challenges as well as opportunities in understanding the phase behavior of soft matter, designing enantioselective catalysts, and manufacturing single-handed pharmaceuticals. Microscopic particles, arranged in a chiral configuration, could also exhibit unusual optical, electric, or magnetic responses. Here we report a simple method to assemble achiral building blocks, i.e., the asymmetric colloidal dimers, into a family of chiral clusters. Under alternating current electric fields, two to four lying dimers associate closely with a central standing dimer and form both right- and left-handed clusters on a conducting substrate. The cluster configuration is primarily determined by the induced dipolar interactions between constituent dimers. Our theoretical model reveals that in-plane dipolar repulsion between petals in the cluster favors the achiral configuration, whereas out-of-plane attraction between the central dimer and surrounding petals favors a chiral arrangement. It is the competition between these two interactions that dictates the final configuration. The theoretical chirality phase diagram is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations. We further demonstrate that the broken symmetry in chiral clusters induces an unbalanced electrohydrodynamic flow surrounding them. As a result, they rotate in opposite directions according to their handedness. Both the assembly and propulsion mechanisms revealed here can be potentially applied to other types of asymmetric particles. Such kinds of chiral colloids will be useful for fabricating metamaterials, making model systems for both chiral molecules and active matter, or building propellers for microscale transport. PMID:25941383

  12. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  13. Closed sets of nonlocal correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vertesi, Tamas

    2009-12-15

    We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

  14. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  15. Closed-Loop, Open-Source Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  16. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  17. {open_quotes}Balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes in six abnormal offspring of balanced reciprocal translocation normal carrier parents

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Boone, L.Y.

    1995-01-02

    Among 6800 consecutive blood samples studies for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis, we identified 30 families in which one parent of the proband had a balanced reciprocal autosomal translocation (excluding Robertsonian rearrangements). Twenty-eight of the 30 families had a malformed and/or mentally retarded proband: 19 with an unbalanced derived chromosome, 3 with abnormalities involving chromosomes other than those in the translocation, 5 with a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation, and 1 with a normal karyotype. We hypothesize that a latter 6 affected probands with {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes could be abnormal due to submicroscopic deletions and duplications as was originally suggested by Jacobs. Particularly in these 6 families, 83% of translocation breakpoints were associated with fragile sites, more than expected by chance (P < 0.025). This supports the report of an association between fragile sites and constitutional chromosome breakpoints by Hecht and Hecht. To explain these findings, we propose that autosomal fragile sites are unstable areas which predispose to breaks and unequal crossing over near the fragile site breakpoints creating minute duplications and deletions. Consequently, newborn infants inheriting a seemingly {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotype from a normal parent with a balanced reciprocal translocation may still be at an increased risk of being malformed and/or developmentally delayed because of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  19. Closed walks for community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Peng Gang; Hu, Xia; Li, Zhou Jun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel measure that integrates both the concept of closed walks and clustering coefficients to replace the edge betweenness in the well-known divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm, the Girvan and Newman method (GN). The edges with the lowest value are removed iteratively until the network is degenerated into isolated nodes. The experimental results on computer generated networks and real-world networks showed that our method makes a better tradeoff of accuracy and runtime. Based on the analysis of the results, we observe that the nontrivial closed walks of order three and four can be considered as the basic elements in constructing community structures. Meanwhile, we discover that those nontrivial closed walks outperform trivial closed walks in the task of analyzing the structure of networks. The double peak structure problem is mentioned in the last part of the article. We find that our proposed method is a novel way to solve the double peak structure problem. Our work can provide us with a new perspective for understanding community structure in complex networks.

  20. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students to lead…

  1. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  2. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Terrence C; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of "minimal" simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  3. Closing the Loop with Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altizer, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Conducting exercises provides a critical bridge between the theory of an Emergency Action Plan and its effective implementation. When conducted properly, exercises can fill the gap between training and after-action review to close the preparedness loop--before an actual emergency occurs. Often exercises are planned and conducted on campus based on…

  4. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  5. When a School Is Closed . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amlung, Susan, Ed.

    The purpose of this report is to study the transition from school to surplus property and the consequences for the immediate neighborhood. From the 53 schools closed in New York City since 1975, six schools were selected for study. Of the six schools, three are vacant, two are used by private organizations, and one by the board of education. Data…

  6. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  7. 24 CFR 291.306 - Closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closing requirements. 291.306...-Held Single Family Mortgage Loans § 291.306 Closing requirements. (a) Closing date payment. On the closing date, the purchaser must pay to HUD the closing date payment, consisting of the balance of...

  8. 24 CFR 291.306 - Closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Closing requirements. 291.306...-Held Single Family Mortgage Loans § 291.306 Closing requirements. (a) Closing date payment. On the closing date, the purchaser must pay to HUD the closing date payment, consisting of the balance of...

  9. 24 CFR 291.306 - Closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing requirements. 291.306...-Held Single Family Mortgage Loans § 291.306 Closing requirements. (a) Closing date payment. On the closing date, the purchaser must pay to HUD the closing date payment, consisting of the balance of...

  10. 24 CFR 291.306 - Closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing requirements. 291.306...-Held Single Family Mortgage Loans § 291.306 Closing requirements. (a) Closing date payment. On the closing date, the purchaser must pay to HUD the closing date payment, consisting of the balance of...

  11. 24 CFR 291.306 - Closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing requirements. 291.306...-Held Single Family Mortgage Loans § 291.306 Closing requirements. (a) Closing date payment. On the closing date, the purchaser must pay to HUD the closing date payment, consisting of the balance of...

  12. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.73 Closed areas. (a) Areas closed because of environmental degradation. Certain areas are closed to all surf clam and ocean quahog fishing because of adverse.... latitude. (b) Areas closed because of small surf clams. Areas may be closed because they contain small...

  13. Large Eddy Simulations of Double-Ruler Electromagnetic Field Effect on Transient Flow During Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramnik; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, Surya P.

    2014-06-01

    Transient flow during nominally steady conditions is responsible for many intermittent defects during the continuous casting of steel. The double-ruler electromagnetic field configuration, or "FC-Mold EMBr," is popular in commercial slab casting as it provides independent control of the applied static field near the jet and free surface regions of the mold. In the current study, transient flow in a typical commercial caster is simulated in the absence and in the presence of a double-ruler magnetic field, with rulers of equal strengths. Large eddy simulations with the in-house code CU-FLOW resolve the important transient behavior, using grids of over five million cells with a fast parallel solver. In the absence of a magnetic field, a double-roll pattern is observed, with transient unbalanced behavior, high surface velocities (~0.5 m/s), surface vortex formation, and very large surface-level fluctuations (~±12 mm). Applying the magnetic field suppresses the unbalanced behavior, producing a more complex mold flow pattern, but with much lower surface velocities (~0.1 m/s), and a flat surface level with small level fluctuations (<±1 mm). Nail board measurements taken at this commercial caster, in the absence of the field, matched reasonably well with the calculated results, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  14. Close supermassive binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  15. Closed terminologies in description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Weida, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.

  16. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  17. Closed reduction of a fractured bone

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture reduction - closed ... Closed reduction is a procedure to set (reduce) a broken bone without surgery. This allows the bone ... soon as possible after the bone breaks. A closed reduction can be done by an orthopedic surgeon ( ...

  18. Close-up of Moe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This close-up of the rock 'Moe' was taken from the Sojourner rover's front left camera on Sol 70 (September 13). Flute-like textures on the rock, possibly caused by wind abrasion, are clearly visible.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  19. On Closed Shells in Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1948-02-01

    It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

  20. Thermal Analysis of Closed Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1987-10-01

    TAP-LOOP is a finite-difference program designed for steady-state and transient thermal analysis of recirculating fluid loops and associated heat transfer equipment; however, it is not limited to loop analysis. TAP-LOOP was developed to perform scoping and conceptual design analyses for closed test loops in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), but it can handle a variety of problems which can be described in terms of potentials, sources, sinks, and storage including, in addition to heatmore » transfer problems, studies of potential fluid flow, electrical networks, and stress analysis.« less

  1. Singularities and Closed String Tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-03-17

    A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

  2. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  3. 27 CFR 40.434 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing. 40.434 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.434 Closing. A closing.... Where a change in proprietorship occurs, the closing inventory shall be made as of the day preceding...

  4. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  5. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  6. 50 CFR 253.18 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing. 253.18 Section 253.18 Wildlife... Closing. (a) Approval in principle letters. Every closing will be in strict accordance with a final... contractors must be satisfactory to the Program. (d) Closing schedules. The Program will not be liable...

  7. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  8. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture..., Procedures, and Authorizations § 1822.274 Loan closing. (a) Applicable instructions. The complete loan docket will be sent to the OGC for loan closing instructions. RHS loans will be closed in accordance...

  9. 27 CFR 40.434 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Closing. 40.434 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.434 Closing. A closing.... Where a change in proprietorship occurs, the closing inventory shall be made as of the day preceding...

  10. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture..., Procedures, and Authorizations § 1822.274 Loan closing. (a) Applicable instructions. The complete loan docket will be sent to the OGC for loan closing instructions. RHS loans will be closed in accordance...

  11. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing. 44.146 Section 44... Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing. 44.146 Section 44... Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be...

  13. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture..., Procedures, and Authorizations § 1822.274 Loan closing. (a) Applicable instructions. The complete loan docket will be sent to the OGC for loan closing instructions. RHS loans will be closed in accordance...

  14. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 764.402 Section 764.402 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... pay all filing, recording, notary, lien search, and any other fees necessary to process and close...

  15. 27 CFR 40.434 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closing. 40.434 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.434 Closing. A closing.... Where a change in proprietorship occurs, the closing inventory shall be made as of the day preceding...

  16. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.7 Section 1942.7 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in accordance with the closing instructions issued by the OGC and § 1942.17(o) of this subpart and as soon...

  17. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 764.402 Section 764.402 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... pay all filing, recording, notary, lien search, and any other fees necessary to process and close...

  18. 27 CFR 40.434 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing. 40.434 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.434 Closing. A closing.... Where a change in proprietorship occurs, the closing inventory shall be made as of the day preceding...

  19. 27 CFR 40.434 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing. 40.434 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.434 Closing. A closing.... Where a change in proprietorship occurs, the closing inventory shall be made as of the day preceding...

  20. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... closed to the harvest of surfclams and ocean quahogs. A portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area is open... in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section. The open portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area is defined...) Requirements for Vessels Fishing in the Open Portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area. A vessel may fish in...

  1. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.7 Section 1942.7 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in accordance with the closing instructions issued by the OGC and § 1942.17(o) of this subpart and as soon...

  2. 7 CFR 1942.123 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.123 Section 1942.123 Agriculture... Loan closing. (a) Ordering loan checks. Checks will not be ordered until: (1) Form FmHA or its... closing instructions, except for those actions which are to be completed on the date of loan closing...

  3. 25 CFR 11.712 - Closing estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closing estate. 11.712 Section 11.712 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.712 Closing estate. (a) Upon finding that the estate has been fully administered and is in a condition to be closed, the court shall enter an order closing the estate and...

  4. 25 CFR 11.712 - Closing estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing estate. 11.712 Section 11.712 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.712 Closing estate. (a) Upon finding that the estate has been fully administered and is in a condition to be closed, the court shall enter an order closing the estate and...

  5. 25 CFR 11.712 - Closing estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing estate. 11.712 Section 11.712 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.712 Closing estate. (a) Upon finding that the estate has been fully administered and is in a condition to be closed, the court shall enter an order closing the estate and...

  6. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Loan closing. 1942.7 Section 1942.7 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in accordance with the closing instructions issued by the OGC and § 1942.17(o) of this subpart and as soon...

  7. 25 CFR 11.712 - Closing estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing estate. 11.712 Section 11.712 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.712 Closing estate. (a) Upon finding that the estate has been fully administered and is in a condition to be closed, the court shall enter an order closing the estate and...

  8. 50 CFR 253.18 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closing. 253.18 Section 253.18 Wildlife... Closing. (a) Approval in principle letters. Every closing will be in strict accordance with a final... contractors must be satisfactory to the Program. (d) Closing schedules. The Program will not be liable...

  9. 27 CFR 40.426 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing. 40.426 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.426 Closing. A closing report, covering the period from the first of the month to the date of the closing inventory, shall...

  10. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 764.402 Section 764.402 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... pay all filing, recording, notary, lien search, and any other fees necessary to process and close...

  11. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing... Closed Area (copies of a chart depicting this area are available from the Regional Administrator...

  12. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  13. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  14. 27 CFR 40.426 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closing. 40.426 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.426 Closing. A closing report, covering the period from the first of the month to the date of the closing inventory, shall...

  15. 7 CFR 1942.123 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan closing. 1942.123 Section 1942.123 Agriculture... Loan closing. (a) Ordering loan checks. Checks will not be ordered until: (1) Form FmHA or its... closing instructions, except for those actions which are to be completed on the date of loan closing...

  16. 27 CFR 40.426 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Closing. 40.426 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.426 Closing. A closing report, covering the period from the first of the month to the date of the closing inventory, shall...

  17. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... closed to the harvest of surfclams and ocean quahogs. A portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area is open... in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section. The open portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area is defined...) Requirements for Vessels Fishing in the Open Portion of the Georges Bank Closed Area. A vessel may fish in...

  18. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture..., Procedures, and Authorizations § 1822.274 Loan closing. (a) Applicable instructions. The complete loan docket will be sent to the OGC for loan closing instructions. RHS loans will be closed in accordance...

  19. 27 CFR 40.426 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing. 40.426 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.426 Closing. A closing report, covering the period from the first of the month to the date of the closing inventory, shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture..., Procedures, and Authorizations § 1822.274 Loan closing. (a) Applicable instructions. The complete loan docket will be sent to the OGC for loan closing instructions. RHS loans will be closed in accordance...

  1. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation... Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with the... report circumstances concerning any STLP loans not closed within a reasonable time period after DOT...

  2. 25 CFR 11.712 - Closing estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Closing estate. 11.712 Section 11.712 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.712 Closing estate. (a) Upon finding that the estate has been fully administered and is in a condition to be closed, the court shall enter an order closing the estate and...

  3. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation... Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with the... report circumstances concerning any STLP loans not closed within a reasonable time period after DOT...

  4. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.76 Section 648.76... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.76 Closed areas. (a) Areas closed because of environmental degradation. Certain areas are closed to all surfclam and ocean quahog fishing because of...

  5. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation... Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with the... report circumstances concerning any STLP loans not closed within a reasonable time period after DOT...

  6. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  7. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan closing. 764.402 Section 764.402 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... pay all filing, recording, notary, lien search, and any other fees necessary to process and close...

  8. 27 CFR 40.426 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing. 40.426 Section 40... TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by Manufacturers § 40.426 Closing. A closing report, covering the period from the first of the month to the date of the closing inventory, shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  10. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  11. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  12. 7 CFR 1942.123 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.123 Section 1942.123 Agriculture... Loan closing. (a) Ordering loan checks. Checks will not be ordered until: (1) Form FmHA or its... closing instructions, except for those actions which are to be completed on the date of loan closing...

  13. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan closing. 764.402 Section 764.402 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... pay all filing, recording, notary, lien search, and any other fees necessary to process and close...

  14. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation... Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with the... report circumstances concerning any STLP loans not closed within a reasonable time period after DOT...

  15. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing... Closed Area (copies of a chart depicting this area are available from the Regional Administrator...

  16. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing. 44.146 Section 44... Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan closing. 1942.7 Section 1942.7 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in accordance with the closing instructions issued by the OGC and § 1942.17(o) of this subpart and as soon...

  18. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Closing. 44.146 Section 44... Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be...

  19. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing... Closed Area (copies of a chart depicting this area are available from the Regional Administrator...

  20. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing... Closed Area (copies of a chart depicting this area are available from the Regional Administrator...

  1. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  2. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closing. 44.146 Section 44... Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation... Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with the... report circumstances concerning any STLP loans not closed within a reasonable time period after DOT...

  4. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing... Closed Area (copies of a chart depicting this area are available from the Regional Administrator...

  5. Noncommutative-geometry model for closed bosonic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Holman, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how Witten's (1986) noncommutative geometry may be extended to describe the closed bosonic string. For closed strings, an explicit representation is provided of the integral operator needed to construct an action and of an associative product on string fields. The proper choice of the action of the integral operator and the associative product in order to give rise to a reasonable theory is explained, and the consequences of such a choice are discussed. It is shown that the ghost numbers of the operator and associative product can be chosen arbitrarily for both open and closed strings, and that this construct can be used as an action for interacting closed bosonic strings.

  6. 77 FR 75823 - Closing of the Port of Whitetail, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... / Wednesday, December 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Part 100... the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regulations pertaining to the field organization of U.S...) in the Federal Register (76 FR 52890), proposing to close the port of entry of Whitetail,...

  7. A hybrid genetic algorithm for resolving closely spaced objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, R. J.; Lillo, W. E.; Schulenburg, N.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid genetic algorithm is described for performing the difficult optimization task of resolving closely spaced objects appearing in space based and ground based surveillance data. This application of genetic algorithms is unusual in that it uses a powerful domain-specific operation as a genetic operator. Results of applying the algorithm to real data from telescopic observations of a star field are presented.

  8. Summary of Closed Circuit Television Activities in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    This 1967 summary of closed circuit television (CCTV) activities in medical education presents descriptive information on 35 different medical institutions in Great Britain. Specific data on CCTV are offered by institution, equipment, and uses under each medical field: anatomy, anaesthetics, geriatrics, medicine, obstretrics and gynaecology,…

  9. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  10. Closed cycle desiccant cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernev, D. I.; Emerson, D. T.

    1986-10-01

    The breadboard prototype of a closed cycle desiccant cooling system was designed, constructed and its performance tested. The system combines the sorption properties of solid zeolite/refrigerant vapor pairs with the principle of regenerative heat exchangers. Since solid zeolites are difficult to move in vacuum tight containers and in order to avoid intermittent operation, the desiccant is housed in two separate containers which are alternately heated and cooled by a heat transfer fluid. Using the principle of energy regeneration, the heat removed from the container being cooled is recycled in the container being heated. The breadboard system, with 90 pounds of zeolite, demonstrated a recycling efficiency of 75%, while the system capacity was 2,000 Btu/hr. This significantly increased the system thermal Coefficient of Performance (COP) to 1.1 at ARI conditions from the single container thermal COP of 0.4.

  11. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  12. Solar Eclipse Workshop: Closing Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E.

    1999-03-01

    I want to thank Voyto Rusin, Pavel Kotrc, and Eva Markova for organizing this excellent workshop in preparation for the 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse. There is less than a year before a notable eclipse will bisect Europe - - - a fitting last eclipse for this millenium because (the first scientific eclipse expeditions were organized by Europeans) during the middle of the 19th Century. To me the great themes of this eclipse underline are: (1) the science (as always); and (2) the unprecedented opportunity for public education. As we close this pre-eclipse workshop, I would like to remind everyone of the post-eclipse workshop that is being organized by Atila Ozguc to be held in Istanbul from August 13-15. It will be an opportunity to review `lessons learned' while they are still fresh in mind, and in the spirit of eclipse observers, to begin thinking about the first eclipse of the new millenium.

  13. Modeling of closed membrane shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penič, S.; Mesarec, L.; Fošnarič, M.; Kralj Iglič, V.; Kralj, S.; Góźdź, W.; Iglič, A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed biological membranes were considered within the spontaneous curvature model. Ground state membrane shapes were compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the thermal equilibrium, where membranes are subject to thermal fluctuations. The results of the two approaches correspond well with each other. The oblate discocyte membrane shapes are obtained in the ground state but can become metastable when thermal fluctuations are taken into account. The nematic ordering in oblate and stomatocyte vesicle membranes was also studied. It was confirmed that the net topological charge on the surfaces with the topology of a sphere was 2. On the oblate vesicle four topological defects, each with charge 1/2, assembled in the region exhibiting the highest Gaussian curvature. On the stomatocyte vesicle with six topological defects, each with charge 1/2, and two topological antidefects, each with charge -1/2, the latter assembled in the region with a negative Gaussian curvature. The position of topological defects is strongly curvature dependent.

  14. Closing the loop with blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Jacopo

    A great variety of systems use image sensors to provide measurements for closed loop operation. A drawback of using image sensors in real-time feedback is that they provide measurements at slower sampling rates as compared to the actuators, typically around 30 Hz for CCD cameras, hence acting as the bottleneck for closed loop control bandwidths. While high speed cameras exist, higher frame rates imply an upper bound on exposures which lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), reducing measurements accuracy. The integrative nature of image sensors though offers the opportunity to prolong the exposure window and collect motion blurred measurements. This research describes how to exploit the dynamic information of observed system outputs, encoded in motion blur, to control fast systems at the fast rate through slow rate image sensors. In order to achieve this objective it is necessary to (a) design a controller providing fast rate input to the system based on the slow image measurements. Ideally such a controller would require a fast rate estimate of the system's state variables in order to provide the necessary control action, therefore an (b) image blur based estimator is to be developed. State estimators typically need a model of the system in order to provide their estimates, so (c) a system identification problem has to be addressed, where a reliable model describing the frequency content of the system, up to frequencies corresponding to the fast rate, has to be determined through slow rate image sensor measurements. Alternatively when such a procedure is not possible for lack, e.g., of knowledge of the input to the system, then (d) a method to reconstruct the output signal frequency content up to frequencies above those set by the limitations of the sampling theorem is to be devised. Therefore in order to "close the loop with blur", this work describes how to pose and solve the problems of, namely: system identification , state estimation, closed loop control and

  15. Closed and Not Closed: Mitigating a Mystery on Chandra's Door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odom, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is part of NASA's fleet of "Great Observatories" along with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the now deorbited Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The observatory was designed to detect x-ray emissions from some of the hottest regions of the galaxy including exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes. One of the observatory's key scientific instruments is the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), which is one of four primary and two focal plane instruments. Due to the sensitivity of the charged coupled devices (CCD's), an aperture door was designed and built by Lockheed-Martin that protected the instrument during testing and the time leading up to launch. The design called for a system of wax actuators (manufactured by STARSYS Corp) to be used as components in a rotary actuator that would open and close the door during ground testing and on-orbit operations. Another feature of the design was an internal shear disc located in each actuator to prevent excessive internal pressure and to shield other components from damage.

  16. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 < z <0.06) designed to address the issue of AGN-driven star formation quenching by characterizing the condition for star formation in AGN host galaxies. The primary sample was observed with Multi Unit Spectrscopic Explorer (MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  17. Floating and flying ferrofluid bridges induced by external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongchao; Zhou, Yixin; Liu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    A ferrofluid is a mixture that exhibits both magnetism and fluidity. This merit enables the ferrofluid to be used in a wide variety of areas. Here we show that a floating ferrofluid bridge can be induced between two separated boards under a balanced external magnetic field generated by two magnets, while a flying ferrofluid bridge can be induced under an unbalanced external magnetic field generated by only one magnet. The mechanisms of the ferrofluid bridges were discussed and the corresponding mathematical equations were also established to describe the interacting magnetic force between the ferro particles inside the ferrofluid. This work answered a basic question that, except for the well-known floating water bridges that are related to electricity, one can also build up a liquid bridge that is related to magnetism.

  18. Using Close White Dwarf + M Dwarf Stellar Pairs to Constrain the Flare Rates in Close Stellar Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Becker, Andrew C.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of the statistical flare rates of M dwarfs (dMs) with close white dwarf (WD) companions (WD+dM; typical separations <1 au). Our previous analysis demonstrated that dMs with close WD companions are more magnetically active than their field counterparts. One likely implication of having a close binary companion is increased stellar rotation through disk-disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange; increased stellar rotation has long been associated with an increase in stellar activity. Previous studies show a strong correlation between dMs that are magnetically active (showing Hα in emission) and the frequency of stellar flare rates. We examine the difference between the flare rates observed in close WD+dM binary systems and field dMs. Our sample consists of a subset of 181 close WD+dM pairs from Morgan et al. observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, where we obtain multi-epoch observations in the Sloan ugriz-bands. We find an increase in the overall flaring fraction in the close WD+dM pairs (0.09 ± 0.03%) compared to the field dMs (0.0108 ± 0.0007%) and a lower flaring fraction for active WD+dMs (0.05 ± 0.03%) compared to active dMs (0.28 ± 0.05%). We discuss how our results constrain both the single and binary dM flare rates. Our results also constrain dM multiplicity, our knowledge of the Galactic transient background, and may be important for the habitability of attending planets around dMs with close companions.

  19. Coronal Jets in Closed Magnetic Regions on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, Peter Fraser; DeVore, C. R.

    2015-04-01

    Coronal jets are dynamic, collimated structures observed in solar EUV and X-ray emission. They appear predominantly in the open field of coronal holes, but are also observed in areas of closed field, especially active regions. A common feature of coronal jets is that they originate from the field above a parasitic polarity of opposite sign to the surrounding field. Some process - such as instability onset or flux emergence - induces explosive reconnection between the closed “anemone” field and the surrounding open field that generates the jet. The lesser number of coronal jets in closed-field regions suggests a possible stabilizing effect of the closed configuration with respect to coronal jet formation. If the scale of the jet region is small compared with the background loop length, as in for example type II spicules, the nearby magnetic field may be treated as locally open. As such, one would expect that if a stabilizing effect exists it becomes most apparent as the scale of the anemone region approaches that of the background coronal loops.To investigate if coronal jets are indeed suppressed along shorter coronal loops, we performed a number of simulations of jets driven by a rotation of the parasitic polarity (as in the previous open-jet calculations by Pariat et. al 2009, 2010, 2015) embedded in a large-scale closed bipolar field. The simulations were performed with the state of the art Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver. We will report here how the magnetic configuration above the anemone region determines the nature of the jet, when it is triggered, and how much of the stored magnetic energy is released. We show that regions in which the background field and the parasitic polarity region are of comparable scale naturally suppress explosive energy release. We will also show how in the post-jet relaxation phase a combination of confined MHD waves and weak current layers are generated by the jet along the background coronal loops, both of which

  20. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a recurrent unbalanced translocation (4;21) (p16.3;q22.1): Relevance to the Wolf-Hirschhorn and Down syndrome critical regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastio, G.; Perone, L.; Guzzetta, V.

    1996-05-17

    We report on an aneuploidy syndrome due to the unbalanced segregation of a familial translocation (4;21)(p16.3;q22.1) causing a partial 4p monosomy and a partial 21q trisomy. The three affected children presented with severe failure to thrive, short stature, microcephaly, profound hypotonia, and mental retardation. The face, very similar in the three children, is characterized by frontal bossing, upslanting of the palpebral fissures, short nose, and deep set ears, giving the overall appearance of the Down syndrome. The molecular study has defined the aneuploid segment on both 4p and 21q. Most of the Down syndrome critical region was found to be trisomic, while only part of the candidate Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region was deleted, suggesting that this region is not critical for the major malformations characteristic for WHS. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Multiplex FISH telomere integrity assay identifies an unbalanced cryptic translocation der(5)t(3;5)(q27;p15.3) in a family with three mentally retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Granzow, M; Popp, S; Keller, M; Holtgreve-Grez, H; Brough, M; Schoell, B; Rauterberg-Ruland, I; Hager, H D; Tariverdian, G; Jauch, A

    2000-07-01

    Cryptic rearrangements involving the terminal regions of chromosomes are suspected to be the cause of idiopathic mental retardation in a significant number of cases. This finding highlights the necessity of a primary screening test for such chromosome aberrations. Here we present a multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization telomere integrity assay which allows the detection of submicroscopic aberrations in the telomeric regions of all chromosomes. This novel approach identified an unbalanced cryptic translocation der(5)t(3;5)(q27;p15.3) in a family with three cases of unexplained mental retardation and dysmorphic features. The symptoms of the patients represent neither the classical dup(3q)- nor cri du chat syndrome, although all affected individuals demonstrate several features of both syndromes. The identification of two balanced translocation carriers emphasizes the significance of the telomere integrity assay for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:10982035

  2. Wake field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered. (LEW)

  3. Minnesota Geological Survey may close

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.

  4. Closing the fuel carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Powicki, C.R.

    2007-04-01

    The global carbon cycle involves constant exchange of carbon atoms between the atmosphere, land, and ocean through biological, chemical and geological processes. This natural cycle of uptake and release of carbon is roughly in balance. However, the global industrialization of the past two centuries has released carbon to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of CO{sub 2} that had been locked up in underground coal, oil, and natural gas deposits for millions of years. It is primarily combustion of these long-stored fossil fuels that threatens to tip the balance of the carbon cycle, leading to a substantial buildup of CO{sub 2} in the upper atmosphere. Scientists believe that one key to stabilizing future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will be essentially to close the fuel carbon cycle, to capture the carbon from fossil fuels before it is released to the atmosphere and return it to permanent reservoirs in the earth or oceans. The article summarises the various options for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and looks at the state of development of technologies. It also addresses regulatory uncertainties, legal issues risks and perceptions of CCS. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    Generally the case for closing the nuclear fuel cycle is based on the strategic value of the uranium and plutonium recovered by reprocessing spent fuel. The energy content of 1 t of spent fuel varies from 10,000 to 40,000 t of coal equivalent depending on the reactor type from which the spent fuel arises. Recycling in fast reactors would increase these values by a factor or roughly 40. Reprocessing in the UK has its roots in the technology developed during and after the 1939-45 war to provide plutonium for defence purposes. At BNFL`s Sellafield site in northern England the commercial reprocessing of spent fuel has been undertaken for over 30 years with a cumulative throughput of over 30,000 tU. Over 15,000 tU of the uranium recovered has been recycled and some 70% of all the UK`s AGR fuel has been produced from this material. As a consequence the UK`s bill for imported uranium has been reduced by several hundred million pounds sterling. This report discusses issues associated with reprocessing, uranium, and plutonium recycle.

  6. Axial variations in the magnetic field of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1993-09-01

    A periodic variation in the magnetic field along the axis has been observed in both quadrupole and dipole magnets made from superconducting cable. This oscillation is present in all components of the field and has a wavelength equal to the transposition length of the cable. In general the amplitude of these variations increases with magnet current and is not reversible. The residual field patten at zero current depends on the energizing cycle and increases with time spent at high field. The decay of the oscillations has a complex time dependence which contains some extremely long time constants. Unbalanced currents in the individual strands of the cable appear to cause these effects and the field variations can only be completely erased by raising the magnet above its critical temperature.

  7. Monitoring Digital Closed-Loop Feedback Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique of monitoring digital closed-loop feedback systems has been conceived. The basic idea is to obtain information on the performances of closed-loop feedback circuits in such systems to aid in the determination of the functionality and integrity of the circuits and of performance margins. The need for this technique arises as follows: Some modern digital systems include feedback circuits that enable other circuits to perform with precision and are tolerant of changes in environment and the device s parameters. For example, in a precision timing circuit, it is desirable to make the circuit insensitive to variability as a result of the manufacture of circuit components and to the effects of temperature, voltage, radiation, and aging. However, such a design can also result in masking the indications of damaged and/or deteriorating components. The present technique incorporates test circuitry and associated engineering-telemetry circuitry into an embedded system to monitor the closed-loop feedback circuits, using spare gates that are often available in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This technique enables a test engineer to determine the amount of performance margin in the system, detect out of family circuit performance, and determine one or more trend(s) in the performance of the system. In one system to which the technique has been applied, an ultra-stable oscillator is used as a reference for internal adjustment of 12 time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The feedback circuit produces a pulse-width-modulated signal that is fed as a control input into an amplifier, which controls the circuit s operating voltage. If the circuit s gates are determined to be operating too slowly or rapidly when their timing is compared with that of the reference signal, then the pulse width increases or decreases, respectively, thereby commanding the amplifier to increase or reduce, respectively, its output level, and "adjust" the speed of the circuits. The nominal

  8. Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J.; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control. PMID:24516504

  9. 75 FR 78778 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Holmes Mill (Kentucky) Post Office has been filed... of the closing of the Holmes Mill Post Office in Holmes Mill, Kentucky. The petition, which was...

  10. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in... Manager will take appropriate actions outlined in Rural Development Instruction 2018-D. (f)...

  11. 76 FR 44385 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office has been filed... review of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office. The petition, which was filed...

  12. 76 FR 9056 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Lincoln Branch Post Office in Mansfield, Ohio, has... for review of the closing of the Lincoln Branch Post Office in Mansfield, Ohio. The petition,...

  13. 76 FR 44053 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the La Mesa Annex, CA Station has been filed. It... closing of the La Mesa Annex, CA Station in San Diego, California. The petition, which was filed by...

  14. 76 FR 53984 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Prairie Hill, Texas post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Prairie Hill post office in Prairie...

  15. 76 FR 20052 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Rogers Avenue Station in Fort Smith, Arkansas has... for review of the closing of the Rogers Avenue Station in Fort Smith, Arkansas. The petition,...

  16. Flow of Slurry in the Inclined Closed Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi Khorasani, Nariman; Piroozram, Parastoo

    2015-11-01

    The flow of slurry in a closed inclined circular channel is examined. The viscoelastic fluid is modeled as a derivative of typical Oldroyd-B relation of stress and velocity gradient. First, gravity is considered as the driving force for the fluid flow to simulate the existing sewage system. The complete flow field is evaluated for this case. Next, a pressure gradient is introduced to observe its effects on the flow. Velocity profile as well as stress distributions are given for different scenarios of the nonlinear fluid flowing in a closed channel with and without pressure gradient.

  17. Social Media in Health Care: How Close Is Too Close?

    PubMed

    Desai, Dolly G; Ndukwu, Jovita O; Mitchell, Jordan P

    2015-01-01

    Social media use is increasing personally and professionally across numerous industries worldwide. The purpose of this article is to explore the utilization of social media in the health care field; specifically, how the treatment of a physician's Facebook friends would differ from that of a patient the physician did not know prior to treatment. While there are several benefits that come with incorporating social media into health care, as well as into the physician-patient relationship, there are also immense risks. The present study surveyed physicians to assess their opinions on the boundaries of an appropriate patient-physician relationship on social media. Fifty-six of 70 physicians responded with their attitudes on the difference between adding a patient as a friend and adding a friend as a patient, as well as the difference in care between the two. The results of the study showed that most physicians would not be opposed to taking on their Facebook friends as patients; however, the care they provide could potentially be radically different between their Facebook friend and an average patient. This means that patients should take extra care before asking their Facebook physician friends for formal care when they are in need. PMID:26217998

  18. Homotopy Classification of Bosonic String Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, Korbinian; Sachs, Ivo

    2014-09-01

    We prove the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of quantum closed string field theory and use it to show that closed string field theory is unique up to gauge transformations on a given string background and given S-matrix. For the theory of open and closed strings we use results in open-closed homotopy algebra to show that the space of inequivalent open string field theories is isomorphic to the space of classical closed string backgrounds. As a further application of the open-closed homotopy algebra, we show that string field theory is background independent and locally unique in a very precise sense. Finally, we discuss topological string theory in the framework of homotopy algebras and find a generalized correspondence between closed strings and open string field theories.

  19. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  20. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....