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Sample records for closed time-like curves

  1. Physical and Stable Closed Time-Like Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chiu Man; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    We construct a class of closed time-like curves (CTCs) using a compactified extra dimension u. A nonzero metric element gtu(u) enables particles to travel backwards in global time t. The compactified dimension guarantees that the geodesic curve closes in u. The effective 2D (t and u) nature of the metric ensures that spacetime is flat, therein satisfying all the classical stability conditions as expressed by the energy conditions. Finally, stationarity of the metric guarantees that a particle's energy is conserved. The pathologies that plague many hypothesized metrics admitting CTCs, e.g., an infinite cylinder of matter, a negative energy-distribution, particle acceleration/blue-shifting along the CTC, do not occur within our metric class.

  2. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  3. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulware, D. G.

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27(pi). A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  4. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves. [Gott space

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27[pi]. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  5. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, D.G.

    1992-12-31

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27{pi}. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  6. Cosmic string lensing and closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2005-08-01

    In an analysis of the gravitational lensing by two relativistic cosmic strings, we argue that the formation of closed timelike curves proposed by Gott is unstable in the presence of particles (e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation). Because of the attractorlike behavior of the closed timelike curve, we argue that this instability is very generic. A single graviton or photon in the vicinity, no matter how soft, is sufficient to bend the strings and prevent the formation of closed timelike curves. We also show that the gravitational lensing due to a moving cosmic string is enhanced by its motion, not suppressed.

  7. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence. PMID:24942489

  8. Closed Paths of Light Trapped in a Closed Fermat Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Naiman, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Geometric constructions have previously been shown that can be interpreted as rays of light trapped either in polygons or in conics, by successive reflections. The same question, trapping light in closed Fermat curves, is addressed here. Numerical methods are used to study the behaviour of the reflection points of a triangle when the degree of the…

  9. Quantum coherence and closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1995-11-01

    Various calculations of the S matrix have shown that it seems to be nonunitary for interacting fields when there are closed timelike curves. It is argued that this is because there is loss of quantum coherence caused by the fact that part of the quantum state circulates on the closed timelike curves and is not measured at infinity. A prescription is given for calculating the superscattering matrix on spacetimes whose parameters can be analytically continued to obtain a Euclidean metric. It is illustrated by a discussion of a spacetime in which two disks in flat space are indentified. If the disks have an imaginary time separation, this corresponds to a heat bath. An external field interacting with the heat bath will lose quantum coherence. One can then analytically continue to an almost real separation of the disks. This will give closed timelike curves but one will still get loss of quantum coherence. A comparison is made with the work of authors who find a nonunitary S matrix. It is shown that this is because the does not factor into an S matrix and its adjoint when the spacetime does not have the property of asymptotic completeness.

  10. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Madison

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have demonstrated that many species of microorganisms reflect aspecularly from a solid surface -- due to steric and hydrodynamic interactions with the wall, their outgoing angle is fixed and independent of the angle of incidence. Motivated by these results, we discuss theory and computation of the ``aspecular billiard'', a modification of the classical billiard in which the outgoing angle is constant. We restrict our attention to closed plane curves, focusing on three canonical examples: the ellipse, the Bunimovich stadium, and the Sinai billiard. These systems can have a rich array of orbits, and the Lyapunov exponent is shown to be dependent on the billiard geometry and the outgoing angle. We apply these results to the design of tunable passive sorting mechanisms.

  11. Quantum fields on closed timelike curves

    SciTech Connect

    Pienaar, J. L.; Myers, C. R.; Ralph, T. C.

    2011-12-15

    Recently, there has been much interest in the evolution of quantum particles on closed timelike curves (CTCs). However, such models typically assume pointlike particles with only two degrees of freedom; a very questionable assumption given the relativistic setting of the problem. We show that it is possible to generalize the Deutsch model of CTCs to fields using the equivalent circuit formalism. We give examples for coherent, squeezed, and single-photon states interacting with the CTC via a beamsplitter. The model is then generalized further to account for the smooth transition to normal quantum mechanics as the CTC becomes much smaller than the size of the modes interacting on it. In this limit, we find that the system behaves like a standard quantum-mechanical feedback loop.

  12. Quantum causality in closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, S. M.; Kiktenko, E. O.

    2015-08-01

    Although general relativity allows the existence of closed timelike curves (CTCs), self-consistency problems arise (the ‘grandfather paradox’ among others). It is known that quantum mechanical consideration of the matter formally removes all the paradoxes, but the questions about causal structure remain. On the other hand, the idea of postselected CTCs (P-CTC) in quantum teleportation has know been put forward and experimentally implemented. We consider these problems with the aid of quantum causal analysis, where causality is defined without invoking the time relation. It implements the Cramer principle of weak causality, which admits time reversal in entangled states. We analyze Deutsch CTCs (D-CTC) with different kinds of interactions between the chronology-violating and chronology-respecting particles, with refined inferences about mixedness, quantum/classical correlations, entanglement and thermodynamics in the D-CTC. The main result is that time reversal causality can really exist, however, the final quantum state does not place retrospective constraints on the initial state, instead the final state can influence the state inside the D-CTC. This is effectively the implementation of Novikov self-consistency principle. The P-CTC has radically different properties; in particular, if the initial state was pure, the final state is always pure too. Self-consistency is controlled by the initial state-dependent traversability of the P-CTC.

  13. Cluster speckle structures through multiple apertures forming a closed curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosso, E.; Tebaldi, M.; Lencina, A.; Bolognini, N.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, cluster-like speckle patterns are analyzed. These patterns are generated when a diffuser illuminated by coherent light is imaged by a lens having a pupil mask with multiple apertures forming a closed curve. We show that the cluster structure results from the complex modulation produced inside each speckle which is generated by multiple interferences of light through the apertures. In particular, when the apertures are uniformly distributed along a closed curve, the resulting image speckle cluster replicates the pupil aperture distribution. Experimental results and theoretical simulations show that cluster features depend on the apertures distribution and the size of the closed curves.

  14. (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes containing closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, Matthew P.; Gott, J. Richard, III

    1994-12-01

    We investigate the global geometries of (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes as characterized by the transformations undergone by tangent spaces upon parallel transport around closed curves. We critically discuss the use of the term ``total energy-momentum'' as a label for such parallel-transport transformations, pointing out several problems with it. We then investigate parallel-transport transformations in the known (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes containing closed timelike curves (CTC's), and introduce a few new such spacetimes. Using the more specific concept of the holonomy of a closed curve, applicable in simply connected spacetimes, we emphasize that Gott's two-particle CTC-containing spacetime does not have a tachyonic geometry. Finally, we prove the following modified version of Kabat's conjecture: if a CTC is deformable to spacelike or null infinity while remaining a CTC, then its parallel-transport transformation cannot be a rotation; therefore its holonomy, if defined, cannot be a rotation other than through a multiple of 2π.

  15. Quantum State Cloning Using Deutschian Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.; Winter, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to clone quantum states to arbitrary accuracy in the presence of a Deutschian closed timelike curve (D-CTC), with a fidelity converging to one in the limit as the dimension of the CTC system becomes large—thus resolving an open conjecture [Brun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 210402 (2009)]. This result follows from a D-CTC-assisted scheme for producing perfect clones of a quantum state prepared in a known eigenbasis, and the fact that one can reconstruct an approximation of a quantum state from empirical estimates of the probabilities of an informationally complete measurement. Our results imply more generally that every continuous, but otherwise arbitrarily nonlinear map from states to states, can be implemented to arbitrary accuracy with D-CTCs. Furthermore, our results show that Deutsch’s model for closed timelike curves is in fact a classical model, in the sense that two arbitrary, distinct density operators are perfectly distinguishable (in the limit of a large closed timelike curve system); hence, in this model quantum mechanics becomes a classical theory in which each density operator is a distinct point in a classical phase space.

  16. Closed timelike curves in measurement-based quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Dias da Silva, Raphael; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2011-01-15

    Many results have been recently obtained regarding the power of hypothetical closed timelike curves (CTCs) in quantum computation. Here we show that the one-way model of measurement-based quantum computation encompasses in a natural way the CTC model proposed by Bennett, Schumacher, and Svetlichny. We identify a class of CTCs in this model that can be simulated deterministically and point to a fundamental limitation of Deutsch's CTC model which leads to predictions conflicting with those of the one-way model.

  17. Bayesian Multiscale Modeling of Closed Curves in Point Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kelvin; Pati, Debdeep; Dunson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling object boundaries based on image or point cloud data is frequently necessary in medical and scientific applications ranging from detecting tumor contours for targeted radiation therapy, to the classification of organisms based on their structural information. In low-contrast images or sparse and noisy point clouds, there is often insufficient data to recover local segments of the boundary in isolation. Thus, it becomes critical to model the entire boundary in the form of a closed curve. To achieve this, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that expresses highly diverse 2D objects in the form of closed curves. The model is based on a novel multiscale deformation process. By relating multiple objects through a hierarchical formulation, we can successfully recover missing boundaries by borrowing structural information from similar objects at the appropriate scale. Furthermore, the model’s latent parameters help interpret the population, indicating dimensions of significant structural variability and also specifying a ‘central curve’ that summarizes the collection. Theoretical properties of our prior are studied in specific cases and efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are developed, evaluated through simulation examples and applied to panorex teeth images for modeling teeth contours and also to a brain tumor contour detection problem. PMID:25544786

  18. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulware, David G.

    1992-11-01

    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 2π. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the noncausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the noncausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  19. Pure radiation metric with stable closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Debojit; Patgiri, Mahadev; Ahmed, Faiz Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Here we present an example of an axially symmetric spacetime, representing pure radiation, and admitting circular closed timelike curves (CTCs) on the . The spacetime is regular everywhere, having no curvature singularities and is locally isometric to (non-vacuum) pp wave spacetimes. The stability of the CTCs under linear perturbations is studied and they are found to be stable from a calculation of the Lyapunov exponent for the deviation vector. We also demonstrate that the spacetime also admits non-circular CTCs which do not lie in this plane. A modification of the metric is also studied and we find that a region of this spacetime behaves like a time-machine where CTCs appear after a certain instant of time.

  20. Closing the loop of the soil water retention curve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Alsherif, N; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The authors, to their knowledge for the first time, produced two complete principal soil water retention curves (SWRCs) under both positive and negative matric suction regimes. An innovative testing technique combining the transient water release and imbibition method (TRIM) and constant flow method (CFM) was used to identify the principal paths of SWRC in the positive pore-water pressure regime under unsaturated conditions. A negative matric suction of 9.8 kPa is needed to reach full saturation or close the loop of the SWRC for a silty soil. This work pushes the understanding of the interaction of soil and water into new territory by quantifying the boundaries of the SWRC over the entire suction domain, including both wetting and drying conditions that are relevant to field conditions such as slope wetting under heavy rainfall or rapid groundwater table rise in earthen dams or levees.

  1. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area

    PubMed Central

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior. PMID:26997898

  2. Multiply Connected Spacetimes and Closed Timelike Curves in Semiclassical Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, Gunnar Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis, we present three studies motivated by the recent interest in spacetimes with closed timelike curves ("CTC's"). First, it has been shown that certain energy conditions must be violated if spacetime is to develop CTC's. We initiate a study of whether quantum field theory permits such violations by proving that, in Minkowski spacetime, a free scalar field will satisfy the weak and strong energy conditions averaged along any complete null or timelike geodesic. We remark that in flat, but topologically nontrivial spacetimes, the averaged weak energy condition can be violated. Second, it has been argued that the most likely way by which Nature might prevent the creation of CTC's is a divergent vacuum polarization at the chronology horizon where such CTC's first arise. We derive the form of the vacuum polarization of a conformal scalar field and of a spin-1/2 field near a closed null geodesic from which the null generators of a generic compactly generated chronology horizon spring forth. We show that the tensorial structure of the polarization and its degree of divergence are the same for scalar and for spin-1/2 fields and are independent of the details of the spacetime geometry. We also show that in generic cases, there will be no cancellation of this divergence for a combination of scalar and spin-1/2 fields that has equal numbers of Fermi and Bose degrees of freedom. Third, in anticipation of the possibility that Nature might permit CTC's, we demonstrate that for a classical body with a hard-sphere potential and no internal degrees of freedom (a "billiard ball") traveling nonrelativistically in a wormhole spacetime with CTC's, the Cauchy problem is ill-posed in a peculiar way. For certain ("dangerous") initial data, there would appear to be no self-consistent solution to the equations of motion because the ball collides with its younger self after having traversed the wormhole. However, we show that for a wide range of dangerous and non

  3. Multiply connected spacetimes and closed timelike curves in semiclassical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, Gunnar Ulrich

    In this thesis, we present three studies motivated by the recent interest in spacetimes with closed timelike curves (CTC's). First, it was shown that certain energy conditions must be violated if spacetime is to develop CTC's. We initiate a study of whether quantum field theory permits such violations by proving that, in Minkowski spacetime, a free scalar field will satisfy the weak and strong energy conditions averaged along any complete null or timelike geodesic. We remark that in flat, but topologically nontrivial spacetimes, the averaged weak energy condition can be violated. Second, it was argued that the most likely way by which Nature might prevent the creation of CTC's is a divergent vacuum polarization at the chronology horizon where such CTC's first arise. We derive the form of the vacuum polarization of a conformal scalar field and of a spin-1/2 field near a closed null geodesic from which the null generators of a generic compactly generated chronology horizon spring forth. We show that the tensorial structure of the polarization and its degree of divergence are the same for scalar and for spin-1/2 fields and are independent of the details of the spacetime geometry. We also show that in generic cases, there will be no cancellation of this divergence for a combination of scalar and spin-1/2 fields that has equal numbers of Fermi and Bose degrees of freedom. Third, in anticipation of the possibility that Nature might permit CTC's, we demonstrate that for a classical body with a hard-sphere potential and no internal degrees of freedom (a 'billiard ball') traveling nonrelativistically in a wormhole spacetime with CTC's, the Cauchy problem is ill-posed in a peculiar way. For certain (dangerous) initial data, there would appear to be no self-consistent solution to the equations of motion because the ball collides with its younger self after having traversed the wormhole. However, we show that for a wide range of dangerous and non-dangerous initial data, there

  4. Multiply connected spacetimes and closed timelike curves in semiclassical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, Gunnar Ulrich

    In this thesis, we present three studies motivated by the recent interest in spacetimes with closed timelike curves ("CTC's"). First, it has been shown that certain energy conditions must be violated if spacetime is to develop CTC's. We initiate a study of whether quantum field theory permits such violations by proving that, in Minkowski spacetime, a free scalar field will satisfy the weak and strong energy conditions averaged along any complete null or timelike geodesic. We remark that in fiat, but topologically nontrivial spacetimes, the averaged weak energy condition can be violated. Second, it has been argued that the most likely way by which Nature might prevent the creation of CTC's is a divergent vacuum polarization at the chronology horizon where such CTC's first arise. We derive the form of the vacuum polarization of a conformal scalar field and of a spin-1/2 field near a closed null geodesic from which the null generators of a generic compactly generated chronology horizon spring forth. We show that the tensorial structure of the polarization and its degree of divergence are the same for scalar and for spin-1/2 fields and are independent of the details of the spacetime geometry. We also show that in generic cases, there will be no cancellation of this divergence for a combination of scalar and spin-1/2 fields that has equal numbers of Fermi and Bose degrees of freedom. Third, in anticipation of the possibility that Nature might permit CTC's, we demonstrate that for a classical body with a hard-sphere potential and no internal degrees of freedom (a "billiard ball") traveling nonrelativistically in a wormhole spacetime with CTC's, the Cauchy problem is ill-posed in a peculiar way. For certain ("dangerous") initial data, there would appear to be no self-consistent solution to the equations of motion because the ball collides with its younger self after having traversed the wormhole. However, we show that for a wide range of dangerous and non

  5. Quantum interactions with closed timelike curves and superluminal signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey; Stairs, Allen

    2014-02-01

    There is now a significant body of results on quantum interactions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) in the quantum information literature, for both the Deutsch model of CTC interactions (D-CTCs) and the projective model (P-CTCs). As a consequence, there is a prima facie argument exploiting entanglement that CTC interactions would enable superluminal and, indeed, effectively instantaneous signaling. In cases of spacelike separation between the sender of a signal and the receiver, whether a receiver measures the local part of an entangled state or a disentangled state to access the signal can depend on the reference frame. We propose a consistency condition that gives priority to either an entangled perspective or a disentangled perspective in spacelike-separated scenarios. For D-CTC interactions, the consistency condition gives priority to frames of reference in which the state is disentangled, while for P-CTC interactions the condition selects the entangled state. Using the consistency condition, we show that there is a procedure that allows Alice to signal to Bob in the past via relayed superluminal communications between spacelike-separated Alice and Clio, and spacelike-separated Clio and Bob. This opens the door to time travel paradoxes in the classical domain. Ralph [T. C. Ralph, arXiv:1107.4675 [quant-ph].] first pointed this out for P-CTCs, but we show that Ralph's procedure for a "radio to the past" is flawed. Since both D-CTCs and P-CTCs allow classical information to be sent around a spacetime loop, it follows from a result by Aaronson and Watrous [S. Aaronson and J. Watrous, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 631 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2008.0350] for CTC-enhanced classical computation that a quantum computer with access to P-CTCs would have the power of PSPACE, equivalent to a D-CTC-enhanced quantum computer.

  6. Two elliptic closed geodesics on positively curved Finsler spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huagui

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we prove that for every Finsler n-dimensional sphere (Sn , F) with reversibility λ and flag curvature K satisfying (λ/1+λ) 2 < K ≤ 1, either there exist infinitely many closed geodesics, or there exist at least two elliptic closed geodesics and each linearized Poincaré map has at least one eigenvalue of the form e √{ - 1 } θ with θ being an irrational multiple of π.

  7. Comment on ''Information flow of quantum states interacting with closed timelike curves''

    SciTech Connect

    Klobus, Waldemar; Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni

    2011-11-15

    We show that recent results on the interaction of causality-respecting particles with particles on closed timelike curves derived in [Phys. Rev. A 82, 062330 (2010)] depend on ambiguous assumptions about the form of the state which is inputted into the proposed equivalent circuit. Choosing a different form of this state leads to an opposite conclusion on the power of closed timelike curves.

  8. Semi-analytical expression of stochastic closed curve attractors in nonlinear dynamical systems under weak noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kongming; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Yalan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a simple but accurate semi-analytical method to approximate probability density function of stochastic closed curve attractors is proposed. The expression of distribution applies to systems with strong nonlinearities, while only weak noise condition is needed. With the understanding that additive noise does not change the longitudinal distribution of the attractors, the high-dimensional probability density distribution is decomposed into two low-dimensional distributions: the longitudinal and the transverse probability density distributions. The longitudinal distribution can be calculated from the deterministic systems, while the probability density in the transverse direction of the curve can be approximated by the stochastic sensitivity function method. The effectiveness of this approach is verified by comparing the expression of distribution with the results of Monte Carlo numerical simulations in several planar systems.

  9. Closed timelike curves via postselection: theory and experimental test of consistency.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Shikano, Yutaka; Pirandola, Stefano; Rozema, Lee A; Darabi, Ardavan; Soudagar, Yasaman; Shalm, Lynden K; Steinberg, Aephraim M

    2011-01-28

    Closed timelike curves (CTCs) are trajectories in spacetime that effectively travel backwards in time: a test particle following a CTC can interact with its former self in the past. A widely accepted quantum theory of CTCs was proposed by Deutsch. Here we analyze an alternative quantum formulation of CTCs based on teleportation and postselection, and show that it is inequivalent to Deutsch's. The predictions or retrodictions of our theory can be simulated experimentally: we report the results of an experiment illustrating how in our particular theory the "grandfather paradox" is resolved. PMID:21405310

  10. Closed timelike curves produced by pairs of moving cosmic strings - Exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1991-01-01

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are presented for the general case of two moving straight cosmic strings that do not intersect. The solutions for parallel cosmic strings moving in opposite directions show closed timelike curves (CTCs) that circle the two strings as they pass, allowing observers to visit their own past. Similar results occur for nonparallel strings, and for masses in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. For finite string loops the possibility that black-hole formation may prevent the formation of CTCs is discussed.

  11. Interactive 3D medical data cutting using closed curve with arbitrary shape.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hai; Yang, Rongqian; Ma, Amin; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    Interactive 3D cutting is widely used as a flexible manual segmentation tool to extract medical data on regions of interest. A novel method for clipping 3D medical data is proposed to reveal the interior of volumetric data. The 3D cutting method retains or clips away selected voxels projected inside an arbitrary-shaped closed curve which is clipping geometry constructed by interactive tool to make cutting operation more flexible. Transformation between the world and screen coordinate frames is studied to project voxels of medical data onto the screen frame and avoid computing intersection of clipping geometry and volumetric data in 3D space. For facilitating the decision on whether the voxels should be retained, voxels through coordinate transformation are all projected onto a binary mask image on screen frame which the closed curve is also projected onto to conveniently obtain the voxels of intersection. The paper pays special attention to optimization algorithm of cutting process. The optimization algorithm that mixes octree with quad-tree decomposition is introduced to reduce computation complexity, save computation time, and match real time. The paper presents results obtained from raw and segmented medical volume datasets and the process time of cutting operation. PMID:25456145

  12. Billiard balls in wormhole spacetimes with closed timelike curves: Classical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Echeverria, F.; Klinkhammer, G.; Thorne, K.S. )

    1991-08-15

    The effects of self-interaction in classical physics, in the presence of closed timelike curves, are probed by means of a simple model problem: The motion and self-collisions of a nonrelativistic, classical billiard ball in a space endowed with a wormhole that takes the ball backward in time. The central question asked is whether the Cauchy problem is well posed for this model problem, in the following sense: We define the {ital multiplicity} of an initial trajectory for the ball to be the number of self-consistent solutions of the ball's equations of motion, which begin with that trajectory. For the Cauchy problem to be well posed, all initial trajectories must have multiplicity one.

  13. Light curves of the latest FUor: Indication of a close binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackstein, M.; Haas, M.; Kóspál, Á.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Chini, R.; Ábrahám, P.; Moór, A.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Ramolla, M.; Westhues, Ch.; Kaderhandt, L.; Fein, Ch.; Barr Domínguez, A.; Hodapp, K.-W.

    2015-10-01

    We monitored the recent FUor 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) since November 2009 at various observatories and multiple wavelengths. After the outburst by nearly 2.9 mag in r around September 2014 the brightness gently fades until April 2015 by nearly 1 mag in U and 0.5 mag in z. Thereafter the brightness at λ> 5000 Å was constant until June 2015 while the shortest wavelengths (U,B) indicate a new rise, similar to that seen for the FUor V2493 Cyg (HBC722). Our near-infrared (NIR) monitoring between December 2014 and April 2015 shows a smaller outburst amplitude (~2 mag) and a smaller (0.2-0.3 mag) post-outburst brightness decline. Optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams indicate that the brightness decline is caused by growing extinction. The post-outburst light curves are modulated by an oscillating color-neutral pattern with a period of about 17 days and an amplitude declining from ~0.08 mag in October 2014 to ~0.04 mag in May 2015. The properties of the oscillating pattern lead us to suggest the presence of a close binary with eccentric orbit. The light curve Table is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/L12

  14. Perfect State Distinguishability and Computational Speedups with Postselected Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2012-03-01

    Bennett and Schumacher's postselected quantum teleportation is a model of closed timelike curves (CTCs) that leads to results physically different from Deutsch's model. We show that even a single qubit passing through a postselected CTC (P-CTC) is sufficient to do any postselected quantum measurement with certainty, and we discuss an important difference between "Deutschian" CTCs (D-CTCs) and P-CTCs in which the future existence of a P-CTC might affect the present outcome of an experiment. Then, based on a suggestion of Bennett and Smith, we explicitly show how a party assisted by P-CTCs can distinguish a set of linearly independent quantum states, and we prove that it is not possible for such a party to distinguish a set of linearly dependent states. The power of P-CTCs is thus weaker than that of D-CTCs because the Holevo bound still applies to circuits using them, regardless of their ability to conspire in violating the uncertainty principle. We then discuss how different notions of a quantum mixture that are indistinguishable in linear quantum mechanics lead to dramatically differing conclusions in a nonlinear quantum mechanics involving P-CTCs. Finally, we give explicit circuit constructions that can efficiently factor integers, efficiently solve any decision problem in the intersection of NP and coNP, and probabilistically solve any decision problem in NP. These circuits accomplish these tasks with just one qubit traveling back in time, and they exploit the ability of postselected closed timelike curves to create grandfather paradoxes for invalid answers.

  15. Quantum Fluctuations and Thermodynamic Processes in the Presence of Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tsunefumi

    1997-10-01

    A closed timelike curve (CTC) is a closed loop in spacetime whose tangent vector is everywhere timelike. A spacetime which contains CTC's will allow time travel. One of these spacetimes is Grant space. It can be constructed from Minkowski space by imposing periodic boundary conditions in spatial directions and making the boundaries move toward each other. If Hawking's chronology protection conjecture is correct, there must be a physical mechanism preventing the formation of CTC's. Currently the most promising candidate for the chronology protection mechanism is the back reaction of the metric to quantum vacuum fluctuations. In this thesis the quantum fluctuations for a massive scalar field, a self-interacting field, and for a field at nonzero temperature are calculated in Grant space. The stress-energy tensor is found to remain finite everywhere in Grant space for the massive scalar field with sufficiently large field mass. Otherwise it diverges on chronology horizons like the stress-energy tensor for a massless scalar field. If CTC's exist they will have profound effects on physical processes. Causality can be protected even in the presence of CTC's if the self-consistency condition is imposed on all processes. Simple classical thermodynamic processes of a box filled with ideal gas in the presence of CTC's are studied. If a system of boxes is closed, its state does not change as it travels through a region of spacetime with CTC's. But if the system is open, the final state will depend on the interaction with the environment. The second law of thermodynamics is shown to hold for both closed and open systems. A similar problem is investigated at a statistical level for a gas consisting of multiple selves of a single particle in a spacetime with CTC's.

  16. Operational Curves for HTGR's Coupled to Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-07-01

    Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) that drive Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems are being evaluated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Program for high-efficiency electricity generation. This paper describes the operational performance of measured and predicted closed Brayton cycles. The measured results were obtained from an electrically driven closed Brayton cycle test loop that Sandia fabricated and has operating within the laboratories. The predicted behavior is based on integrated dynamic system models that are capable of predicting both the transient and steady state behavior of reactor driven Brayton cycle systems. Sandia contracted Barber Nichols Corporation to modify a Capstone C30 open-cycle Brayton engine so that it could be operated in a closed loop. We are currently operating the test loop to validate the models and to study control issues. Operation of the test-loop and developing the system models has allowed Sandia to develop and validate a set of tools and models that are being used to determine how nuclear reactors operate with gas turbine power conversion systems. Both measured and modeled operational performance curves will be presented to show how the electrical load (or power generated) varies as a function of shaft speed for various turbine inlet temperatures and for a fixed fill gas inventory. The measured and modeled behavior of the test loop both reveal the non-linear nature of the reactor and Brayton cycle loop because for a fixed electrical load there are two shaft speeds that can produce this steady-state power. Closer examination of the system of equations shows that only one of these steady-state solutions is dynamically stable. An active electronic control system will be required to operate at the more efficient but dynamically unstable point, and some means of controlling the flow via inventory control or bypass flow valves will also be required. (authors)

  17. Mixedness and entanglement in the presence of localized closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eylee; Park, DaeKil

    2016-07-01

    We examine mixedness and entanglement of the chronology-respecting (CR) system assuming that quantum mechanical closed timelike curves (CTCs) exist in nature. In order to discuss these two issues analytically, we introduce the qubit system and apply the general controlled operations between CR and CTC systems. We use the magnitude of Bloch vector as a measure of mixedness. While Deutschian-CTC (D-CTC) either preserves or decreases the magnitude, postselected-CTC (P-CTC) can increase it. Non-intuitively, even the completely mixed CR qubit can be converted into a pure state after CTC qubit travels around the P-CTC. It is also shown that while D-CTC cannot increase the entanglement of CR system, P-CTC can increase it. This means that any partially entangled state can be maximally entangled pure state if P-CTC exists. Thus, distillation of P-CTC-assisted entanglement can be easily achieved without preparing the multiple copies of the partially entangled state.

  18. Exact string theory model of closed timelike curves and cosmological singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.

    2004-12-15

    We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a big bang and a big crunch. The model is an nontrivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of {alpha}{sup '} corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by timelike curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is suggestive that string theory is able to make physical sense of the Milne/Misner singularities and the CTCs, despite their pathological character in general relativity. This may also support the possibility that CTCs may be viable in some physical situations, and may be a natural ingredient in pre-big bang cosmological scenarios.

  19. Mixedness and entanglement in the presence of localized closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eylee; Park, DaeKil

    2016-03-01

    We examine mixedness and entanglement of the chronology-respecting (CR) system assuming that quantum mechanical closed timelike curves (CTCs) exist in nature. In order to discuss these two issues analytically, we introduce the qubit system and apply the general controlled operations between CR and CTC systems. We use the magnitude of Bloch vector as a measure of mixedness. While Deutschian-CTC (D-CTC) either preserves or decreases the magnitude, postselected-CTC (P-CTC) can increase it. Non-intuitively, even the completely mixed CR qubit can be converted into a pure state after CTC qubit travels around the P-CTC. It is also shown that while D-CTC cannot increase the entanglement of CR system, P-CTC can increase it. This means that any partially entangled state can be maximally entangled pure state if P-CTC exists. Thus, distillation of P-CTC-assisted entanglement can be easily achieved without preparing the multiple copies of the partially entangled state.

  20. Purification of mixed states with closed timelike curve is not possible

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Arun K.; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2011-12-15

    In ordinary quantum theory, any mixed state can be purified in an enlarged Hilbert space by adding an ancillary system. The purified state does not depend on the state of any extraneous system with which the mixed state is going to interact or on the physical interaction. Here, we prove that it is not possible to purify a mixed state that traverses a closed timelike curve (CTC) and is allowed to interact in a consistent way with a causality-respecting (CR) quantum system in the same manner. In other words, if a CTC quantum system with a mixed state has to undergo an arbitrary interaction with an arbitrary CR system then it has to be in a ''proper'' mixture, as it cannot be regarded as a subsystem of a pure entangled state. Thus, in general for arbitrary interactions between CR and CTC systems, there is no universal purification by embedding in a larger Hilbert space for mixed states with CTCs. This shows that in quantum theory with CTCs there can exist proper and improper mixtures.

  1. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOEpatents

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  2. Use of the Disability Rating Scale Recovery curve as a predictor of psychosocial outcome following closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    McCauley, S R; Hannay, H J; Swank, P R

    2001-05-01

    Rapid rate of recovery has been associated with better outcome following closed-head injuries, but few studies have compellingly demonstrated this. This study used growth curve analyses of Disability Rating Scale (DRS) scores at acute hospitalization discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months post injury in a sample of 55 patients with a closed-head injury. Six month post-injury outcome measures were taken from significant other (SO) responses on the NYU Head Injury Family Interview (NYU-HIFI) including severity and burden ratings of affective/neurobehavioral disturbance, cognitive deficits, and physical/dependency status. Rate of recovery (linear and curvilinear recovery curve components) was significantly related to the level of affective/neurobehavioral severity, and the severity and burden of SO-perceived cognitive deficits. Only the intercept of the DRS recovery curve was associated with the SO-perceived severity and burden of physical/dependency status. Growth curve modeling is a meaningful and powerful tool in predicting head injury outcome. PMID:11396548

  3. Search for Close-in Planets around Evoloved Stars with Phase-curve variations and Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman Michel; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Tidal interactions are a key process to understand the evolution history of close-in exoplanets. But tidal interactions still have a large uncertainty in their prediction for the damping timescales of stellar obliquity and semi-major axis (e.g., Winn et al. 2010). In the past year, we have worked on a search for (transiting) giant planets around evolved stars, for which few close-in planets were discovered. It has been reported that evolved stars lack close-in planets, which is often attributed to the tidal evolution and/or engulfment of close-in planets by the hosts. Meanwhile, Kepler spacecraft has detected a significant fraction of transiting planet candidates around evolved stars. Confirming the planetary nature for these candidates is especially important in the sense that the comparion between the occurence rates of close-in planets around main sequence stars and evolved stars provides a unique opportunity to discuss the final stage of close-in planets, including tidal evolutions.In this presentation, we review our effort to search for close-in planets around evolved stars. With the aim of confirming KOI planet candidates around evolved stars, we measured precision radial velocities (RVs) for evoloved stars with transiting planet candidates using Subaru/HDS. We also developed a new code which simultaneously models and fits the observed RVs and phase-curve variations in the Kepler light curve data (e.g., transits, stellar ellipsoidal variations, and planet emission/reflected light). As a result of applying the global fit to KOI giants/subgiants, we confirmed a few giant planets around evolved stars (Kepler-91 and KOI-1894), as well as revealed that KOI-977 is more likely a false positive.

  4. The soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.

  5. Proton Form Factors Measurements in the Time-Like Region

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; /Frascati

    2007-10-22

    I present an overview of the measurement of the proton form factors in the time-like region. BABAR has recently measured with great accuracy the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} reaction from production threshold up to an energy of {approx} 4.5 GeV, finding evidence for a ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor greater than unity, contrary to expectation. In agreement with previous measurements, BABAR confirmed the steep rise of the magnetic form factor close to the p{bar p} mass threshold, suggesting the possible presence of an under-threshold N{bar N} vector state. These and other open questions related to the nucleon form factors both in the time-like and space-like region, wait for more data with different experimental techniques to be possibly solved.

  6. On absence of bound states for weakly attractive δ'-interactions supported on non-closed curves in ℝ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jex, Michal; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Let Λ ⊂ ℝ2 be a non-closed piecewise-C1 curve, which is either bounded with two free endpoints or unbounded with one free endpoint. Let u±|Λ ∈ L2(Λ) be the traces of a function u in the Sobolev space H1(ℝ2∖Λ) onto two faces of Λ. We prove that for a wide class of shapes of Λ the Schrödinger operator Hω Λ with δ'-interaction supported on Λ of strength ω ∈ L∞(Λ; ℝ) associated with the quadratic form H 1 ( R 2 ∖ Λ ) ∋ u ↦ ∫ R 2 |" separators=" ∇ u | 2 d x - ∫ Λ ω |" separators=" u + | Λ - u - | Λ | 2 d s has no negative spectrum provided that ω is pointwise majorized by a strictly positive function explicitly expressed in terms of Λ. If, additionally, the domain ℝ2∖Λ is quasi-conical, we show that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) . For a bounded curve Λ in our class and non-varying interaction strength ω ∈ ℝ, we derive existence of a constant ω∗ > 0 such that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) for all ω ∈ (-∞, ω∗]; informally speaking, bound states are absent in the weak coupling regime.

  7. Large deformation analysis and synthesis of elastic closed-loop mechanism made of a certain spring wire described by free curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Nobuyuki; Kosaki, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Recently novel mechanisms with compact size and without many mechanical elements such as bearing are strongly required for medical devices such as surgical operation devices. This paper describes analysis and synthesis of elastic link mechanisms of a single spring beam which can be manufactured by NC coiling machines. These mechanisms are expected as disposable micro forceps. Smooth Curvature Model(SCM) with 3rd order Legendre polynomial curvature functions is applied to calculate large deformation of a curved cantilever beam by taking account of the balance between external and internal elastic forces and moments. SCM is then extended to analyze large deformation of a closed-loop curved elastic beam which is composed of multiple free curved beams. A closed-loop elastic link is divided into two free curved cantilever beams each of which is assumed as serially connected free curved cantilever beams described with SCM. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of SCM in all free curved cantilever beams are determined by taking account of the force and moment balance at connecting point where external input force is applied. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of a nonleaded closed-loop elastic link are optimized to design a link mechanism which can generate specified output motion due to input force applied at the assumed dividing point. For example, two planar micro grippers with a single pulling input force are analyzed and designed. The elastic deformation analyzed with proposed method agrees very well with that calculated with FEM. The designed micro gripper can generate the desired pinching motion. The proposed method can contribute to design compact and simple elastic mechanisms without high calculation costs.

  8. Studying time-like baryonic transitions with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, B.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results of the HADES collaboration are presented with emphasis on the e+e- production in elementary reactions. Via the Dalitz decay of baryonic resonances (R →Ne+e-), access is given to the time-like electromagnetic structure of baryonic transitions. This process could be measured for the first time for Δ(1232) in pp reactions at 1.25 GeV. At higher energies, the sensitivity of e+e- emission to transition form factors of the Vector Dominance type has been demonstrated. Very recently, experiments with the GSI pion beam started, allowing for more direct studies of baryonic resonances Dalitz decays. In addition, the measurement of hadronic channels provides a new data base for baryon spectroscopy issues, in particular in the 2πN channel.

  9. Probing Proton Strangeness with Time-Like Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Cotanch; Robert A. Williams

    2002-05-01

    We document that p(gamma,e+e-)p measurements will yield new, important information about the off-shell time-like nucleon form factors, especially in the phi meson region (q{sup 2} = M{sup 2}{sub {phi}}) governing the phi N couplings g{sup V,T}{sub {phi}NN}. Calculations for p(gamma,e+e-)p, utilizing vector meson dominance, predict measurable phi enhancements at high |t| compared to the expected phi background production from pi, eta and Pomeron exchange. The phi form factor contribution generates a novel experimental signature for OZI violation and the proton strangeness content. The phi N couplings are determined independently from a combined analysis of the neutron electric form factor and recent high |t| phi photoproduction. The pi, eta and Pomeron transition form factors are also predicted and the observed pi and eta transition moments are reproduced.

  10. Studying Null and Time-Like Geodesics in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    In a first course of general relativity, it is usually quite difficult for students to grasp the concept of a geodesic. It is supposed to be straight (auto-parallel) and yet it "looks" curved. In these situations, it is very useful to have some explicit examples available which show the different behaviour of geodesics. In this paper, we present…

  11. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    SciTech Connect

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  12. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments.

    PubMed

    Fertitta, E; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be(n) of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations. PMID:26395688

  13. Frequency curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.

  14. Mechanics of Curved Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcelo A.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2011-03-01

    Despite an almost two thousand year history, origami, the art of folding paper, remains a challenge both artistically and scientifically. Traditionally, origami is practiced by folding along straight creases. A whole new set of shapes can be explored, however, if, instead of straight creases, one folds along arbitrary curves. We present a mechanical model for curved fold origami in which the energy of a plastically-deformed crease is balanced by the bending energy of developable regions on either side of the crease. Though geometry requires that a sheet buckle when folded along a closed curve, its shape depends on the elasticity of the sheet. NSF DMR-0846582.

  15. Topics in General Relativity theory: Gravitational-wave measurements of black-hole parameters; gravitational collapse of a cylindrical body; and classical-particle evolution in the presence of closed, timelike curves

    SciTech Connect

    Echeverria, F.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the author studies three different topics in General Relativity. The first study investigates the accuracy with which the mass and angular momentum of a black hole can be determined by measurements of gravitational waves from the hole, using a gravitational-wave detector. The black hole is assumed to have been strongly perturbed and the detector measures the waves produced by its resulting vibration and ring-down. The uncertainties in the measured parameters arise from the noise present in the detector. It is found that the faster the hole rotates, the more accurate the measurements will be, with the uncertainty in the angular momentum decreasing rapidly with increasing rotation speed. The second study is an analysis of the gravitational collapse of an infinitely long, cylindrical dust shell. It is found that the collapse evolves into a naked singularity in finite time. Analytical expressions for the variables describing the collapse are found at late times near the singularity. The collapse is also followed, with a numerical simulation, from the start until very close to the singularity. The singularity is found to be strong, in the sense that an observer riding on the shell is infinitely stretched in one direction and infinitely compressed in another. The gravitational waves emitted from the collapse are also analyzed. The last study focuses on the consequences of the existence of closed timelike curves in a wormhole spacetime. Such curves might cause a system with apparently well-posed initial conditions to have no self-consistent evolution. The author studies the case of a classical particle with a hard-sphere potential, focusing attention on initial conditions for which the evolution, if followed naively, is self-inconsistent: The ball travels to the past through the wormhole, colliding with its younger self, preventing itself from entering the wormhole. For all such initial conditions, there are an infinite number of self-consistent solutions.

  16. Feasibility studies on time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA-FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Iris; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Khaneft, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    This contribution reports on the latest status of the feasibility studies for the measurement of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors (FF's) at the PANDA experiment [1] at FAIR (Germany). Electromagnetic FF's are fundamental quantities parameterizing the electric and magnetic structure of hadrons. In the time-like region proton FF's can be accessed experimentally through the annihilation processes p ¯p → l+l- (l = e, μ), assuming that the interaction takes place through the exchange of one virtual photon. Due to the low luminosity available at colliders in the past, an individual determination of the time-like electric and magnetic proton FF's was not feasible. The statistical precision, at which the proton FF's will be determined at PANDA, is estimated for both signal processes p ¯p → l+l- (l = e, μ) using the PandaRoot software, which encompasses full detector simulation and event reconstruction. The signal identification and suppression of the main background process (p ¯p → π+π-) is studied. Different methods have been used to generate and analyze the processes of interest. The results from the different analyses show that time-like electromagnetic FF's can be measured at PANDA with unprecedented statistical accuracy.

  17. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  18. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  19. Two-photon exchange contribution to proton form factors in the time-like region

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Zhou, H. Q.

    2008-10-15

    We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to the process e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}p+p . The two-photon exchange corrections to double spin polarization observables and form factors in the time-like region are calculated. The corrections are found to be small in magnitude but with a strong angular dependence at fixed momentum transfer. These two features are the same as those in the space-like region. In future experiments, the double spin polarization observable P{sub z} deserves to be considered.

  20. Atlas of fatigue curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This Atlas was developed to serve engineers who are looking for fatigue data on a particular metal or alloy. Having these curves compiled in a single book will also facilitate the computerization of the involved data. It is pointed out that plans are under way to make the data in this book available in ASCII files for analysis by computer programs. S-N curves which typify effects of major variables are considered along with low-carbon steels, medium-carbon steels, alloy steels, HSLA steels, high-strength alloy steels, heat-resisting steels, stainless steels, maraging steels, cast irons, and heat-resisting alloys. Attention is also given to aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, molybdenum, tin alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium, steel castings, closed-die forgings, powder metallurgy parts, composites, effects of surface treatments, and test results for component parts.

  1. YNOGKM: Time-like geodesics in the Kerr-Newmann Spacetime calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-lin; Wang, Jian-cheng

    2014-03-01

    YNOGKM (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic in a Kerr-Newman spacetime for massive particles) performs fast calculation of time-like geodesics in the Kerr-Newman (K-N) spacetime; it is a direct extension of YNOGK (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic Kerr) calculating null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime. The four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically by using the Weierstrass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. The elliptic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code. The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ynogkm: code for calculating time-like geodesics (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.-L.; Wang, J.-C.

    2013-11-01

    Here we present the source file for a new public code named ynogkm, aim on calculating the time-like geodesics in a Kerr-Newmann spacetime fast. In the code the four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically, i.e., r(p), μ(p), φ(p), t(p), and σ(p), by using the Weiers- trass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. All of the ellip- tic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code.The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates. (3 data files).

  3. Curves and Their Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Robert C.

    This volume, a reprinting of a classic first published in 1952, presents detailed discussions of 26 curves or families of curves, and 17 analytic systems of curves. For each curve the author provides a historical note, a sketch or sketches, a description of the curve, a discussion of pertinent facts, and a bibliography. Depending upon the curve,…

  4. CURVES, VERTICES, KNOTS AND SUCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOLEY, JACK L.

    THIS BOOKLET, ONE OF A SERIES, HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE PROJECT, A PROGRAM FOR MATHEMATICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED PUPILS. A PROJECT TEAM, INCLUDING INSERVICE TEACHERS, IS BEING USED TO WRITE AND DEVELOP THE MATERIALS FOR THIS PROGRAM. THE MATERIALS DEVELOPED IN THIS BOOKLET INCLUDE SUCH CONCEPTS AS (1) SIMPLE CLOSED CURVES, (2) NETWORKS, (3) MAP…

  5. Standard Mastery Curves and Skew Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warries, Egbert

    The objective of the study is to convince educational researchers of the necessity for "standard mastery curves" for the graphical representation of scores on summative tests for a group of students. Attention is drawn to the study of theoretical and empirical skew curves in education and biology. Use of standard mastery curves and study of skew…

  6. Explicit superconic curves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunggoo

    2016-09-01

    Conics and Cartesian ovals are extremely important curves in various fields of science. In addition, aspheric curves based on conics are useful in optical design. Superconic curves, recently suggested by Greynolds, are extensions of both conics and Cartesian ovals and have been applied to optical design. However, they are not extensions of aspheric curves based on conics. In this work, we investigate another type of superconic curves. These superconic curves are extensions of not only conics and Cartesian ovals but also aspheric curves based on conics. Moreover, these are represented in explicit form, while Greynolds's superconic curves are in implicit form. PMID:27607506

  7. Fitting curves to cyclic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, W.B.

    1955-01-01

    A common problem in hydrology is to fit a smooth curve to cyclic or periodic data, either to define the most probable values of the data or to test some principle that one wishes to demonstrate.  This study treats of those problems where the length or period of the cycle is know beforehand - as a day, year, or meander length for example.  Curve-fitting can be made by free-hand drawing, and where the data are closely aligned this method offers the simplest and most direct course.  However, there are many problems where the best fit is far from obvious, and analytical methods may be necessary.

  8. A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Singer, Brad S.; Simo, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Tiered interpolation, a new timescale methodology, was used to construct the first radioisotopically-calibrated composite δ 13C curve for the Ordovician period using sanidine 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations and existing U-Pb geochronology and biostratigraphic zonation. Tiered interpolation intercalates and temporally scales the numerical age of lithostratigraphic horizons by conducting a series of nested projections between hierarchical temporal control points. For primary control points, new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and legacy U-Pb geochronology were screened to avoid analyses affected by inheritance and daughter loss and calibrated to reflect modern decay constants and standard values. Ages for secondary, tertiary, etc.… control points are obtained via linear interpolation of between higher order control points. In scaling the Ordovician δ 13C composite, the following control point order was applied: (1) radioisotopic ages (2) graptolite Zones, (3) index taxa-based on speciation events (North Atlantic conodont Zones), (4) North American Mid-continent conodont zones, and (5) stratal thicknesses at δ 13C sampled sections. The resulting timescale utilizes the highest resolution of each component, is internally consistent, and is re-scalable as more precise radioisotopic ages become available. It provides a robust framework for independently assessing the accuracy of biostratigraphic composite timescales because it does not rely an assumption of quasi-continuous sediment accumulation and/or speciation. To better calibrate the Late Ordovician and resolve a discrepancy between U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, three new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages were determined via the laser fusion of multiple single sanidine phenocrysts from three bentonitic ash beds from the Late Ordovician marine strata of the upper Mississippi valley where the record of Taconic volcanism is most complete. Fusions of 275 individual sanidine crystals from the Millbrig, Dygerts, and Rifle Hill bentonites yield largely

  9. Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

  10. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  11. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  12. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  13. The Skipping Rope Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmark, Arne; Essen, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of a flexible inextensible string, or chain, in the centrifugal force field of a rotating reference frame is investigated. It is assumed that the end points are fixed on the rotation axis. The shape of the curve, the skipping rope curve or "troposkien", is given by the Jacobi elliptic function sn. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Determining satellite close approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore; Negron, David, Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical method to evaluate close approaches of two satellites. The algorithm is based on a space curve modeling technique originally developed by Overhauser, presented here as an independent derivation. The method to determine minimum spacing between two space objects is based on creating a relative distance waveform, delta(t), versus time. The waveform is produced from either uniform or arbitrarily spaced data points, from which intervals of close approach are obtained by extracting the real roots of a localized cubic polynomial. This method is free of both transcendental equations and the computation of acceleration terms of the two objects of interest. For this study, a close approach truth table is constructed using a 0.1 second sequential step along the orbits, then differencing the two position vectors. The close approach entrance and exit times for an ellipsoidal quadric surface are then located using a piecewise linear interpolator, and serve as a benchmark for comparison. The simulation results show this algorithm produces encounter times almost identical to those in the truth table, with a 99.84 percent reduction in computer runtime. The results, created from real orbital data, include solution sets for three operational uses of close-approach logic. For this study, satellite orbital motion is modeled using first-order secular perturbations caused by mass anomalies.

  15. Curve Stitching in LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscat, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    Uses LOGO to enhance the applicability of curve stitching in the mathematics curriculum. Presents the formulas and computer programs for the construction of parabolas, concentric circles, and epicycloids. Diagrams of constructed figures are provided. (MDH)

  16. Highly curved microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  17. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  18. Spinning bodies in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Ambrosi, G.; Satish Kumar, S.; van de Vis, J.; van Holten, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of neutral and charged spinning bodies in curved spacetime in the test-particle limit. We construct equations of motion using a closed covariant Poisson-Dirac bracket formulation that allows for different choices of the Hamiltonian. We derive conditions for the existence of constants of motion and apply the formalism to the case of spherically symmetric spacetimes. We show that the periastron of a spinning body in a stable orbit in a Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrøm background not only precesses but also varies radially. By analyzing the stability conditions for circular motion we find the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) as a function of spin. It turns out that there is an absolute lower limit on the ISCOs for increasing prograde spin. Finally we establish that the equations of motion can also be derived from the Einstein equations using an appropriate energy-momentum tensor for spinning particles.

  19. Convex hulls of a curve in control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatskii, Aleksei N

    2012-03-31

    A classification is obtained for typical singularities of the local transitivity sets of control systems on three-dimensional manifolds with nonconvex indicatrices that are closed smooth spatial curves. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  20. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  1. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  2. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  3. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5. PMID:26489652

  4. Factorization with genus 2 curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosset, Romain

    2010-04-01

    The elliptic curve method (ECM) is one of the best factorization methods available. It is possible to use hyperelliptic curves instead of elliptic curves but it is in theory slower. We use special hyperelliptic curves and Kummer surfaces to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Our implementation GMP-HECM is faster than GMP-ECM for factoring large numbers.

  5. On the convergence of planar curves under smoothing.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Baojiang; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2010-08-01

    Curve smoothing has two important applications in computer vision and image processing: 1) the curvature scale-space (CSS) technique for shape analysis, and 2) the Gaussian filter for noise suppression. In this paper, we study how planar curves converge as they are smoothed with increasing scales. First, two types of convergence behavior are clarified. The coined term shrinkage refers to the reduction of arc-length of a smoothed planar curve, which describes the convergence of the curve latitudinally; and another coined term collapse refers to the movement of each point to its limiting position, which describes the convergence of the curve longitudinally. A systematic study on the shrinkage and collapse of three categories of curve models is then presented. The corner models helps to reveal how the local structures of planar curves collapse and what the smoothed curves may converge to. The sawtooth models allows us to gain insights regarding how noise is suppressed from noisy planar curves by the Gaussian filter. Our investigation on the closed curves shows that each curve collapses to a point at its center of mass. However, different curves may yield different limiting shapes at the infinity scale. Finally, based upon the derived results the performance of the CSS technique in corner detection and shape representation is analyzed, and a fast implementation method of the Gaussian filter for noise suppression is proposed. PMID:20350854

  6. Spinal curves and scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis, an abnormal side-to-side curve of the spine with associated vertebral rotation, affects as many as 4% of all adolescents. Several different categories of scoliosis exist, and treatment can range from observation and follow-up to bracing and surgical correction. This article discusses special imaging series for scoliosis and emphasizes the need for proper radiation protection techniques for patients with scoliosis, most of whom are girls in their early to mid-teens. PMID:17848532

  7. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  8. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  9. The Stephan Curve revisited.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William H

    2013-01-01

    The Stephan Curve has played a dominant role in caries research over the past several decades. What is so remarkable about the Stephan Curve is the plethora of interactions it illustrates and yet acid production remains the dominant focus. Using sophisticated technology, it is possible to measure pH changes in plaque; however, these observations may carry a false sense of accuracy. Recent observations have shown that there may be multiple pH values within the plaque matrix, thus emphasizing the importance of the milieu within which acid is formed. Although acid production is indeed the immediate proximate cause of tooth dissolution, the influence of alkali production within plaque has received relative scant attention. Excessive reliance on Stephan Curve leads to describing foods as "safe" if they do not lower the pH below the so-called "critical pH" at which point it is postulated enamel dissolves. Acid production is just one of many biological processes that occur within plaque when exposed to sugar. Exploration of methods to enhance alkali production could produce rich research dividends. PMID:23224410

  10. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame of fixed pole curve belonging to the Bertrand curves pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame of fixed pole curve which drawn by the unit Darboux vector of the Bertrand partner curve. Some results have been obtained. These results were expressed as the depends Bertrand curve.

  11. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve—from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4–0.5. PMID:26489652

  12. The Characteristic Curves of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Arnold; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2016-09-01

    In 1960, E. H. Brown defined a set of characteristic curves (also known as ideal curves) of pure fluids, along which some thermodynamic properties match those of an ideal gas. These curves are used for testing the extrapolation behaviour of equations of state. This work is revisited, and an elegant representation of the first-order characteristic curves as level curves of a master function is proposed. It is shown that Brown's postulate—that these curves are unique and dome-shaped in a double-logarithmic p, T representation—may fail for fluids exhibiting a density anomaly. A careful study of the Amagat curve (Joule inversion curve) generated from the IAPWS-95 reference equation of state for water reveals the existence of an additional branch.

  13. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  14. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  15. The wavelength dependence of Triton's light curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mcewen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Using Voyager observations, it is demonstrated that Triton's orbital light curve is strongly wavelength-dependent, a characteristic which readily explains some of the apparent discrepancies among pre-Voyager telescopic measurements. Specifically, a light curve amplitude (peak to peak) is found that decreases systematically with increasing wavelength from about 0.08 magnitude (peak to peak) near 200 nm to less than 0.02 magnitude near 1000 nm. Peak brightness occurs near 90 deg orbital longitude (leading hemisphere). The brightness variation across this hemisphere is close to sinusoidal; the variation across the darker hemisphere is more complex. The decrease in light curve amplitude with increasing wavelength appears to be due to a decrease in contrast among surface markings, rather than to atmospheric obscuration. The model also explains the observed decrease in the amplitude of Triton's light curve at visible wavelengths over the past decade, a decrease related to the current migration of the subsolar latitude toward the south pole; it is predicted that this trend will continue into the 1990s.

  16. Birational maps that send biquadratic curves to biquadratic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John A. G.; Jogia, Danesh

    2015-02-01

    Recently, many papers have begun to consider so-called non-Quispel-Roberts-Thompson (QRT) birational maps of the plane. Compared to the QRT family of maps which preserve each biquadratic curve in a fibration of the plane, non-QRT maps send a biquadratic curve to another biquadratic curve belonging to the same fibration or to a biquadratic curve from a different fibration of the plane. In this communication, we give the general form of a birational map derived from a difference equation that sends a biquadratic curve to another. The necessary and sufficient condition for such a map to exist is that the discriminants of the two biquadratic curves are the same (and hence so are the j-invariants). The result allows existing examples in the literature to be better understood and allows some statements to be made concerning their generality.

  17. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, D.M.; Peskin, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood with two curved leaflets is described. Each of the leaflets is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance. 26 figures.

  18. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    DOEpatents

    McQueen, David M.; Peskin, Charles S.

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood therethrough with two curved leaflets each of which is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance.

  19. Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, V.

    1990-10-22

    In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Synthetic RR Lyrae velocity curves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianxing Boston Univ., MA )

    1991-02-01

    An amplitude correlation between the pulsation velocity curves and visual light curves of ab-type RR Lyrae stars is derived from a large number of RR Lyrae that have high-precision radial-velocity and photometric data. Based on the determined AVp, AV ralation, a synthetic radial-velocity curve for a typical ab-type RR Lyrae star is constructed. This would be of particular use in determining the systemic velocities of RR Lyrae. 17 refs.

  1. A "chaos" of Phanerozoic eustatic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of eustasy has changed during the past two decades. Although there is not any single global sea-level curve for the entire Phanerozoic, new curves have been proposed for all periods. For some geological time intervals, there are two and more alternative reconstructions, from which it is difficult to choose. A significant problem is the available eustatic curves are justified along different geological time scales (sometimes without proper explanations), which permits to correlate eustatic events with the possible error of 1-3 Ma. This degree of error permits to judge about only substage- or stage-order global sea-level changes. Close attention to two geological time slices, namely the late Cambrian (Epoch 3‒Furongian) and the Late Cretaceous, implies that only a few eustatic events (6 events in the case of the late Cambrian and 9 events in the case of the Late Cretaceous) appear on all available alternative curves for these periods, and different (even opposite) trends of eustatic fluctuations are shown on these curves. This reveals significant uncertainty in our knowledge of eustasy that restricts our ability to decipher factors responsible for regional transgressions and regressions and relative sea-level changes. A big problem is also inadequate awareness of the geological research community of the new eustatic developments. Generally, the situation with the development and the use of the Phanerozoic eustatic reconstructions seems to be "chaotic". The example of the shoreline shifts in Northern Africa during the Late Cretaceous demonstrates the far-going consequences of this situation. The practical recommendations to avoid this "chaos" are proposed. Particularly, these claim for good awareness of all eustatic developments, their critical discussion, and clear explanation of the employed geological time scale.

  2. The extended polar writhe: a tool for open curves mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Christopher B.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    A measure of the writhing of a curve is introduced and is used to extend the Călugăreanu decomposition for closed curves, as well as the polar decomposition for curves bound between planes. The new writhe measure is also shown to be able to assess changes in linking due to belt-trick and knotting type deformations, and further its utility is illustrated on examples taken from elastic rod parameter-continuation studies. Finally C++ and mathematica codes are made available and shown to be faster than existing algorithms for the numerical computation of the writhe.

  3. Singularities and Closed String Tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-03-17

    A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

  4. A theory for turbulent curved wall jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    A simple theoretical model is proposed to describe the flow of a turbulent wall jet along a curved surface into a quiescent atmosphere. An integral method is used to solve the momentum equation and identifies three contributions to the spreading rate of the wall jet: (1) turbulent diffusion in the wall jet; (2) wall curvature; and (3) rate of change of wall curvature. Closed from approximate solutions are found for the case of a plane wall, a circular cylinder, and a logarithmic spiral surface. Comparison with experimental data for these three cases is made showing good agreement.

  5. Tool For Making Curved Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Robert; Calve, Andrew; Pastreck, Edwin; Padden, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Tool for use in electrical-discharge machining (EDM) guides EDM electrode in making curved holes. Guide rod fits in slot in arm, which moves through arc. Motion drives electrode into workpiece along desired curved path. Electrode burns into workpiece while arm rotates on spindle. Discharge cuts hole of same radius of curvature.

  6. Digital-voltage curve generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.

    1970-01-01

    Curve generator capable of producing precisely repeatable curve for any single-valued function of voltage versus time uses digital approach, implemented by means of clocked feedback shift register, large scale integrated circuit diode matrix comprising about 12,000 diodes, counter, and digital-to-analog converter.

  7. Multiple Optical Traps with a Single-Beam Optical Tweezer Utilizing Surface Micromachined Planar Curved Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ju-Nan; Chen, Kuan-Yu

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present a single-beam optical tweezer integrated with a planar curved diffraction grating for microbead manipulation. Various curvatures of the surface micromachined planar curved grating are systematically investigated. The planar curved grating was fabricated using multiuser micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) processes (MUMPs). The angular separation and the number of diffracted orders were determined. Experimental results indicate that the diffraction patterns and curvature of the planar curved grating are closely related. As the curvature of the planar curved grating increases, the vertical diffraction angle increases, resulting in the strip patterns of the planar curved grating. A single-beam optical tweezer integrated with a planar curved diffraction grating was developed. We demonstrate a technique for creating multiple optical traps from a single laser beam using the developed planar curved grating. The strip patterns of the planar curved grating that resulted from diffraction were used to trap one row of polystyrene beads.

  8. Poiseuille flow in curved spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, J.-D.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Poiseuille channel flow through intrinsically curved media, equipped with localized metric perturbations. To this end, we study the flux of a fluid driven through the curved channel in dependence of the spatial deformation, characterized by the parameters of the metric perturbations (amplitude, range, and density). We find that the flux depends only on a specific combination of parameters, which we identify as the average metric perturbation, and derive a universal flux law for the Poiseuille flow. For the purpose of this study, we have improved and validated our recently developed lattice Boltzmann model in curved space by considerably reducing discrete lattice effects.

  9. Poiseuille flow in curved spaces.

    PubMed

    Debus, J-D; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Poiseuille channel flow through intrinsically curved media, equipped with localized metric perturbations. To this end, we study the flux of a fluid driven through the curved channel in dependence of the spatial deformation, characterized by the parameters of the metric perturbations (amplitude, range, and density). We find that the flux depends only on a specific combination of parameters, which we identify as the average metric perturbation, and derive a universal flux law for the Poiseuille flow. For the purpose of this study, we have improved and validated our recently developed lattice Boltzmann model in curved space by considerably reducing discrete lattice effects. PMID:27176437

  10. OPTICAL PHASE CURVES OF KEPLER EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Lisa J.; De Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca

    2013-07-20

    We conducted a comprehensive search for optical phase variations of all close-in (a/R{sub *} < 10) planet candidates in 15 quarters of Kepler space telescope data. After correcting for systematics, we found eight systems that show secondary eclipses as well as phase variations. Of these, five (Kepler-5, Kepler-6, Kepler-8, KOI-64, and KOI-2133) are new and three (TrES-2, HAT-P-7, and KOI-13) have published phase curves, albeit with many fewer observations. We model the full phase curve of each planet candidate, including the primary and secondary transits, and derive their albedos, dayside and nightside temperatures, ellipsoidal variations, and Doppler beaming. We find that KOI-64 and KOI-2133 have nightside temperatures well above their equilibrium values (while KOI-2133 also has an albedo, >1), so we conclude that they are likely to be self-luminous objects rather than planets. The other six candidates have characteristics consistent with their being planets with low geometric albedos (<0.3). For TrES-2 and KOI-13, the Kepler bandpass appears to probe atmospheric layers hotter than the planet's equilibrium temperature. For KOI-13, we detect a never-before-seen third cosine harmonic with an amplitude of 6.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm and a phase shift of -1.1 {+-} 0.1 rad in the phase curve residual, possibly due to its spin-orbit misalignment. We report derived planetary parameters for all six planets, including masses from ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming, and compare our results to published values when available. Our results nearly double the number of Kepler exoplanets with measured phase curve variations, thus providing valuable constraints on the properties of hot Jupiters.

  11. Sequence comparison via polar coordinates representation and curve tree.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparison has become one of the essential bioinformatics tools in bioinformatics research, which could serve as evidence of structural and functional conservation, as well as of evolutionary relations among the sequences. Existing graphical representation methods have achieved promising results in sequence comparison, but there are some design challenges with the graphical representations and feature-based measures. We reported here a new method for sequence comparison. It considers whole distribution of dual bases and employs polar coordinates method to map a biological sequence into a closed curve. The curve tree was then constructed to numerically characterize the closed curve of biological sequences, and further compared biological sequences by evaluating the distance of the curve tree of the query sequence matching against a corresponding curve tree of the template sequence. The proposed method was tested by phylogenetic analysis, and its performance was further compared with alignment-based methods. The results demonstrate that using polar coordinates representation and curve tree to compare sequences is more efficient. PMID:22001081

  12. Parabolic curves in Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, Michael

    2010-05-15

    To interpolate a sequence of points in Euclidean space, parabolic splines can be used. These are curves which are piecewise quadratic. To interpolate between points in a (semi-)Riemannian manifold, we could look for curves such that the second covariant derivative of the velocity is zero. We call such curves Jupp and Kent quadratics or JK-quadratics because they are a special case of the cubic curves advocated by Jupp and Kent. When the manifold is a Lie group with bi-invariant metric, we can relate JK-quadratics to null Lie quadratics which arise from another interpolation problem. We solve JK-quadratics in the Lie groups SO(3) and SO(1,2) and in the sphere and hyperbolic plane, by relating them to the differential equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator00.

  13. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, J. B. R.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  14. On curve veering and flutter of rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afolabi, Dare; Mehmed, Oral

    1993-01-01

    The eigenvalues of rotating blades usually change with rotation speed according to the Stodola-Southwell criterion. Under certain circumstances, the loci of eigenvalues belonging to two distinct modes of vibration approach each other very closely, and it may appear as if the loci cross each other. However, our study indicates that the observable frequency loci of an undamped rotating blade do not cross, but must either repel each other (leading to 'curve veering'), or attract each other (leading to 'frequency coalescence'). Our results are reached by using standard arguments from algebraic geometry--the theory of algebraic curves and catastrophe theory. We conclude that it is important to resolve an apparent crossing of eigenvalue loci into either a frequency coalescence or a curve veering, because frequency coalescence is dangerous since it leads to flutter, whereas curve veering does not precipitate flutter and is, therefore, harmless with respect to elastic stability.

  15. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  16. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Small Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Closed cell clouds are formed under conditions of widespread sinking of the air above. ...

  17. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  18. Phase nucleation in curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo; García, Nicolás; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Lorenzana, José; Daniel, Vega

    Nucleation and growth is the dominant relaxation mechanism driving first-order phase transitions. In two-dimensional flat systems, nucleation has been applied to a wide range of problems in physics, chemistry and biology. Here we study nucleation and growth of two-dimensional phases lying on curved surfaces and show that curvature modifies both critical sizes of nuclei and paths towards the equilibrium phase. In curved space, nucleation and growth becomes inherently inhomogeneous and critical nuclei form faster on regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Substrates of varying shape display complex energy landscapes with several geometry-induced local minima, where initially propagating nuclei become stabilized and trapped by the underlying curvature (Gómez, L. R. et al. Phase nucleation in curved space. Nat. Commun. 6:6856 doi: 10.1038/ncomms7856 (2015).).

  19. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to…

  20. Active particles on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael

    Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.

  1. Surface Reconstruction From Non-parallel Curve Networks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Building surfaces from cross-section curves has wide applications including bio-medical modeling. Previous work in this area has mostly focused on connecting simple closed curves on parallel cross-sections. Here we consider the more general problem where input data may lie on non-parallel cross-sections and consist of curve networks that represent the segmentation of the underlying object by different material or tissue types (e.g., skin, muscle, bone, etc.) on each cross-section. The desired output is a surface network that models both the exterior surface and the internal partitioning of the object. We introduce an algorithm that is capable of handling curve networks of arbitrary shape and topology on cross-section planes with arbitrary orientations. Our algorithm is simple to implement and is guaranteed to produce a closed surface network that interpolates the curve network on each cross-section. Our method is demonstrated on both synthetic and bio-medical examples. PMID:19718278

  2. NEXT Performance Curve Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Performance curves of the NEXT thruster are highly important in determining the thruster's ability in performing towards mission-specific goals. New performance curves are proposed and examined here. The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is used to verify variations in mission solutions based on both available thruster curves and the new curves generated. Furthermore, variations in BOL and EOL curves are also examined. Mission design results shown here validate the use of EMTG and the new performance curves.

  3. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Robert W.; Wilson, Jack W.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  4. Coexistence Curve of Perfluoromethylcyclohexane-Isopropyl Alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. T.; Kuhl, D. E.; Selby, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The coexistence curve of the binary fluid mixture perfluoromethylcyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol was determined by precisely measuring the refractive index both above and below its upper critical consolute point. Sixty-seven two-phase data points were obtained over a wide range of reduced temperatures, 10(exp -5) less than t less than 2.5 x 10(exp -1), to determine the location of the critical point: critical temperature=89.901 C, and critical composition = 62.2% by volume perfluoromethylcyclohexane. These data were analyzed to determine the critical exponent 8 close to the critical point, the amplitude B, and the anomaly in the diameter. The volume-fraction coexistence curve is found to be as symmetric as any composition like variable. Correction to scaling is investigated as well as the need for a crossover theory. A model is proposed that describes the asymptotic approach to zero of the effective exponent Beta, which allows an estimation of the temperature regime free of crossover effects.

  5. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  6. Interpolation and Polynomial Curve Fitting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2014-01-01

    Two points determine a line. Three noncollinear points determine a quadratic function. Four points that do not lie on a lower-degree polynomial curve determine a cubic function. In general, n + 1 points uniquely determine a polynomial of degree n, presuming that they do not fall onto a polynomial of lower degree. The process of finding such a…

  7. Geomorphological origin of recession curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Basudev; Marani, Marco

    2010-12-01

    We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties through a conceptual-physical model of the drainage process of the riparian unconfined aquifer. We show that the power-law exponent, α, of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. Using Digital Terrain Models and daily discharge observations from 67 US basins we find that geomorphologic α estimates match well the values obtained from recession curves analyses. Finally, we argue that the link between recession flows and network morphology points to an important role of low-flow discharges in shaping the channel network.

  8. Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate was investigated. The curved laminate failed unstably by delaminations developing around the curved region of the laminate at different depths through the thickness until virtually all bending stiffness was lost. Delamination was assumed to initiate at the location of the highest radial stress in the curved region. A closed form curved beam elasticity solution and a 2D finite element analysis (FEA) were conducted to determine this location. The variation in the strain energy release rate, G, with delamination growth was then determined using the FEA. A strength-based failure criteria adequately predicted the interlaminar tension failure which caused initial delamination onset. Using the G analysis the delamination was predicted to extend into the arm and leg of the laminate, predominantly in mode I. As the initial delamination grew around the curved region, the maximum radial stress in the newly formed inner sublaminate increased to a level sufficient to cause a new delamination to initiate in the sublaminate with no increase in applied load. This failure progression was observed experimentally.

  9. Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.

    1990-01-01

    Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate was investigated. The curved laminate failed unstably by delaminations developing around the curved region of the laminate at different depths through the thickness until virtually all bending stiffness was lost. Delamination was assumed to initiate at the location of the highest radial stress in the curved region. A closed form curved beam elasticity solution and a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA) were conducted to determine this location. The variation in the strain energy release rate, G, with delamination growth was then determined using the FEA. A strength-based failure criteria adequately predicted the interlaminar tension failure which caused initial delamination onset. Using the G analysis the delamination was predicted to extend into the arm and leg of the laminate, predominantly in mode I. As the initial delamination grew arould the curved region, the maximum radial stress in the newly formed inner sublaminate increased to a level sufficient to cause a new delamination to initiate in the sublaminate with no increase in applied load. This failure progression was observed experimentally.

  10. Comparison of Two Algebraic Methods for Curve/curve Intersection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demontaudouin, Y.; Tiller, W.

    1985-01-01

    Most geometric modeling systems use either polynomial or rational functions to represent geometry. In such systems most computational problems can be formulated as systems of polynomials in one or more variables. Classical elimination theory can be used to solve such systems. Here Cayley's method of elimination is summarized and it is shown how it can best be used to solve the curve/curve intersection problem. Cayley's method was found to be a more straightforward approach. Furthermore, it is computationally simpler, since the elements of the Cayley matrix are one variable instead of two variable polynomials. Researchers implemented and tested both methods and found Cayley's to be more efficient. Six pairs of curves, representing mixtures of lines, circles, and cubic arcs were used. Several examples had multiple intersection points. For all six cases Cayley's required less CPU time than the other method. The average time ratio of method 1 to method 2 was 3.13:1, the least difference was 2.33:1, and the most dramatic was 6.25:1. Both of the above methods can be extended to solve the surface/surface intersection problem.

  11. Quantum walking in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Pablo; Facchini, Stefano; Forets, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs admit a continuum limit, leading to familiar PDEs (e.g., the Dirac equation). In this paper, we study the continuum limit of a wide class of QWs and show that it leads to an entire class of PDEs, encompassing the Hamiltonian form of the massive Dirac equation in (1+1) curved spacetime. Therefore, a certain QW, which we make explicit, provides us with a unitary discrete toy model of a test particle in curved spacetime, in spite of the fixed background lattice. Mathematically, we have introduced two novel ingredients for taking the continuum limit of a QW, but which apply to any quantum cellular automata: encoding and grouping.

  12. Optical conductivity of curved graphene.

    PubMed

    Chaves, A J; Frederico, T; Oliveira, O; de Paula, W; Santos, M C

    2014-05-01

    We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far- and mid-infrared frequencies for periodicities ∼100 nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthermore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type. PMID:24759188

  13. Flow Through Randomly Curved Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational study of the transport properties of campylotic (intrinsically curved) media. It is found that the relation between the flow through a campylotic media, consisting of randomly located curvature perturbations, and the average Ricci scalar of the system, exhibits two distinct functional expressions, depending on whether the typical spatial extent of the curvature perturbation lies above or below the critical value maximizing the overall scalar of curvature. Furthermore, the flow through such systems as a function of the number of curvature perturbations is found to present a sublinear behavior for large concentrations, due to the interference between curvature perturbations leading to an overall less curved space. We have also characterized the flux through such media as a function of the local Reynolds number and the scale of interaction between impurities. For the purpose of this study, we have also developed and validated a new lattice Boltzmann model. PMID:24173367

  14. Conformal Gravity rotation curves with a conformal Higgs halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's fourth-order Poisson equation if and only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r) = S0 a/(r + a), decreasing from S0 at r = 0 with radial scalelength a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric gμν, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric tilde{g}_{μ ν }=Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with the conformal factor Ω(r) = S(r)/S0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

  15. Gravitational-wave sensitivity curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. J.; Cole, R. H.; Berry, C. P. L.

    2015-01-01

    There are several common conventions in use by the gravitational-wave community to describe the amplitude of sources and the sensitivity of detectors. These are frequently confused. We outline the merits of and differences between the various quantities used for parameterizing noise curves and characterizing gravitational-wave amplitudes. We conclude by producing plots that consistently compare different detectors. Similar figures can be generated on-line for general use at http://rhcole.com/apps/GWplotter.

  16. Damage prediction in cross-plied curved composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical and experimental work is detailed which is required to predict delamination onset and growth in a curved cross plied composite laminate subjected to static and fatigue loads. The composite used was AS4/3501/6, graphite/epoxy. Analytically, a closed form stress analysis and 2-D and 3-D finite element analyses were conducted to determine the stress distribution in an undamaged curved laminate. The finite element analysis was also used to determine values of strain energy release rate at a delamination emanating from a matrix crack in a 90 deg ply. Experimentally, transverse tensile strength and fatigue life were determined from flat 90 deg coupons. The interlaminar tensile strength and fatigue life were determined from double cantilevered beam specimens. Cross plied curved laminates were tested statically and in fatigue to give a comparison to the analytical predictions. A comparison of the fracture mechanics life prediction technique and the strength based prediction technique is given.

  17. Phase Curves of Eccentric Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; de Wit, Julien; Laughlin, Gregory P.; Knutson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 15% of the known exoplanet population have significantly eccentric orbits (e > 0.25). Systems with planets on highly eccentric orbits provide natural laboratories to test theories of orbital evolution, tidal forcing, and atmospheric response. The two best studied eccentric exoplanets are HAT-P-2b (e~0.5) and HD 80606 b (e~0.9). Both of these eccentric planets have full or partial orbit phase curve observations taken with the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 micron channels of the Spitzer IRAC instrument. These phase-curve observations of HAT-P-2b and HD 80606 b have given us important insights into atmospheric radiative timescales, planetary rotation rates and orbital evolution, and planet-star tidal interactions. Here I will overview the key results from the Spitzer observational campaigns for HAT-P-2b and HD 80606 b and look toward the future of phase curve observations of eccentric exoplanets in the era of JWST.

  18. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  19. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-12-01

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  1. Curve geometry and field topology in two and three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikas, A. I.; Ktorides, C. N.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that extrinsic geometry of closed curves in two and three euclidean dimensions generates, in a certain well-defined local limit, corresponding topological terms in abelian gauge theories: U(1) instanton term in two dimensions and Chern-Simons term in three. Permanent address: Nuclear and Particle Physics Division, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, GR-157 71 Zographos, Athens, Greece.

  2. Compression of contour data through exploiting curve-to-curve dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalabik, N.; Cooper, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    An approach to exploiting curve-to-curve dependencies in order to achieve high data compression is presented. One of the approaches to date of along curve compression through use of cubic spline approximation is taken and extended by investigating the additional compressibility achievable through curve-to-curve structure exploitation. One of the models under investigation is reported on.

  3. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  4. Fracture toughness curve shift method

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; McCabe, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to examine the technical basis for the currently accepted methods for shifting fracture toughness curves to account for irradiation damage, and to work through national codes and standards bodies to revise those methods, if a change is warranted. During this reporting period, data from all the relevant HSSI Programs were acquired and stored in a database and evaluated. The results from that evaluation have been prepared in a draft letter report and are summarized here. A method employing Weibull statistics was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties of unirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steels. Application of the concept of a master curve for irradiated materials was examined and used to measure shifts of fracture toughness transition curves. It was shown that the maximum likelihood approach gave good estimations of the reference temperature, T{sub o}, determined by rank method and could be used for analyzing of data sets where application of the rank method did not prove to be feasible. It was shown that, on average, the fracture toughness shifts generally exceeded the Charpy 41-J shifts; a linear least-squares fit to the data set yielded a slope of 1.15. The observed dissimilarity was analyzed by taking into account differences in effects of irradiation on Charpy impact and fracture toughness properties. Based on these comparisons, a procedure to adjust Charpy 41-J shifts for achieving a more reliable correlation with the fracture toughness shifts was evaluated. An adjustment consists of multiplying the 41-J energy level by the ratio of unirradiated to irradiated Charpy upper shelves to determine an irradiated transition temperature, and then subtracting the unirradiated transition temperature determined at 41 J. For LUS welds, however, an unirradiated level of 20 J (15 ft-1b) was used for the corresponding adjustment for irradiated material.

  5. Dirac's aether in curved spacetime.

    PubMed

    Oliveira; Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Proca's equations for two types of fields in a Dirac's aether with electric conductivity sigma are solved exactly. The Proca electromagnetic fields are assumed with cylindrical symmetry. The background is a static, curved spacetime whose spatial section is homogeneous and has the topology of either the three-sphere S 3 or the projective three-space P 3. Simple relations between the range of Proca field lambda, the Universe radius R, the limit of photon rest mass mgamma and the conductivity sigma are written down. PMID:10932114

  6. Seeing effects on occultation curves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of seeing effects on the light curve of a stellar occultation by the moon. Some theoretical studies of Fried (1966) and Hulett (1967) on the linear size of the downward-looking seeing disk are cited, showing that the seeing blur amounts to a few centimeters for a star in the zenith and that the linear blur must grow approximately as (sec z) to the 3/2 power. For most observations the seeing blur will not exceed 8 to 10 cm. The limitation on angular resolution imposed by this seeing effect is calculated.

  7. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  8. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  9. Reciprocal relations between kinetic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablonsky, G. S.; Gorban, A. N.; Constales, D.; Galvita, V. V.; Marin, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We study coupled irreversible processes. For linear or linearized kinetics with microreversibility, \\dot{x}=Kx , the kinetic operator K is symmetric in the entropic inner product. This form of Onsager's reciprocal relations implies that the shift in time, exp(Kt), is also a symmetric operator. This generates the reciprocity relations between the kinetic curves. For example, for the Master equation, if we start the process from the i-th pure state and measure the probability pj(t) of the j-th state (j≠i), and, similarly, measure pi(t) for the process, which starts at the j-th pure state, then the ratio of these two probabilities pj(t)/pi(t) is constant in time and coincides with the ratio of the equilibrium probabilities. We study similar and more general reciprocal relations between the kinetic curves. The experimental evidence provided as an example is from the reversible water gas shift reaction over iron oxide catalyst. The experimental data are obtained using Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) pulse-response studies. These offer excellent confirmation within the experimental error.

  10. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  11. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  12. Implicit dose-response curves.

    PubMed

    Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2015-06-01

    We develop tools from computational algebraic geometry for the study of steady state features of autonomous polynomial dynamical systems via elimination of variables. In particular, we obtain nontrivial bounds for the steady state concentration of a given species in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. This species is understood as the output of the network and we thus bound the maximal response of the system. The improved bounds give smaller starting boxes to launch numerical methods. We apply our results to the sequential enzymatic network studied in Markevich et al. (J Cell Biol 164(3):353-359, 2004) to find nontrivial upper bounds for the different substrate concentrations at steady state. Our approach does not require any simulation, analytical expression to describe the output in terms of the input, or the absence of multistationarity. Instead, we show how to extract information from effectively computable implicit dose-response curves, with the use of resultants and discriminants. We moreover illustrate in the application to an enzymatic network, the relation between the exact implicit dose-response curve we obtain symbolically and the standard hysteresis diagram provided by a numerical ode solver. The setting and tools we propose could yield many other results adapted to any autonomous polynomial dynamical system, beyond those where it is possible to get explicit expressions. PMID:25008963

  13. Galois Representations Connected with Hyperbolic Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voevodskiĭ, V. A.

    1992-06-01

    The author considers Galois group actions on the fundamental groups of curves of hyperbolic type, and proves certain cases of Grothendieck's conjecture about the possibility of recovering a curve from its Galois representation.

  14. The general efficiency curve for air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.

  15. Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

    2011-06-01

    We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: Δps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R < 10 cm /g 1 / 3) , each explosive had its own (unique) blast wave (e.g., Δps (R , HE) ~ a /Rn , where n is different for each explosive); (ii) these close-in blast waves do not scale with the ``Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.

  16. Quantifying the safety effects of horizontal curves on two-way, two-lane rural roads.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Jeffrey P; Gayah, Vikash V; Donnell, Eric T

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the safety performance of horizontal curves on two-way, two-lane rural roads relative to tangent segments. Past research is limited by small samples sizes, outdated statistical evaluation methods, and unreported standard errors. This study overcomes these drawbacks by using the propensity scores-potential outcomes framework. The impact of adjacent curves on horizontal curve safety is also explored using a cross-sectional regression model of only horizontal curves. The models estimated in the present study used eight years of crash data (2005-2012) obtained from over 10,000 miles of state-owned two-lane rural roads in Pennsylvania. These data included information on roadway geometry (e.g., horizontal curvature, lane width, and shoulder width), traffic volume, roadside hazard rating, and the presence of various low-cost safety countermeasures (e.g., centerline and shoulder rumble strips, curve and intersection warning pavement markings, and aggressive driving pavement dots). Crash prediction is performed by means of mixed effects negative binomial regression using the explanatory variables noted previously, as well as attributes of adjacent horizontal curves. The results indicate that both the presence of a horizontal curve and its degree of curvature must be considered when predicting the frequency of total crashes on horizontal curves. Both are associated with an increase in crash frequency, which is consistent with previous findings in the literature. Mixed effects negative binomial regression models for total crash frequency on horizontal curves indicate that the distance to adjacent curves is not statistically significant. However, the degree of curvature of adjacent curves in close proximity (within 0.75 miles) was found to be statistically significant and negatively correlated with crash frequency on the subject curve. This is logical, as drivers exiting a sharp curve are likely to be driving slower and with more

  17. Euler characteristics and elliptic curves.

    PubMed

    Coates, J; Howson, S

    1997-10-14

    Let E be a modular elliptic curve over [symbol, see text], without complex multiplication; let p be a prime number where E has good ordinary reduction; and let Finfinity be the field obtained by adjoining [symbol, see text] to all p-power division points on E. Write Ginfinity for the Galois group of Finfinity over [symbol, see text]. Assume that the complex L-series of E over [symbol, see text] does not vanish at s = 1. If p >/= 5, we make a precise conjecture about the value of the Ginfinity-Euler characteristic of the Selmer group of E over Finfinity. If one makes a standard conjecture about the behavior of this Selmer group as a module over the Iwasawa algebra, we are able to prove our conjecture. The crucial local calculations in the proof depend on recent joint work of the first author with R. Greenberg. PMID:11607752

  18. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  19. Hexatic undulations in curved geometries.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Peter; Nelson, David R

    2003-03-01

    We discuss the influence of two-dimensional hexatic order on capillary waves and undulation modes in spherical and cylindrical geometries. In planar geometries, extended bond-orientational order has only a minor effect on the fluctuations of liquid surfaces or lipid bilayers. However, in curved geometries, the long-wavelength spectrum of these ripples is altered. We calculate this frequency shift and discuss applications to spherical vesicles, liquid metal droplets, bubbles and cylindrical jets coated with surface-active molecules, and to multielectron bubbles in liquid helium at low temperatures. Hexatic order also leads to a shift in the threshold for the fission instability of charged droplets and bubbles, and for the Plateau-Rayleigh instability of liquid jets. PMID:12689068

  20. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results. PMID:23005049

  1. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  2. A cleavage toughness master curve model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; He, M. Y.

    2000-12-01

    Development of fusion power will require a fracture toughness database, derived largely from small specimen tests, closely integrated with methods to assess first wall and blanket structural integrities. A master curve-shift (MC-ΔT) method has been proposed as an engineering expedient to treat the effects of structural geometry, irradiation, loading rates and safety margins. However, a number of issues related to the MC-ΔT method remain to be resolved, including the universality of MC shapes. A new micromechanical model of fracture toughness in the cleavage transition regime is proposed that combines analytical representations of finite element analysis simulations of crack-tip stress fields with a local critical stress-critical stressed area (σ∗-A∗) fracture criterion. This model, has been successful in predicting geometry effects, as well as high loading rate and irradiation hardening-induced Charpy shifts. By incorporating a modest temperature dependence in σ∗(T), an inconsistency between model predictions and an observed universal-type MC shape is resolved.

  3. Close proximity gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1986-04-01

    Intuitively, a hand held in close proximity to a firearm at the instant of discharge will intercept a significant amount of gunshot residue, even though the hand did not actually come into contact with the weapon. There is, however, little information specifically described in the forensic science literature concerning the residue levels which might be encountered in such an instance. The present work confirms that antimony levels consistent with an individual having fired or handled a firearm may be intercepted by a hand held in close proximity. PMID:3711843

  4. Review: The Closing Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Two views of prominent biologists are presented side-by-side. Focal point is Barry Commoner's book, The Closing Circle, with a subsequent review by Paul Ehrlich. Growth of population, increases in affluence, and increased pollution from products of technology are considered. (BL)

  5. Closed Captioning: Students' Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasenforth, Donald L.

    A study investigated the attitudes of adult university students of English as a Second Language (ESL) toward use of closed captioned television (CCTV) as an instructional tool. Students at the intermediate (n=51) and advanced (n=55) levels of ESL study in classes using CCTV were administered a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of the…

  6. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  7. When a Library Closes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Mary Ann

    1984-01-01

    This review of case studies of five academic libraries in institutions that have ceased operation notes background, time factors, disposition of library collections, and nature of bankruptcy. Guidelines for closing (stabilizing and documenting collection, estimating worth of collection, obligations to government) are presented. Eight sources are…

  8. Closing the Loop Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

  9. New Ultraviolet Extinction Curves for Interstellar Dust in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Gordon, Karl D.; Bianchi, Luciana C.; Massa, Derck L.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Wolff, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    New low-resolution UV spectra of a sample of reddened OB stars in M31 were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/STIS to study the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction and the nature of the underlying dust grain populations. Extinction curves were constructed for four reddened sightlines in M31 paired with closely matching stellar atmosphere models. The new curves have a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous studies. Direct measurements of N(H i) were made using the Lyα absorption lines enabling gas-to-dust ratios to be calculated. The sightlines have a range in galactocentric distance of 5-14 kpc and represent dust from regions of different metallicities and gas-to-dust ratios. The metallicities sampled range from solar to 1.5 solar. The measured curves show similarity to those seen in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Maximum Entropy Method was used to investigate the dust composition and size distribution for the sightlines observed in this program, finding that the extinction curves can be produced with the available carbon and silicon abundances if the metallicity is super-solar. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. Diagnosis of breast tumor using thermal tomography q - r curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guilian; Wang, Lin; Han, Fei; Liang, Chengwen; Li, Kaiyang

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic heat, the product following the metabolism of cells, is closely related to the pathological information of living organisms, which means there are strong connections between the heat distribution and the pathological state of the living organism. The mathematical function δ is introduced in the classical Pennes bioheat transfer equation as a point heat source, and by simplifying the boundary condition, a bioheat transfer model is established. Based on the temperature distribution of the human body surface, the q-r curve of heat intensity q varying with depth r is acquired while combining the fitting method of the Lorentz curve. According to 34,977 clinical confirmed cases and the corresponding classified statistics, diagnostic criteria (for breast diseases) for judging diseases by the q-r curve are proposed. The P-value of our statistics is <0.05, which means our classified statistics are reliable. Six typical clinical examinations are performed, and the diagnosis results are very consistent with those of B-ultrasonic images, molybdenum target x-ray, and pathological examination, which suggests that the method of diagnosing diseases with a q-r curve has very good prospects for application. It is radiation free and noninvasive to the human body.

  11. Geometric-optical studies for metamaterial representations of curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Tom H.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-10-01

    Metamaterials offer opportunities to explore curved-spacetime scenarios which would otherwise be impractical or impossible to study. These opportunities arise from the formal analogy that exists between light propagation in vacuous curved spacetime and in a certain nonhomogeneous bianisotropic medium, called a Tamm medium. As the science and technology of nanostructured metamaterials continues its rapid development, the practical realization of Tamm mediums is edging ever closer. We considered two particular curved spacetimes associated with: (a) spinning cosmic strings, and (b) the Alcubierre drive. For both examples, a Tamm medium formulation was developed which is asymptotically identical to vacuum and is therefore amenable to physical realization. A study of ray trajectories for both Tamm mediums was undertaken, within the geometric optics regime. For the spinning cosmic string, it was observed that: (i) rays do not cross the string's boundary; (ii) evanescent waves are supported in regions of phase space that correspond to those regions of the string's spacetime wherein closed timelike curves may arise; and (iii) a non-spinning string is nearly invisible whereas a spinning string may be rather more visible. For the Alcubierre drive, it was observed that: (i) ray trajectories are highly sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the warp bubble's velocity, but less sensitive to the thickness of the transition zone between the warp bubble and its background; and (ii) the warp bubble acts as a focusing lens for rays which travel in the same direction as the bubble, especially at high speeds.

  12. D-Branes in Curved Space

    SciTech Connect

    McGreevy, John Austen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-07-06

    This thesis is a study of D-branes in string compactifications. In this context, D-branes are relevant as an important component of the nonperturbative spectrum, as an incisive probe of these backgrounds, and as a natural stringy tool for localizing gauge interactions. In the first part of the thesis, we discuss half-BPS D-branes in compactifications of type II string theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. The results we describe for these objects are pertinent both in their role as stringy brane-worlds, and in their role as solitonic objects. In particular, we determine couplings of these branes to the moduli determining the closed-string geometry, both perturbatively and non-perturbatively in the worldsheet expansion. We provide a local model for transitions in moduli space where the BPS spectrum jumps, and discuss the extension of mirror symmetry between Calabi-Yau manifolds to the case when D-branes are present. The next section is an interlude which provides some applications of D-branes to other curved backgrounds of string theory. In particular, we discuss a surprising phenomenon in which fundamental strings moving through background Ramond-Ramond fields dissolve into large spherical D3-branes. This mechanism is used to explain a previously-mysterious fact discovered via the AdS-CFT correspondence. Next, we make a connection between type IIA string vacua of the type discussed in the first section and M-theory compactifications on manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy. Finally we discuss constructions of string vacua which do not have large radius limits. In the final part of the thesis, we develop techniques for studying the worldsheets of open strings ending on the curved D-branes studied in the first section. More precisely, we formulate a large class of massive two-dimensional gauge theories coupled to boundary matter, which flow in the infrared to the relevant boundary conformal field theories. Along with many other applications, these techniques are used to describe

  13. Quantum fields in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    We review the theory of quantum fields propagating in an arbitrary, classical, globally hyperbolic spacetime. Our review emphasizes the conceptual issues arising in the formulation of the theory and presents known results in a mathematically precise way. Particular attention is paid to the distributional nature of quantum fields, to their local and covariant character, and to microlocal spectrum conditions satisfied by physically reasonable states. We review the Unruh and Hawking effects for free fields, as well as the behavior of free fields in deSitter spacetime and FLRW spacetimes with an exponential phase of expansion. We review how nonlinear observables of a free field, such as the stress-energy tensor, are defined, as well as time-ordered-products. The "renormalization ambiguities" involved in the definition of time-ordered products are fully characterized. Interacting fields are then perturbatively constructed. Our main focus is on the theory of a scalar field, but a brief discussion of gauge fields is included. We conclude with a brief discussion of a possible approach towards a nonperturbative formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and some remarks on the formulation of quantum gravity.

  14. Why subduction zones are curved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, L.; Bendick, R.; Liang, Haiyi

    2010-12-01

    We give an explanation for the polarity, localization, shape, size, and initiation of subduction zones on Earth. By considering a soft, thin, curved lithospheric cap with either elastic or viscous rheology supported by a thick, nearly incompressible mantle, we find two different characteristic subduction geometries arise depending on boundary conditions: (1) plate boundaries where subduction results primarily from the gravitational body force (free subduction) have characteristic plate lengths and form arc-shaped dimpled segments resulting from the competition between bending and stretching in edge buckling modes of thin spherical shells, and (2) subduction zones due to localized applied loads that push one slab of thin, positively buoyant lithosphere beneath an overriding plate (forced subduction) form localized straight segments, consistent with the deformation of indented spherical shells. Both types of subduction are nonlinear subcritical instabilities, so small perturbations in the mechanical properties of the lithosphere have pronounced effects on subduction initiation and evolution. Yet in both cases, geometric relationships determined by the shape of the Earth itself play the most critical role in controlling the basic morphology and characteristic length scales of subduction zones.

  15. Differentialless geometry of plane curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.; Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1997-10-01

    We introduce a class of planar arcs and curves, called tame arcs, which is general enough to describe the boundaries of planar real objects. A tame arc can have smooth parts as well as sharp corners; thus a polygonal arc is tame. On the other hand, this class of arcs is restrictive enough to rule out pathological arcs which have infinitely many inflections or which turn infinitely often: a tame arc can have only finitely many inflections, and its total absolute turn must be finite. In order to relate boundary properties of discrete objects obtained by segmenting digital images to the corresponding properties of their continuous originals, the theory of tame arcs is based on concepts that can be directly transferred from the continuous to the discrete domain. A tame arc is composed of a finite number of supported arcs. We define supported digital arcs and motivate their definition by the fact that hey can be obtained by digitizing continuous supported arcs. Every digital arc is tame, since it contains a finite number of points, and therefore it can be decomposed into a finite number of supported digital arcs.

  16. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support. PMID:23779151

  17. Intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aghababaei Samani, Keivan . E-mail: samani@cc.iut.ac.ir; Zarei, Mina

    2005-04-01

    The problem of intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces is investigated. Explicit results are obtained for Euclidean plane, Minkowski plane, Poincare half plane (AdS{sub 2}), de Sitter plane (dS{sub 2}), sphere, and torus. It is shown that the intertwining operator is related to the Killing vector fields and the isometry group of corresponding space. It is shown that the intertwined potentials are closely connected to the integral curves of the Killing vector fields. Two problems are considered as applications of the formalism presented in the paper. The first one is the problem of Hamiltonians with equispaced energy levels and the second one is the problem of Hamiltonians whose spectrum is like the spectrum of a free particle.

  18. Quantum field theories on algebraic curves. I. Additive bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takhtajan, Leon A.

    2013-04-01

    Using Serre's adelic interpretation of cohomology, we develop a `differential and integral calculus' on an algebraic curve X over an algebraically closed field k of constants of characteristic zero, define algebraic analogues of additive multi-valued functions on X and prove the corresponding generalized residue theorem. Using the representation theory of the global Heisenberg algebra and lattice Lie algebra, we formulate quantum field theories of additive and charged bosons on an algebraic curve X. These theories are naturally connected with the algebraic de Rham theorem. We prove that an extension of global symmetries (Witten's additive Ward identities) from the k-vector space of rational functions on X to the vector space of additive multi-valued functions uniquely determines these quantum theories of additive and charged bosons.

  19. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia. PMID:26554614

  20. Closing the pseudogap quietly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    The physical properties of hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors are heavily influenced by an energy gap known as the pseudogap whose origin remains a mystery second only to that of superconductivity itself. A key question is whether the pseudogap closes at a temperature T* . The absence of a specific heat anomaly, together with persistent entropy losses up to 300 K, have long suggested that the pseudogap does not vanish at T* . However, amid a growing body of evidence from other techniques pointing to the contrary we revisit this question. Here we investigate if, by adding a temperature dependence to the pseudogap energy and quasiparticle lifetime in the resonating-valence-bond spin-liquid model of Yang, Rice and Zhang, we can close the pseudogap quietly in the specific heat.

  1. Close encounters with PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. V.

    1988-07-01

    Aspects of the Soviet mission to Phobos are examined, including the objectives of the mission, the spapcecraft, experiments, and landers. Past Mars research and unanswered questions concerning Mars and its satellites are discussed. The spacecraft is expected to reach Mars in early 1989 and to observe the planet from two orbits, coming as close as 500 km from the surface, before moving into a third path close to Phobos. After studying the Phobos terrain from above, the craft will jettison one or two small long-duration automated landers, which will perform surface experiments, including work on celestial mechanics, the history of the Phobos orbit, surface composition, and mechanical properties. In addition to studying Phobos and Mars, the craft will examine the interplanetary medium, make observations of the Sun, and possibly study Deimos.

  2. Moessbauer Close-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up image of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the donut-shaped plate on the Moessbauer spectrometer. This image makes it easy to recognize the imprint left by the instrument in the martian soil at a location called 'Peak' on sol 43 (February 16, 2004). This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 39 (February 11, 2004).

  3. 12. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE IRON SUPERSTRUCTURE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE IRON SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THIS CAMELBACK TRUSS BRIDGE. THIS PHOTO SHOWS A DETAIL OF THE LATTICE WORK, AND AN INTERESTING CURVED BRACE MEMBER. - Freedom Bridge, Spanning West Fork of White River at County Road 590 South, Freedom, Owen County, IN

  4. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  5. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek; Szkody, P.; Gies, D.; Kang, Y.-W.; Linsky, J.; Livio, M.; Morrell, N.; Hilditch, R.; Nordström, B.; Ribas, I.; Sion, E.; Vrielman, S.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report from Commission 42 covers various topics like massive binaries, contact systems, cataclysmic variables and low-mass binary stars. We try in a number of sections to provide an update on the current status of the main research areas in the field of close binaries. It is not a formal review, even complete or comprehensive, but an attempt to bring the main topics on recent research to astronomers working in other fields. References are also not comprehensive and simply added to the text to help the reader looking for deeper information on the subject. For this reason, we have chosen to include references (sometimes incomplete for ongoing work) not in a list at the end but integrated with the main text body. Complete references and additional sources can be easily obtained through web access of ADS or SIMBAD. Furthermore, the summary of papers on close-binary research contained in the Bibliography of Close Binaries (BCB) can be accessed from the web site of Commission 42. I would like to express the gratitude of the commission for the careful work of Colin Scarfe as Editor-in-Chief of BCB and Andras Holl and Attila Sragli for maintaining the web pages of the Commission within the structure of Division V. Finally, K. Olah and J. Jurcsik are gratefully acknowledged for their continued support as editors of the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), also accessible through the commission web page.

  6. Deployment of a Curved Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Structures capable of deployment into complex, three-dimensional trusses have well known space technology applications such as the support of spacecraft payloads, communications antennas, radar reflectors, and solar concentrators. Such deployable trusses could also be useful in terrestrial applications such as the rapid establishment of structures in military and emergency service situations, in particular with regard to the deployment of enclosures for habitat or storage. To minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a single arch-shaped truss is preferable to multiple straight trusses arranged vertically and horizontally. To further minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a synchronous deployment with a single degree of freedom is also preferable. One method of synchronizing deployment of a truss is the use of a series of gears; this makes the deployment sequence predictable and testable, allows the truss to have a minimal stowage volume, and the deployed structure exhibits the excellent stiffness-to-mass and strength-to-mass ratios characteristic of a truss. A concept for using gears with varying ratios to deploy a truss into a curved shape has been developed and appears to be compatible with both space technology applications as well as potential use in terrestrial applications such as enclosure deployment. As is the case with other deployable trusses, this truss is formed using rigid elements (e.g., composite tubes) along the edges, one set of diagonal elements composed of either cables or folding/hinged rigid members, and the other set of diagonal elements formed by a continuous cable that is tightened by a motor or hand crank in order to deploy the truss. Gears of varying ratios are used to constrain the deployment to a single degree of freedom, making the deployment synchronous, predictable, and repeatable. The relative sizes of the gears and the relative dimensions of the diagonal elements determine the deployed geometry (e

  7. Computer programs for plotting curves with various dashed-line sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.; Bennett, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Two FORTRAN-callable subprograms have been written to draw a smooth curve through a set of input points as a solid line or as a general sequence of long and short dashes. Subroutine LINSEQ draws conventional curves whereas subroutine CONSEQ draws smooth closed curves (contours). The subprograms are based on an approximate calculation of the arc length along the curve and spline interpolation along the arc length. Options are provided for smoothing of the input data and for offsetting the plotted curve from the input data points. The method of calculation of the arc length and the generation of the line sequence are described.Usage descriptions of the main subprograms, sample calling programs illustrating the various features of the subprograms, and sample plots are given. The subroutines should be readily adaptable to almost any computer-driven incremental plotter.

  8. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  9. Titania nanorods curve to lower their energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengzhong; Finnegan, Michael P; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous formation of curved nanorods is generally unexpected, since curvature introduces strain energy. However, electron microscopy shows that under hydrothermal conditions, some nanorods grown by oriented attachment of small anatase particles on {101} surfaces are curved and dislocation free. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the lattice energy of a curved anatase rod is actually lower than that of a linear rod due to more attractive long-range interatomic Coulombic interactions among atoms in the curved rod. The thermodynamic driving force stemming from lattice energy could be harnessed to produce asymmetric morphologies unexpected from classical Ostwald ripening with unusual shapes and properties. PMID:23794056

  10. Craniofacial Reconstruction Using Rational Cubic Ball Curves

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Abdul; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Yahya, Zainor Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the reconstruction of craniofacial fracture using rational cubic Ball curve. The idea of choosing Ball curve is based on its robustness of computing efficiency over Bezier curve. The main steps are conversion of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom) images to binary images, boundary extraction and corner point detection, Ball curve fitting with genetic algorithm and final solution conversion to Dicom format. The last section illustrates a real case of craniofacial reconstruction using the proposed method which clearly indicates the applicability of this method. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) has also been developed for practical application. PMID:25880632

  11. Ab initio yield curve dynamics [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Roy Frieden, B.; D'Anna, Joseph L.

    2005-09-01

    We derive an equation of motion for interest-rate yield curves by applying a minimum Fisher information variational approach to the implied probability density. By construction, solutions to the equation of motion recover observed bond prices. More significantly, the form of the resulting equation explains the success of the Nelson Siegel approach to fitting static yield curves and the empirically observed modal structure of yield curves. A practical numerical implementation of this equation of motion is found by using the Karhunen Lòeve expansion and Galerkin's method to formulate a reduced-order model of yield curve dynamics.

  12. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  13. Craniofacial reconstruction using rational cubic ball curves.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Abdul; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni; Gobithaasan, R U; Yahya, Zainor Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the reconstruction of craniofacial fracture using rational cubic Ball curve. The idea of choosing Ball curve is based on its robustness of computing efficiency over Bezier curve. The main steps are conversion of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom) images to binary images, boundary extraction and corner point detection, Ball curve fitting with genetic algorithm and final solution conversion to Dicom format. The last section illustrates a real case of craniofacial reconstruction using the proposed method which clearly indicates the applicability of this method. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) has also been developed for practical application. PMID:25880632

  14. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  15. Analytical investigation of curved steel girder behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Michael Donald

    Horizontally curved bridges meet an increasing demand for complex highway geometries in congested urban areas. A popular type of curved bridge consists of steel I-girders interconnected by cross-frames and a composite concrete deck slab. Prior to hardening of the concrete deck each I-girder is susceptible to a lateral torsional buckling-type failure. Unlike a straight I-girder, a curved I-girder resists major components of stress resulting from strong axis bending, weak axis bending and warping. The combination of these stresses reduce the available strength of a curved girder versus that of an equivalent straight girder. Experiments demonstrating the ultimate strength characteristics of curved girders are few in number. Of the available experimental research, few studies have used full scale-tests and boundary conditions indicative of those found in an actual bridge structure. Unlike straight girders, curved girders are characterized by nonlinear out-of-plane deformations which, depending upon the magnitude of curvature, may occur at very low load levels. Because of the inherent nonlinear behaviour, some have questioned the application of the term lateral torsional buckling to curved girders; rather curved girders behave in a manner consistent with a deflection-amplification problem. Even with the advent of sophisticated analytical techniques, there is a glaring void in the documented literature regarding calibration of these techniques with known experimental curved girder behaviour. Presented here is an analytical study of the nonlinear modelling of curved steel girders and bridges. This is accomplished by incorporating large deflection and nonlinear material behaviour into three dimensional finite element models generated using the program ANSYS. Emphasis is placed on the calibration of the finite method with known experimental ultimate strength data. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of load deformation and ultimate strength are attainable via the

  16. Closed N=2 Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    We study the action of picture-changing and spectral flow operators on a ground ring of ghost number zero operators in the chiral BRST cohomology of the closed N=2 string and describe an infinite set of symmetry charges acting on physical states. The transformations of physical string states are compared with symmetries of self-dual gravity which is the effective field theory of the closed N=2 string. We derive all infinitesimal symmetries of the self-dual gravity equations in (2+2)-dimensional space-time and introduce an infinite hierarchy of commuting flows on the moduli space of self-dual metrics. The dependence on moduli parameters can be recovered by solving the equations of the SDG hierarchy associated with an infinite set of Abelian symmetries generated recursively from translations. These nonlocal Abelian symmetries are shown to coincide with the hidden Abelian string symmetries responsible for the vanishing of most scattering amplitudes. Therefore, N=2 string theory ``predicts'' not only self-dual gravity but also the SDG hierarchy.

  17. Mass-transfer in close binary and their companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Li, Linjia

    2016-07-01

    Secular and/or cyclical orbital period variations of close binaries can be derived by analyzing the (O-C) diagram. The secular variations are usually explained as mass transfer between components, while the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the light-travel time effect (LTTE) through the presence of a third body. Mass transfer and additional companions in close binary systems are important for understanding the formation and evolution of the systems. Here, UV light curves of several close binaries based on the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) observations are presented and analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) method. Then, based on those light-curve solutions and new analysis of the orbital period variations, the multiplicity, geometrical structure and evolution state of targets are discussed.

  18. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  19. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  20. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Curved Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical-discharge machining (EDM) used to cut deep hole with bends. EDM process done with articulating segmented electrode. Originally straight, electrode curved as it penetrates part, forming long, smoothly curving hole. After hole cut, honed with slurry to remove thin layer of recast metal created by EDM. Breakage of tools, hand deburring, and drilling debris eliminated.

  1. Phenomenological modelling of eclipsing system light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk

    2015-12-01

    Context. The observed light curves of most eclipsing binaries and stars with transiting planets can be described well and interpreted by current advanced physical models that also allow for determining many of the physical parameters of eclipsing systems. However, for several common practical tasks, there is no need to know the detailed physics of a variable star, but only the shapes of their light curves or other phase curves. Aims: We present a set of phenomenological models for the light curves of eclipsing systems. Methods: We express the observed light curves of eclipsing binaries and stars, which are transited by their exoplanets orbiting in circular trajectories, by a sum of special, analytical, few-parameter functions that enable fitting their light curves with an accuracy of better than 1%. The proposed set of phenomenological models of eclipsing variable light curves were then tested on several real systems. For XY Bootis, we also give a detailed comparison of the results obtained using our phenomenological modelling with those found using available physical models. Results: We demonstrate that the proposed phenomenological models of transiting exoplanet and eclipsing binary light curves applied to ground-based photometric observations yield results compatible with those obtained by applying more complex physical models. Conclusions: The suggested phenomenological modelling appears useful for solving a number of common tasks in the field of eclipsing variable research.

  2. Parallel Curves: Getting There and Getting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, A. F.; Mathews, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    This note takes up the issue of parallel curves while illustrating the utility of "Mathematica" in computations. This work complements results presented earlier. The presented treatment, considering the more general case of parametric curves, provides an analysis of the appearance of cusp singularities, and emphasizes the utility of symbolic…

  3. Forgetting Curves: Implications for Connectionist Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker

    2002-01-01

    Forgetting in long-term memory, as measured in a recall or a recognition test, is faster for items encoded more recently than for items encoded earlier. Data on forgetting curves fit a power function well. In contrast, many connectionist models predict either exponential decay or completely flat forgetting curves. This paper suggests a…

  4. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two complex octonions, depicting simultaneously the electromagnetic and gravitational properties in the complex octonion curved space. The result reveals that the connection coefficient and curvature of the complex octonion curved space will exert an influence on the field strength and field source of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, impacting the linear momentum, angular momentum, torque, energy, and force and so forth.

  5. The Informative Analysis of Individual Trend Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Additive and non-additive models for an individual trend curve are examined, and five methods for fitting these to a set of individuals are described. It is suggested that classical fitting methods are more informative than latent curve methods, and commonly preferable. A limited study of the effect of time-structure is reported, and results on…

  6. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  7. CURV 3: Characteristics and mission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, W. W.; Brady, L. K.

    1984-03-01

    The Cable-Controlled Underwater Recovery Vehicle (CURV) program was begun by NOSC for the specific purpose of developing economical systems to recover test ordnance at NOSC's Long Beach and San Clemente Island test ranges. CURV 3 is the latest in this series of tethered, unmanned, remotely controlled vehicles and its present capabilities far exceed the original CURV 1. Originally conceived for use as a search and recovery vehicle, CURV has evolved into a versatile and easily adaptable multipurpose work vehicle capable of performing search and recovery tasks as well as pursuing test, evaluation, exploration, and work projects. Basically, CURV is a composite of integrated subsystems including such items as propulsion, search and navigation, optics, hydraulics, and tools. Because it is unmanned and does not require life support or other complex support systems, CURV is able to perform most undersea tasks more economically and efficiently than maned systems. Also, since it is powered and controlled from the surface, CURV has a continuous, unlimited operating capability. Under emergency conditions, the vehicle can operate to 10,000-foot depths. CURV can be easily transported to any spot in the world. Upon arrival of the vehicle, control van, cable, and support gear can be mounted on a suitable ship of opportunity.

  8. DELightcurveSimulation: Light curve simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Samuel D.

    2016-02-01

    DELightcurveSimulation simulates light curves with any given power spectral density and any probability density function, following the algorithm described in Emmanoulopoulos et al. (2013). The simulated products have exactly the same variability and statistical properties as the observed light curves. The code is a Python implementation of the Mathematica code provided by Emmanoulopoulos et al.

  9. ABR frequency tuning curves in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Y; Popov, V V; Klishin, V O

    1993-11-01

    Tone-tone masking was used to determine auditory brain-stem response tuning curves in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a simultaneous-masking paradigm. The Q10 of the curves was as large as 16-19 in the frequency range 64-128 kHz. In the range 45-16 kHz, Q10 decreased proportionally to the frequency with the bandwidth of the curves being constant, about 3.5-4 kHz at the 10-dB level. Tuning curves below 45 kHz are supposed to reflect broad spectral bandwidth of the probe's effective part which is no longer than 0.5 ms, irrespective of actual probe duration. Tuning curves above 64 kHz are supposed to reflect the real frequency tuning of the dolphin's auditory system. PMID:8263842

  10. Modelling asteroid brightness variations. II - The interpretability of light curves and phase curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karttunen, H.; Bowell, E.

    1989-01-01

    Light curves and phase curves have been computed for various asteroid models using the Lumme-Bowell (1981) scattering law. The effects of the scattering parameters on light curves were found to be almost negligible for homogeneous surfaces. The effects on phase curves were more distinct, but changing any of the scattering parameters affects the phase curves in a very similar way, making it impossible to find a unique set of parameter values corresponding to a given phase curve. Light curve amplitudes, on the other hand, depend very strongly on body shape. At least in the case of a triaxial ellipsoid it is possible to determine the axial ratios. Some observed irregularities of light curves can also be modelled easily, but the uniqueness of such models is far from obvious.

  11. Closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging

  12. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

    2011-12-01

    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  13. Spiral Galaxy Central Bulge Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to, for the first time in a century, scientifically analyze the ``rotation curves'' (sic) of the central bulges of scores of spiral galaxies. I commenced with a methodological, rational, geometrical, arithmetic, and statistical examination--none of them carried through before--of the radial velocity data. The requirement for such a thorough treatment is the paucity of data typically available for the central bulge: fewer than 10 observations and frequently only five. The most must be made of these. A consequence of this logical handling is the discovery of a unique model for the central bulge volume mass density resting on the positive slope, linear, rise of its tangential speed of revolution curve and hence--for the first time--a reliable mass estimate. The deduction comes from a known physics-based, mathematically valid, derivation (not assertion). It rests on the full (not partial) equations of motion plus Poisson's equation. Following that is a prediction for the gravitational potential energy and thence the gravitational force. From this comes a forecast for the tangential speed of revolution curve. It was analyzed in a fashion identical to that of the data thereby closing the circle and demonstrating internal self-consistency. This is a hallmark of a scientific method-informed approach to an experimental problem. Multiple plots of the relevant quantities and measures of goodness of fit will be shown. Astronomy related

  14. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  15. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

    2009-10-01

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  16. Are Driving and Overtaking on Right Curves More Dangerous than on Left Curves?

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that crashes on horizontal curves are a cause for concern in all countries due to the frequency and severity of crashes at curves compared to road tangents. A recent study of crashes in western Sweden reported a higher rate of crashes in right curves than left curves. To further understand this result, this paper reports the results of novel analyses of the responses of vehicles and drivers during negotiating and overtaking maneuvers on curves for right hand traffic. The overall objectives of the study were to find road parameters for curves that affect vehicle dynamic responses, to analyze these responses during overtaking maneuvers on curves, and to link the results with driver behavior for different curve directions. The studied road features were speed, super-elevation, radius and friction including their interactions, while the analyzed vehicle dynamic factors were lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity. A simulation program, PC-Crash, has been used to simulate road parameters and vehicle response interaction in curves. Overtaking maneuvers have been simulated for all road feature combinations in a total of 108 runs. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed, using two sided randomized block design, to find differences in vehicle responses for the curve parameters. To study driver response, a field test using an instrumented vehicle and 32 participants was reviewed as it contained longitudinal speed and acceleration data for analysis. The simulation results showed that road features affect overtaking performance in right and left curves differently. Overtaking on right curves was sensitive to radius and the interaction of radius with road condition; while overtaking on left curves was more sensitive to super-elevation. Comparisons of lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity during these maneuvers showed different vehicle response configurations depending on curve direction and maneuver path. The field test experiments also showed

  17. Aq Psc Analysis of New Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Atsuma

    2005-04-01

    New BV light curves of the A-type W UMa star AQ Psc (P = 0.476d) have been observed and are described. A few times of minimum light are obtained and the ephemeris is improved. The light curves are analyzed for the binary parameters with a light curve synthesis method. Combining the results with Lu and Rucinski’s spectroscopic mass ratio we determined the masses and radii of the components: M 1 = 1.69M ⊙, M 2 = 0.38M ⊙, R 1 = 1.77R ⊙, and R 2 = 0.89R ⊙.

  18. Optoacoustic endoscopy in curved scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hailong; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic technique has been shown to resolve anatomical, functional and molecular features at depths that go beyond the reach of epi-illumination optical microscopy offering new opportunities for endoscopic imaging. Herein, we interrogate the merits of optoacoustic endoscopy implemented by translating a sound detector in linear or curved geometries. The linear and curved detection geometries are achieved by employing an intravascular ultrasound transducer (IVUS) within a plastic guide shaped to a line or a curve. This concept could be used together with optical endoscopes to yield hybrid optical and optoacoustic imaging.

  19. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

    PubMed Central

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point. PMID:26148023

  20. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  1. Ganymede - close up photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two close-up photos of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 moons, were obtained on July 8 by Voyager 2 from 86,000 miles (top) and 192,000 miles. They show different views of the largest block of dark, heavily cratered terrain seen on the giant moon. The bottom image shows objects three to four miles across; has a resolution of about 1.5 miles. The light, linear stripes recurring across the dark region resemble the outer rings of the large ring structure on Callisto. If these features are in fact related to an ancient ring structure formed by a large impact, their small curvature suggests that the original structure was even larger than one seen on Callisto. There is no apparent trace now of the center of this suggested structure, which must have been destroyed by the resurfacing evident over most of Ganymede in the grooved terrain. Another interpretation is that these features are not impact-related rings but are internally produced fractures crossing the dark terrain, similar to the grooved bands.

  2. Xerosis - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Xerosis - close-up: Xerosis refers to abnormally dry skin or membranes, such as those found in the mouth or the conjunctiva of the eye. This picture shows a close-up of xerotic skin. Note the dry and scaly ...

  3. The Pressure Curve for a Rubber Balloon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, D. R.; Weinhaus, F.

    1978-01-01

    Derives an equation relating the internal pressure of a rubber balloon to its radius. Shows that the theoretical pressure curve is experimentally verifiable, and discusses the problem of equilibrium configuration of two interconnected ballons. (Author/GA)

  4. Bounded Population Growth: A Curve Fitting Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two mathematical methods for fitting the logistic curve to population data supplied by the U.S. Census Bureau utilizing computer algebra software to carry out the computations and plot graphs. (JKK)

  5. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  6. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  7. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  8. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  9. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  10. The Kinked Demand Curve When Demand Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasco, Gregg P.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research into the theory of the kinked demand curve in economics. Applies this theory to economic concepts such as marginal cost and price flexibility. Discusses the implications for corporations and government policymakers. (CFR)

  11. Spline Curves, Wire Frames and Bvalue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L.; Munchmeyer, F.

    1985-01-01

    The methods that were developed for wire-frame design are described. The principal tools for control of a curve during interactive design are mathematical ducks. The simplest of these devices is an analog of the draftsman's lead weight that he uses to control a mechanical spline also create Ducks for controlling differential and integral properties of curves were created. Other methods presented include: constructing the end of a Bezier polygon to gain quick and reasonably confident control of the end tangent vector, end curvature and end torsion; keeping the magnitude of unwanted curvature oscillations within tolerance; constructing the railroad curves that appear in many engineering design problems; and controlling the frame to minimize errors at mesh points and to optimize the shapes of the curve elements.

  12. Close to the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  13. Estimating power curves of flying vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rayner, J M

    1999-12-01

    The power required for flight in any flying animal is a function of flight speed. The power curve that describes this function has become an icon of studies of flight mechanics and physiology because it encapsulates the accessible animal's flight performance. The mechanical or aerodynamic power curve, describing the increase in kinetic energy of the air due to the passage of the bird, is necessarily U-shaped, for aerodynamic reasons, and can be estimated adequately by lifting-line theory. Predictions from this and related models agree well with measured mechanical work in flight and with results from flow visualization experiments. The total or metabolic power curve also includes energy released by the animal as heat, and is more variable in shape. These curves may be J-shaped for smaller birds and bats, but are difficult to predict theoretically owing to uncertainty about internal physiological processes and the efficiency of the flight muscles. The limitations of some existing models aiming to predict metabolic power curves are considered. The metabolic power curve can be measured for birds or bats flying in wind tunnels at controlled speeds. Simultaneous determination in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris of oxygen uptake, total metabolic rate (using labelled isotopes), aerodynamic power output and heat released (using digital video thermography) enable power curves to be determined with confidence; flight muscle efficiency is surprisingly low (averaging 15-18 %) and increases moderately with flight speed, so that the metabolic power curve is shallower than predicted by models. Accurate knowledge of the power curve is essential since extensive predictions of flight behaviour have been based upon it. The hypothesis that the power curve may not in fact exist, in the sense that the cost of flight may not be perceived by a bird as a continuous smooth function of air speed, is advanced but has not yet formally been tested. This hypothesis is considered together with

  14. Deformability curve for K18 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pospiech, J.

    1999-12-01

    The problem of the best utilization of plasticity in plastic working processes of metals, at low resistance to deformation and maximum utilization of capacity of installations has gained great importance, especially in recent years. Determination of plasticity of materials by the method of Kolmogorow is described. Variation of the stress factor for several plastic working processes is also described. Tests to plot the deformability curve (also referred to as reserve of plasticity curve) were selected and proved.

  15. TS - Dean interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of TS waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The prediction obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. At low Reynolds numbers the wave interaction is generally stabilizing to both disturbances, though as the Reynolds number increases, many linearly unstable TS waves are further destabilized by the presence of Dean vortices.

  16. Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Boschi-Filho, H. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Guaratingueta, 12500 Guaratingueta, Caixa Postal 205 Sao Paulo ); Natividade, C.P. )

    1992-12-15

    We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved-spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual, in order to have a well-defined quantum field theory at finite temperature. We obtain the expressions for Seeley's coefficients and the heat-kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting [lambda][phi][sup 4] and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature.

  17. Learning curves in health professions education.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A

    2015-08-01

    Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design. PMID:25806621

  18. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  19. Dynamics of curved fronts in systems with power-law memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamed, M.; Nepomnyashchy, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of a curved front in a plane between two stable phases with equal potentials is modeled via two-dimensional fractional in time partial differential equation. A closed equation governing a slow motion of a small-curvature front is derived and applied for two typical examples of the potential function. Approximate axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric solutions are obtained.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Models that Describe the Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate eight closed-form unimodal analytical expressions that describe the soil-water retention curve over the complete range of soil water contents. To meet this objective, the eight models were compared in terms of their accuracy (root mean square error, RMSE), ...

  1. Unemployment Rates and Starting Salaries: Are Australian Graduates at the Whim of the Wage Curve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an inverse relationship between wage levels and regional unemployment rates, commonly referred to as the wage curve, is well established in the economic literature and was described by Card (1995) as being "close to an empirical law of economics". This microeconomic wage-unemployment relationship, first identified by…

  2. Comparative power curves in bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, B W; Hedrick, T L; Dial, K P; Biewener, A A

    2003-01-23

    The relationship between mechanical power output and forward velocity in bird flight is controversial, bearing on the comparative physiology and ecology of locomotion. Applied to flying birds, aerodynamic theory predicts that mechanical power should vary as a function of forward velocity in a U-shaped curve. The only empirical test of this theory, using the black-billed magpie (Pica pica), suggests that the mechanical power curve is relatively flat over intermediate velocities. Here, by integrating in vivo measurements of pectoralis force and length change with quasi-steady aerodynamic models developed using data on wing and body movement, we present mechanical power curves for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ringed turtle-doves (Streptopelia risoria). In contrast to the curve reported for magpies, the power curve for cockatiels is acutely concave, whereas that for doves is intermediate in shape and shows higher mass-specific power output at most speeds. We also find that wing-beat frequency and mechanical power output do not necessarily share minima in flying birds. Thus, aspects of morphology, wing kinematics and overall style of flight can greatly affect the magnitude and shape of a species' power curve. PMID:12540899

  3. Regression models for convex ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C J

    2000-09-01

    The performance of a diagnostic test is summarized by its receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Under quite natural assumptions about the latent variable underlying the test, the ROC curve is convex. Empirical data on a test's performance often comes in the form of observed true positive and false positive relative frequencies under varying conditions. This paper describes a family of regression models for analyzing such data. The underlying ROC curves are specified by a quality parameter delta and a shape parameter mu and are guaranteed to be convex provided delta > 1. Both the position along the ROC curve and the quality parameter delta are modeled linearly with covariates at the level of the individual. The shape parameter mu enters the model through the link functions log(p mu) - log(1 - p mu) of a binomial regression and is estimated either by search or from an appropriate constructed variate. One simple application is to the meta-analysis of independent studies of the same diagnostic test, illustrated on some data of Moses, Shapiro, and Littenberg (1993). A second application, to so-called vigilance data, is given, where ROC curves differ across subjects and modeling of the position along the ROC curve is of primary interest. PMID:10985227

  4. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    PubMed

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning. PMID:25711183

  5. Geometric Observers for Dynamically Evolving Curves

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Vela, Patricio A.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a deterministic observer design for visual tracking based on nonparametric implicit (level-set) curve descriptions. The observer is continuous discrete with continuous-time system dynamics and discrete-time measurements. Its state-space consists of an estimated curve position augmented by additional states (e.g., velocities) associated with every point on the estimated curve. Multiple simulation models are proposed for state prediction. Measurements are performed through standard static segmentation algorithms and optical-flow computations. Special emphasis is given to the geometric formulation of the overall dynamical system. The discrete-time measurements lead to the problem of geometric curve interpolation and the discrete-time filtering of quantities propagated along with the estimated curve. Interpolation and filtering are intimately linked to the correspondence problem between curves. Correspondences are established by a Laplace-equation approach. The proposed scheme is implemented completely implicitly (by Eulerian numerical solutions of transport equations) and thus naturally allows for topological changes and subpixel accuracy on the computational grid. PMID:18421113

  6. A novel method for designing dichroic color filter transmittance curves for lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Rui; Shum, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on designing dichroic filters for changing the color of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Dichroic filters are composed of multiple dielectric layers on a substrate. By applying a dichroic filter, some of the LED's spectral energy is reflected and some is transmitted, which changes the lamp's color. Conventional methods to obtain spectral transmittance curves have shortcomings. The design criteria for the transmittance curves are incompatible with the metrics used in lighting applications, such as correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Thus, the color rendering performance and the optical transmission of a lighting system are not optimized. This observation leads to the development of a proposed method for designing dichroic filter transmittance curves to provide accurate color shift, high CRI, and sufficient optical transmission. The method initially uses the transmittance curve of an existing color filter that provides a roughly close color shift for the LED lamp to calculate the transmittance curve that causes an accurate color shift by polynomial approximation. Based on the approximated curve, a preliminary transmittance curve without the effect of the LED lamp's secondary optics is derived and verified in thin-film design and optical design software tools. Further, the derived preliminary transmittance curve is optimized by applying an algorithm to loop through a large amount of representative curves fluctuating near the preliminary curve. The resulting dichroic filter provides an accurate color shift (ΔCCT = -800±50K, Duv = ±0.003), high CRI (Ra and R9 <= 95), and sufficient luminous flux transmission (<= 70%).

  7. Magnetic hysteresis curve influenced by power-semiconductor characteristics in pulse-width-modulation inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Keisuke; Liu, Sungju

    2014-05-01

    The influence of power semiconductor characteristic in Pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel is discussed through the measured magnetic hysteresis curves. The magnetic hysteresis curve of PWM inverter-fed silicon steel has a lot of minor loops as closed loops and open loops, which make an influence on the iron loss. Two shapes of minor loops are found to be caused by the voltage shifts and they are derived from the on-voltage of the semiconductors in PWM inverter circuit. Therefore, it is concluded that the power-semiconductor characteristic in PWM inverter makes an influence on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel.

  8. Analytical description of true stress-true strain curves for neutron-irradiated stainless austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N; Byun, Thak Sang; Busby, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation for the deformation hardening behaviors of neutron-irradiated stainless steels in terms of true stress( ) true strain( ) curves. It is commonly accepted that the - curves are more informative for describing plastic flow, but there are few papers devoted to using the true curves for describing constitutive behaviors of materials. This study uses the true curves obtained from stainless steel samples irradiated to doses in the range of 0 55 dpa by various means: finite element calculation, optic extensomentry, and recalculation of engineering curves. It is shown that for the strain range 0 0.6 the true curves can be well described by the Swift equation: =k ( - 0)0.5. The influence of irradiation on the parameters of the Swift equation is investigated in detail. It is found that in most cases the k-parameter of this equation is not changed significantly by irradiation. Since large data scattering was observed for the 0-parameter, a modified Swift equation =k*( - 0 2/k2)0.5 was proposed and evaluated. This equation is based on the concept of zero stress, which is, in general, close to yield stress. The relationships among k, 0, and damage dose are discussed in detail, so as to more accurately describe the true curves for irradiated stainless steels.

  9. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  10. Learning curves in classification with microarray data.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kenneth R; Wei, Caimiao

    2010-02-01

    The performance of many repeated tasks improves with experience and practice. This improvement tends to be rapid initially and then decreases. The term "learning curve" is often used to describe the phenomenon. In supervised machine learning, the performance of classification algorithms often increases with the number of observations used to train the algorithm. We use progressively larger samples of observations to train the algorithm and then plot performance against the number of training observations. This yields the familiar negatively accelerating learning curve. To quantify the learning curve, we fit inverse power law models to the progressively sampled data. We fit such learning curves to four large clinical cancer genomic datasets, using three classifiers (diagonal linear discriminant analysis, K-nearest-neighbor with three neighbors, and support vector machines) and four values for the number of top genes included (5, 50, 500, 5,000). The inverse power law models fit the progressively sampled data reasonably well and showed considerable diversity when multiple classifiers are applied to the same data. Some classifiers showed rapid and continued increase in performance as the number of training samples increased, while others showed little if any improvement. Assessing classifier efficiency is particularly important in genomic studies since samples are so expensive to obtain. It is important to employ an algorithm that uses the predictive information efficiently, but with a modest number of training samples (>50), learning curves can be used to assess the predictive efficiency of classification algorithms. PMID:20172367