Note: This page contains sample records for the topic clostridium perfringens epsilon from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The International Reference Preparations of Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) beta and epsilon toxoids.  

PubMed

The Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, England was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to obtain suitable materials for international standards for Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) beta and epsilon toxoids and to arrange collaborative assays. Preparations were obtained and dispensed as freeze-dried toxoids in ampoules. The toxoids were assayed by nine laboratories in eight countries. On the basis of the results obtained, the materials have been established as the International Reference Preparations of Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) Beta and Epsilon Toxoids. PMID:215337

Davidson, I; Gray, A K; Hebert, C N; Lesslie, I W

1978-01-01

2

Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Increases the Small Intestinal Permeability in Mice and Rats  

PubMed Central

Epsilon toxin is a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, an anaerobic bacterium that causes enterotoxaemia in ruminants. In the affected animal, it causes oedema of the lungs and brain by damaging the endothelial cells, inducing physiological and morphological changes. Although it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier, thus entering the gut vasculature, little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. This study characterizes the effects of epsilon toxin on fluid transport and bioelectrical parameters in the small intestine of mice and rats. The enteropooling and the intestinal loop tests, together with the single-pass perfusion assay and in vitro and ex vivo analysis in Ussing's chamber, were all used in combination with histological and ultrastructural analysis of mice and rat small intestine, challenged with or without C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Luminal epsilon toxin induced a time and concentration dependent intestinal fluid accumulation and fall of the transepithelial resistance. Although no evident histological changes were observed, opening of the mucosa tight junction in combination with apoptotic changes in the lamina propria were seen with transmission electron microscopy. These results indicate that C. perfringens epsilon toxin alters the intestinal permeability, predominantly by opening the mucosa tight junction, increasing its permeability to macromolecules, and inducing further degenerative changes in the lamina propria of the bowel.

Goldstein, Jorge; Morris, Winston E.; Loidl, Cesar Fabian; Tironi-Farinatti, Carla; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E.

2009-01-01

3

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is absorbed from different intestinal segments of mice.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is a potent toxin responsible for a rapidly fatal enterotoxaemia in several animal species. The pathogenesis of epsilon toxin includes toxicity to endothelial cells and neurons. Although epsilon toxin is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal regions where the toxin is absorbed and the conditions favoring epsilon toxin absorption are unknown. The aim of this paper was to determine the toxicity of epsilon toxin absorbed from different gastrointestinal segments of mice and to evaluate the influence of the intestinal environment in the absorption of this toxin. Epsilon toxin diluted in one of several different saline solutions was surgically introduced into ligated stomach or intestinal segments of mice. Comparison of the toxicity of epsilon toxin injected in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract showed that this toxin can be absorbed from the small and the large intestine but not from the stomach of mice. The lethality of epsilon toxin was higher when this toxin was injected in the colon than in the small intestine. Low pH, and Na(+) and glucose added to the saline solution increased the toxicity of epsilon toxin injected into the small intestine. This study shows that absorption of epsilon toxin can occur in any intestinal segment of mice and that the physicochemical characteristics of the intestinal content can affect the absorption of this toxin. PMID:18457853

Losada-Eaton, D M; Uzal, F A; Fernández Miyakawa, M E

2008-06-01

4

Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

A biphasic culture medium suitable for cultivation and sporulation of Clostridium perfringens, C. botulinum, and C. sporogenes was devised. The medium designed for use in a disposable, compartmented, plastic film container contained peptones, yeast extract, minerals, an anion exchange resin, and glucose in 4% agar as the solid phase and (NH4)2SO4 and 0.1% agar as the liquid phase. With the biphasic system, it was not necessary to use active cultures as inocula. Growth was at least equal to that obtained in conventional media, and spore production of 9 out of 12 strains of C. perfringens equalled or usually exceeded that of conventional media. Images

Clifford, Walter J.; Anellis, Abe

1971-01-01

5

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin H149A mutant as a platform for receptor binding studies.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (Etx) is a pore-forming toxin responsible for a severe and rapidly fatal enterotoxemia of ruminants. The toxin is classified as a category B bioterrorism agent by the U.S. Government Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), making work with recombinant toxin difficult. To reduce the hazard posed by work with recombinant Etx, we have used a variant of Etx that contains a H149A mutation (Etx-H149A), previously reported to have reduced, but not abolished, toxicity. The three-dimensional structure of H149A prototoxin shows that the H149A mutation in domain III does not affect organisation of the putative receptor binding loops in domain I of the toxin. Surface exposed tyrosine residues in domain I of Etx-H149A (Y16, Y20, Y29, Y30, Y36 and Y196) were mutated to alanine and mutants Y30A and Y196A showed significantly reduced binding to MDCK.2 cells relative to Etx-H149A that correlated with their reduced cytotoxic activity. Thus, our study confirms the role of surface exposed tyrosine residues in domain I of Etx in binding to MDCK cells and the suitability of Etx-H149A for further receptor binding studies. In contrast, binding of all of the tyrosine mutants to ACHN cells was similar to that of Etx-H149A, suggesting that Etx can recognise different cell surface receptors. In support of this, the crystal structure of Etx-H149A identified a glycan (?-octyl-glucoside) binding site in domain III of Etx-H149A, which may be a second receptor binding site. These findings have important implications for developing strategies designed to neutralise toxin activity. PMID:23504825

Bokori-Brown, Monika; Kokkinidou, Maria C; Savva, Christos G; Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio; Naylor, Claire E; Cole, Ambrose R; Moss, David S; Basak, Ajit K; Titball, Richard W

2013-05-01

6

Detection of the etx gene (epsilon-toxin inducer) in plasmids of high molecular weight in Clostridium perfringens type D.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to correlate the production of epsilon-toxin in a set of strains of Clostridium perfringens type D with the presence of the etx gene, either genomic or in plasmids. Total DNA obtained from strains with a different level of toxin production was explored by PCR and all the strains showed the amplification signal. Different methods were used to obtain plasmid profiles and all of the bands were assayed by PCR. The detection of the etx gene was only shown in several high molecular plasmids. These results were confirmed by a Southern blot. We suggest that the localization of the etx gene in different plasmids could be associated with the epsilon-toxin production level. PMID:10397325

Bentancor, A B; Fermepín, M R; Bentancor, L D; de Torres, R A

1999-07-01

7

Identification of amino acids important for binding of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin to host cells and to HAVCR1.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin belongs to the aerolysin-like family of pore-forming toxins and is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known. The epsilon toxin causes fatal enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and possibly humans. Evidence indicates that the toxin binds to protein receptors including hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), but the region of the toxin responsible for cell binding has not been identified. In the present study, we identify amino acids within the epsilon toxin important for this cell interaction. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to investigate the role of a surface-accessible cluster of aromatic amino acids, and purified mutant proteins were tested in a series of cell-culture assays to assess cytotoxic activity and cell binding. When added to cells, four mutant proteins (Etx-Y29E, Etx-Y30E, Etx-Y36E and Etx-Y196E) were severely impaired in their ability to not only kill host cells, but also in their ability to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and thermal stability studies revealed that the wild-type and mutant proteins were similarly folded. Additional experiments revealed that these mutant proteins were defective in binding to host cells and to HAVCR1. These data indicate that an amino acid motif including Y29, Y30, Y36, and Y196 is important for the ability of epsilon toxin to interact with cells and HAVCR1. PMID:22938730

Ivie, Susan E; McClain, Mark S

2012-09-25

8

Identification of amino acids important for binding of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin to host cells and to HAVCR1  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin belongs to the aerolysin-like family of pore-forming toxins and is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known. The epsilon toxin causes fatal enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and possibly humans. Evidence indicates that the toxin binds to protein receptors including hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), but the region of the toxin responsible for cell binding has not been identified. In the present study, we identify amino acids within the epsilon toxin important for this cell interaction. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to investigate the role of a surface-accessible cluster of aromatic amino acids, and purified mutant proteins were tested in a series of cell-culture assays to assess cytotoxic activity and cell binding. When added to cells, four mutant proteins (Etx-Y29E, Etx-Y30E, Etx-Y36E and Etx-Y196E) were severely impaired in their ability to not only kill host cells, but also in their ability to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and thermal stability studies revealed that the wild-type and mutant proteins were similarly folded. Additional experiments revealed that these mutant proteins were defective in binding to host cells and to HAVCR1. These data indicate that an amino acid motif including Y29, Y30, Y36, and Y196 is important for the ability of epsilon toxin to interact with cells and HAVCR1.

Ivie, Susan E.; McClain, Mark S.

2012-01-01

9

Oligomerization of Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Is Dependent upon Caveolins 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Evidence from multiple studies suggests that Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin is a pore-forming toxin, assembling into oligomeric complexes in the plasma membrane of sensitive cells. In a previous study, we used gene-trap mutagenesis to identify mammalian factors contributing to toxin activity, including caveolin-2 (CAV2). In this study, we demonstrate the importance of caveolin-2 and its interaction partner, caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Using CAV2-specific shRNA in a toxin-sensitive human kidney cell line, ACHN, we confirmed that cells deficient in CAV2 exhibit increased resistance to ?-toxin. Similarly, using CAV1-specific shRNA, we demonstrate that cells deficient in CAV1 also exhibit increased resistance to the toxin. Immunoprecipitation of CAV1 and CAV2 from ?-toxin-treated ACHN cells demonstrated interaction of both CAV1 and -2 with the toxin. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE indicated that the toxin and caveolins were components of a 670 kDa protein complex. Although ?-toxin binding was only slightly perturbed in caveolin-deficient cells, oligomerization of the toxin was dramatically reduced in both CAV1- and CAV2-deficient cells. These results indicate that CAV1 and -2 potentiate ?-toxin induced cytotoxicity by promoting toxin oligomerization – an event which is requisite for pore formation and, by extension, cell death.

Fennessey, Christine M.; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H.; McClain, Mark S.

2012-01-01

10

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant Y30A-Y196A as a recombinant vaccine candidate against enterotoxemia.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin (Etx) is a ?-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens toxinotypes B and D and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxemia, a severe, often fatal disease of ruminants that causes significant economic losses to the farming industry worldwide. This study aimed to determine the potential of a site-directed mutant of Etx (Y30A-Y196A) to be exploited as a recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia. Replacement of Y30 and Y196 with alanine generated a stable variant of Etx with significantly reduced cell binding and cytotoxic activities in MDCK.2 cells relative to wild type toxin (>430-fold increase in CT50) and Y30A-Y196A was inactive in mice after intraperitoneal administration of trypsin activated toxin at 1000× the expected LD50 dose of trypsin activated wild type toxin. Moreover, polyclonal antibody raised in rabbits against Y30A-Y196A provided protection against wild type toxin in an in vitro neutralisation assay. These data suggest that Y30A-Y196A mutant could form the basis of an improved recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia. PMID:24709588

Bokori-Brown, Monika; Hall, Charlotte A; Vance, Charlotte; Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Savva, Christos G; Naylor, Claire E; Cole, Ambrose R; Basak, Ajit K; Moss, David S; Titball, Richard W

2014-05-13

11

Attack of the nervous system by Clostridium perfringens Epsilon toxin: from disease to mode of action on neural cells.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin (ET), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, ranks among the four most potent poisonous substances known so far. ET-intoxication is responsible for enterotoxaemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. This disease comprises several manifestations indicating the attack of the nervous system. This review aims to summarize the effects of ET on central nervous system. ET binds to endothelial cells of brain capillary vessels before passing through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it induces perivascular oedema and accumulates into brain. ET binding to different brain structures and to different component in the brain indicates regional susceptibility to the toxin. Histological examination has revealed nerve tissue and cellular lesions, which may be directly or indirectly caused by ET. The naturally occurring disease caused by ET-intoxication can be reproduced experimentally in rodents. In mice and rats, ET recognizes receptor at the surface of different neural cell types, including certain neurons (e.g. the granule cells in cerebellum) as well as oligodendrocytes, which are the glial cells responsible for the axons myelination. Moreover, ET induces release of glutamate and other transmitters, leading to firing of neural network. The precise mode of action of ET on neural cells remains to be determined. PMID:23632158

Wioland, Laetitia; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Bossu, Jean-Louis; Popoff, Michel R; Poulain, Bernard

2013-12-01

12

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant Y30A-Y196A as a recombinant vaccine candidate against enterotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Epsilon toxin (Etx) is a ?-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens toxinotypes B and D and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxemia, a severe, often fatal disease of ruminants that causes significant economic losses to the farming industry worldwide. This study aimed to determine the potential of a site-directed mutant of Etx (Y30A-Y196A) to be exploited as a recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia. Replacement of Y30 and Y196 with alanine generated a stable variant of Etx with significantly reduced cell binding and cytotoxic activities in MDCK.2 cells relative to wild type toxin (>430-fold increase in CT50) and Y30A-Y196A was inactive in mice after intraperitoneal administration of trypsin activated toxin at 1000× the expected LD50 dose of trypsin activated wild type toxin. Moreover, polyclonal antibody raised in rabbits against Y30A-Y196A provided protection against wild type toxin in an in vitro neutralisation assay. These data suggest that Y30A-Y196A mutant could form the basis of an improved recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia.

Bokori-Brown, Monika; Hall, Charlotte A.; Vance, Charlotte; Fernandes da Costa, Sergio P.; Savva, Christos G.; Naylor, Claire E.; Cole, Ambrose R.; Basak, Ajit K.; Moss, David S.; Titball, Richard W.

2014-01-01

13

Correlation between In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Lethal Activity in Mice of Epsilon Toxin Mutants from Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens is a pore-forming protein with a lethal effect on livestock, producing severe enterotoxemia characterized by general edema and neurological alterations. Site-specific mutations of the toxin are valuable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanism of the toxin activity. In particular, mutants with paired cysteine substitutions that affect the membrane insertion domain behaved as dominant-negative inhibitors of toxin activity in MDCK cells. We produced similar mutants, together with a well-known non-toxic mutant (Etx-H106P), as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to perform in vivo studies in an acutely intoxicated mouse model. The mutant (GFP-Etx-I51C/A114C) had a lethal effect with generalized edema, and accumulated in the brain parenchyma due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the renal system, this mutant had a cytotoxic effect on distal tubule epithelial cells. The other mutants studied (GFP-Etx-V56C/F118C and GFP-Etx-H106P) did not have a lethal effect or cross the BBB, and failed to induce a cytotoxic effect on renal epithelial cells. These data suggest a direct correlation between the lethal effect of the toxin, with its cytotoxic effect on the kidney distal tubule cells, and the ability to cross the BBB.

Dorca-Arevalo, Jonatan; Pauillac, Serge; Diaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Martin-Satue, Mireia; Popoff, Michel R.; Blasi, Juan

2014-01-01

14

Clostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid borne.  

PubMed Central

Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. In this study, approximately 2% of C. perfringens strains, representing the principal biotypes, were found to harbor the urease structural genes, ureABC, and these were localized on large plasmids that often encode, in addition, the lethal epsilon or iota toxins or the enterotoxin. This represents the first report of a plasmid-encoded urease in a gram-positive bacterium. The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter pylori. Urease production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was limiting. To date, this form of regulation has been observed only for chromosomal ureABC genes.

Dupuy, B; Daube, G; Popoff, M R; Cole, S T

1997-01-01

15

9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin. 113.454 Section...Antibody Products § 113.454 Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin. Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin is a specific...

2009-01-01

16

9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin. 113.455 Section...Antibody Products § 113.455 Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin. Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin is a specific...

2009-01-01

17

9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin. 113.454 Section...Antibody Products § 113.454 Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin. Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin is a specific...

2010-01-01

18

9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin. 113.455 Section...Antibody Products § 113.455 Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin. Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin is a specific...

2010-01-01

19

Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2013-06-01

20

Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract.

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

2013-01-01

21

Clostridium perfringens Spore-Lytic Enzymes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enzymes which cause the germination of Clostridium perfringens spores were isolated and characterized. Two were investigated in detail. One was extracted from spores of the same organism. The second was excreted by vegetative cells of C. perfringens. The ...

R. Labbe

1983-01-01

22

9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid...Products § 113.112 Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Clostridium...

2009-01-01

23

9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid...Products § 113.111 Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Clostridium...

2009-01-01

24

9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid...Products § 113.112 Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Clostridium...

2010-01-01

25

9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid...Products § 113.111 Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Clostridium...

2010-01-01

26

Clostridium perfringens septicemia with massive hemolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Massive hemolysis and renal failure are rare complications of infection withClostridium perfringens, resulting in a very high mortality rate (70–100%). The severity of the infection depends on the presence of underlying conditions such as malignancies and diabetes mellitus. In patients without underlying disorders, massive hemolysis and anuria have been observed in only eight cases, according to recent reports. This

B. Rogstad; S. Ritland; S. Lunde; A. G. Hagen

1993-01-01

27

Clostridium perfringens sepsis following a molar pregnancy.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens sepsis is rare since the legalization of abortion in 1973. This is a 49 year old female who developed clostridial sepsis after suction dilation and curettage for a molar pregnancy. A hysterectomy was performed after prompt recognition, and the patient survived. PMID:24096275

Adams, Brandi N; Lekovic, Jovana P; Robinson, Suzzette

2014-01-01

28

Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens: Detection and Identification  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in understanding the genetics of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens, including whole genome sequencing of a chromosomal cpe strain and sequencing of several cpe-carrying large plasmids, have led to the development of molecular approaches to more precisely investigate isolates involved in human gastrointestinal diseases and isolates present in the environment. Sequence-based PCR genotyping of the cpe locus (cpe genotyping PCR assays) has provided new information about cpe-positive type A C. perfringens including: 1) Foodborne C. perfringens outbreaks can be caused not only by chromosomal cpe type A strains with extremely heat-resistant spores, but also less commonly by less heat-resistant spore-forming plasmid cpe type A strains; 2) Both chromosomal cpe and plasmid cpe C. perfringens type A strains can be found in retail foods, healthy human feces and the environment, such as in sewage; 3) Most environmental cpe-positive C. perfringens type A strains carry their cpe gene on plasmids. Moreover, recent studies indicated that the cpe loci of type C, D, and E strains differ from the cpe loci of type A strains and from the cpe loci of each other, indicating that the cpe loci of C. perfringens have remarkable diversity. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) indicated that the chromosomal cpe strains responsible for most food poisoning cases have distinct genetic characteristics that provide unique biological properties, such as the formation of highly heat-resistant spores. These and future advances should help elucidate the epidemiology of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens and also contribute to the prevention of C. perfringens food poisoning outbreaks and other CPE-associated human diseases.

Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

29

Enterotoxin plasmid from Clostridium perfringens is conjugative.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin is the major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal illnesses. The enterotoxin gene, cpe, is located on the chromosome of food-poisoning isolates but is found on a large plasmid in non-food-borne gastrointestinal disease isolates and in veterinary isolates. To evaluate whether the cpe plasmid encodes its own conjugative transfer, a C. perfringens strain carrying pMRS4969, a plasmid in which a 0.4-kb segment internal to the cpe gene had been replaced by the chloramphenicol resistance gene catP, was used as a donor in matings with several cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was transferred at frequencies ranging from 2.0 x 10(-2) to 4.6 x 10(-4) transconjugants per donor cell. The transconjugants were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization analyses. The results demonstrated that the entire pMRS4969 plasmid had been transferred to the recipient strain. Plasmid transfer required cell-to-cell contact and was DNase resistant, indicating that transfer occurred by a conjugation mechanism. In addition, several fragments of the prototype C. perfringens tetracycline resistance plasmid, pCW3, hybridized with pMRS4969, suggesting that pCW3 shares some similarity to pMRS4969. The clinical significance of these findings is that if conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid occurred in vivo, it would have the potential to convert cpe-negative C. perfringens strains in normal intestinal flora into strains capable of causing gastrointestinal disease. PMID:11292780

Brynestad, S; Sarker, M R; McClane, B A; Granum, P E; Rood, J I

2001-05-01

30

Vaccines against Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin is thought to be an important agent in gas gangrene, which is a lifethreatening infection with fever, pain, edema, myonecrosis, and gas production. The toxin (370 residues) is composed of an N-terminal domain (1-250 residues, N-domain) in which the catalytic site is found and a C-terminal domain (251-370 residues, C-domain) responsible for binding to membranes. During the past decade, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to develop second-generation vaccines, including site-directed mutants and the C-domain of the toxin, to prevent gas gangrene. These immunities have led to protection against the lethal effects of wild-type C. perfringens in mice. C-domain vaccines are capable of protecting against heterologous clostridia causing clostridial myonecrosis. This article summarizes the current knowledge on vaccines against alpha-toxin. PMID:24372250

Nagahama, Masahiro

2014-11-01

31

Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-03-01

32

Characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of adult horses and foals with acute enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Up to 60% of cases of equine colitis have no known cause. To improve understanding of the causes of acute colitis in horses, we hypothesized that Clostridium perfringens producing enterotoxin (CPE) and/or beta2 toxin (CPB2) are common and important causes of severe colitis in horses and/or that C. perfringens producing an as-yet-undescribed cytotoxin may also cause colitis in horses. Fecal samples from 55 horses (43 adults, 12 foals) with clinical evidence of colitis were evaluated by culture for the presence of Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens, and Salmonella. Feces were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for C. difficile A/B toxins and C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), beta2 toxin (CPB2), and enterotoxin (CPE). Five C. perfringens isolates per sample were genotyped for the following genes: cpa, cpb, cpb2 consensus, cpb2 atypical, cpe (enterotoxin), etx (epsilon toxin), itx (iota toxin), netB (necrotic enteritis toxin B), and tpeL (large C. perfringens cytotoxin). The supernatants of these isolates were also evaluated for toxicity for an equine cell line. All fecal samples were negative for Salmonella. Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile were isolated from 40% and 5.4% of samples, respectively. All fecal samples were negative for CPE. Clostridium perfringens CPA and CPB2 toxins were detected in 14.5% and 7.2% of fecal samples, respectively, all of which were culture-positive for C. perfringens. No isolates were cpe, etx, netB, or tpeL gene-positive. Atypical cpb2 and consensus cpb2 genes were identified in 15 (13.6%) and 4 (3.6%) of 110 isolates, respectively. All equine C. perfringens isolates showed far milder cytotoxicity effects than a CPB-producing positive control, although cpb2-positive isolates were slightly but significantly more cytotoxic than negative isolates. Based on this studied population, we were unable to confirm our hypothesis that CPE and CPB2-producing C. perfringens are common in horses with colitis in Ontario and we failed to identify cytotoxic activity in vitro in the type A isolates recovered.

Gohari, Iman Mehdizadeh; Arroyo, Luis; MacInnes, Janet I.; Timoney, John F.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Prescott, John F.

2014-01-01

33

Influence of bacteria on Clostridium perfringens infections in young chickens.  

PubMed

When monoflora chickens with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Streptococcus faecalis were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens either in broth culture or resuspended in Gifu anaerobic medium broth or supernatant fluid, few or no chickens died. Approximately 50% of germ-free chickens died after inoculation of C. perfringens culture, whereas no conventional birds died after inoculation of broth culture. C. perfringens in the contents of duodenum from germ-free chickens numbered about 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after inoculation 10(8) CFU broth culture per bird, but in gnotobiotic and conventional chickens this organism decreased or was not detected. When C. perfringens was cultured in intestinal contents collected from germ-free chickens, C. perfringens proliferated but alpha toxin was not detected. These findings indicate that the pathogenicity of C. perfringens was suppressed by L. acidophilus or S. faecalis administered previously or inhibited by normal intestinal flora. PMID:1903033

Fukata, T; Hadate, Y; Baba, E; Arakawa, A

1991-01-01

34

Distribution of Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Piglets in South Korea.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR assay. The ?2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C. perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of healthy piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the ?2 toxin gene of C. perfringens was distributed widely in Korean piglets regardless of the incidence of diarrhea, and there was no clear relationship with enteric disease. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA digested using SmaI demonstrated the non-clonal spread of C. perfringens isolates from piglets. PMID:24430655

Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Shin, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Ha-Young; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

2014-06-01

35

Tips to Prevent Illness from Clostridium Perfringens  

MedlinePLUS

... food poisoning be prevented? To prevent C. perfringens spores from growing in food after it has been ... These temperatures prevent the growth of C. perfringens spores that might have survived the initial cooking process. ...

36

[Comparative study of neuraminidases from "Diplococcus pneumoniae" and "Clostridium perfringens"].  

PubMed

Neuraminidases have been purified from the culture medium of two microorganisms, one aerobic, Diplococcus neumoniae, the other anaerobic, Clostridium perfringens. The enzymatic properties of the 2 neuraminidases have been studied (pH optimum; effect of cations; activity toward different substrates: neuraminyllactose, dilactaminyllacto-N-tetraose, gangliosides, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, Collocalia glycoprotein, ovine submaxillary mucin, porcin intestinal and human bronchial mucins). PMID:3129

Houdret, N; Scharfman, A; Martin, G; Roussel, P

1975-09-01

37

[Necrotizing enteritis in suckling pigs (Clostridium perfringens type C enterotoxemia). II. Toxin formation, heat and drug resistance of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from suckling pigs and broilers with necrotizing enteritis].  

PubMed

Nineteen Clostridium perfringens Type C strains and ten foreign control strains of subtypes C1, C3, and C4 were tested for their toxin formation and spore resistance to heat. The 19 Type C strains had been isolated from unweaned piglets in the context of necrotising enteritis outbreaks in the GDR. The Clostridium perfringens Type C strains formed beta-toxin, but they failed to form epsilon-toxin or gamma-toxin, alpha-toxin was successfully recorded from 15 of the 19 strains tested from unweaned piglets. The minor-lethal toxin fractions were also tested, with delta-toxin being recorded from all strains, non-alpha-delta-theta-toxin from six, theta-toxin from five, and K-toxin from one. Tests for delta-toxin, lambda-toxin, and mu-toxin were negative. The Clostridium perfringens Type C strains isolated in the GDR from unweaned piglets with necrotising enteritis were, basically, identical with those described in Denmark by von Hogh (1967) with regard to toxin formation. Clostridium perfringens strains cultured in broilers with necrotising enteritis were characterised by regular toxin production in the context of alpha, theta, delta as well as non-alpha-delta-theta. They failed to form beta, epsilon, gamma and lambda, while mu-toxin was formed by them quite irregularly. They, consequently, are Type A strains. Resistance to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline was exhibited by 78.5 per cent of 237 tested Clostridium perfringens strains which had been isolated from unweaned piglets and broilers with necrotosing enteritis. Multiple resistance was recorded from 33.9 per cent. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, nitrofurantoin, and erythromycin. PMID:219797

Köhler, B

1978-01-01

38

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant.

Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

2009-01-01

39

Identification of Clostridium Species and DNA Fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis?  

PubMed Central

An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied to 129 strains representing 24 different Clostridium species, with special emphasis on pathogenic clostridia of medical or veterinary interest, to assess the potential of AFLP for identification of clostridia. In addition, the ability of the same AFLP protocol to type clostridia at the strain level was assessed by focusing on Clostridium perfringens strains. All strains were typeable by AFLP, so the method seemed to overcome the problem of extracellular DNase production. AFLP differentiated all Clostridium species tested, except for Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium limosum, which clustered together with a 45% similarity level. Other Clostridium species were divided into species-specific clusters or occupied separate positions. Wide genetic diversity was observed among Clostridium botulinum strains, which were divided into seven species-specific clusters. The same AFLP protocol was also suitable for typing C. perfringens at the strain level. A total of 29 different AFLP types were identified for 37 strains of C. perfringens; strains initially originating from the same isolate showed identical fingerprinting patterns and were distinguished from unrelated strains. AFLP proved to be a highly reproducible, easy-to-perform, and relatively fast method which enables high throughput of samples and can serve in the generation of identification libraries. These results indicate that the AFLP method provides a promising tool for the identification and characterization of Clostridium species.

Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Eerola, Erkki; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-01-01

40

Identification of Clostridium species and DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied to 129 strains representing 24 different Clostridium species, with special emphasis on pathogenic clostridia of medical or veterinary interest, to assess the potential of AFLP for identification of clostridia. In addition, the ability of the same AFLP protocol to type clostridia at the strain level was assessed by focusing on Clostridium perfringens strains. All strains were typeable by AFLP, so the method seemed to overcome the problem of extracellular DNase production. AFLP differentiated all Clostridium species tested, except for Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium limosum, which clustered together with a 45% similarity level. Other Clostridium species were divided into species-specific clusters or occupied separate positions. Wide genetic diversity was observed among Clostridium botulinum strains, which were divided into seven species-specific clusters. The same AFLP protocol was also suitable for typing C. perfringens at the strain level. A total of 29 different AFLP types were identified for 37 strains of C. perfringens; strains initially originating from the same isolate showed identical fingerprinting patterns and were distinguished from unrelated strains. AFLP proved to be a highly reproducible, easy-to-perform, and relatively fast method which enables high throughput of samples and can serve in the generation of identification libraries. These results indicate that the AFLP method provides a promising tool for the identification and characterization of Clostridium species. PMID:16971642

Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Eerola, Erkki; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-11-01

41

Molecular Subtyping of Poultry-Associated Type A Clostridium perfringens Isolates by Repetitive-Element PCR  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens strains (type A) isolated from an integrated poultry operation were subtyped using repetitive-element PCR with Dt primers. Isolates were obtained from fecal, egg shell, fluff, and carcass rinse samples as part of a previously reported temporally linked epidemiological survey. A total of 48 isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from different stages of the broiler chicken production chain from two separate breeder farms that supplied a single hatchery that in turn provided chicks to a single grow-out farm whose flocks were processed at a single plant. All 48 isolates were typeable (100% typeability) by repetitive-element PCR with Dt primers. This subtyping method was highly reproducible and discriminatory. By repetitive-element PCR with Dt primers, isolates were classified into four major branches with 12 subgroups or clades. The Simpson's index of discrimination was calculated to be 0.96 for groupings of >95% correlation. Toxin gene profiles of the isolates indicated that all of the isolates were C. perfringens alpha-toxin gene positive and 46 of 48 isolates were beta2-toxin gene positive. All strains were negative for beta- and epsilon-toxin genes. Repetitive sequence-based PCR was found to be a technically practical and reproducible means of subtyping C. perfringens libraries from specific epidemiological or production environment settings.

Siragusa, G. R.; Danyluk, M. D.; Hiett, K. L.; Wise, M. G.; Craven, S. E.

2006-01-01

42

Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

1974-01-01

43

Clostridium perfringens Sepsis and Fetal Demise after Genetic Amniocentesis  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a rare cause of intrauterine infection. There have been five case reports concerning infection associated with invasive procedures. We report a woman who underwent a genetic amniocentesis due to her history of chronic granulomatous disease. She presented to the hospital ?38 hours after the amniocentesis complaining of fever and chills. Due to acute decompensation, she underwent an emergent dilatation and evacuation. During her stay, blood cultures came back positive for C. perfringens. Gradual improvement with intensive monitoring led to hospital discharge 4 days after the procedure. Uterine infection due to C. perfringens leading to maternal sepsis is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Our patient was able to survive without a hysterectomy due to the rapid administration of antibiotics and surgical intervention while being evaluated.

Hendrix, Nancy W.; Mackeen, A. Dhanya; Weiner, Stuart

2011-01-01

44

Clostridium perfringens Sepsis and Fetal Demise after Genetic Amniocentesis.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is a rare cause of intrauterine infection. There have been five case reports concerning infection associated with invasive procedures. We report a woman who underwent a genetic amniocentesis due to her history of chronic granulomatous disease. She presented to the hospital ?38 hours after the amniocentesis complaining of fever and chills. Due to acute decompensation, she underwent an emergent dilatation and evacuation. During her stay, blood cultures came back positive for C. perfringens. Gradual improvement with intensive monitoring led to hospital discharge 4 days after the procedure. Uterine infection due to C. perfringens leading to maternal sepsis is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Our patient was able to survive without a hysterectomy due to the rapid administration of antibiotics and surgical intervention while being evaluated. PMID:23705080

Hendrix, Nancy W; Mackeen, A Dhanya; Weiner, Stuart

2011-09-01

45

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCED BY A STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS  

PubMed Central

Izumi, Kunihiko (Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan). Mucopolysaccharides produced by a strain of Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 83:956–959. 1962.—A new series of mucopolysaccharides was isolated from the culture medium of Clostridium perfringens and partially purified by the use of a column of anion-exchange resin. A large part of the substance was composed of neutral sugars, amino sugars, uronic acids, and oligopeptides, suggesting a structure analogous to that of bacterial cell walls. Acidic amino acids, especially aspartic acid, were the main constituents of the oligopeptides. The substance exhibited high viscosity when dissolved in water. The degree of viscosity in each fraction seemed to depend on the content of amino sugars and the chain length of the oligopeptides.

Izumi, Kunihiko

1962-01-01

46

Clostridium perfringens sepsis and liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens sepsis with intravascular haemolysis is a catastrophic process with a reported mortality of between 90 to 100%. We successfully treated a case of severe clostridial infection with a liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the first to our knowledge. A 59-year-old man presented one week after an uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy with jaundice, peritonism, sepsis and acute renal failure. He was found to have a haemolytic anaemia, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and blood cultures grew Clostridium perfringens. A CT revealed a large gas forming abscess in the gallbladder fossa and right lobe of liver. He was treated with directed antibiotic therapy and underwent emergency laparotomy, drainage of the abscess and peritoneal washout. He required intensive care support, parenteral nutrition and inotropic support for a limited period. CT liver angiogram post op was normal. Continued renal dysfunction necessitated protracted haemofiltration. This resolved and the patient was discharged home at 2 months.

Qandeel, H; Abudeeb, H; Hammad, A; Ray, C; Sajid, M; Mahmud, S

2012-01-01

47

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Bĺverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

2006-01-01

48

Amount of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat detected by nested PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and quantity of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in beef, pork, and chicken meat were determined and compared with that of the total enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic C. perfringens. The method for the detection and quantification of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens consisted of a combination of the most probable number (MPN) method and a nested polymerase chain reaction after culturing of the

Norinaga Miwa; Tokuhiro Nishina; Shuichiro Kubo; Mikio Atsumi; Hiroyasu Honda

1998-01-01

49

Immunization of Broiler Chickens against Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins

R. R. Kulkarni; V. R. Parreira; S. Sharif; J. F. Prescott

2007-01-01

50

Catecholamine and cyclic nucleotide response of sheep to the injection of Clostridium welchii type D epsilon toxin.  

PubMed

Injection of Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) type D epsilon toxin into sheep caused large increases in catecholamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and moderate increases in cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels. Haemoconcentration also occurred. It is suggested that a rapidly developing brain oedema is the stimulus for a release of catecholamines which in turn activates adenyl cyclase. The resulting rise in cAMP causes glycogenolysis and hyperglycaemia. PMID:229224

Worthington, R W; Bertschinger, H J; Mülders, M S

1979-11-01

51

Development of an Elisa Assay for Clostridium Perfringens Phospholipase C (Alpha Toxin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the assay of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (phospholipase C) is described using a sandwich ELISA. This assay has been shown to be quantitative, to have a high specificity for the toxin and is capable of detecting purified Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C at concentrations of as little as 0.005 units\\/ml in cooked meat culture medium.

R. J. Holdsworth; D. Parratt

1994-01-01

52

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens from different cultivated soils.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Clostridium perfringens was estimated in 750 samples originated from a variety of soils bearing various bulb crops: Brawnica oderacea (vegetable), Olea europaea, Daucus carota (carote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Phaseolus vulgaris (green haricot), Beta vulgaris var. rapaceum (beetroot), Cucurbita pepo (squash), Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Capsicum annum (pepper). All isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobial activities to amoxicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. When considering the type of the bulb production, it was observed increased number of C. perfringens spore densities in the most undersurface bulb soils. Moreover, C. perfringens spore are likely to occur in particularly large numbers in soil contaminated by fecal matter. Additionally, there is a close relationship between the spore amount and nature of organic content. Presence of C. perfringens was associated with acidic soil. Most of our strains showed resistance to the studied antibiotics applied usually for human and veterinary care. A systematic monitoring of the cultivated soil ecosystems must include bacteriological parameters together with chemical indices of organic pollution in order to obtain information adequate for assessing their overall quality. PMID:21621626

Voidarou, C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stefanis, C; Papadopoulos, I; Vavias, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I

2011-12-01

53

Hospital outbreak of clostridium perfringens food-poisoning.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Clostridium perfringens (C.welchii) food-poisoning affected a third of the patients in a large hospital, and one frail patient died. C.perfringens type A, serotype 1, was isolated from 46 (61 per cent) of 76 patients examined and from food, and a new serotype (61) was isolated from 16. The attack-rate among patients who ate a minced-ham dish was 78 per cent. The cooking and storage of this mince was faulty: cuts of meat were much too large, they were kept at room temperature too long before refrigeration, and after cooking they were put into mincers used also for raw meat. C.perfringens type A, serotype 1, was isolated from meat scraps in a mincer. Final reheating was inadequate to destroy even vegetative bacteria, and multiplication may have occurred during slow distribution to the wards. Outbreaks of C.perfringens fool-poisoning are common in hospitals, and some underlying problems are discussed. A plea is made for the Food Hygiene Regulations to apply to National Health Service premises and for simple but effective reforms in institutional catering management. PMID:67498

Thomas, M; Noah, N D

1977-05-14

54

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic species of bacterium that is notable for its ability to produce a plethora of toxins, including membrane-active toxins (?-toxins), pore-forming toxins (?-toxins) and binary toxins (?-toxins). Here, the crystallization of the full-length wild-type C. perfringens enterotoxin is reported, which is the causative agent of the second most prevalent food-borne illness in the United States and has been implicated in many other gastrointestinal pathologies. Several crystal forms were obtained. However, only two of these optimized crystal forms (I and II) were useable for X-ray diffraction data collection. The form I crystals diffracted to d min = 2.7?Ĺ and belonged to space group C2, while the form II crystals diffracted to d min = 4?Ĺ and belonged to space group P213.

Briggs, David C.; Smedley, James G.; McClane, Bruce A.; Basak, Ajit K.

2010-01-01

55

Prevalence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from spices in Argentina.  

PubMed

Spices can present high microbial counts and Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Shigella, among others have been isolated from spices. C. perfringens is an important pathogen agent causing, among other diseases, enteritis in humans caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) which causes human food poisoning and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. The aims of the present work were (i) to establish the hygienic sanitary quality of some spices in San Luis, Argentina; (ii) to determine the presence of C. perfringens in these spices by means of the most probable number (MPN) and count on plate methods; (iii) to characterize the enterotoxigenic strains of C. perfringens by PCR and immunological methods such as reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and (iv) to type by PCR C. perfringens strains isolated. A total of 115 samples of spices, 67 of which were purchased in local retail stores and 48 domestically collected were analysed. Total aerobe counts on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar medium of the 115 samples were between <10 and 10(6) CFU/g. The colifecal counts using Mac Conkey broth of the 115 samples were <4-10(3)CFU/g, with 28 samples (24.34%) exceeding the limit established by the Spanish Alimentary Code (10 CFU/g) while 2 samples (1.73%) had a sulfite reducing anaerobe load above standard limits. A total of 14 C. perfringens strains (12.17%) were isolated and characterized from 115 samples by the standard biochemical tests. Four of which (28.60%) turned out to be enterotoxigenic by PCR and RPLA. In order to type C. perfringens strains based on their main toxins, the 14 strains were analysed by PCR. All strains belonged to type A. All RPLA positive strains were cpe(+) by PCR. The percentage of enterotoxigenic strains was more elevated that those reported in other studies for this type of sample. These results indicate that sanitary conditions in different production stages of species must be improved to reduce health hazards. The high percentage (24.34%) of samples with colifecal values above standard limits is an indication of deficient sanitary conditions. These results suggest the need to provide legislation on the sanitary and hygienic quality of spices in our country. PMID:16701595

Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Stagnitta, Patricia Virginia; Micalizzi, Blas; de Guzmán, Ana María Stefanini

2005-12-01

56

Isolation of Clostridium perfringens Type B in an Individual at First Clinical Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis Provides Clues for Environmental Triggers of the Disease  

PubMed Central

We have isolated Clostridium perfringens type B, an epsilon toxin-secreting bacillus, from a young woman at clinical presentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with actively enhancing lesions on brain MRI. This finding represents the first time that C. perfringens type B has been detected in a human. Epsilon toxin’s tropism for the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and binding to oligodendrocytes/myelin makes it a provocative candidate for nascent lesion formation in MS. We examined a well-characterized population of MS patients and healthy controls for carriage of C. perfringens toxinotypes in the gastrointestinal tract. The human commensal Clostridium perfringens type A was present in approximately 50% of healthy human controls compared to only 23% in MS patients. We examined sera and CSF obtained from two tissue banks and found that immunoreactivity to ETX is 10 times more prevalent in people with MS than in healthy controls, indicating prior exposure to ETX in the MS population. C. perfringens epsilon toxin fits mechanistically with nascent MS lesion formation since these lesions are characterized by BBB permeability and oligodendrocyte cell death in the absence of an adaptive immune infiltrate.

Rumah, Kareem Rashid; Linden, Jennifer; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Vartanian, Timothy

2013-01-01

57

Genetic Characterization of Type A Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens Strains  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens type A, is both a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and a major cause of human gastrointestinal disease, which usually involves strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The gene (cpe) encoding this toxin can be carried on the chromosome or a large plasmid. Interestingly, strains carrying cpe on the chromosome and strains carrying cpe on a plasmid often exhibit different biological characteristics, such as resistance properties against heat. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of C. perfringens by PCR-surveying 21 housekeeping genes and genes on representative plasmids and then confirmed those results by Southern blot assay (SB) of five genes. Furthermore, sequencing analysis of eight housekeeping genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were also performed. Fifty-eight C. perfringens strains were examined, including isolates from: food poisoning cases, human gastrointestinal disease cases, foods in Japan or the USA, or feces of healthy humans. In the PCR survey, eight of eleven housekeeping genes amplified positive reactions in all strains tested. However, by PCR survey and SB assay, one representative virulence gene, pfoA, was not detected in any strains carrying cpe on the chromosome. Genes involved in conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid were also absent from almost all chromosomal cpe strains. MLST showed that, regardless of their geographic origin, date of isolation, or isolation source, chromosomal cpe isolates, i) assemble into one definitive cluster ii) lack pfoA and iii) lack a plasmid related to the cpe plasmid. Similarly, independent of their origin, strains carrying a cpe plasmid also appear to be related, but are more variable than chromosomal cpe strains, possibly because of the instability of cpe-borne plasmid(s) and/or the conjugative transfer of cpe-plasmid(s) into unrelated C. perfringens strains.

Kuwahara, Tomomi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Ikuko; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A.; Akimoto, Shigeru

2009-01-01

58

Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin: Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of the enzyme component (Ia) and the binding component (Ib). Ib binds to receptor on targeted cells and translocates Ia into the cytosol of the cells. Ia ADP-ribosylates actin, resulting in cell rounding and death. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence from the gene and three-dimensional structure of Ia with those of ADP-ribosylating toxins (ARTs) suggests that there is striking structural similarity among these toxins. Our objectives are to review the recent advances in the character, structure-function, and the mode of action of iota-toxin by consideration of the findings about ARTs.

Sakurai, Jun; Nagahama, Masahiro; Oda, Masataka; Tsuge, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Keiko

2009-01-01

59

Clostridium perfringens meningitis, Plesiomonas shigelloides sepsis: A lethal combination  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Anaerobic bacterial meningitis is rare. It is extremely unusual without a portal of entry as most cases reported have been associated with trauma or neurosurgery. Case Report: We describe this rare case of clostridium meningitis and plesiomonas sepsis in an immunocompetent adult. A 71 year old man with diabetes presented with acute onset severe headaches, obtundation and signs of severe hemolysis following a 2 week game hunting trip in the Swiss Alps. His clinical status progressed rapidly; he died 3 hours after initial presentation. Post mortem lumbar puncture was performed with CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis. Clostridium perfringens was eventually recovered from the CSF as well as in the blood. Plesiomonas shigelloides was recovered from the blood as well. Conclusions: This is the first case of blood stream infection with these two organisms in a single patient without an obvious portal of entry.

Okon, Emmanuel; Bishburg, Eliahu; Ugras, Sandra; Chan, Trini; Wang, He

2013-01-01

60

Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C. perfringens. PMID:19269568

Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

2009-05-01

61

Complex transcriptional regulation of citrate metabolism in Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, possesses genes for citrate metabolism, which might play an important role in the utilization of citrate as a sole carbon source. In this study, we identified a chromosomal citCDEFX-mae-citS operon in C. perfringens strain 13, which is transcribed on three mRNAs of different sizes. Expression of the cit operon was significantly induced when 5 mM extracellular citrate was added to the growth medium. Most interestingly, three regulatory systems were found to be involved in the regulation of the expression of cit genes: 1) the two upstream divergent genes citG and citI; 2) two different two-component regulatory systems, CitA/CitB (TCS6 consisted of CPE0531/CPE0532) and TCS5 (CPE0518/CPE0519); and 3) the global two-component VirR/VirS-VR-RNA regulatory system known to regulate various genes for toxins and degradative enzymes. Our results suggest that in C. perfringens the citrate metabolism might be strictly controlled by a complex regulatory system. PMID:21945821

Yuan, Yonghui; Ohtani, Kaori; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Tohru

2012-02-01

62

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis in two Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).  

PubMed

Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation. PMID:12790411

Neiffer, D L

2001-03-01

63

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of delta-toxin from Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for a wide range of diseases in humans and both wild and domesticated animals, including birds. C. perfringens is notable for its ability to produce a plethora of toxins, e.g. phospholipases C (alpha-toxin), pore-forming toxins (epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin and enterotoxin) and binary toxins (iota-toxin). Based on alpha-, beta-, epsilon- and iota-toxin production, the bacterium is classified into five different toxinotypes (A–E). Delta-toxin, which is a 32.6?kDa protein with 290 amino acids, is one of three haemolysins released by type C and possibly by type B strains of C. perfringens. This toxin is immunogenic and lytic to erythrocytes from the even-toed ungulates sheep, goats and pigs, and is cytotoxic to other cell types such as rabbit macrophages, human monocytes and blood platelets from goats, rabbits, guinea pigs and humans. The recombinant delta-toxin has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Of these two different crystal forms, only the form II crystal diffracted to atomic resolution (d min = 2.4?Ĺ), while the form I crystal diffracted to only 15?Ĺ resolution. The form II crystals belonged to space group P21212, with one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 49.66, b = 58.48, c = 112.93?Ĺ.

Huyet, Jessica; Gilbert, Maryse; Popoff, Michel R.; Basak, Ajit

2011-01-01

64

On the Interaction of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin with Claudins  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens causes one of the most common foodborne illnesses, which is largely mediated by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The toxin consists of two functional domains. The N-terminal region mediates the cytotoxic effect through pore formation in the plasma membrane of the mammalian host cell. The C-terminal region (cCPE) binds to the second extracellular loop of a subset of claudins. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 have been shown to be receptors for CPE with very high affinity. The toxin binds with weak affinity to claudin-1 and -2 but contribution of these weak binding claudins to CPE-mediated disease is questionable. cCPE is not cytotoxic, however, it is a potent modulator of tight junctions. This review describes recent progress in the molecular characterization of the cCPE-claudin interaction using mutagenesis, in vitro binding assays and permeation studies. The results promote the development of recombinant cCPE-proteins and CPE-based peptidomimetics to modulate tight junctions for improved drug delivery or to treat tumors overexpressing claudins.

Veshnyakova, Anna; Protze, Jonas; Rossa, Jan; Blasig, Ingolf E.; Krause, Gerd; Piontek, Joerg

2010-01-01

65

On the interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with claudins.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens causes one of the most common foodborne illnesses, which is largely mediated by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The toxin consists of two functional domains. The N-terminal region mediates the cytotoxic effect through pore formation in the plasma membrane of the mammalian host cell. The C-terminal region (cCPE) binds to the second extracellular loop of a subset of claudins. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 have been shown to be receptors for CPE with very high affinity. The toxin binds with weak affinity to claudin-1 and -2 but contribution of these weak binding claudins to CPE-mediated disease is questionable. cCPE is not cytotoxic, however, it is a potent modulator of tight junctions. This review describes recent progress in the molecular characterization of the cCPE-claudin interaction using mutagenesis, in vitro binding assays and permeation studies. The results promote the development of recombinant cCPE-proteins and CPE-based peptidomimetics to modulate tight junctions for improved drug delivery or to treat tumors overexpressing claudins. PMID:22069641

Veshnyakova, Anna; Protze, Jonas; Rossa, Jan; Blasig, Ingolf E; Krause, Gerd; Piontek, Joerg

2010-06-01

66

Specific Antibody Against 'Clostridium perfringens' Type A Enterotoxin in Chinese on Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sera of healthy individuals, and of patients with neoplastic diseases and with chronic infections were tested for antibody against Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin. Anti-enterotoxic antibody was detected by passive hemagglutination in 48.4% of t...

C. C. Tsai Y. M. Jong Y. H. Hsieh F. A. Hodge

1976-01-01

67

Sensitization by Ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Clostridium perfringens Type A Spores to Germination by Lysozyme1  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens spores (three strains) were normally resistant to germination by lysozyme. In the absence of disulfide bond-breaking reagents, tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate rapidly sensitized the spores to lysozyme.

Adams, D. M.

1973-01-01

68

Clostridium perfringens Type E Animal Enteritis Isolates with Highly Conserved, Silent Enterotoxin Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Clostridium perfringens genotype E isolates, all associated with hemorrhagic enteritis of neonatal calves, were identified by multiplex PCR. These genotype E isolates were demonstrated to express a and i toxins, but, despite carrying sequences for the gene (cpe) encoding C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), were unable to express CPE. These silent cpe sequences were shown to be highly conserved among

STEPHEN J. BILLINGTON; EVA U. WIECKOWSKI; MAHFUZUR R. SARKER; DAWN BUESCHEL; J. GLENN SONGER; BRUCE A. MCCLANE

1998-01-01

69

Nitrogenous Components of Nutrient Medium for Cultivation of Clostridium Perfringens Type D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the dynamics of the nitrogenous components of the medium in the growth and toxin-formation of Clostridium perfringens of different toxicity. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) toxin formation in Cl-perfringens type D is related ...

E. S. Zhuravel

1968-01-01

70

Molecular Subtyping of Poultry-Associated Type A Clostridium perfringens Isolates by Repetitive-Element PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens strains (type A) isolated from an integrated poultry operation were subtyped using repetitive-element PCR with Dt primers. Isolates were obtained from fecal, egg shell, fluff, and carcass rinse samples as part of a previously reported temporally linked epidemiological survey. A total of 48 isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from different stages of the broiler chicken production chain

G. R. Siragusa; M. D. Danyluk; K. L. Hiett; M. G. Wise; S. E. Craven

2006-01-01

71

Direct detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in patients' stools during an outbreak of food poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of diarrhoea in a hotel affected 25 time keepers attending the 1997 Mediterranean Games. Epidemiological investigation implicated a ‘pasta al ragů’ consumed at the hotel's restaurant and Clostridium perfringens food poisoning was identified by direct detection of C. perfringens enterotoxin in patients' stools. This report confirms that a careful evaluation of epidemiological features, together with the availability of

Romano Arcieri; Anna Maria Dionisi; Alfredo Caprioli; Pierluigi Lopalco; Rosi Prato; Cinzia Germinario; Caterina Rizzo; Angela Maria Vitoria Larocca; Salvatore Barbuti; Donato Greco; Ida Luzzi

1999-01-01

72

Characterization of a Unique Class C Acid Phosphatase from Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobe and a pathogen of medical importance. The detection of acid phosphatase activity is a powerful diagnostic indicator of the presence of C. perfringens among anaerobic isolates; however, characterization of the enzyme has not previously been reported. Provided here are details of the characterization of a soluble recombinant form of this cell-associated enzyme. The denatured

Thomas J. Reilly; Deborah L. Chance; Michael J. Calcutt; John J. Tanner; Richard L. Felts; Stephen C. Waller; Michael T. Henzl; Thomas P. Mawhinney; Irene K. Ganjam; William H. Fales

2009-01-01

73

Clostridium perfringens in Long Island Sound sediments: An urban sedimentary record  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clostridium perfringens is a conservative tracer and an indicator of sewage-derived pollution in the marine environment. The distribution of Clostridium perfringens spores was measured in sediments from Long Island Sound, USA, as part of a regional study designed to: (1) map the distribution of contaminated sediments; (2) determine transport and dispersal paths; (3) identify the locations of sediment and contaminant focusing; and (4) constrain predictive models. In 1996, sediment cores were collected at 58 stations, and surface sediments were collected at 219 locations throughout the Sound. Elevated concentrations of Clostridium perfringens in the sediments indicate that sewage pollution is present throughout Long Island Sound and has persisted for more than a century. Concentrations range from undetectable amounts to 15,000 spores/g dry sediment and are above background levels in the upper 30 cm at nearly all core locations. Sediment focusing strongly impacts the accumulation of Clostridium perfringens spores. Inventories in the cores range from 28 to 70,000 spores/cm2, and elevated concentrations can extend to depths of 50 cm. The steep gradients in Clostridium perfringens profiles in muddier cores contrast with concentrations that are generally constant with depth in sandier cores. Clostridium perfringens concentrations rarely decrease in the uppermost sediment, unlike those reported for metal contaminants. Concentrations in surface sediments are highest in the western end of the Sound, very low in the eastern region, and intermediate in the central part. This pattern reflects winnowing and focusing of Clostridium perfringens spores and fine-grained sediment by the hydrodynamic regime; however, the proximity of sewage sources to the westernmost Sound locally enhances the Clostridium perfringens signals.

Buchholtz, ten, Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E. L.; Galvin, E. L.

2000-01-01

74

Molecular and Cellular Basis of Microvascular Perfusion Deficits Induced by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum  

PubMed Central

Reduced tissue perfusion leading to tissue ischemia is a central component of the pathogenesis of myonecrosis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The C. perfringens ?-toxin has been shown capable of inducing these changes, but its potential synergy with perfringolysin O (?-toxin) is less well understood. Similarly, Clostridium septicum is a highly virulent causative agent of spontaneous gas gangrene, but its effect on the microcirculation has not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use intravital microscopy to examine the effects of C. perfringens and C. septicum on the functional microcirculation, coupled with the use of isogenic toxin mutants to elucidate the role of particular toxins in the resultant microvascular perfusion deficits. This study represents the first time this integrated approach has been used in the analysis of the pathological response to clostridial toxins. Culture supernatants from wild-type C. perfringens induced extensive cell death within 30 min, as assessed by in vivo uptake of propidium iodide. Furthermore, significant reductions in capillary perfusion were observed within 60 min. Depletion of either platelets or neutrophils reduced the alteration in perfusion, consistent with a role for these blood-borne cells in obstructing perfusion. In addition, mutation of either the ?-toxin or perfringolysin O structural genes attenuated the reduction in perfusion, a process that was reversed by genetic complementation. C. septicum also induced a marked reduction in perfusion, with the degree of microvascular compromise correlating with the level of the C. septicum ?-toxin. Together, these data indicate that as a result of its ability to produce ?-toxin and perfringolysin O, C. perfringens rapidly induces irreversible cellular injury and a marked reduction in microvascular perfusion. Since C. septicum induces a similar reduction in microvascular perfusion, it is postulated that this function is central to the pathogenesis of clostridial myonecrosis, irrespective of the causative bacterium.

Hickey, Michael J.; Kwan, Rain Y. Q.; Awad, Milena M.; Kennedy, Catherine L.; Young, Lauren F.; Hall, Pam; Cordner, Leanne M.; Lyras, Dena; Emmins, John J.; Rood, Julian I.

2008-01-01

75

Clostridium perfringens Spore Germination: Characterization of Germinants and Their Receptors?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens food poisoning is caused by type A isolates carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (cpe) gene (C-cpe), while C. perfringens-associated non-food-borne gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are caused by isolates carrying a plasmid-borne cpe gene (P-cpe). C. perfringens spores are thought to be the important infectious cell morphotype, and after inoculation into a suitable host, these spores must germinate and return to active growth to cause GI disease. We have found differences in the germination of spores of C-cpe and P-cpe isolates in that (i) while a mixture of l-asparagine and KCl was a good germinant for spores of C-cpe and P-cpe isolates, KCl and, to a lesser extent, l-asparagine triggered spore germination in C-cpe isolates only; and (ii) l-alanine or l-valine induced significant germination of spores of P-cpe but not C-cpe isolates. Spores of a gerK mutant of a C-cpe isolate in which two of the proteins of a spore nutrient germinant receptor were absent germinated slower than wild-type spores with KCl, did not germinate with l-asparagine, and germinated poorly compared to wild-type spores with the nonnutrient germinants dodecylamine and a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid. In contrast, spores of a gerAA mutant of a C-cpe isolate that lacked another component of a nutrient germinant receptor germinated at the same rate as that of wild-type spores with high concentrations of KCl, although they germinated slightly slower with a lower KCl concentration, suggesting an auxiliary role for GerAA in C. perfringens spore germination. In sum, this study identified nutrient germinants for spores of both C-cpe and P-cpe isolates of C. perfringens and provided evidence that proteins encoded by the gerK operon are required for both nutrient-induced and non-nutrient-induced spore germination.

Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J. Antonio; Setlow, Peter; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

2008-01-01

76

Stimulation of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin formation by caffeine and theobromine.  

PubMed Central

In the presence of 100 micrograms of caffeine per ml or 200 micrograms of theobromine per ml, sporulation of Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8679 rose from less than 1 to 80 or 85%. Enterotoxin concentration increased from undetectable levels to 450 micrograms/mg of cell extract protein. Heat-resistant spore levels increased from less than 1,000 to between 1 X 10(7) and 2 X 10(7)/ml. These effects were partially reversible by the addition of adenosine or thymidine. In the case of NCTC 8238, caffeine and theobromine caused a three- to fourfold increase in the percentages of cells possessing refractile spores and a similar increase in enterotoxin concentration. Heat-resistant spore levels, however, were unaffected. Inosine was ineffective in promoting sporulation in NCTC 8679.

Labbe, R G; Nolan, L L

1981-01-01

77

Comparison of the azoreductase and nitroreductase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

The purified azoreductase and nitroreductase of Clostridium perfringens, which have similar electrophoretic properties, both reacted in a Western blot (immunoblot) with a polyclonal antibody raised against the azoreductase. The activity of both enzymes was enhanced by flavin adenine dinucleotide and was inhibited by menadione, o-iodosobenzoic acid, and the antibody against azoreductase. Reduction of the azo dye Direct Blue 15 by the azoreductase was inhibited by nitroaromatic compounds. The apparent Km of the enzyme for reduction of Direct Blue 15 in the presence of 1-nitropyrene was higher than the Km with the azo dye alone, demonstrating competitive inhibition. The data show that the same protein is involved in the reduction of both azo dyes and nitroaromatic compounds. Images

Rafii, F; Cerniglia, C E

1993-01-01

78

Anion inhibition studies of a ?-carbonic anhydrase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

A ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) was recently cloned, purified and characterized kinetically in the pathogen Clostridium perfringens. We report here the first inhibition study of this enzyme (CpeCA). CpeCA was poorly inhibited by iodide and bromide, and was inhibited with KIs in the range of 1-10mM by a range of anions such as (thio)cyanate, azide, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite, hydrogensulfite, hydrogensulfide, stannate, tellurate, pyrophosphate, divanadate, tetraborate, peroxydisulfate, sulfate, iminodisulfonate and fluorosulfonate. Better inhibitory power, with K(I)s of 0.36-1.0 mM, was observed for cyanide, carbonate, selenate, selenocyanide, trithiocarbonate and diethyldithiocarbamate, whereas the best CpeCA inhibitors were sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, which had KIs in the range of 7-75 ?M. This study thus provides the basis for developing better clostridial enzyme inhibitors with potential as antiinfectives with a new mechanism of action. PMID:24210500

Vullo, Daniela; Sai Kumar, R Siva; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Ferry, James G; Supuran, Claudiu T

2013-12-15

79

Real-time multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection and toxintyping of Clostridium perfringens toxin producing strains in feces of dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium associated with a wide variety of diseases in domestic animals and humans. We have developed dual-labeled fluorescence hybridization probe (TaqMan((R)))-based real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection of toxin genes alpha (cpa), beta (cpb), iota (ia), epsilon (etx), beta2 (cpb2) and enterotoxin (cpe) of C. perfringens directly from cattle feces. The assay was standardized using ATCC reference strains of C. perfringens producing alpha, beta, iota, epsilon and enterotoxin, respectively. The assay for detection of beta2 toxin gene was standardized using a field strain of C. perfringens producing beta2 toxin. The minimum detection limit for the real time PCR assay ranged from 5 to 70 pg of DNA for the six toxin genes. A total of 307 fecal samples collected from seven dairy herds in Pennsylvania were analyzed using the multiplex assay. The real-time PCR assay revealed that cpa, cpb, ia, etx, cpb2 and cpe were detected in 68 (28.2%), 6 (2.5%), 6 (2.5%), 4 (1.6%), 164 (68%) and 11 (4.5%) of 241 PCR positive samples, respectively. The findings of the study revealed that C. perfringens beta2 toxin producing strains were widely prevalent in lactating cows in Pennsylvania and they may play an important role in C. perfringens associated diarrheal diseases. PMID:17890052

Gurjar, A A; Hegde, N V; Love, B C; Jayarao, B M

2008-04-01

80

Structural Basis of Clostridium perfringens Toxin Complex Formation  

SciTech Connect

The virulent properties of the common human and livestock pathogen Clostridium perfringens are attributable to a formidable battery of toxins. Among these are a number of large and highly modular carbohydrate-active enzymes, including the {mu}-toxin and sialidases, whose catalytic properties are consistent with degradation of the mucosal layer of the human gut, glycosaminoglycans, and other cellular glycans found throughout the body. The conservation of noncatalytic ancillary modules among these enzymes suggests they make significant contributions to the overall functionality of the toxins. Here, we describe the structural basis of an ultra-tight interaction (Ka = 1.44 x 1011 M-1) between the X82 and dockerin modules, which are found throughout numerous C. perfringens carbohydrate-active enzymes. Extensive hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals contacts between the X82 and dockerin modules give rise to the observed high affinity. The {mu}-toxin dockerin module in this complex is positioned {approx}180 relative to the orientation of the dockerin modules on the cohesin module surface within cellulolytic complexes. These observations represent a unique property of these clostridial toxins whereby they can associate into large, noncovalent multitoxin complexes that allow potentiation of the activities of the individual toxins by combining complementary toxin specificities.

Adams,J.; Gregg, K.; Bayer, E.; Boraston, A.; Smith, S.

2008-01-01

81

Effect of tannins on the in vitro growth of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Vegetable tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds of varying molecular weights that occur abundantly in nature. The diet of many free-ranging wild animals contains significant amounts of tannins. Also, commercial tannins are used in animal industry as food additives to improve animal performance. In order to further determine the capacity of tannins to inhibit the development of intestinal diseases produced by Clostridium pefringens, we evaluated here the effect of tannins from quebracho, chestnut or combinations of both on C. perfringens and their toxins. The C. perfringens (types A, B, C, D and E) growth obtained from the intestine of healthy and diseased animals was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quebracho tannins, chestnut tannins, combinations of both or a commercial formula based in these tannins. Although the minimal inhibitory concentration of both tannins varied between isolates, no statistically significant differences were observed between isolates from healthy or sick animals. Comparative analysis showed that the concentrations of quebracho tannin inhibiting the growth of C. perfringens were higher than chestnut tannin. In fact, antibacterial effect of quebracho tannin was increased up to 20 times with the addition of 25% of chestnut tannin and 85 times with 75% of chestnut tannin. Antibacterial activity of the commercial product was up to ~50 times higher than quebracho tannin alone. Quebracho tannin showed partial bactericidal activity, whereas chestnut tannin activity was stronger. Both tannins were able to reduce the alpha toxin lecithinase activity and epsilon toxin cytotoxicity in MDCK cells. These results suggest that tannin-supplemented diet could be useful to prevent some clostridial diseases. PMID:20471759

Elizondo, Ana M; Mercado, Elsa C; Rabinovitz, Bettina C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

2010-10-26

82

Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.  

PubMed

The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

2013-10-01

83

Detection and Toxin Typing of Clostridium perfringens in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples by PCR?  

PubMed Central

Since current microbiology methods are not suitable to detect Clostridium perfringens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, we developed a PCR assay to detect toxin-encoding genes and the 16S rRNA gene of C. perfringens. We successfully detected and genotyped C. perfringens in tissue sections from two autopsy cases.

Wu, Josephine; Zhang, Wandi; Xie, Boxun; Wu, Maoxin; Tong, Xiaodi; Kalpoe, Jayant; Zhang, David

2009-01-01

84

Clostridium perfringens Type A Enterotoxin Damages the Rabbit Colon.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin causes the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and CPE-associated non-food-borne human GI diseases. It is well established that CPE induces fluid accumulation and severe tissue damage in ligated small intestinal loops of rabbits and other animals. However, a previous study had also reported that CPE binds to rabbit colonic cells yet does not significantly affect rabbit colonic loops. To the contrary, the current study determined that treatment with 50 or 100 ?g/ml of CPE causes significant histologic lesions and luminal fluid accumulation in rabbit colonic loops. Interestingly, a CPE-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocked the development of CPE-induced histologic damage but not luminal fluid accumulation in these loops. Similar luminal fluid accumulation, without significant histologic damage, also occurred after treatment of colonic loops with heat-inactivated CPE, antibody alone, or bovine serum albumin (BSA), indicating that increased osmolarity was causing or contributing to fluid accumulation in CPE-treated colonic loops. Comparative studies revealed the similar development of histologic damage and luminal fluid accumulation in both small intestinal loops and colonic loops after as little as a 1-h treatment with 50 ?g/ml of CPE. Consistent with the CPE sensitivity of the small intestine and colon, Western blotting detected CPE binding and large-complex formation in both organs. In addition, Western blotting demonstrated the presence of the high-affinity CPE receptors claudin-3 and -4 in both organs of rabbits, consistent with the observed toxin binding. Collectively, these results offer support for the possible involvement of the colon in CPE-mediated GI disease. PMID:24643537

Garcia, Jorge P; Li, Jihong; Shrestha, Archana; Freedman, John C; Beingesser, Juliann; McClane, Bruce A; Uzal, Francisco A

2014-06-01

85

Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to design a thermal treatment(s) for pork luncheon roll, which would destroy Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores. B. cereus and C. perfringens vegetative and spore cocktails were used to inoculate luncheon meat. Samples were subjected to different temperatures and removal times. The decimal-reduction times (D-values) were calculated by linear regression

B. Byrne; G. Dunne; D. J. Bolton

2006-01-01

86

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening gas gangrene and mild enterotoxaemia in humans, although it colonizes as normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. The organism is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for the severe myonecrotic lesions. Here we report the complete 3,031,430-bp sequence of C. perfringens strain

Tohru Shimizu; Kaori Ohtani; Hideki Hirakawa; Kenshiro Ohshima; Atsushi Yamashita; Tadayoshi Shiba; Naotake Ogasawara; Masahira Hattori; Satoru Kuhara; Hideo Hayashi

2002-01-01

87

Intracellular Trafficking of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin b  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of an enzymatic component (Ia) and a binding component (Ib). Ib binds to a cell surface receptor, undergoes oligomerization in lipid rafts, and binds Ia. The resulting complex is then endocytosed. Here, we show the intracellular trafficking of iota-toxin. After the binding of the Ib monomer with cells at 4°C, oligomers of Ib formed at 37°C and later disappeared. Immunofluorescence staining of Ib revealed that the internalized Ib was transported to early endosomes. Some Ib was returned to the plasma membrane through recycling endosomes, whereas the rest was transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. Degraded Ib was delivered to the plasma membrane by an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration caused by Ib. Bafilomycin A1, an endosomal acidification inhibitor, caused the accumulation of Ib in endosomes, and both nocodazole and colchicine, microtubule-disrupting agents, restricted Ib's movement in the cytosol. These results indicated that an internalized Ia and Ib complex was delivered to early endosomes and that subsequent delivery of Ia to the cytoplasm occurs mainly in early endosomes. Ib was either sent back to the plasma membranes through recycling endosomes or transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. Degraded Ib was transported to plasma membranes.

Umezaki, Mariko; Tashiro, Ryo; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Shibutani, Masahiro; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Sakurai, Jun

2012-01-01

88

Mechanistic Investigations of Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct (1)H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

Jongkees, Seino A K; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G

2014-04-18

89

Purification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Bile salt hydrolase (cholylglycine hydrolase, EC 3.5.1.24) has been purified to homogeneity (792-fold) from Clostridium perfringens using high performance DEAE-chromatography. The purified enzyme showed a single detectable protein band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with a relative molecular weight ca. 56,000. The intact enzyme had a relative molecular weight (Mr) of ca. 250,000 as determined by nondenaturing PAGE. The NH2-terminal sequence of bile salt hydrolase was determined to be Met-(Ser/Cys)-Arg-Thr-Lys-Leu-Val-Ileu-Thr-Ileu-Gly-Ala-Ser. The purified enzyme was active towards both glycine and taurine conjugates of cholate. The apparent Km and Vmax of the enzyme for glycocholate was estimated to be 0.5 mM and 107 nmol/min.mg protein, respectively. The pH optimum was in the range of 5.8 to 6.4. The enzyme was inhibited 85%, 81%, and 83% by 2 mM iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was prepared and used to demonstrate a single form of the enzyme in crude cell extracts. PMID:2903208

Gopal-Srivastava, R; Hylemon, P B

1988-08-01

90

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens.

Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadana; da Costa Cruz Junior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Mauricio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

2012-01-01

91

Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Growth of Clostridium perfringens and Pseudomonas fluorescens1  

PubMed Central

A new apparatus was developed for measuring changes in Eh, pH, and cell numbers. With this apparatus, the relationships of these parameters were studied at initial Eh levels of 200 and 40 mv (pH 7.0), by using Clostridium perfringens and Pseudomonas fluorescens. One of the strains of C. perfringens grew more luxuriantly at the higher Eh, in the presence of small quantities of oxygen, than at the lower one in the absence of oxygen. P. fluorescens could grow at a relatively low Eh (40 mv, pH 7.0) in pure culture but not in the presence of C. perfringens under the same conditions.

Tabatabai, L. B.; Walker, H. W.

1970-01-01

92

Clostridium perfringens bacteremia caused by choledocholithiasis in the absence of gallbladder stones  

PubMed Central

A 67-years-old male presented with periumbilical abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. His anaerobic blood culture was positive for clostridium perfringens. Computed tomogram scan of the abdomen and abdominal ultrasound showed normal gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD). Subsequently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticogram showed choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogramwith sphincterotomy and CBD stone extraction was performed. The patient progressively improved with antibiotic therapy Choledocholithiasis should be considered as a source of clostridium perfringens bacteremia especially in the setting of elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic pattern.

Atia, Antwan; Raiyani, Tejas; Patel, Pranav; Patton, Robert; Young, Mark

2012-01-01

93

Adhesive properties of Clostridium perfringens to extracellular matrix proteins collagens and fibronectin.  

PubMed

The adhesive properties of Clostridium perfringens to collagens, gelatin, fibronectin (Fn), Fn-prebound collagens, and Fn-prebound gelatin were investigated. C. perfringens could bind to Fn-prebound collagen type II, type III, and gelatin, but not to gelatin or collagens except for collagen type I directly. Recombinant Fn-binding proteins of C. perfringens, rFbpA and rFbpB, were used to examine Fn-mediated bacterial adherence to collagen type I. In the presence of rFbps, C. perfringens adherence to Fn-prebound collagen type I was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Fn was not released from the coated collagen type I by the presence of rFbps, and rFbps did not bind to collagen type I. Thus, the inhibition of C. perfringens binding to Fn-prebound collagen type I by rFbps could not be explained by the removal of Fn from collagen or by the competitive binding of rFbps to collagen. Instead, both rFbps were found to bind to C. perfringens. These results suggest the possibility that rFbps may bind to the putative Fn receptor expressed on C. perfringens and competitively inhibit Fn binding to C. perfringens. PMID:24239649

Hitsumoto, Yasuo; Morita, Naomi; Yamazoe, Ryosuke; Tagomori, Mika; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Katayama, Seiichi

2014-02-01

94

Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthease and phosphatidylserine synthase activites in Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

Cytidine 5'-diphospho (CDP)-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDPdiacylglycerol):sn-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.5, phosphatidylglycero-P synthase) and CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.8, phosphatidylserine synthase) activities were identified in the cell envelope fraction of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The association of phosphatidylglycero-P synthase and phosphatidylserine synthase with the cell envelope fraction of cell-free extracts was demonstrated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, by both activities sedimenting with the 100,000 x g pellet and solubilization of both activities from the 100,000 x g pellet with Triton X-100. The pH optimum for both enzyme activities was 8.0 with tris(hydroxy-methyl)aminomethane-hydrochloride buffer. Phosphatidylglycero-P synthase activity was dependent on magnesium ions (100 mM). Phosphatidylserine synthase activity was dependent on manganese (0.1 mM) or magnesium ions (50 mM). Both enzyme activities were dependent on the addition of the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Maximum phosphatidylglycero-P synthase and phosphatidylserine synthase activities were obtained when the molar ratio of Triton X-100 to CDP-diacylglycerol was 50:1 and 12:1, respectively. The Km for sn-glycero-3-P in the phosphatidylglycero-P synthase reaction was 0.1 mM. The Km for L-serine in the phosphatidylserine synthase reaction was 0.15 mM. Both enzyme activities were 100% stable for at least 20 min at 60 degrees C.

Carman, G M; Wieczorek, D S

1980-01-01

95

EtfA catalyses the formation of dipicolinic acid in Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a major component of bacterial endospores, comprising 5-15% of the spore dry weight, and is important for spore stability and resistance properties. The biosynthetic precursor to DPA, dihydro-dipicolinic acid (DHDPA), is produced by DHDPA synthase within the lysine biosynthesis pathway. In Bacillus subtilis, and most other bacilli and clostridia, DHDPA is oxidized to DPA by the products of the spoVF operon. Analysis of the genomes of the clostridia in Cluster I, including the pathogens Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, has shown that no spoVF orthologues exist in these organisms. DPA synthase was purified from extracts of sporulating C. perfringens cells. Peptide sequencing identified an electron transfer flavoprotein, EtfA, in this purified protein fraction. A C. perfringens strain with etfA inactivated is blocked in late stage sporulation and produces < or = 11% of wild-type DPA levels. C. perfringens EtfA was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, and this protein catalysed DPA formation in vitro. The sequential production of DHDPA and DPA in C. perfringens appears to be catalysed by DHDPA synthase followed by EtfA. Genome sequence data and the taxonomy of spore-forming species suggest that this may be the ancestral mechanism for DPA synthesis. PMID:19968785

Orsburn, Benjamin C; Melville, Stephen B; Popham, David L

2010-01-01

96

Claudin-4: A New Target for Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Using Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Recently, several members of the claudin family have been identified as integral constituents of tight junctions. Using expression profiling, we previously found claudin-4 to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Because claudin-4 has been described as a receptor for the cytotoxic Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), we investigated the effect of CPE on pancreatic cancer cells. Methods: Expression of

Patrick Michl; Malte Buchholz; Monika Rolke; Steffen Kunsch; Matthias Löhr; Bruce McClane; Shoichiro Tsukita; Gerhard Leder; Guido Adler; Thomas M. Gress

2001-01-01

97

A strategy for enrichment of claudins based on their affinity to Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Claudins, a family of protein localized in tight junctions, are essential for the control of paracellular permeation in epithelia and endothelia. The interaction of several claudins with Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been exploited for an affinity-based enrichment of CPE-binding claudins from lysates of normal rat cholangiocytes. RESULTS: Immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS) experiments demonstrate strong enrichment of the

Dörte Lohrberg; Eberhard Krause; Michael Schümann; Jörg Piontek; Lars Winkler; Ingolf E Blasig; Reiner F Haseloff

2009-01-01

98

In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from commercial turkey and broiler chicken origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of eight antibiotics and two anticoccidial agents were determined for Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from 26 commercial broiler farms and 22 commercial turkey farms. Isolates were obtained from the intestines of birds on the farm or at the processing plant using standard culture and identification techniques. The microbroth dilution test was used to determine the

K. L. Watkins; T. R. Shryock; R. N. Dearth; Y. M. Saif

1997-01-01

99

Evaluation of Clostridium perfringens as a tracer of sewage contamination in sediments by two enumeration methods.  

PubMed

A traditional method of enumerating Clostridium perfringens using membrane filtration (MF) as an indicator of fecal contamination was compared to recently developed rapid method using Rapid Fung Double Tube (RFDT) in an evaluation to characterize the extent of sewage contamination in sediments of the Great Lakes. Evaluation of these two methods included determining C. perfringens concentrations and recovery efficiencies from sewage, sewage-spiked sediments, and water (surface and bottom) and sediment samples collected from two Great Lakes. The RFDT method proved to be a superior method for identifying C. perfringens in lake sediments compared to MF, as it had higher recovery efficiency and was more rapid, reliable, simple, and effective. This study provides biological evidence of the long-term deposition and movement of sewage particulates in the Great Lakes environment and demonstrates the potential usefulness of C. perfringens as a tracer for sewage contamination using a reliable enumeration method. PMID:24833022

Vijayavel, K; Kashian, D R

2014-09-01

100

BEC, a novel enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens found in human clinical isolates from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is a causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis for which C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been considered an essential factor. Recently, we experienced two outbreaks of food-borne gastroenteritis in which non-CPE producers of C. perfringens were strongly suspected to be the cause. Here, we report a novel enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens isolates, BEC (binary enterotoxin of C. perfringens). Culture supernatants of the C. perfringens strains showed fluid-accumulating activity in rabbit ileal loop and suckling mouse assays. Purification of the enterotoxic substance in the supernatants and high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA of the strains revealed BEC, composed of BECa and BECb. BECa and BECb displayed limited amino acid sequence similarity to other binary toxin family members, such as the C. perfringens iota toxin. The becAB genes were located on 54.5-kb pCP13-like plasmids. Recombinant BECb (rBECb) alone had fluid-accumulating activity in the suckling mouse assay. Although rBECa alone did not show enterotoxic activity, rBECa enhanced the enterotoxicity of rBECb when simultaneously administered in suckling mice. The entertoxicity of the mutant in which the becB gene was disrupted was dramatically decreased compared to that of the parental strain. rBECa showed an ADP-ribosylating activity on purified actin. Although we have not directly evaluated whether BECb delivers BECa into cells, rounding of Vero cells occurred only when cells were treated with both rBECa and rBECb. These results suggest that BEC is a novel enterotoxin of C. perfringens distinct from CPE, and that BEC-producing C. perfringens strains can be causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, the presence of becAB on nearly identical plasmids in distinct lineages of C. perfringens isolates suggests the involvement of horizontal gene transfer in the acquisition of the toxin genes. PMID:24664508

Yonogi, Shinya; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Kawai, Takao; Yoda, Tomoko; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Shota; Kodama, Toshio; Iida, Tetsuya

2014-06-01

101

Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance and Clostridium perfringens colonization of turkey poults.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is recognized as an enteric pathogen in humans, domestic animals, and livestock. This organism is associated with necrotic enteritis, gangrenous dermatitis, clostridial dermatitis (turkeys), and gizzard erosions in poultry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a direct-fed microbial (DFM), Primalac (Star Labs, Clarksdale, MO), in preventing intestinal colonization of turkey poults with C. perfringens. One-day-old turkey poults (n = 128) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 4 replicates (8 birds/pen). Treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet without DFM (C); 2) basal diet supplemented with Primalac (1.5 kg/ton; PM); 3) basal diet with poults gavaged with C. perfringens (CCP); and 4) basal diet supplemented with Primalac and poults gavaged with C. perfringens (PMCP). Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trials, and birds were inoculated with C. perfringens (10(8)cfu/mL) on d 3 and 7. On d 21, 2 birds/pen were killed, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected and weighed, and cecal contents were used for C. perfringens enumeration. Feed consumption, BW, and feed conversion were calculated throughout the trial (weekly and cumulatively). Data were analyzed using GLM of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC; P < 0.05). Among the inoculated groups, birds fed the DFM-supplemented diet had significantly lower cecal C. perfringens counts than the birds fed the diet without the DFM. The C. perfringens (log(10) cfu/g) in ceca were as follows: C, 5.88; CCP, 7.26; PM, 5.35; PMCP, 6.19 ± 0.36. No differences were observed for BW (814 ± 11 g), feed conversion (1.33 ± 0.03), organ weights, or relative organ weights. Further studies are needed to fully ascertain the potential of using DFM to reduce the numbers of C. perfringens in the gastrointestinal tract of turkey poults. PMID:22010255

Rahimi, S; Kathariou, S; Grimes, J L; Siletzky, R M

2011-11-01

102

Necrotic enteritis-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens displace non-necrotic enteritis strains from the gut of chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inoculated broiler chicks with mixtures of Clostridium perfringens strains to investigate the single strain dominance observed in natural cases of necrotic enteritis (NE) [Nauerby, B., Pedersen, K., Madsen, M., 2003. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 257–266]. Pre-inoculation bacteriologic culture of chick intestines yielded up to six

Angelique J. Barbara; Hien T. Trinh; Robert D. Glock; J. Glenn Songer

2008-01-01

103

Clostridium perfringens type A fatal acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a dog  

PubMed Central

The morning after participating in a dog show, a 2-year-old Pomeranian dog was found dead in a pool of bloody feces. Necropsy revealed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis of the entire gastrointestinal tract, with many Gram-positive bacilli on the surface and in the lumen and crypts of the intestine. Enterotoxin-positive type A Clostridium perfringens were isolated in large numbers. This dramatic case of fatal C. perfringens gastroenteritis highlights the need to better understand the role of this bacterium in enteric disease of dogs.

Schlegel, Ben J.; Van Dreumel, Tony; Slavic, Durda; Prescott, John F.

2012-01-01

104

Fatal Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. Coinfections in a Traveler to Haiti  

PubMed Central

Malaria is one of the most common causes of febrile illness in travelers. Coinfections with bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens may not be suspected unless a patient fails to respond to malaria treatment. Using novel immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. coinfections were confirmed in a German traveler to Haiti. Plasmodium falciparum-induced ischemia may have increased this patient's susceptibility to C. perfringens and disseminated candidiasis leading to his death. When a patient presents with P. falciparum and shock and is unresponsive to malaria treatment, secondary infections should be suspected to initiate appropriate treatment.

Genrich, Gillian L.; Bhatnagar, Julu; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2009-01-01

105

CodY Is a Global Regulator of Virulence-Associated Properties for Clostridium perfringens Type D Strain CN3718  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT CodY is known to regulate various virulence properties in several Gram-positive bacteria but has not yet been studied in the important histotoxic and intestinal pathogen Clostridium perfringens. The present study prepared an isogenic codY-null mutant in C. perfringens type D strain CN3718 by insertional mutagenesis using the Targetron system. Western blot analysis indicated that, relative to wild-type CN3718 or a complementing strain, this isogenic codY mutant produces reduced levels of epsilon toxin (ETX). Using supernatants from cultures of the wild-type, codY-null mutant, and complementing strains, CodY regulation of ETX production was shown to have cytotoxic consequences for MDCK cells. The CodY regulatory effect on ETX production was specific, since the codY-null mutant still made wild-type levels of alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O. Sialidase activity measurements and sialidase Western blot analysis of supernatants from CN3718 and its isogenic derivatives showed that CodY represses overall exosialidase activity due to a reduced presence of NanH in culture supernatants. Inactivation of the codY gene significantly decreased the adherence of CN3718 vegetative cells or spores to host Caco-2 cells. Finally, the codY mutant showed increased spore formation under vegetative growth conditions, although germination of these spores was impaired. Overall, these results identify CodY as a global regulator of many C. perfringens virulence-associated properties. Furthermore, they establish that, via CodY, CN3718 coordinately regulates many virulence-associated properties likely needed for intestinal infection.

Li, Jihong; Ma, Menglin; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.; McClane, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

106

Immunization against Clostridium perfringens cells elicits protection against Clostridium tetani in mouse model: identification of cross-reactive proteins using proteomic methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens are among the medically important clostridial pathogens causing diseases in man and animals. Several homologous open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified in the genomes of the two pathogens by comparative genomic analysis. We tested a likelihood of extensive sharing of common epitopes between homologous proteins of these two medically important pathogens and the

Syed Imteyaz Alam; Sunita Bansod; Lokendra Singh

2008-01-01

107

Beta2-toxin of Clostridium perfringens in a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) with enteritis.  

PubMed

An 11-yr-old female hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) that died with a history of diarrhea and anorexia was submitted for necropsy. Major pathologic changes were restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. The small intestinal contents were watery and sanguinous, with a deepening of the red color in the large intestines. The intestinal mucosa was hyperemic. Microscopically, lesions consisted of surface epithelial cell necrosis in association with numerous rod-shaped bacteria and high numbers of Trichuris cynocephalus nematodes. Culturing of the small intestine yielded Clostridium perfringens. No other pathogenic bacteria were cultured using routine bacteriologic techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis classified the Clostridium perfringens as type A cpb2-positive. Immunohistochemical examination with anti-beta2-toxin antibodies revealed beta2-toxin in close approximation with the intestinal lesions. PMID:20063832

Nikolaou, Georgios N; Kik, Marja J L; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

2009-12-01

108

Unique Regulatory Mechanism of Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production in Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens causes gas gangrene and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in humans. The most common cause of C. perfringens-associated food poisoning is the consumption of C. perfringens vegetative cells followed by sporulation and production of enterotoxin in the gut. Despite the importance of spore formation in C. perfringens pathogenesis, the details of the regulation of sporulation have not yet been defined fully. In this study, microarray and bioinformatic analyses identified a candidate gene (the RNA regulator virX) for the repression of genes encoding positive regulators (Spo0A and sigma factors) of C. perfringens sporulation. A virX mutant constructed in the food poisoning strain SM101 had a much higher sporulation efficiency than that of the wild type. The transcription of sigE, sigF, and sigK was strongly induced at 2.5 h of culture of the virX mutant. Moreover, the transcription of the enterotoxin gene was also strongly induced in the virX mutant. Western blotting confirmed that the levels of enterotoxin production were higher in the virX mutant than in the wild type. These observations indicated that the higher levels of sporulation and enterotoxin production in the virX mutant were specifically due to inactivation of the virX gene. Since virX homologues were not found in any Bacillus species but were present in other clostridial species, our findings identify further differences in the regulation of sporulation between Bacillus and certain Clostridium species. The virX RNA regulator plays a key role in the drastic shift in lifestyle of the anaerobic flesh eater C. perfringens between the vegetative state (for gas gangrene) and the sporulating state (for food poisoning).

Ohtani, Kaori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

2013-01-01

109

Certain Toxigenic Properties of Clostridium Perfringens, Types D and E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protoxin was isolated in vivo by Bychenko's method (by treating the centrifugate of an 18 hour culture of Cl. perfringens with a 0.5% physiological solution of crystalline trypsin). The toxic properties were determined during and after treatment. The tite...

L. P. Marasanova

1969-01-01

110

Identification of Essential Residues in the Erm(B) rRNA Methyltransferase of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance is widespread, with the determinants encoding resistance to antibiotics such as erythromycin being detected in many bacterial pathogens. Resistance is most commonly mediated by the production of an Erm protein, a 23S rRNA methyltransferase. We have undertaken a mutational analysis of the Erm(B) protein from Clostridium perfringens with the objective of developing a greater understanding of the

Kylie A. Farrow; Dena Lyras; Galina Polekhina; Katerina Koutsis; Michael W. Parker; Julian I. Rood

2002-01-01

111

Crystal Structure and Site-directed Mutagenesis of Enzymatic Components from Clostridium perfringens Iota-toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens type E is an ADP-ribosylating toxin (ADPRT) that ADP-ribosylates actin, which is lethal and dermonecrotic in mammals. It is a binary toxin composed of an enzymatic component (Ia) and a binding component (Ib). Ia ADP-ribosylates G-actin at arginine 177, resulting in the depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report on studies of the structure-function relationship

Hideaki Tsuge; Masahiro Nagahama; Hiroyuki Nishimura; Junzo Hisatsune; Yoshihiko Sakaguchi; Yasuhiro Itogawa; Nobuhiko Katunuma; Jun Sakurai

2003-01-01

112

Expression of Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin Receptors Claudin-3 and Claudin-4 in Prostate Cancer Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mRNA for Rvp.1 (rat ventral prostate) increases in abundance before gland involution after androgen deprivation. Rvp.1 is homologous to CPE-R, the high-affinity intestinal epithelial receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and is sufficient to mediate CPE binding and trigger subsequent toxin-mediated cytolysis. Rvp.1 (claudin-3) and CPE-R (claudin-4) are members of a larger family of transmembrane tissue-specific claudin proteins that

Haiyan Long; Colin D. Crean; Wei-Hua Lee; O. William Cummings; Theodore G. Gabig

2001-01-01

113

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening gas gangrene and mild enterotoxaemia in humans, although it colonizes as normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. The organism is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for the severe myonecrotic lesions. Here we report the complete 3,031,430-bp sequence of C. perfringens strain 13 that comprises 2,660 protein coding regions and 10 rRNA genes, showing pronounced low overall G + C content (28.6%). The genome contains typical anaerobic fermentation enzymes leading to gas production but no enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid cycle or respiratory chain. Various saccharolytic enzymes were found, but many enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis were lacking in the genome. Twenty genes were newly identified as putative virulence factors of C. perfringens, and we found a total of five hyaluronidase genes that will also contribute to virulence. The genome analysis also proved an efficient method for finding four members of the two-component VirR/VirS regulon that coordinately regulates the pathogenicity of C. perfringens. Clearly, C. perfringens obtains various essential materials from the host by producing several degradative enzymes and toxins, resulting in massive destruction of the host tissues.

Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Hayashi, Hideo

2002-01-01

114

Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A complete copy of the gene (cpe) encoding Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), an important virulence factor involved in C. perfringens food poisoning and other gastrointestinal illnesses, has been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The cpe gene was shown to encode a 319-amino-acid polypeptide with a deduced molecular weight of 35,317. There was no consensus sequence for a typical signal peptide present in the 5' region of cpe. Cell lysates from recombinant cpe-positive E. coli were shown by quantitative immunoblot analysis to contain moderate amounts of CPE, and this recombinant CPE was equal to native CPE in cytotoxicity for mammalian Vero cells. CPE expression in recombinant E. coli appeared to be largely driven from a clostridial promoter. Immunoblot analysis also demonstrated very low levels of CPE in vegetative cell lysates of enterotoxin-positive C. perfringens. However, when the same C. perfringens strain was induced to sporulate, much stronger CPE expression was detected in these sporulating cells than in either vegetative C. perfringens cells or recombinant E. coli. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that sporulation is not essential for cpe expression, but sporulation does facilitate high-level cpe expression. Images

Czeczulin, J R; Hanna, P C; McClane, B A

1993-01-01

115

Benthic Distribution of Sewage Sludge Indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a Deep-Ocean Dump Site †  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. The counts of C. perfringens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of the 106-Mile Site were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) compared with counts of samples from reference stations of similar depth (2,400 to 2,700 m), topography, and distance from the continental shelf, indicating that the benthic environment was contaminated by sewage dumping at this site. Low counts of C. perfringens in sediment samples collected at stations between the base of the continental shelf and the 106-Mile Site indicated that coastal runoff was not a significant source of contamination. Elevated counts were observed for samples up to 92 km to the southwest, whereas low counts were obtained for samples from stations to the east of the 106-Mile Site. This distribution is consistent with previous model predictions of sludge deposition. In areas heavily impacted by sludge dumping, C. perfringens counts were generally highest in the top 1 cm of sediment and exceeded 9,000 CFU g (dry weight) of sediment-1. The patterns of C. perfringens dispersal observed in this study have proved useful for selection of heavily impacted areas and control stations for further ecological evaluation by a multidisciplinary research team.

Hill, Russell T.; Knight, Ivor T.; Anikis, Michael S.; Colwell, Rita R.

1993-01-01

116

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening gas gangrene and mild enterotoxaemia in humans, although it colonizes as normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. The organism is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for the severe myonecrotic lesions. Here we report the complete 3,031,430-bp sequence of C. perfringens strain 13 that comprises 2,660 protein coding regions and 10 rRNA genes, showing pronounced low overall G + C content (28.6%). The genome contains typical anaerobic fermentation enzymes leading to gas production but no enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid cycle or respiratory chain. Various saccharolytic enzymes were found, but many enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis were lacking in the genome. Twenty genes were newly identified as putative virulence factors of C. perfringens, and we found a total of five hyaluronidase genes that will also contribute to virulence. The genome analysis also proved an efficient method for finding four members of the two-component VirR/VirS regulon that coordinately regulates the pathogenicity of C. perfringens. Clearly, C. perfringens obtains various essential materials from the host by producing several degradative enzymes and toxins, resulting in massive destruction of the host tissues. PMID:11792842

Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Hayashi, Hideo

2002-01-22

117

Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum on beta2 toxin production by Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens, although a member of the normal gut flora, is also an important cause of intestinal disease in animals and, to a lesser extent, in humans. Disease is associated with the production of one or more toxins, and little is known about environmental influences on the production of these toxins. One of the health-promoting effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the establishment and maintenance of a low pH in the intestine since an acidic environment inhibits the growth of many potentially harmful bacteria. Here, the effect of the LAB Lactobacillus fermentum on beta2 toxin production by C. perfringens is described. Coculturing of C. perfringens with L. fermentum showed that under in vitro conditions, L. fermentum was capable of silencing beta2 toxin production by C. perfringens without influencing bacterial viability. The reduction in toxin production was shown to be most likely a result of the decline in pH. Quantitative PCR showed that the reduction in beta2 toxin production was due to a decrease in cpb2 mRNA. These results suggest that in the intestine, the production of beta2 toxin by C. perfringens might be regulated by other members of the normal intestinal flora. PMID:21602389

Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Vernooij, Johannes C M; Gröne, Andrea

2011-07-01

118

Membrane vesicles of Clostridium perfringens type A strains induce innate and adaptive immunity.  

PubMed

Vesicle shedding from bacteria is a universal process in most Gram-negative bacteria and a few Gram-positive bacteria. In this report, we isolate extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs) from the supernatants of Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). We demonstrated vesicle production in a variety of virulent and nonvirulent type A strains. MVs did not contain alpha-toxin and NetB toxin demonstrated by negative reaction to specific antibody and absence of specific proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. C. perfringens MVs contained DNA components such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA), alpha-toxin gene (plc) and the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) demonstrated by PCR. We also identified a total of 431 proteins in vesicles by 1-D gel separation and LC-MS/MS analysis. In vitro studies demonstrated that vesicles could be internalized into murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells without direct cytotoxicity effects, causing release of inflammation cytokines including granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which could also be detected in mice injected with MVs through intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. Mice immunized with C. perfringens MVs produced high titer IgG, especially IgG1, antibodies against C. perfringens membrane proteins. However, this kind of antibody could not provide protection in mice following challenge, though it could slightly postpone the time of death. Our results indicate that release of MVs from C. perfringens could provide a previously unknown mechanism to induce release of inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-?, these findings may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infection. PMID:24631214

Jiang, Yanlong; Kong, Qingke; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

2014-05-01

119

Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to design a thermal treatment(s) for pork luncheon roll, which would destroy Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores. B. cereus and C. perfringens vegetative and spore cocktails were used to inoculate luncheon meat. Samples were subjected to different temperatures and removal times. The decimal-reduction times (D-values) were calculated by linear regression analysis (D = -1/slope of a plot of log surviving cells versus time). The log(10) of the resulting D-values were plotted against their corresponding temperatures to calculate (-1/slope of the curve) the thermal resistance (z-values) of each cocktail. The D-values for vegetative cells ranged from 1 min (60 degrees C) to 33.2 min (50 degrees C) for B. cereus and from 0.9 min (65 degrees C) to 16.3 min (55 degrees C) for C. perfringens. The D-values for B. cereus spores ranged from 2.0 min (95 degrees C) to 32.1 min (85 degrees C) and from 2.2 min (100 degrees C) to 34.2 min (90 degrees C) for C. perfringens. The z-values were calculated to be 6.6 and 8.5 degrees C for B. cereus vegetative and spores, respectively, and 7.8 and 8.4 degrees C for C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores, respectively. The D-values of B. cereus and C. perfringens suggest that a mild cook of 70 degrees C for 12s and 1.3 min would achieve a 6 log reduction of B. cereus and C. perfringens vegetative cells, respectively. The equivalent reduction of B. cereus and C. perfringens spores would require the pork luncheon meat to be heated for 36 s at 105 and 110 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide the thermal inactivation data necessary to design a cooking protocol for pork luncheon roll that would inactivate B. cereus and C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores. The data may also be used in future risk assessment studies. PMID:16943086

Byrne, B; Dunne, G; Bolton, D J

2006-12-01

120

Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes of Poultry Clostridium perfringens Isolates Demonstrate Disease Niche Partitioning?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous and versatile pathogenic bacterium and is implicated in the etiology of the poultry diseases necrotic enteritis (NE) and poultry gangrene (PG). In this study, multilocus sequence typing was used to investigate genotypic relationships among 139 C. perfringens isolates from 74 flocks. These isolates had multiple disease, host, and environmental origins. The results indicated a polymorphic yet highly clonal population, with 79.6% of all isolates partitioning into one of six clonal complexes or two dominant sequence types, ST-9 and ST-31. The most prolific clonal complex, CC-1, contained 27.3% of all isolates and was not clearly associated with one particular disease. The subtypes CC-4 and ST-31 were highly associated with NE and represented 9.4% and 7.2% of the total isolates, respectively. No PG-associated and NE-associated C. perfringens isolates shared the same sequence type or clonal complex. NE-associated subtypes were more clonal and appeared more evolutionarily divergent than PG-associated subtypes, which tended to cluster in the more ancestral lineages alongside isolates from asymptomatic chickens and turkeys. Toxin gene screening identified cpb2 throughout these isolates and correlated the presence of netB with NE pathology. Previous investigations into the genetic basis of C. perfringens pathogenicity have focused on toxins and other variable genetic elements. This study presents the first sequence-based comparison of C. perfringens isolates recovered in clinical cases of PG and NE and demonstrates that niche specialization is observable in the core genomes of poultry-associated C. perfringens isolates, a concept with both epidemiological and evolutionary significance.

Hibberd, M. C.; Neumann, A. P.; Rehberger, T. G.; Siragusa, G. R.

2011-01-01

121

Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Very little is known on the biofilm of C. perfringens and its exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. This study was undertaken to address these issues. Most of the C. perfringens human and animal isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilm (230/277). Porcine clinical isolates formed significantly more biofilm than the porcine commensal isolates. A subgroup of clinical and commensal C. perfringens isolates was randomly selected for further characterization. Biofilm was found to protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from exposure to high concentrations of tested antimicrobials. Exposure to low doses of some of these antimicrobials tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed. However, a few isolates showed an increase in biofilm formation when exposed to low doses of tylosin, bacitracin, virginiamycin, and monensin. Six isolates were randomly selected for biofilm analysis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Of those, four produced more biofilm in presence of low doses of bacitracin whereas biofilms formed without bacitracin were thinner and less elevated. An increase in the area occupied by bacteria in the biofilm following exposure to low doses of bacitracin was also observed in the majority of isolates. Morphology examination revealed flat biofilms with the exception of one isolate that demonstrated a mushroom-like biofilm. Matrix composition analysis showed the presence of proteins, beta-1,4 linked polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, but no poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This study brings new information on the biofilm produced by C. perfringens and its exposure to low doses of antimicrobials. PMID:24795711

Charlebois, Audrey; Jacques, Mario; Archambault, Marie

2014-01-01

122

Inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores adhered to food contact surfaces.  

PubMed

The contamination of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens spores on food contact surfaces posses a serious concern to food industry due to their high resistance to various preservation methods typically applied to control foodborne pathogens. In this study, we aimed to develop an strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores on stainless steel (SS) surfaces by inducing spore germination and killing of germinated spores with commonly used disinfectants. The mixture of l-Asparagine and KCl (AK) induced maximum spore germination for all tested C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) and non-foodborne (NFB) isolates. Incubation temperature had a major impact on C. perfringens spore germination, with 40 °C induced higher germination than room temperature (RT) (20 ± 2 °C). In spore suspension, the implementation of AK-induced germination step prior to treatment with disinfectants significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the inactivation of spores of FP strain SM101. However, under similar conditions, no significant spore inactivation was observed with NFB strain NB16. Interestingly, while the spores of FP isolates were able to germinate with AK upon their adhesion to SS chips, no significant germination was observed with spores of NFB isolates. Consequently, the incorporation of AK-induced germination step prior to decontamination of SS chips with disinfectants significantly (p < 0.05) inactivated the spores of FP isolates. Collectively, our current results showed that triggering spore germination considerably increased sporicidal activity of the commonly used disinfectants against C. perfringens FP spores attached to SS chips. These findings should help in developing an effective strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores adhered to food contact surfaces. PMID:23541199

Udompijitkul, Pathima; Alnoman, Maryam; Paredes-Sabjaa, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

2013-06-01

123

Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.  

PubMed

The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peńa-Ramos, E

2009-01-01

124

Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Very little is known on the biofilm of C. perfringens and its exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. This study was undertaken to address these issues. Most of the C. perfringens human and animal isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilm (230/277). Porcine clinical isolates formed significantly more biofilm than the porcine commensal isolates. A subgroup of clinical and commensal C. perfringens isolates was randomly selected for further characterization. Biofilm was found to protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from exposure to high concentrations of tested antimicrobials. Exposure to low doses of some of these antimicrobials tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed. However, a few isolates showed an increase in biofilm formation when exposed to low doses of tylosin, bacitracin, virginiamycin, and monensin. Six isolates were randomly selected for biofilm analysis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Of those, four produced more biofilm in presence of low doses of bacitracin whereas biofilms formed without bacitracin were thinner and less elevated. An increase in the area occupied by bacteria in the biofilm following exposure to low doses of bacitracin was also observed in the majority of isolates. Morphology examination revealed flat biofilms with the exception of one isolate that demonstrated a mushroom-like biofilm. Matrix composition analysis showed the presence of proteins, beta-1,4 linked polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, but no poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This study brings new information on the biofilm produced by C. perfringens and its exposure to low doses of antimicrobials.

Charlebois, Audrey; Jacques, Mario; Archambault, Marie

2014-01-01

125

Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding a conjugated bile acid hydrolase (CBAH) from Clostridium perfringens 13 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence analyses indicated that the gene product is related to two previously characterized amidases, a CBAH from Lactobacillus plantarum (40% identity) and a penicillin V amidase from Bacillus sphaericus (34% identity). The product is apparently unrelated to a CBAH from C. perfringens for which N-terminal sequence information was determined. The gene product was purified from recombinant E. coli and used to raise antibody in rabbits. The presence of the protein in C. perfringens was then confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The protein was shown to have a native molecular weight of 147,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 36,100, indicating its probable existence as a tetramer. Disruption of the chromosomal C. perfringens CBAH gene with a chloramphenicol resistance cartridge resulted in a mutant strain which retained partial CBAH activity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining and immunoblotting indicated that the mutant strain no longer expressed the cloned CBAH (CBAH-1) but did express at least one additional CBAH (CBAH-2). CBAH-2 was immunologically distinct from CBAH-1, and its mobility on native polyacrylamide gels was different from that of CBAH-1. Furthermore, comparisons of pH optima and substrate specificities of CBAH activities from recombinant E. coli and wild-type and mutant C. perfringens provided further evidence for the presence of multiple CBAH activities in C. perfringens.

Coleman, J P; Hudson, L L

1995-01-01

126

The effects of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

The effects of subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of four beta-lactam antibiotics [penicillin-G (PCG), ampicillin (AMP), cephaloridine (CER), cephalothin (CET)] were tested against Clostridium perfringens type A PB6K, after determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 29 different Clostridium strains. The majority of the strains were sensitive to all beta-lactam antibiotics. Morphological changes, such as filamentous development and lysis, occurred at concentrations considerably lower than the MIC of CER and CET in C. perfringens. Clear cooperation of AMP and CER with rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) against C. perfringens was observed. The filamentous bacteria produced as a result of exposure to sub-MIC of each antibiotic, were phagocytosed easily. The ratios between the drug concentrations (microg/ml) at which the morphological changes began to occur, the minimum antibiotic concentrations (MAC), and the MIC values (microg/ml), were calculated. A large ratio indicated a wide range of effective concentrations below the MIC value for the antibiotics. PMID:11414501

Kondo, F; Kuroki, H

2001-01-01

127

Identification and characterization of a putative endolysin encoded by episomal phage phiSM101 of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens produces potent toxins and histolytic enzymes, causing various diseases including life-threatening fulminant diseases in\\u000a humans and other animals. Aiming at utilizing a phage endolysin as a therapeutic alternative to antibiotics, we surveyed the\\u000a genome and bacteriophage sequences of C. perfringens. A phiSM101 muramidase gene (psm) revealed by this study can be assumed to encode an N-acetylmuramidase, since the

Hirofumi Nariya; Shigeru Miyata; Eiji Tamai; Hiroshi Sekiya; Jun Maki; Akinobu Okabe

2011-01-01

128

Naturally Occurring Clostridium perfringens Nontoxic Alpha-Toxin Variant as a Potential Vaccine Candidate against Alpha-Toxin-Associated Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha-toxin (42.5 kDa) of Clostridium perfringens, which is endowed with both phospholipase C (PLC, lecithinase) and sphingomyelinase activities (5), displays lethal activity in vivo and is cytolytic for erythrocytes from certain animal species (2, 10). No well-defined vaccine against C. perfringens alpha-toxin- associated diseases is available for use in humans or animals. The present study addressed an approach that

HEIKE SCHOEPE; CHRISTIAN PACHE; AXEL NEUBAUER; HEIDRUN POTSCHKA; TOBIAS SCHLAPP; LOTHAR H. WIELER; GEORG BALJER

2001-01-01

129

Carbon Catabolite Repression of Type IV Pilus-Dependent Gliding Motility in the Anaerobic Pathogen Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium responsible for the produc- tion of severe histotoxic and gastrointestinal diseases in humans and animals. In silico analysis of the three available genome-sequenced C. perfringens strains (13, SM101, and ATCC13124) revealed that genes that encode flagellar proteins and genes involved in chemotaxis are absent. However, those strains exhibit type IV pilus (TFP)-dependent

Marcelo Mendez; I-Hsiu Huang; Kaori Ohtani; Roberto Grau; Tohru Shimizu; Mahfuzur R. Sarker

2008-01-01

130

TpeL-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens type A are highly virulent for broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens type A and type C are causative agents of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry. TpeL, a recently-described novel member of the family of large clostridial cytotoxins, was found in C. perfringens type C. Others have since reported TpeL in type A isolates from NE outbreaks, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of NE. The virulence of TpeL-positive and -negative C. perfringens strains from cases of NE was examined by challenge of broiler chicks. Gross lesions typical of NE were observed in all challenged birds, and those inoculated with TpeL(pos) strains had higher average macroscopic lesion scores than those inoculated with a TpeL(neg) strain. Infection with TpeL(pos) strains may yield disease with a more rapid course and higher case fatality rate. Thus, TpeL may potentiate the effect of other virulence attributes of NE strains of C. perfringens. However, TpeL(pos) and Tpel(neg) strains compared here were not isogenic, and definitive results await the production and testing of specific TpeL mutants. PMID:22019986

Coursodon, C F; Glock, R D; Moore, K L; Cooper, K K; Songer, J G

2012-02-01

131

Comparison of Western immunoblots and gene detection assays for identification of potentially enterotoxigenic isolates of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important sporulation-associated virulence factor in several illnesses of humans and domestic animals, including C. perfringens type A food poisoning. Therefore, the ability to determine the enterotoxigenicity of food or fecal C. perfringens isolates with simple, rapid assays should be helpful for epidemiologic investigations. In this study, Western immunoblotting (to detect CPE production in vitro) was compared with PCR assays and digoxigenin-labeled probe assays (to detect all or part of the cpe gene) as a method for determining the enterotoxigenicity of C. perfringens isolates. The cpe detection assays yielded reliable results with DNA purified from vegetative C. perfringens cultures, while Western immunoblots required in vitro sporulation of C. perfringens isolates to detect CPE production. Several cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates from diarrheic animals did not sporulate in vitro under commonly used sporulation-inducing conditions and consequently tested CPE negative. This result indicates that cpe gene detection and serologic CPE assays do not necessarily yield similar conclusions about the enterotoxigenicity of a C. perfringens isolate. Until further studies resolve whether these cpe-positive isolates which do not sporulate in vitro can or cannot sporulate and produce CPE in vivo, it may be preferable to use cpe detection assays for evaluating C. perfringens isolate enterotoxigenicity and thereby avoid potential false-negative conclusions which may occur with serologic assays. Images

Kokai-Kun, J F; Songer, J G; Czeczulin, J R; Chen, F; McClane, B A

1994-01-01

132

Characterization of Genes Encoding for Acquired Bacitracin Resistance in Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic bacitracin resistance has been reported in Clostridium perfringens. However, the genes responsible for the resistance have not yet been characterized. Ninety-nine C. perfringens isolates recovered from broilers and turkeys were tested for phenotypic bacitracin resistance. Bacitracin MIC90 (>256 µg/ml) was identical for both turkey and chicken isolates; whereas MIC50 was higher in turkey isolates (6 µg/ml) than in chicken isolates (3 µg/ml). Twenty-four of the 99 isolates showed high-level bacitracin resistance (MIC breakpoint >256 µg/ml) and the genes encoding for this resistance were characterized in C. perfringens c1261_A strain using primer walking. Sequence analysis and percentages of amino acid identity revealed putative genes encoding for both an ABC transporter and an overproduced undecaprenol kinase in C. perfringens c1261_A strain. These two mechanisms were shown to be both encoded by the putative bcrABD operon under the control of a regulatory gene, bcrR. Efflux pump inhibitor thioridazine was shown to increase significantly the susceptibility of strain c1261_A to bacitracin. Upstream and downstream from the bcr cluster was an IS1216-like element, which may play a role in the dissemination of this resistance determinant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with prior double digestion with I-CeuI/MluI enzymes followed by hybridization analyses revealed that the bacitracin resistance genes bcrABDR were located on the chromosome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that this gene cluster is expressed under bacitracin stress. Microarray analysis revealed the presence of these genes in all bacitracin resistant strains. This study reports the discovery of genes encoding for a putative ABC transporter and an overproduced undecaprenol kinase associated with high-level bacitracin resistance in C. perfringens isolates from turkeys and broiler chickens.

Charlebois, Audrey; Jalbert, Louis-Alexandre; Harel, Josee; Masson, Luke; Archambault, Marie

2012-01-01

133

Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998-2010.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998-2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities. PMID:23379281

Grass, Julian E; Gould, L Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E

2013-02-01

134

Characterization of genes encoding for acquired bacitracin resistance in Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Phenotypic bacitracin resistance has been reported in Clostridium perfringens. However, the genes responsible for the resistance have not yet been characterized. Ninety-nine C. perfringens isolates recovered from broilers and turkeys were tested for phenotypic bacitracin resistance. Bacitracin MIC(90) (>256 µg/ml) was identical for both turkey and chicken isolates; whereas MIC(50) was higher in turkey isolates (6 µg/ml) than in chicken isolates (3 µg/ml). Twenty-four of the 99 isolates showed high-level bacitracin resistance (MIC breakpoint >256 µg/ml) and the genes encoding for this resistance were characterized in C. perfringens c1261_A strain using primer walking. Sequence analysis and percentages of amino acid identity revealed putative genes encoding for both an ABC transporter and an overproduced undecaprenol kinase in C. perfringens c1261_A strain. These two mechanisms were shown to be both encoded by the putative bcrABD operon under the control of a regulatory gene, bcrR. Efflux pump inhibitor thioridazine was shown to increase significantly the susceptibility of strain c1261_A to bacitracin. Upstream and downstream from the bcr cluster was an IS1216-like element, which may play a role in the dissemination of this resistance determinant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with prior double digestion with I-CeuI/MluI enzymes followed by hybridization analyses revealed that the bacitracin resistance genes bcrABDR were located on the chromosome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that this gene cluster is expressed under bacitracin stress. Microarray analysis revealed the presence of these genes in all bacitracin resistant strains. This study reports the discovery of genes encoding for a putative ABC transporter and an overproduced undecaprenol kinase associated with high-level bacitracin resistance in C. perfringens isolates from turkeys and broiler chickens. PMID:22970221

Charlebois, Audrey; Jalbert, Louis-Alexandre; Harel, Josée; Masson, Luke; Archambault, Marie

2012-01-01

135

Efficacy of laboratory tests for the detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Nineteen Clostridium perfringens strains with positive erythemal and ligated intestinal loop reactions, and 22 strains with negative reactions, originating from food-poisoning cases, were tested comparatively using the fluorescent antibody (FA), reversed passive hemagglutination (RPHA), and immunodiffusion (ID) tests. All the biologically positive strains were detected by the three immunological tests used. The FA test detected five additional strains among the biologically negative group which did not react in RPHA or ID tests. Sporulating culture supernatant fluids, after 13 to 17h of growth, were satisfactory for testing for the presence of enterotoxin by the RPHA and ID tests. The FA test was used on cell smears. PMID:207403

Niilo, L

1978-05-01

136

Sequence of Two Plasmids from Clostridium perfringens Chicken Necrotic Enteritis Isolates and Comparison with C. perfringens Conjugative Plasmids  

PubMed Central

Twenty-six isolates of Clostridium perfringens of different MLST types from chickens with necrotic enteritis (NE) (15 netB-positive) or from healthy chickens (6 netB-positive, 5 netB-negative) were found to contain 1–4 large plasmids, with most netB-positive isolates containing 3 large and variably sized plasmids which were more numerous and larger than plasmids in netB-negative isolates. NetB and cpb2 were found on different plasmids consistent with previous studies. The pathogenicity locus NELoc1, which includes netB, was largely conserved in these plasmids whereas NeLoc3, present in the cpb2 containing plasmids, was less well conserved. A netB-positive and a cpb2-positive plasmid were likely to be conjugative, and the plasmids were completely sequenced. Both plasmids possessed the intact tcp conjugative region characteristic of C. perfringens conjugative plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis of nine CpCPs, including the two plasmids described here, showed extensive gene rearrangements including pathogenicity locus and accessory gene insertions around rather than within the backbone region. The pattern that emerges from this analysis is that the major toxin-containing regions of the variety of virulence-associated CpCPs are organized as complex pathogenicity loci. How these different but related CpCPs can co-exist in the same host has been an unanswered question. Analysis of the replication-partition region of these plasmids suggests that this region controls plasmid incompatibility, and that CpCPs can be grouped into at least four incompatibility groups.

Parreira, Valeria R.; Costa, Marcio; Eikmeyer, Felix; Blom, Jochen; Prescott, John F.

2012-01-01

137

Clostridium perfringens type E enteritis in calves: two cases and a brief review of the literature.  

PubMed

Toxigenic types of Clostridium perfringens are important causes of enteric disease in domestic animals, although type E is putatively rare, appearing as an uncommon cause of enterotoxemia of lambs, calves, and rabbits. We report here two geographically distinct cases of type E enterotoxemia in calves, and diagnostic findings which suggest that type E may play a significant role in enteritis of neonatal calves. The cases had many similarities, including a history of diarrhea and sudden death, abomasitis, and hemorrhagic enteritis. In both cases, anaerobic cultures of abomasum yielded heavy growth of C. perfringens genotype E. Four percent of > 1000 strains of C. perfringens from cases of enteritis in domestic animals were type E, and all (n=45) were from neonatal calves with hemorrhagic enteritis. Furthermore, type E isolates represented nearly 50% of all isolates submitted from similar clinical cases in calves. Commercial toxoids available in North America have no label claims for efficacy against type E infections. Consideration should be given to type E-associated enteritis when planning for the health care of calves. PMID:16701523

Songer, J Glenn; Miskimmins, Dale W

2004-08-01

138

Bayesian modeling of Clostridium perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products.  

PubMed

Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data from various studies. A Bayesian approach was proposed to model the overall uncertainty regarding parameters and potential variability on the 'work to be done' (h(0)) during the germination, outgrowth and lag phase. Three models which differed according to their description of this parameter h(0) were tested. The model with inter-curve variability on h(0) was found to be the best one, on the basis of goodness-of-fit assessment and validation with literature data on results obtained under non-isothermal conditions. This model was used in two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations to predict C. perfringens growth throughout the preparation of beef-in-sauce products, using temperature profiles recorded in a hospital kitchen. The median predicted growth was 7.8×10(-2) log(10) cfu·g(-1) (95% credibility interval [2.4×10(-2), 0.8]) despite the fact that for more than 50% of the registered temperature profiles cooling steps were longer than those required by French regulations. PMID:21315989

Jaloustre, S; Cornu, M; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

2011-04-01

139

Immunohistochemical localization of Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in the gastrointestinal tract of horses.  

PubMed

Clostridia-associated intestinal disease in horses was generally reported to be due to infection with Clostridium perfringens type A, which harbors the cpa-encoded alpha-toxin. A recent study demonstrated a high incidence of beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens in horses suffering or dying from typhlocolitis, suggesting that this novel type of C. perfringens might play an important role in typhlocolitis and possibly other equine intestinal diseases. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the presence of the beta2-toxin in tissues of the equine gastrointestinal tract. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies against recombinant beta2-toxin were produced in rabbits and used to demonstrate the beta2-toxin in sections of the gastrointestinal tract by immunohistochemical methods. Sections from 69 horses were stained and beta2-toxin was observed immunohistochemically in 40 animals. Sections from the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were positive. Immunopositivity for beta2-toxin was significantly associated with presence of beta2-toxigenic bacteria. This investigation demonstrates local production of beta2-toxin and suggests that immunohistochemistry using antitoxin antibodies represents a useful diagnostic method in those cases where isolation of bacteria and polymerase chain reaction typing is not feasible. Although the association between the presence of beta2-toxin and development of gastrointestinal disease in horses remains uncertain, the findings of this study indicate that the potential causal relationship warrants further investigation. PMID:12824509

Bacciarini, L N; Boerlin, P; Straub, R; Frey, J; Gröne, A

2003-07-01

140

Identification, Isolation and characterization of a novel azoreductase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are used widely in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries as colorants and are often sources of environmental pollution. There are many microorganisms that are able to reduce azo dyes by use of an azoreductase enzyme. It is through the reduction of the azo bonds of the dyes that carcinogenic metabolites are produced thereby a concern for human health. The field of research on azoreductases is growing, but there is very little information available on azoreductases from strict anaerobic bacteria. In this study, the azoreductase gene was identified in Clostridium perfringens, a pathogen that is commonly found in the human intestinal tract. C. perfringens shows high azoreductase activity, especially in the presence of the common dye Direct Blue 15. A gene that encodes for a flavoprotein was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli, and further purified and tested for azoreductase activity. The azoreductase (known as AzoC) was characterized by enzymatic reaction assays using different dyes. AzoC activity was highest in the presence of two cofactors, NADH and FAD. A strong cofactor effect was shown with some dyes, as dye reduction occurred without the presence of the AzoC (cofactors alone). AzoC was shown to perform best at a pH of 9, at room temperature, and in an anaerobic environment. Enzyme kinetics studies suggested that the association between enzyme and substrate is strong. Our results show that AzoC from C. perfringens has azoreductase activity. PMID:22182443

Morrison, Jessica M; Wright, Cristee M; John, Gilbert H

2012-04-01

141

Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.  

PubMed

The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24761735

Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

2013-12-01

142

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolates of bovine, chicken, porcine, and turkey origin from Ontario  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin types were determined for 275 Clostridium perfringens isolates collected in Ontario in the spring of 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of C. perfringens isolates for 12 antimicrobials used in therapy, prophylaxis, and/or growth promotion of cattle (n = 40), swine (n = 75), turkeys (n = 50), and chickens (n = 100) were determined using the microbroth dilution method. Statistical analyses and MIC distributions showed reduced susceptibility to bacitracin, clindamycin, erythromycin, florfenicol, and tetracycline for some isolates. Reduced susceptibility to bacitracin was identified in chicken (64%) and turkey (60%) isolates. Swine isolates had predominantly reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (28%) and erythromycin (31%), whereas bovine isolates had reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (10%) and florfenicol (10%). Reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was spread across all species. No clear reduced susceptibility, but elevated MIC50 for virginiamycin was found in chicken isolates in comparison with isolates from other species. Toxin typing revealed that C. perfringens type A is the dominant toxin type isolated in this study across all 4 host species.

Slavic, ?ur?a; Boerlin, Patrick; Fabri, Marta; Klotins, Kim C.; Zoethout, Jennifer K.; Weir, Pat E.; Bateman, Debbie

2011-01-01

143

Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

144

Clostridium perfringens Prototoxin-Induced Alteration of Endothelial Barrier Antigen (EBA) Immunoreactivity at the Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the severe cerebral edema produced in experimental animals by Clostridium perfringens (Cl p) type D ? toxin can be prevented by prior treatment with its precursor prototoxin due to competitive binding to endothelial cells (ECs) at the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In this study we investigate the effects of the prototoxin on the BBB, without added

C Zhu; M. N Ghabriel; P. C Blumbergs; P. L Reilly; J Manavis; J Youssef; S Hatami; J. W Finnie

2001-01-01

145

Necrotizing enterocolitis and death in a goat kid associated with enterotoxin (CPE)-producing Clostridium perfringens type A  

PubMed Central

A goat kid died after being depressed for several days. No significant gross abnormalities were observed at postmortem examination, while histopathological analysis revealed diffuse necrotizing enterocolitis. Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A secreting enterotoxin (CPE) and presence of CPE in the small intestine suggest that CPE contributed to the death of this kid.

Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E.; Saputo, Julian; St. Leger, Judy; Puschner, Birgit; Fisher, Derek J.; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco A.

2007-01-01

146

Generation of Single-Copy Transposon Insertions in Clostridium perfringens by Electroporation of Phage Mu DNA Transposition Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transposon mutagenesis is a tool that is widely used for the identification of genes involved in the virulence of bacteria. Until now, transposon mutagenesis in Clostridium perfringens has been restricted to the use of Tn916-based methods with laboratory reference strains. This system yields primarily multiple transposon insertions in a single genome, thus compromising its use for the identification of virulence

A. Lanckriet; L. Timbermont; L. J. Happonen; M. I. Pajunen; F. Pasmans; F. Haesebrouck; R. Ducatelle; H. Savilahti; F. Van Immerseel

2009-01-01

147

Necrotic enteritis challenge models with broiler chickens raised on litter: evaluation of preconditions, Clostridium perfringens strains and outcome variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Clostridium perfringens challenge, number of challenge days, and pre-challenge antibiotic treatment on the induction of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens raised on litter was studied, and the relationship between bacterial counts and frequency of gut lesions was evaluated. Specific intestinal lesions in randomly selected birds were present despite a lack of disease-specific mortality. Challenge, number of challenge

Magne Kaldhusdal; Merete Hofshagen; Atle Lřvland; Haakon Langstrand; Keith Redhead

1999-01-01

148

Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

2007-03-01

149

Rapid expansion of the physical and genetic map of the chromosome of Clostridium perfringens CPN50.  

PubMed Central

The physical map of the 3.6-megabase chromosome of Clostridium perfringens CPN50 was extended by positioning sites for the endonucleases SfiI and I-CeuI, and in parallel, the gene map was expanded by using a genome scanning strategy. This involved the cloning and sequencing of random chromosomal fragments, identification of the functions of the putative genes by database searches, and then hybridization analysis. The current gene map comprises almost 100 markers, many of which encode housekeeping functions while others are involved in sporulation or pathogenesis. Strikingly, most of the virulence genes were found to be confined to a 1,200-kb segment of the chromosome near oriC, while the pleiotropic regulatory locus, virRS, was situated toward the putative replication terminus. A comparison of the gene maps of three endospore-forming bacilli, C. perfringens, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Bacillus subtilis, revealed a similar order and distribution of key sporulation and heat shock genes which might reflect an ancient evolutionary relationship.

Katayama, S; Dupuy, B; Garnier, T; Cole, S T

1995-01-01

150

Identification of Clostridium Species and DNA Fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied to 129 strains representing 24 different Clostridium species, with special emphasis on pathogenic clostridia of medical or veterinary interest, to assess the potential of AFLP for identification of clostridia. In addition, the ability of the same AFLP protocol to type clostridia at the strain level was assessed by focusing on Clostridium

Riikka Keto-Timonen; Annamari Heikinheimo; Erkki Eerola; Hannu Korkeala

2006-01-01

151

Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus--United States, 1998-2008.  

PubMed

From 1998 to 2008, 1229 foodborne outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were reported in the United States; 39% were reported with a confirmed etiology. Vomiting was commonly reported in B. cereus (median, 75% of cases) and S. aureus outbreaks (median, 87%), but rarely in C. perfringens outbreaks (median, 9%). Meat or poultry dishes were commonly implicated in C. perfringens (63%) and S. aureus (55%) outbreaks, and rice dishes were commonly implicated in B. cereus outbreaks (50%). Errors in food processing and preparation were commonly reported (93%), regardless of etiology; contamination by a food worker was only common in S. aureus outbreaks (55%). Public health interventions should focus on these commonly reported errors to reduce the occurrence of outbreaks caused by B. cereus, C. perfringens, and S. aureus in the United States. PMID:23592829

Bennett, Sarah D; Walsh, Kelly A; Gould, L Hannah

2013-08-01

152

Use of an EZ-Tn5Based Random Mutagenesis System to Identify a Novel Toxin Regulatory Locus in Clostridium perfringens Strain 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough useful for probing bacterial pathogenesis and physiology, current random mutagenesis systems suffer limitations for studying the toxin-producing bacterium Clostridium perfringens.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsAn EZ-Tn5-based random mutagenesis approach was developed for use in C. perfringens. This mutagenesis system identified a new regulatory locus controlling toxin production by strain 13, a C. perfringens type A strain. The novel locus, encoding proteins with homology

Jorge E. Vidal; Jianming Chen; Jihong Li; Bruce A. McClane; Adam J. Ratner

2009-01-01

153

Abilities of the mCP Agar Method and CRENAME Alpha Toxin-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Clostridium perfringens Spores in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP?/rtPCR+ colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP+/rtPCR? colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection.

Maheux, Andree F.; Berube, Eve; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Villeger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc

2013-01-01

154

A patient with sepsis and a gas-forming liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens treated with continuous perfusion drainage.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with diarrhea, fever, and disturbance of consciousness; he was subsequently diagnosed with acute renal and hepatic disorder. Abdominal computed tomography identified a gas-forming liver abscess, and the patient underwent emergency drainage. However, his condition did not improve, and Clostridium perfringens was observed in his blood culture. Continuous perfusion drainage was performed by placing an additional drainage tube, which resulted in abscess shrinkage and improved the patient's general condition. Despite the low survival rate in patients with gas-forming liver abscesses caused by C. perfringens, therapy was successful in this patient. PMID:24998733

Kusumoto, Kiyonori; Hamada, Akihiko; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Takuto; Nakai, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Susumu; Azechi, Hidemasa; Fujii, Shigehiko; Kokuryu, Hiroyuki

2014-07-01

155

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens by heated combinations of nitrite, sulfur, and ferrous or ferric ions.  

PubMed Central

Heating mixtures of sodium nitrite, cysteine, and either ferrous sulfate or ferric chloride at 121 C for 20 min at pH 6.5 or 6.3 produced a potent inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores when added to previously heat-sterilized fluid thioglycolate medium. When the mixtures containing FeSO4 at pH 5.2 or FeCl3 at pH 2.7 were heated, the inhibitory effect was not produced. These responses seem to eliminate the possibility that cysteine nitrosothiol is the agent responsible for the heated-nitrite inhibition known as the Perigo effect. The variable pH responses also cast doubt upon the role of the black Roussin salt as the agent of the Perigo effect.

Asan, T; Solberg, M

1976-01-01

156

Claudins Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Targets for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) Based Diagnosis and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression. Claudins-3, -4 and -7 represent the most highly differentially expressed claudins in ovarian cancer. While their exact role in ovarian tumors is still being elucidated, these proteins are thought to be critical for ovarian cancer cell invasion/dissemination and resistance to chemotherapy. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the natural receptors for the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a potent cytolytic toxin. These surface proteins may therefore represent attractive targets for the detection and treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other aggressive solid tumors overexpressing claudin-3 and -4 using CPE-based theranostic agents.

English, Diana P.; Santin, Alessandro D.

2013-01-01

157

Growth from Spores of Clostridium perfringens in the Presence of Sodium Nitrite 1  

PubMed Central

The method by which sodium nitrite may act to prevent germination or outgrowth, or both, of heat-injured spores in canned cured meats was investigated by using Clostridium perfringens spores. Four possible mechanisms were tested: (i) prevention of germination of the heat-injured spores, (ii) prior combination with a component in a complex medium to prevent germination of heat-injured spores, (iii) inhibition of outgrowth of heat-injured spores, and (iv) induction of germination (which would render the spore susceptible to thermal inactivation). Only the third mechanism was effective with the entire spore population when levels of sodium nitrite commercially acceptable in canned cured meats were used. Concentrations of 0.02 and 0.01% prevented outgrowth of heat-sensitive and heat-resistant spores, respectively. Nitrite-induced germination occurred with higher sodium nitrite concentrations.

Labbe, Ronald G.; Duncan, Charles L.

1970-01-01

158

The successful experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by Clostridium perfringens: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important enteric diseases in poultry and is a high cost to the industry worldwide. It is caused by avian-specific, Necrotic Enteritis Beta toxin (NetB)-producing, strains of Clostridium perfringens that also possess in common other virulence-associated genes. In Europe the disease incidence has increased since the ban on in-feed “growth promoting” antibiotics. Because of this, many recent studies of NE have focused on finding different ways to control the disease, and on understanding its pathogenesis. Frustratingly, reproduction of the disease has proven impossible for some researchers. This review describes and discusses factors known to be important in reproducing the disease experimentally, as well as other considerations in reproducing the disease. The critical bacterial factor is the use of virulent, netB-positive, strains; virulence can be enhanced by using tpeL- positive strains and by the use of young rather than old broth cultures to increase toxin expression. Intestinal damaging factors, notably the use of concurrent or preceding coccidial infection, or administration of coccidial vaccines, combined with netB-positive C. perfringens administration, can also be used to induce NE. Nutritional factors, particularly feeding high percentage of cereals containing non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (wheat, rye, and barley) enhance disease by increasing digesta viscosity, mucus production and bacterial growth. Animal proteins, especially fish meal, enhance C. perfringens proliferation and toxin production. Other factors are discussed that may affect outcome but for which evidence of their importance is lacking. The review compares the different challenge approaches; depending on the aim of particular studies, the different critical factors can be adjusted to affect the severity of the lesions induced. A standardized scoring system is proposed for international adoption based on gross rather than histopathological lesions; if universally adopted this will allow better comparison between studies done by different researchers. Also a scoring system is provided to assist decisions on humane euthanasia of sick birds.

2012-01-01

159

Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of PCR-amplified enterotoxin A from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

A PCR protocol was developed for the rapid and specific detection of Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the enterotoxin A gene in artificially contaminated ground beef. A biotinylated primer pair was designed for amplification of a 750 bp fragment of the C. perfringens enterotoxin A gene. A combination of 4 h enrichment incubation and nucleic acid extraction, followed by 2 h of PCR amplification allowed detection at levels below 10 CFU of freshly grown cells in raw and cooked beef samples. PCR amplified products were confirmed by a Southern hybridization assay using a digoxigenin-labeled internal probe, and two hybridization ELISA protocols (PCR-ELISA) applying a streptavidin capture step for the hybridized PCR products. Both enzyme immunoassays utilized chemiluminescent detection with Lumiphos 530TM as substrate, after hybridization to an internal digoxigenin-labeled probe or a 5' conjugated alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe. The PCR-ELISA resulted in faster confirmation of the PCR products while providing a level of sensitivity comparable to Southern hybridization, and has potential for development into an automated method. PMID:8880335

Baez, L A; Juneja, V K; Sackitey, S K

1996-09-01

160

Isolation of Clostridium perfringens from neonatal calves with ruminal and abomasal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration.  

PubMed

Eight neonatal calves (2 to 21 days old) with suspected abomasal displacement or intestinal obstruction after acute onset of abdominal tympany, colic, depression, or death were referred to Kansas State University for clinical examination or for necropsy. Results of routine hematologic and serum chemical analyses did not reveal consistent changes. Necropsy revealed abomasal distention, with various degrees of abomasitis, hemorrhage, and ulceration, but did not reveal evidence of displaced abomasum or obstructed intestine. Specimens of ruminal contents collected via stomach tube or at necropsy and abomasal contents collected at necropsy were obtained for anaerobic bacteriologic culture. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from all specimens, and on the basis of toxin neutralization tests in mice, 7 were type A and one was type E. Copper concentrations in serum and tissues were within normal limits. It appeared that the acute abdominal syndrome in these neonatal calves was unrelated to copper deficiency, and that C perfringens, particularly type A, may have had an appreciable contributory role in its pathogenesis. PMID:2886483

Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

1987-06-15

161

A Paracrystalline Inclusion Formed During Sporulation of Enterotoxin-Producing Strains of Clostridium perfringens Type A  

PubMed Central

A large paracrystalline inclusion is formed by certain strains of Clostridium perfringens type A during spore morphogenesis. In most cell thin sections, the inclusion appeared rod-shaped when sectioned at an angle perpendicular to its longer axis, and circular or oval-shaped when sectioned at an angle parallel to its longer axis. Measurements performed on electron micrographs of inclusions sectioned to reveal the rod shape indicated a fairly consistent thickness (width) of 192 ± 23 nm. The length of the inclusions varied considerably with a maximum of approximately 2,120 nm being observed. Ultrastructurally, the inclusion was composed of closely packed, periodically spaced, parallel layers. Usually a single inclusion was randomly located in the cytoplasm of the cell. Two inclusions per cell were rarely observed. The inclusion was formed only by ent+ strains of C. perfringens. Mutants of the ent+ strain NCTC 8798 that were altered in their sporulating and enterotoxin-producing capacities and revertants of these mutants were tested for inclusion formation. The results indicate that, as with the ent+ trait, a direct relationship exists between inclusion formation and spore formation. The synthesis of enterotoxin, formation of a morphologically distinct inclusion, and the initial deposition of discontinuous coat fragments around the forespore appear to be events closely related in time during spore morphogenesis. Images

Duncan, Charles L.; King, Gretchen J.; Frieben, William R.

1973-01-01

162

Identification of Tn4451 and Tn4452, chloramphenicol resistance transposons from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

The recombinant plasmids pJIR45 and pJIR97 contain the chloramphenicol resistance determinants derived from the Clostridium perfringens R plasmids pIP401 and pJIR27, respectively. Escherichia coli cultures which harbored these recombinant plasmids rapidly became chloramphenicol sensitive when grown in the absence of chloramphenicol. The loss of resistance was associated with the loss of 6.2-kilobase (kb) segments from both plasmids. Detailed restriction analysis of E. coli- and C. perfringens-derived deletion plasmids indicated that deletion of these segments was essentially precise. Transposition of the 6.2-kb segments was demonstrated by cloning the determinants into a temperature-sensitive plasmid, curing the recombinant plasmids, and selecting chloramphenicol-resistant, plasmid-free clones. Southern hybridization analysis of chromosomal DNA isolated from these recA E. coli clones indicated that the 6.2-kb segments had transposed to different sites on the chromosome. Heteroduplex analysis and restriction mapping indicated that the transposons, Tn4451 (pIP401) and Tn4452 (pJIR27), were closely related and did not contain large inverted or directly repeated sequences. These transposons represent the first transposable elements from the clostridia to be identified and characterized. Images

Abraham, L J; Rood, J I

1987-01-01

163

Biochemistry and physiology of the ? class carbonic anhydrase (Cpb) from Clostridium perfringens strain 13.  

PubMed

The carbonic anhydrase (Cpb) from Clostridium perfringens strain 13, the only carbonic anhydrase encoded in the genome, was characterized both biochemically and physiologically. Heterologously produced and purified Cpb was shown to belong to the type I subclass of the ? class, the first ? class enzyme investigated from a strictly anaerobic species of the domain Bacteria. Kinetic analyses revealed a two-step, ping-pong, zinc-hydroxide mechanism of catalysis with Km and kcat/Km values of 3.1 mM CO? and 4.8 × 10? s?ą M?ą, respectively. Analyses of a cpb deletion mutant of C. perfringens strain HN13 showed that Cpb is strictly required for growth when cultured in semidefined medium and an atmosphere without CO?. The growth of the mutant was the same as that of the parent wild-type strain when cultured in nutrient-rich media with or without CO? in the atmosphere, although elimination of glucose resulted in decreased production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The results suggest a role for Cpb in anaplerotic CO? fixation reactions by supplying bicarbonate to carboxylases. Potential roles in competitive fitness are discussed. PMID:23475974

Kumar, R Siva Sai; Hendrick, William; Correll, Jared B; Patterson, Andrew D; Melville, Stephen B; Ferry, James G

2013-05-01

164

Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ?-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen  

PubMed Central

The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Survival of MDCK cells exposed to the toxin was assessed by addition of resazurin to detect metabolic activity in surviving cells. The hit rate for this screen was 0.6%. Following a secondary screen of each hit in triplicate and assays to eliminate false positives, we focused on three structurally-distinct compounds: an N-cycloalkylbenzamide, a furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol. None of the three compounds appeared to inhibit toxin binding to cells or the ability of the toxin to form oligomeric complexes. Additional assays demonstrated that two of the inhibitory compounds inhibited ?-toxin-induced permeabilization of MDCK cells to propidium iodide. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on cells pre-treated with toxin. Structural analogs of one of the inhibitors identified through the high-throughput screen were analyzed and provided initial structure-activity data. These compounds should serve as the basis for further structure-activity refinement that may lead to the development of effective anti-?-toxin therapeutics.

Lewis, Michelle; Weaver, Charles David; McClain, Mark S.

2010-01-01

165

Genome sequencing and analysis of a type A Clostridium perfringens isolate from a case of bovine clostridial abomasitis.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is a common inhabitant of the avian and mammalian gastrointestinal tracts and can behave commensally or pathogenically. Some enteric diseases caused by type A C. perfringens, including bovine clostridial abomasitis, remain poorly understood. To investigate the potential basis of virulence in strains causing this disease, we sequenced the genome of a type A C. perfringens isolate (strain F262) from a case of bovine clostridial abomasitis. The ?3.34 Mbp chromosome of C. perfringens F262 is predicted to contain 3163 protein-coding genes, 76 tRNA genes, and an integrated plasmid sequence, Cfrag (?18 kb). In addition, sequences of two complete circular plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), and two incomplete plasmid fragments, pF262A (48.5 kb) and pF262B (50.0 kb), were identified. Comparison of the chromosome sequence of C. perfringens F262 to complete C. perfringens chromosomes, plasmids and phages revealed 261 unique genes. No novel toxin genes related to previously described clostridial toxins were identified: 60% of the 261 unique genes were hypothetical proteins. There was a two base pair deletion in virS, a gene reported to encode the main sensor kinase involved in virulence gene activation. Despite this frameshift mutation, C. perfringens F262 expressed perfringolysin O, alpha-toxin and the beta2-toxin, suggesting that another regulation system might contribute to the pathogenicity of this strain. Two complete plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), unique to this strain of C. perfringens were identified. PMID:22412860

Nowell, Victoria J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Songer, J Glenn; MacInnes, Janet I; Parreira, Valeria R; Prescott, John F

2012-01-01

166

Genome Sequencing and Analysis of a Type A Clostridium perfringens Isolate from a Case of Bovine Clostridial Abomasitis  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a common inhabitant of the avian and mammalian gastrointestinal tracts and can behave commensally or pathogenically. Some enteric diseases caused by type A C. perfringens, including bovine clostridial abomasitis, remain poorly understood. To investigate the potential basis of virulence in strains causing this disease, we sequenced the genome of a type A C. perfringens isolate (strain F262) from a case of bovine clostridial abomasitis. The ?3.34 Mbp chromosome of C. perfringens F262 is predicted to contain 3163 protein-coding genes, 76 tRNA genes, and an integrated plasmid sequence, Cfrag (?18 kb). In addition, sequences of two complete circular plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), and two incomplete plasmid fragments, pF262A (48.5 kb) and pF262B (50.0 kb), were identified. Comparison of the chromosome sequence of C. perfringens F262 to complete C. perfringens chromosomes, plasmids and phages revealed 261 unique genes. No novel toxin genes related to previously described clostridial toxins were identified: 60% of the 261 unique genes were hypothetical proteins. There was a two base pair deletion in virS, a gene reported to encode the main sensor kinase involved in virulence gene activation. Despite this frameshift mutation, C. perfringens F262 expressed perfringolysin O, alpha-toxin and the beta2-toxin, suggesting that another regulation system might contribute to the pathogenicity of this strain. Two complete plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), unique to this strain of C. perfringens were identified.

Nowell, Victoria J.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Songer, J. Glenn; MacInnes, Janet I.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Prescott, John F.

2012-01-01

167

Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis Shows Different Epidemiology of Chromosomal and Plasmid-Borne cpe-Carrying Clostridium perfringens Type A  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, one of the most common causes of food poisonings, can carry the enterotoxin gene, cpe, in its chromosome or on a plasmid. C. perfringens food poisonings are more frequently caused by the chromosomal cpe-carrying strains, while the plasmid-borne cpe-positive genotypes are more commonly found in the human feces and environmental samples. Different tolerance to food processing conditions by the plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains has been reported, but the reservoirs and contamination routes of enterotoxin-producing C. perfringens remain unknown. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis with a DNA microarray based on three C. perfringens type A genomes was conducted to shed light on the epidemiology of C. perfringens food poisonings caused by plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains by comparing chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive and cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates from human, animal, environmental, and food samples. The chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive C. perfringens genotypes formed two distinct clusters. Variable genes were involved with myo-inositol, ethanolamine and cellobiose metabolism, suggesting a new epidemiological model for C. perfringens food poisonings. The CGH results were complemented with growth studies, which demonstrated different myo-inositol, ethanolamine, and cellobiose metabolism between the chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying strains. These findings support a ubiquitous occurrence of the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains and their adaptation to the mammalian intestine, whereas the chromosomal cpe-positive strains appear to have a narrow niche in environments containing degrading plant material. Thus the epidemiology of the food poisonings caused by two populations appears different, the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains probably contaminating foods via humans and the chromosomal strains being connected to plant material.

Lahti, Paivi; Lindstrom, Miia; Somervuo, Panu; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Korkeala, Hannu

2012-01-01

168

Further studies on the mode of action of Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin.  

PubMed

Intradermal injection of Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin increased the permeability of blood vessels in guinea-pig skin to Evans blue dye by a mechanism not dependent on the release of histamine. The toxin was also found to raise the plasma concentration of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate in mice. It is concluded that epsilon toxin is an enterotoxin capable of causing widespread damage, after binding to receptor sites on the surface of certain cells, through a mechanism mediated by an adenyl cyclase-cAMP system. PMID:79653

Buxton, D

1978-08-01

169

Application of serological typing to the investigation of outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning, 1970-1978.  

PubMed Central

Serological typing was used as an epidemiological tool in the investigation of 524 outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning in the United Kingdom and 37 outbreaks in other countries. Five thousand five hundred and fifty-four (77%) of 7245 strains of C. perfringens associated with the 561 outbreaks were typable with the 75 Food Hygiene Laboratory antisera; in 354 (63%) of these outbreaks a specific serotype was established as being responsible for the outbreak. An assessment is made of the ability of two additional sets of antisera, prepared against 34 American and 34 Japanese strains of C. perfringens, to increase the number of strains which can be typed. The extent of cross-reaction between the three sets of antisera was determined and the results are discussed in relation to the source and history of the type strains.

Stringer, M. F.; Turnbull, P. C.; Gilbert, R. J.

1980-01-01

170

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens growth by potassium lactate during an extended cooling of cooked uncured ground turkey breasts.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service compliance guideline known as Appendix B specifies chilling time and temperature limits for cured and uncured meat products to inhibit growth of spore-forming bacteria, particularly Clostridium perfringens. Sodium lactate and potassium lactate inhibit toxigenic growth of Clostridium botulinum, and inhibition of C. perfringens has been reported. In this study, a cocktail of spores of three C. perfringens strains (ATCC 13124, ATCC 12915, and ATCC 12916) were inoculated into 100-g samples of ground skinless, boneless turkey breast formulated to represent deli-style turkey breast. Three treatment groups were supplemented with 0 (control), 1, or 2% potassium lactate (pure basis), cooked to 71 °C, and assayed for C. perfringens growth during 10 or 12 h of linear cooling to 4 °C. In control samples, populations of C. perfringens increased 3.8 to 4.7 log CFU/g during the two chilling protocols. The 1% potassium lactate treatment supported only a 2.5- to 2.7-log increase, and the 2% potassium lactate treatment limited growth to a 0.56- to 0.70-log increase. When compared with the control, 2% potassium lactate retarded growth by 2.65 and 4.21 log CFU/g for the 10- and 12-h cooling protocols, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of 2% potassium lactate inhibits growth of C. perfringens and that potassium lactate can be used as an alternative to sodium nitrite for safe extended cooling of uncured meats. PMID:24215704

Kennedy, Katherine M; Milkowski, Andrew L; Glass, Kathleen A

2013-11-01

171

Multimicrobial Sepsis Including Clostridium perfringens after Chemoembolization of a Single Liver Metastasis from Common Bile Duct Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 65-year-old woman underwent resection of a distal common bile duct carcinoma (Whipple’s procedure). Twelve months later a single hepatic metastasis was detected and a chemoembolization was performed. Immediately after chemoembolization the patient developed a multimicrobial sepsis including Clostridium perfringens. CT scans depicted pathognomonic signs of gas-containing abscess in the necrotic liver metastasis. She was subsequently treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics,

Florian Eckel; Christian Lersch; Wolfgang Huber; Wolfgang Weiss; Hermann Berger; Ewert Schulte-Frohlinde

2000-01-01

172

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the second extracellular loop of claudin-3, a tight junction integral membrane protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claudins (claudin-1 to -18) with four transmembrane domains and two extracellular loops constitute tight junction strands. The peptide toxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been shown to bind to claudin-3 and -4, but not to claudin-1 or -2. We constructed claudin-1\\/claudin-3 chimeric molecules and found that the second extracellular loop of claudin-3 conferred CPE sensitivity on L fibroblasts. Furthermore, overlay

Kohji Fujita; Jun Katahira; Yasuhiko Horiguchi; Noriyuki Sonoda; Mikio Furuse; Shoichiro Tsukita

2000-01-01

173

Effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin via claudin-4 on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight junction protein claudin-4 is frequently overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, and is also a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The cytotoxic effects of CPE are thought to be useful as a novel therapeutic tool for pancreatic cancer.\\u000a However, the responses to CPE via claudin-4 remain unknown in normal human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells. We introduced\\u000a the human

Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Takashi Kojima; Tatsuya Ito; Daisuke Kyuno; Yasutoshi Kimura; Masafumi Imamura; Koichi Hirata; Norimasa Sawada

174

Responses of broiler chickens orally challenged with Clostridium perfringens isolated from field cases of necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

The present study examines the responses of broiler chickens to oral administration of Clostridium perfringens freshly isolated from field cases of necrotic enteritis (NE). The challenge studies included long-term exposure and short-term exposure, factored in with dietary and management variables including high levels of dietary components such as fish meal, meat meal, abrupt change of feed, and fasting. In the long-term exposure trials, the birds were orally inoculated daily, with 1 ml (1.0 or 2 x 10(8) CFU/ml) of an overnight culture of C. perfringens for 7 days. Short-term exposure trials involved challenge with 1 ml (3 x 10(10) CFU/ml) administered as a single dose. The responses of broilers to orally administered C. perfingens under laboratory controlled conditions are presented and discussed in the context of authentic field cases of necrotic enteritis. None of the challenge trials produced overt clinical signs of NE and there were no mortalities associated with oral exposure to high doses of C. perfringens. However, many of the challenged birds showed distinctly pronounced pathological changes in the intestinal tissue. On gross examination the responses in birds challenged orally with C. perfringens could be placed into two categories: (1) no apparent pathological changes in the intestinal tissue and (2) sub-clinical inflammatory responses with focal, multi-focal, locally extensive, or disseminated distribution throughout various sections of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca. In birds that responded with intestinal lesions, hyperemia and occasional hemorrhages were the main gross changes. In some birds, the mucosa was covered with a brownish material, but typically, the mucosa was lined by yellow or greenish, loosely adherent material. Mild gross changes were seen in some control birds, but both qualitatively and quantitatively, the lesions were distinctly more pronounced in the challenged birds. Upon histological examination, none of the experimentally exposed birds showed overt mucosal necrosis typical of field cases of NE, but typically the lamina propria was hyperemic and infiltrated with numerous inflammatory cells. Most significant changes were seen at the interface of the basal domain of enterocytes and lamina propria. Multifocally, these areas were extensively edematous, allowing for the substantial disturbance of the structural integrity between the lamina propria and the enterocytes. The lesions observed in the present study were consistently reproduced in all of our challenge trials, hence these responses may signify newly emerging patterns of sub-clinical enteric disorders in contemporary strains of poultry. The pathological changes observed in broilers challenged orally with C. perfringens in the present study, differ significantly from those reported previously, and must be clearly differentiated from those described in cases of NE or ulcerative enteritis. Although no overt necrosis of the intestinal mucosa typical of field cases of NE were observed in the present study, the birds challenged with C. perfringens showed strong inflammatory reaction to the introduced pathogens. The distinct features of the microscopic lesions were changes involving apparently normal enterocytes at the interface of the basal domain of villar epithelia and lamina propria. Although the pathological changes in the intestinal tissues observed in our trials appear to be rather subtle when compared to field cases of NE, the nature of these lesions suggest a significant negative effect on the digestive physiology of intestinal mucosa. PMID:16337982

Olkowski, A A; Wojnarowicz, C; Chirino-Trejo, M; Drew, M D

2006-08-01

175

Determination of the effect of single abomasal or jejunal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens Type A in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Abstract A randomized study was conducted to determine if inoculation of the abomasum or jejunum with Clostridium perfringens Type A would induce jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in healthy cows. Twelve adult nonlactating dairy cows were inoculated with 10 mL of pure culture broth of C. perfringens type A (beta2 toxin positive) into the abomasum (n = 6) or jejunum (n = 6). On day 6, the cows were euthanized and samples for culture were taken from the abomasum, jejunum, and feces. No cows developed clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome during the course of the study. Five of 6 abomasal samples and 1 of 6 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) prior to inoculation. Eight of 12 abomasal samples, 11 of 12 fecal samples, and 10 of 12 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) after inoculation. Intraluminal inoculation of C. perfringens Type A alone at this dose and under these conditions did not induce clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in adult dairy cows. The multifactorial nature of the disease likely contributed to our inability to reproduce the disease in this study.

2005-01-01

176

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

177

Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens strains from broilers with necrotic enteritis  

PubMed Central

Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens is associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains. It is known that C. perfringens strains isolated from outbreaks of necrotic enteritis are more capable of secreting factors inhibiting growth of other C. perfringens strains than strains isolated from the gut of healthy chickens. This characteristic could lead to extensive and selective presence of a strain that contains the genetic make-up enabling to secrete toxins that cause gut lesions. This report describes the discovery, purification, characterization and recombinant expression of a novel bacteriocin, referred to as perfrin, produced by a necrotic enteritis-associated netB-positive C. perfringens strain. Perfrin is a 11.5 kDa C-terminal fragment of a 22.9 kDa protein and showed no sequence homology to any currently known bacteriocin. The 11.5 kDa fragment can be cloned into Escherichia coli, and expression yielded an active peptide. PCR detection of the gene showed its presence in 10 netB-positive C. perfringens strains of broiler origin, and not in other C. perfringens strains tested (isolated from broilers, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans). Perfrin and NetB are not located on the same genetic element since NetB is plasmid-encoded and perfrin is not. The bacteriocin has bactericidal activity over a wide pH-range but is thermolabile and sensitive to proteolytic digestion (trypsin, proteinase K). C. perfringens bacteriocins, such as perfrin, can be considered as an additional factor involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

2014-01-01

178

Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens strains from broilers with necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens is associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains. It is known that C. perfringens strains isolated from outbreaks of necrotic enteritis are more capable of secreting factors inhibiting growth of other C. perfringens strains than strains isolated from the gut of healthy chickens. This characteristic could lead to extensive and selective presence of a strain that contains the genetic make-up enabling to secrete toxins that cause gut lesions. This report describes the discovery, purification, characterization and recombinant expression of a novel bacteriocin, referred to as perfrin, produced by a necrotic enteritis-associated netB-positive C. perfringens strain. Perfrin is a 11.5 kDa C-terminal fragment of a 22.9 kDa protein and showed no sequence homology to any currently known bacteriocin. The 11.5 kDa fragment can be cloned into Escherichia coli, and expression yielded an active peptide. PCR detection of the gene showed its presence in 10 netB-positive C. perfringens strains of broiler origin, and not in other C. perfringens strains tested (isolated from broilers, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans). Perfrin and NetB are not located on the same genetic element since NetB is plasmid-encoded and perfrin is not. The bacteriocin has bactericidal activity over a wide pH-range but is thermolabile and sensitive to proteolytic digestion (trypsin, proteinase K). C. perfringens bacteriocins, such as perfrin, can be considered as an additional factor involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broilers. PMID:24708344

Timbermont, Leen; De Smet, Lina; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Parreira, Valeria R; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Prescott, John; Deforce, Dieter; Devreese, Bart; Van Immerseel, Filip

2014-01-01

179

The identification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens by real-time PCR, location of enterotoxin gene, and heat resistance.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens carrying the enterotoxin gene is an important cause of both foodborne and non-foodborne diarrheal disease. Rapid identification of isolates carrying the enterotoxin gene is invaluable for outbreak investigation whilst information on the genomic location of the enterotoxin (cpe) gene can improve our understanding of disease transmission. This paper describes the validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the identification of C. perfringens and assessment of the potential to cause diarrhea, together with an investigation into the genomic location of the cpe genes in isolates from confirmed incidents of C. perfringens diarrhea. The real-time assay was shown to be specific for the identification of 253 C. perfringens cultures and gave results concordant with those from motility nitrate and lactose gelatine media, the Nagler reaction, and a conventional block-based PCR assay. The cpe gene was detected in 223 of 253 C. perfringens cultures isolated in association with human gastrointestinal disease. A subset of cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates associated with separate incidents of diarrheal disease were investigated further for plasmid or chromosomal location of the cpe gene using a multiplex PCR assay. The cpe gene was plasmid encoded in two isolates from cases of sporadic diarrhea and six isolates from cases of food poisoning. The cpe gene from the remaining 11 isolates from different food poisoning outbreaks was found to be chromosomally encoded. One of the C. perfringens strains with a plasmid encoded cpe gene formed spores of high heat resistance and five formed spores that were sensitive to heating. Eight of the isolates with a chromosomal cpe gene formed heat-resistant spores, and two formed spores with an intermediate heat resistance. PMID:18681798

Grant, Kathie A; Kenyon, Sarah; Nwafor, Ijeoma; Plowman, June; Ohai, Charles; Halford-Maw, Robin; Peck, Michael W; McLauchlin, Jim

2008-10-01

180

Rapid, Simultaneous Detection of Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens in Archived Tissues by a Novel PCR-Based Microsphere Assay: Diagnostic Implications for Pregnancy-Associated Toxic Shock Syndrome Cases  

PubMed Central

Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens are infrequent human pathogens; however, the case-fatality rates for the infections are very high, particularly in obstetric C. sordellii infections (>90%). Deaths from Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens toxic shock (CTS) are sudden, and diagnosis is often challenging. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues usually are the only specimens available for sudden fatal cases, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Clostridia is generally performed but it cannot identify species. A clear need exists for a rapid, species-specific diagnostic assay for FFPE tissues. We developed a duplex PCR-based microsphere assay for simultaneous detection of C. sordellii and C. perfringens and evaluated DNA extracted from 42 Clostridium isolates and FFPE tissues of 28 patients with toxic shock/endometritis (20?CTS, 8?non-CTS, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing). The microsphere assay correctly identified C. sordellii and C. perfringens in all known isolates and in all CTS patients (10 C. sordellii, 8 C. perfringens, 2 both) and showed 100% concordance with PCR and sequencing results. The microsphere assay is a rapid, specific, and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of CTS and offers the advantage of simultaneous testing for C. sordellii and C. perfringens in FFPE tissues using a limited amount of DNA.

Bhatnagar, Julu; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Kellar, Kathryn L.; Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Antoniadou, Zoi-Anna; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2012-01-01

181

Virulence for chickens of Clostridium perfringens isolated from poultry and other sources.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens type A is the most common cause of poultry necrotic enteritis (NE). Of the four "major" toxins, type A strains produce only alpha toxin (CPA), which has long been considered a major factor in pathogenesis of NE. We investigated the virulence for poultry of type A strains from a variety of enteric sources. Newly-hatched CornishxRock chicks were fed a low protein diet for one week, a high protein diet for a second week, and then challenged with log-phase cultures of C. perfringens, mixed 3:4 (v/v) with high protein feed. Strain JGS4143 [genotype A, beta2 positive (cpb2(pos)), from a field case of NE] produced gross lesions compatible with NE in >85% of challenged birds. However, strains JGS1714 (enterotoxigenic genotype A, cpb2(pos), human food poisoning), JGS1936 (genotype A, cpb2(neg), bovine neonatal enteritis), JGS4142 (genotype A, cpb2(pos), bovine jejunal hemorrhage syndrome), JGS1473 (genotype A, cpb2(pos), chicken normal flora), JGS1070 (genotype C, cpb2(pos), porcine hemorrhagic enteritis), JGS1882 (genotype A, cpb2(pos), porcine neonatal enteritis), JGS1120 (ATCC 13124, genotype A, cpb2(neg), gas gangrene), JGS4151 (strain 13, genotype A, cpb2(pos), canine), and JGS4303 (SM101, enterotoxigenic genotype A, cpb2(neg), human food poisoning) failed to produce disease. In vivo passage failed to increase virulence of the non-NE strains. NE strains must have specific poultry-associated virulence attributes, such as the recently identified NetB and other factors, which allow for the development of disease. PMID:20193771

Cooper, Kerry K; Theoret, James R; Stewart, Bernard A; Trinh, Hien T; Glock, Robert D; Songer, J Glenn

2010-06-01

182

Clostridium perfringens iota toxin: characterization of the cell-associated iota b complex.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens type E iota toxin consists of two unlinked proteins designated as iota a (Ia; molecular mass approximately 47 kDa), an ADP-ribosyltransferase and iota b (Ib; molecular mass approximately 81 kDa) which binds to the cell surface and facilitates Ia entry into the cytosol. By Western-blot analysis, Ib incubated with Vero cells at 37 degrees C generated a cell-associated, SDS-insoluble oligomer of Ib (molecular mass>220 kDa) within 15 s, which was still evident 110 min after washing cells. Ib oligomerization was temperature, but not pH, dependent and was facilitated by a cell-surface protein(s). Within 5 min at 37 degrees C, cell-bound Ib generated Na(+)/K(+) permeable channels that were blocked by Ia. However, Ib-induced channels or oligomers were not formed at 4 degrees C. Two monoclonal antibodies raised against Ib that recognize unique, neutralizing epitopes within residues 632-655 either inhibited Ib binding to cells and/or oligomerization, unlike a non-neutralizing monoclonal antibody that binds within Ib residues 28-66. The Ib protoxin (molecular mass approximately 98 kDa), which does not facilitate iota cytotoxicity but binds to Vero cells, did not oligomerize or form ion-permeable channels on cells, and neither trypsin nor chymotrypsin treatment of cell-bound Ib protoxin induced large complex formation. The link between Ib oligomers and iota toxicity was also apparent with a resistant cell line (MRC-5), which bound to Ib with no evidence of oligomerization. Overall, these studies revealed that the biological activity of iota toxin is dependent on a long-lived, cell-associated Ib complex that rapidly forms ion-permeable channels in cell membranes. These results further reveal the similarities of C. perfringens iota toxin with other bacterial binary toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis and C. botulinum.

Stiles, Bradley G; Hale, Martha L; Marvaud, Jean Christophe; Popoff, Michel R

2002-01-01

183

The effect of Clostridium perfringens type C strain CN3685 and its isogenic beta toxin null mutant in goats  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens type C is an important cause of enteritis and/or enterocolitis in several animal species, including pigs, sheep, goats, horses and humans. The disease is a classic enterotoxemia and the enteric lesions and associated systemic effects are thought to be caused primarily by beta toxin (CPB), one of two typing toxins produced by C. perfringens type C. This has been demonstrated recently by fulfilling molecular Koch’s postulates in rabbits and mice. We present here an experimental study to fulfill these postulates in goats, a natural host of C. perfringens type C disease. Nine healthy male or female Anglo Nubian goat kids were inoculated with the virulent C. perfringens type C wild-type strain CN3685, an isogenic CPB null mutant or a strain where the cpb null mutation had been reversed. Three goats inoculated with the wild-type strain presented abdominal pain, hemorrhagic diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary edema, hydropericardium and death within 24 h of inoculation. Two goats inoculated with the CPB null mutant and two goats inoculated with sterile culture media (negative controls) remained clinically healthy during 24 h after inoculation and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in the tissues of any of them. Reversal of the null mutation to partially restore CPB production also increased virulence; 2 goats inoculated with this reversed mutant presented clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in goats inoculated with the wild-type strain, except that spontaneous death was not observed. These results indicate that CPB is required for C. perfringens type C to induce disease in goats, supporting a key role for this toxin in natural C. perfringens type C disease pathogenesis.

Garcia, J. P.; Beingesser, J.; Fisher, D. J.; Sayeed, S.; McClane, B. A.; Posthaus, H.; Uzal, F. A.

2012-01-01

184

Contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells induces rapid upregulation of toxin production by Clostridium perfringens type C isolates  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens type C isolates cause necrotizing enteritis in humans and domestic animals. In vitro, type C isolates often produce beta toxin (CPB), beta2 toxin (CPB2), alpha toxin (CPA), perfringolysin O (PFO), and TpeL during (or after) late log-phase growth. In contrast, the current study found that many type C isolates respond to close contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by producing all toxins, except TpeL, much more rapidly than occurs during in vitro growth. This in vivo effect involves rapid transcriptional upregulation of the cpb, cpb2, pfoA and plc toxin genes. Rapid Caco-2 cell-induced upregulation of CPB and PFO production involves the VirS/VirR two-component system, since upregulated in vivo transcription of the pfoA and cpb genes was blocked by inactivating the virR gene and was reversible by complementation to restore VirR expression. However, the luxS quorum sensing system is not required for the rapid upregulation of type C toxin production induced by contact with Caco-2 cells. These results provide the first indication of host cell:pathogen cross-talk affecting toxin production kinetics by any pathogenic Clostridium spp., identify in vivo vs. in vitro differences in C. perfringens toxin expression, and implicate VirS/VirR as a possible contributor to some C. perfringens enteric diseases.

Vidal, Jorge E.; Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru; McClane, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

185

Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin: Binding Studies and Characterization of Cell Surface Receptor by Fluorescence-Activated Cytometry  

PubMed Central

The binding characteristics of iota toxin, a binary enterotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens type E, were studied by fluorescence-activated cytometry. The proteolytically activated binding component of iota toxin, iota b (Ib), bound to various cell types when incubated at 4, 25, or 37°C for 10 min. The binding of Ib was inhibited by antisera against C. perfringens type E or Clostridium spiroforme culture supernatants, but not C. perfringens types C or D. Pretreatment of Vero cells with glycosidases or lectins did not affect Ib interactions, while pronase effectively prevented Ib binding to the cell surface. The Ib protomer (Ibp) bound to the cell surface, but trypsinization of Ibp was necessary for docking of the ADP-ribosylating component, iota a (Ia). Ia attached to cell-bound Ib within 10 min at 37°C, but surface levels of Ia decreased 90% after 30 min and were undetectable by 60 min. Detectable surface levels of Ib also diminished over time, and Western blot analysis suggested internalization or embedment of Ib into the membrane.

Stiles, Bradley G.; Hale, Martha L.; Marvaud, Jean-Christophe; Popoff, Michel R.

2000-01-01

186

Contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells induces rapid upregulation of toxin production by Clostridium perfringens type C isolates.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens type C isolates cause necrotizing enteritis in humans and domestic animals. In vitro, type C isolates often produce beta toxin (CPB), beta2 toxin (CPB2), alpha toxin (CPA), perfringolysin O (PFO) and TpeL during (or after) late log-phase growth. In contrast, the current study found that many type C isolates respond to close contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by producing all toxins, except TpeL, much more rapidly than occurs during in vitro growth. This in vivo effect involves rapid transcriptional upregulation of the cpb, cpb2, pfoA and plc toxin genes. Rapid Caco-2 cell-induced upregulation of CPB and PFO production involves the VirS/VirR two-component system, since upregulated in vivo transcription of the pfoA and cpb genes was blocked by inactivating the virR gene and was reversible by complementation to restore VirR expression. However, the luxS quorum-sensing system is not required for the rapid upregulation of type C toxin production induced by contact with Caco-2 cells. These results provide the first indication of host cell:pathogen cross-talk affecting toxin production kinetics by any pathogenic Clostridium spp., identify in vivo versus in vitro differences in C. perfringens toxin expression, and implicate VirS/VirR as a possible contributor to some C. perfringens enteric diseases. PMID:19438515

Vidal, Jorge E; Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru; McClane, Bruce A

2009-09-01

187

Clostridium perfringens in poultry: an emerging threat for animal and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Clostridiumperfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in poultry has increased in countries that stopped using antibiotic growth promoters. Necrotic enteritis and the subclinical form of C. perfringens infection in poultry are caused by C. perfringens type A, producing the alpha toxin, and to a lesser extent type C, producing both alpha toxin and beta toxin. Some strains of C. perfringens

Filip Van Immerseel; Jeroen De Buck; Frank Pasmans; Gerard Huyghebaert; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle

2004-01-01

188

Clostridium perfringens is not suitable for the indication of fecal pollution from ruminant wildlife but is associated with excreta from nonherbivorous animals and human sewage.  

PubMed

During a 3-year study, Clostridium perfringens was investigated in defined fecal sources from a temperate alluvial backwater area of a large river system. The results reveal that using C. perfringens as a conservative water quality indicator for total fecal pollution monitoring is no longer justified but suggest that it can be used as a tracer for excreta from nonherbivorous wildlife and human sewage. PMID:23747707

Vierheilig, J; Frick, C; Mayer, R E; Kirschner, A K T; Reischer, G H; Derx, J; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H

2013-08-01

189

Effects of alpha and theta toxins from Clostridium perfringens on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Two toxins, alpha (phospholipase C) and theta (oxygen-labile hemolysin), were purified from Clostridium perfringens type A and assayed for toxic effects on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). Crude preparations containing both toxins totally inhibited chemotaxis and chemiluminescence responses of PMNLs and reduced PMNL viability. Purified alpha toxin did not alter PMNL viability, chemotactic responsiveness, or morphology but did enhance opsonized zymosan-induced PMNL chemiluminescence over a wide range of toxin concentrations. theta Toxin, at 12.5 hemolytic units (HU) per 10(5) PMNLs, reduced cell viability and induced marked PMNL morphological changes. Concentrations of theta toxin between 4 and 32 HU per 10(5) PMNLs inhibited PMNL chemiluminescence in a dose-dependent manner, whereas a lower concentration enhanced the PMNL chemiluminescent response to opsonized zymosan. Effects on chemotaxis were also dose dependent. Increased PMNL random migration was observed at a concentration of theta toxin of 0.06 HU per 2.5 X 10(5) PMNLs (P less than .05), whereas concentrations of greater than 0.08 HU per 2.5 X 10(5) PMNLs reduced both directed and random migration (P less than .05). PMID:2885383

Stevens, D L; Mitten, J; Henry, C

1987-08-01

190

Inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens Formed by Heating Sodium Nitrite in a Chemically Defined Medium  

PubMed Central

An inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens formed when low levels of nitrite were autoclaved with a defined chemical medium. A systematic study of the medium revealed that only amino acids and mineral salts were involved in the production of this inhibitor, which was proven to be a toxic compound formed from cysteine, ferrous sulfate, and sodium nitrite. The inhibitor was compared to several known compounds. S-nitrosocysteine inhibited the test organism, but would not form in the test system in amounts large enough to explain the observed inhibition. Roussin red salt was unstable in the test system and therefore was not the inhibitor. Roussin black salt, which was also inhibitory, could form in sufficient amounts to explain the inhibition. A complex of cysteine, iron, and nitrie oxide was detected in the autoclaved solution of cysteine, ferrous sulfate, and sodium nitrite; this cysteine complex did not appear to be inhibitory, however, at levels which could form in the autoclaved medium. The observed inhibition may have been due to the combined effects of sublethal concentrations of each compound.

Moran, Dennis M.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Archer, Michael C.

1975-01-01

191

The p38 MAPK and JNK Pathways Protect Host Cells against Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K+ from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K+-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K+-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival.

Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

2013-01-01

192

Internalization of Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin leads to ERK activation and is involved on its cytotoxic effect.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called ?-toxin, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. CpPLC may lead to cell lysis at concentrations that cause extensive degradation of plasma membrane phospholipids. However, at sublytic concentrations it induces cytotoxicity without inducing evident membrane damage. The results of this work demonstrate that CpPLC becomes internalized in cells by a dynamin-dependent mechanism and in a time progressive process: first, CpPLC colocalizes with caveolin both at the plasma membrane and in vesicles, and later it colocalizes with early and late endosomes and lysosomes. Lysosomal damage in the target cells is evident 9?h after CpPLC exposure. Our previous work demonstrated that CpPLCinduces ERK1/2 activation, which is involved in its cytotoxic effect. In this work we found that cholesterol sequestration, dynamin inhibition, as well as inhibition of actin polymerization, prevent CpPLC internalization and ERK1/2 activation, involving endocytosis in the signalling events required for CpPLC cytotoxic effect at sublytic concentrations. These results provide new insights about the mode of action of this bacterial phospholipase C, previously considered to act only locally on cell membrane. PMID:24245664

Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Campos-Rodríguez, Diana; Mora, Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Vega, Mariela; Marks, David L; Alape-Girón, Alberto

2014-04-01

193

Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013.  

PubMed

On 22 March 2013, 150 of 1,255 students (13–17 years) and staff at a school in London reported gastrointestinal symptoms; onset peaked 8 to 12 hours after a lunch served in the school on 21 March. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all students and staff. We defined cases as school attenders on 20 and 21 March with onset of gastrointestinal symptoms between 20 and 23 March. We tested food, environmental and stool samples of cases for common pathogens and bacterial toxins. We administered an online questionnaire via email, encouraging the use of smartphones to respond, to measure risk of illness for food items eaten at school on 20 and 21 March. Survey response was 45%. Adjusted risk ratios were generated in a multivariable analysis. Those who ate chicken balti on 21 March were 19.3 times more likely to become ill (95% confidence interval: 7.3–50.9). Clostridium perfringens was detected in all 19 stool samples collected. Within eight school hours of its launch, 412 of 561 (73%) responders had completed the survey. Hygienic standards in the kitchen were satisfactory. The investigation was done rapidly due to smartphone technology and we recommend considering this technology in future outbreaks. PMID:24852955

Simone, B; Atchison, C; Ruiz, B; Greenop, P; Dave, J; Ready, D; Maguire, H; Walsh, B; Anderson, S

2014-01-01

194

Inactivation and ultrastructure analysis of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens spores.  

PubMed

Bacterial endospores are resistant to many environmental factors from temperature extremes to ultraviolet irradiation and are generally more difficult to inactivate or kill than vegetative bacterial cells. It is often considered necessary to treat spores or samples containing spores with chemical fixative solutions for prolonged periods of time (e.g., 1-21 days) to achieve fixation/inactivation to enable electron microscopy (EM) examination outside of containment laboratories. Prolonged exposure to chemical fixatives, however, can alter the ultrastructure of spores for EM analyses. This study was undertaken to determine the minimum amount of time required to inactivate/sterilize and fix spore preparations from several bacterial species using a universal fixative solution for EM that maintains the ultrastructural integrity of the spores. We show that a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde with 1% glutaraldehyde inactivated spore preparations of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Clostridium perfringens in 30 min, and Bacillus subtilis in 240 min. These results suggest that this fixative solution can be used to inactivate and fix spores from several major groups of bacterial spore formers after 240 min, enabling the fixed preparations to be removed from biocontainment and safely analyzed by EM outside of biocontainment. PMID:24503289

Brantner, Christine A; Hannah, Ryan M; Burans, James P; Pope, Robert K

2014-02-01

195

Development and Application of a Method for Counterselectable In-Frame Deletion in Clostridium perfringens? †  

PubMed Central

Many pathogenic clostridial species produce toxins and enzymes. To facilitate genome-wide identification of virulence factors and biotechnological application of their useful products, we have developed a markerless in-frame deletion method for Clostridium perfringens which allows efficient counterselection and multiple-gene disruption. The system comprises a galKT gene disruptant and a suicide galK plasmid into which two fragments of a target gene for in-frame deletion are cloned. The system was shown to be accurate and simple by using it to disrupt the alpha-toxin gene of the organism. It was also used to construct of two different virulence-attenuated strains, ??1303 and HN1314: the former is a disruptant of the virRS operon, which regulates the expression of virulence factors, and the latter is a disruptant of the six genes encoding the ?, ?, and ? toxins; a clostripain-like protease; a 190-kDa secretory protein; and a putative cell wall lytic endopeptidase. Comparison of the two disruptants in terms of growth ability and the background levels of secreted proteins showed that HN1314 is more useful than ??1303 as a host for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins.

Nariya, Hirofumi; Miyata, Shigeru; Suzuki, Motoo; Tamai, Eiji; Okabe, Akinobu

2011-01-01

196

Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens type C infections  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens type C causes necrotizing enteritis in humans and several other animal species. Type C isolates must produce at least beta toxin (CPB) and alpha toxin (CPA) and most strains produce several other toxins including perfringolysin O (PFO) and TpeL. However, current evidence indicates that CPB is the main virulence factor for type C infections. Most of this evidence is based upon the loss of virulence shown by isogenic type C CPB knock out mutants on cells, and also in rabbit intestinal loops and in mouse models. This virulence is regained when these mutants are complemented with the wild-type cpb gene. Many type C isolates respond to close contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by producing all toxins, except TpeL, much more rapidly than occurs during in vitro growth. This in vivo effect involves rapid transcriptional upregulation of the cpb, cpb2, pfoA and plc toxin genes. Rapid Caco-2 cell-induced upregulation of CPB and PFO production involves the VirS/VirR two-component system, since upregulated in vivo transcription of the pfoA and cpb genes was blocked by inactivating the virR gene and was reversible by complementation to restore VirR expression.

McClane, B. A.

2011-01-01

197

Pyridoxal phosphate-sensitized photoinactivation of glutamate decarboxylase from Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

1. l-Glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) from Clostridium perfringens was inactivated by exposure to visible light at pH6.2. 2. Inactivation does not occur at pH4.6 or in the absence of bound pyridoxal phosphate. 3. On prolonged photo-oxidation six histidine residues per molecule of enzyme were destroyed. 4. The loss of six cysteine residues per molecule occurred both in irradiated samples and in controls oxygenated in the dark. 5. This dark-oxidation of cysteine residues is apparently required before the photo-oxidation process. 6. The absorbance, fluorescence and circular-dichroism properties of the enzyme as well as its elution volume during Sephadex gel-filtration were unaffected by prolonged irradiation. 7. However, an apparently homogeneous product of photo-oxidation could be separated from the control enzyme by ion-exchange chromatography. 8. The Km for l-glutamate was unchanged in an irradiated sample retaining 22% of control activity. 9. These data and the catalytic role of imidazole residues at the active sites of amino acid decarboxylases are discussed.

Cozzani, Ivo; Santoni, Costantino; Jori, Giulio; Gennari, Giorgio; Tamburro, Antonio Mario

1974-01-01

198

Multiple effects of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on growth, biofilm formation, and inflammation cytokines profile of Clostridium perfringens type A strain CP4.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an important Gram-positive pathogen responsible for food poisoning, necrotic enteritis, gas gangrene, and even death. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a well-characterized probiotic strain with demonstrated benefits. In this study, we evaluated the effects of EcN on growth, toxin production, biofilm formation, and inflammatory cytokine responses of C. perfringens. In vitro co-culture experiments demonstrated that EcN inhibited growth, gas production, and toxin production (?-toxin and NetB) of C. perfringens in a dose-dependent manner. The growth inhibition effect was not observed when C. perfringens was incubated with EcN cell-free supernatants (CFSE), suggesting that growth inhibition was caused by nutrition competition during co-incubation. In vitro studies demonstrated that pre-incubation with EcN did not inhibit C. perfringens attachment to Caco-2 cells, but did reduce C. perfringens total number, toxin production, and cytotoxicity after 24 h. The similar growth inhibition results were also observed during the formation of C. perfringens biofilm. Finally, pre-incubation of EcN with RAW264.7 cells significantly decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines caused by the introduction of C. perfringens. Our results indicate that EcN can inhibit many of the pathological effects of C. perfringens in vitro conditions. PMID:24532573

Jiang, Yanlong; Kong, Qingke; Roland, Kenneth L; Wolf, Amanda; Curtiss, Roy

2014-04-01

199

Efficacy of a lactylate on production performance and intestinal health of broilers during a subclinical Clostridium perfringens infection.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens, an ?-toxin producing gram-positive bacterium, is an enteric pathogen for poultry. Because subclinical C. perfringens infections often result in damage of the intestinal mucosa, decreased nutrient digestion, and poor performance, efforts should be taken to find an effective strategy that controls overgrowth of C. perfringens. For this purpose, the efficacy of a sodium lauroyl lactylate (LauL) as a feed additive to prevent C. perfringens colonization in broilers was determined. First, the effect of LauL was compared with capric and lauric mono- and diglycerides (MDG) and capric and lauric free fatty acids in Clostridium-infected chickens. Clostridial lesion scoring at d 16 showed that MDG and LauL were both effective in reducing the severity of lesions. When taking into account results on BW gain and mortality, LauL was more effective than MDG. For this reason, a dose response study was made to determine the optimal dietary dosage of LauL. In this experiment, it was shown that a LauL dose higher than 0.15% should be used to expect positive effects on lesion severity and mortality. None of the LauL doses led to a significant better response on growth performance. In a third trial, efficacy of LauL was compared with commercial products that limit bacterial activity in the intestinal tract (Aromabiotic Poul 60) or coccidiosis (chemical coccidiostat, Clinacox). None of the products were able to reduce the number or severity of lesions, and no effect on production performance was observed. Thus, despite the clear positive effect seen in experiment 1, and in experiment 2 with LauL doses higher than 0.15%, supplementing this lactylate to the diet does not consistently reduce C. perfringens colonization in broiler chickens because no such effects were observed in experiment 3. These results, however, provide a scientific basis for future studies to further investigate lactylates as potential additives to reduce the severity of necrotic enteritis in broilers in a C. perfringens challenge model. PMID:20952703

Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Fabri, T; Cazemier, A; Else, A J

2010-11-01

200

Multiplex PCR assay for detection of Clostridium perfringens in feces and intestinal contents of pigs and in swine feed.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, developed to detect the alpha-toxin and enterotoxin genes (cpa and cpe, respectively) of Clostridium perfringens, was used to identify enterotoxigenic isolates of this organism from feces and intestinal contents of pigs and from feed samples from pig farms in Iowa. The organism was grown on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC) agar, TSC agar without egg-yolk, sheep blood agar, or in brain heart infusion broth or cooked meat medium. DNA was extracted by boiling and the PCR assay was carried out using reagents from a commercial kit. The 319 bp amplification product of cpa and the 364 bp product of cpe were visualized under UV light after electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. The average sensitivity of the assay, determined on artificially contaminated feces, was 9.2 x 10(4) colony forming units per gram. Assay of 97 isolates from feces and intestinal contents revealed cpa in 89, but all were negative for cpe. While 28% of the 442 total samples cultured yielded C. perfringens, only 5% of 298 fecal or intestinal contents samples were positive upon direct examination by the PCR assay. Ninety-one and eight-tenths % of isolates with the phenotype of C. perfringens were cpa positive by PCR. Forty-three percent of feed samples were culture positive, while 48.3% were PCR positive for cpa. None of these were cpe positive. We conclude that PCR is a useful assay for rapid detection of C. perfringens in feed, and for confirmation of the identity of isolates presumed to be C. perfringens. PMID:9810619

Kanakaraj, R; Harris, D L; Songer, J G; Bosworth, B

1998-08-28

201

Heterologous protection against alpha toxins of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus induced by binding domain recombinant chimeric protein.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus are the two important bacteria frequently associated with majority of the soft tissue infections. The severity and progression of the diseases caused by these pathogens are attributed primarily to the alpha toxins they produce. Previously, we synthesized a non-toxic chimeric molecule r-?CS encompassing the binding domains of C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxins and demonstrated that the r-?CS hyperimmune polysera reacts with both the native wild type toxins. In the present report, we evaluated efficacy of r-?CS in conferring protection against C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxin infections in murine model. Immunization of BALB/c with r-?CS was effective in inducing both high titers of serum anti-r-?CS antibodies after three administrations. Sub-typing the antibody pool revealed high proportions of IgG1 indicating a Th2-polarized immune response. The r-?CS stimulated the proliferation of splenocytes from the immunized mice upon re-induction by the antigen, in vitro. The levels of interleukin-10 increased while TNF-? was found to be downregulated in the r-?CS induced splenocytes. Mice immunized with r-?CS were protected against intramuscular challenge with 5×LD100 doses of C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxins with >80% survival, which killed control animals within 48-72h. Passive immunization of mice with anti-r-?CS serum resulted in 50-80% survival. Our results indicate that r-?CS is a remarkable antigen with protective efficacy against alpha toxin mediated C. perfringens and S. aureus soft tissue co-infections. PMID:24699467

Uppalapati, Siva R; Kingston, Joseph J; Murali, Harishchandra S; Batra, Harsh V

2014-05-23

202

Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough\\u000a understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from\\u000a Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons\\u000a of our phage genomes

Brian B Oakley; Eldin Talundzic; Cesar A Morales; Kelli L Hiett; Gregory R Siragusa; Nikolay V Volozhantsev; Bruce S Seal

2011-01-01

203

Crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis of enzymatic components from Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin.  

PubMed

Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens type E is an ADP-ribosylating toxin (ADPRT) that ADP-ribosylates actin, which is lethal and dermonecrotic in mammals. It is a binary toxin composed of an enzymatic component (Ia) and a binding component (Ib). Ia ADP-ribosylates G-actin at arginine 177, resulting in the depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report on studies of the structure-function relationship by the crystal structures of Ia complexed with NADH and NADPH (at 1.8 A and 2.1 A resolution, respectively) and mutagenesis that map the active residues. The catalytic C-domain structure was similar to that of Bacillus cereus vegetative insecticidal protein (VIP2), which is an insect-targeted toxin, except for the EXE loop region. However, a significant structural difference could be seen in the N-domain, which interacts with Ib, suggesting an evolutionary difference between mammalian-targeted and insect-targeted ADPRT. The high resolution structure analysis revealed specific NAD conformation (a ring-like conformation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)) supported by Arg295, Arg296, Asn335, Arg352 and Glu380. Additionally, the mutagenesis study showed that the residues Tyr251, Arg295, Glu301, Ser338, Phe349, Arg352 and Glu380, including a newly identified one, are essential for NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase) activity. At least one residue, Glu378, is an essential residue for ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARTase), but not for NADase. Consequently, the structural feature and these mutagenesis findings suggest that the catalytic mechanism of Ia proceeds via an Sn1-type reaction. PMID:12498797

Tsuge, Hideaki; Nagahama, Masahiro; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Hisatsune, Junzo; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Itogawa, Yasuhiro; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Jun

2003-01-17

204

Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin Recognizes the GM1a-TrkA Complex*  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin is the major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Alpha-toxin is a 43-kDa protein with two structural domains; the N-domain contains the catalytic site and coordinates the divalent metal ions, and the C-domain is a membrane-binding site. The role of the exposed loop region (72–93 residues) in the N-domain, however, has been unclear. Here we show that this loop contains a ganglioside binding motif (H … SXWY … G) that is the same motif seen in botulinum neurotoxin and directly binds to a specific conformation of the ganglioside Neu5Ac?2-3(Gal?1-3GalNAc?1-4)Gal?1-4Glc?1Cer (GM1a) through a carbohydrate moiety. Confocal microscopy analysis using fluorescently labeled BODIPY-GM1a revealed that the toxin colocalized with GM1a and induced clustering of GM1a on the cell membranes. Alpha-toxin was only slightly toxic in ?1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase knock-out mice, which lack the a-series gangliosides that contain GM1a, but was highly toxic in ?2,8-sialyltransferase knock-out mice, which lack both b-series and c-series gangliosides, similar to the control mice. Moreover, experiments with site-directed mutants indicated that Trp-84 and Tyr-85 in the exposed alpha-toxin loop play an important role in the interaction with GM1a and subsequent activation of TrkA. These results suggest that binding of alpha-toxin to GM1a facilitates the activation of the TrkA receptor and induces a signal transduction cascade that promotes the release of chemokines. Therefore, we conclude that GM1a is the primary cellular receptor for alpha-toxin, which can be a potential target for drug developed against this pathogen.

Oda, Masataka; Kabura, Michiko; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Suzue, Ayaka; Tominaga, Kaori; Urano, Shiori; Nagahama, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Keiko; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Sakurai, Jun

2012-01-01

205

Carbohydrate Recognition by an Architecturally Complex ?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase from Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

CpGH89 is a large multimodular enzyme produced by the human and animal pathogen Clostridium perfringens. The catalytic activity of this exo-?-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase is directed towards a rare carbohydrate motif, N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine-?-1,4-d-galactose, which is displayed on the class III mucins deep within the gastric mucosa. In addition to the family 89 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module this enzyme has six modules that share sequence similarity to the family 32 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM32s), suggesting the enzyme has considerable capacity to adhere to carbohydrates. Here we suggest that two of the modules, CBM32-1 and CBM32-6, are not functional as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and demonstrate that three of the CBMs, CBM32-3, CBM32-4, and CBM32-5, are indeed capable of binding carbohydrates. CBM32-3 and CBM32-4 have a novel binding specificity for N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine-?-1,4-d-galactose, which thus complements the specificity of the catalytic module. The X-ray crystal structure of CBM32-4 in complex with this disaccharide reveals a mode of recognition that is based primarily on accommodation of the unique bent shape of this sugar. In contrast, as revealed by a series of X-ray crystal structures and quantitative binding studies, CBM32-5 displays the structural and functional features of galactose binding that is commonly associated with CBM family 32. The functional CBM32s that CpGH89 contains suggest the possibility for multivalent binding events and the partitioning of this enzyme to highly specific regions within the gastrointestinal tract.

Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth; Stuart, Christopher P.; Suits, Michael D.; Cid, Melissa; Tessier, Matthew; Woods, Robert J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2012-01-01

206

Identification of Accessory Genome Regions in Poultry Clostridium perfringens Isolates Carrying the netB Plasmid  

PubMed Central

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease of poultry caused by certain Clostridium perfringens type A strains. NE pathogenesis involves the NetB toxin, which is encoded on a large conjugative plasmid within a 42-kb pathogenicity locus. Recent multilocus sequence type (MLST) studies have identified two predominant NE-associated clonal groups, suggesting that host genes are also involved in NE pathogenesis. We used microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to assess the gene content of 54 poultry isolates from birds that were healthy or that suffered from NE. A total of 400 genes were variably present among the poultry isolates and nine nonpoultry strains, many of which had putative functions related to nutrient uptake and metabolism and cell wall and capsule biosynthesis. The variable genes were organized into 142 genomic regions, 49 of which contained genes significantly associated with netB-positive isolates. These regions included three previously identified NE-associated loci as well as several apparent fitness-related loci, such as a carbohydrate ABC transporter, a ferric-iron siderophore uptake system, and an adhesion locus. Additional loci were related to plasmid maintenance. Cluster analysis of the CGH data grouped all of the netB-positive poultry isolates into two major groups, separated according to two prevalent clonal groups based on MLST analysis. This study identifies chromosomal loci associated with netB-positive poultry strains, suggesting that the chromosomal background can confer a selective advantage to NE-causing strains, possibly through mechanisms involving iron acquisition, carbohydrate metabolism, and plasmid maintenance.

Lepp, D.; Songer, J. G.; Boerlin, P.; Parreira, V. R.

2013-01-01

207

Gene-trap mutagenesis identifies mammalian genes contributing to intoxication by Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin.  

PubMed

The Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin is an extremely potent toxin associated with lethal toxemias in domesticated ruminants and may be toxic to humans. Intoxication results in fluid accumulation in various tissues, most notably in the brain and kidneys. Previous studies suggest that the toxin is a pore-forming toxin, leading to dysregulated ion homeostasis and ultimately cell death. However, mammalian host factors that likely contribute to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. A library of insertional mutant Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are highly susceptible to the lethal affects of ?-toxin, was used to select clones of cells resistant to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. The genes mutated in 9 surviving resistant cell clones were identified. We focused additional experiments on one of the identified genes as a means of validating the experimental approach. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that one of the identified genes, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, KIM-1, TIM1), is more abundantly expressed in human kidney cell lines than it is expressed in human cells known to be resistant to ?-toxin. One human kidney cell line, ACHN, was found to be sensitive to the toxin and expresses a larger isoform of the HAVCR1 protein than the HAVCR1 protein expressed by other, toxin-resistant human kidney cell lines. RNA interference studies in MDCK and in ACHN cells confirmed that HAVCR1 contributes to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, ?-toxin was shown to bind to HAVCR1 in vitro. The results of this study indicate that HAVCR1 and the other genes identified through the use of gene-trap mutagenesis and RNA interference strategies represent important targets for investigation of the process by which ?-toxin induces cell death and new targets for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:21412435

Ivie, Susan E; Fennessey, Christine M; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H; McClain, Mark S

2011-01-01

208

Gene-Trap Mutagenesis Identifies Mammalian Genes Contributing to Intoxication by Clostridium perfringens ?-Toxin  

PubMed Central

The Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin is an extremely potent toxin associated with lethal toxemias in domesticated ruminants and may be toxic to humans. Intoxication results in fluid accumulation in various tissues, most notably in the brain and kidneys. Previous studies suggest that the toxin is a pore-forming toxin, leading to dysregulated ion homeostasis and ultimately cell death. However, mammalian host factors that likely contribute to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. A library of insertional mutant Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are highly susceptible to the lethal affects of ?-toxin, was used to select clones of cells resistant to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. The genes mutated in 9 surviving resistant cell clones were identified. We focused additional experiments on one of the identified genes as a means of validating the experimental approach. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that one of the identified genes, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, KIM-1, TIM1), is more abundantly expressed in human kidney cell lines than it is expressed in human cells known to be resistant to ?-toxin. One human kidney cell line, ACHN, was found to be sensitive to the toxin and expresses a larger isoform of the HAVCR1 protein than the HAVCR1 protein expressed by other, toxin-resistant human kidney cell lines. RNA interference studies in MDCK and in ACHN cells confirmed that HAVCR1 contributes to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, ?-toxin was shown to bind to HAVCR1 in vitro. The results of this study indicate that HAVCR1 and the other genes identified through the use of gene-trap mutagenesis and RNA interference strategies represent important targets for investigation of the process by which ?-toxin induces cell death and new targets for potential therapeutic intervention.

Ivie, Susan E.; Fennessey, Christine M.; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H.; McClain, Mark S.

2011-01-01

209

Structure and Stability of an Azoreductase with an FAD Cofactor from the Strict Anaerobe Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Azoreductase enzymes present in many microorganisms exhibit the ability to reduce azo dyes, an abundant industrial pollutant, to produce carcinogenic metabolites that threaten human health. All biochemically-characterized azoreductases, around 30 to date, have been isolated from aerobic bacteria, except for AzoC, the azoreductase of Clostridium perfringens, which is from a strictly anaerobic bacterium. AzoC is a recently biochemically-characterized azoreductase. The lack of structural information on AzoC hinders the mechanistic understanding of this enzyme. In this paper, we report on the biophysical characterization of the structure and thermal stability of AzoC by using a wide range of biophysical tools: Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, Fouriertransform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, Size Exclusion Chromatography, MALDI-TOF and UV-visible spectroscopy. We found that the flavin cofactor of AzoC is FAD, while all other structurally-known azoreductases employ FMN as a cofactor. The secondary structure of AzoC has 16% less ?-helix structures, 5% more ?-sheet structures and 11% more turn and unordered than the average of structurally-known azoreductase that have 10-14% sequence similarities with AzoC. We also found that oxidized AzoC is trimeric, which is unique amongst structurally known azoreductases. In contrast, reduced AzoC is monomeric, despite similarities in catalytic activity and thermal stability of oxidized and reduced AzoC. Our results show that the use of FTIR spectroscopy is crucial for characterization of the ?-sheet content in AzoC, illustrating the need for complementary biophysical tools for secondary structural characterization of proteins. PMID:24779771

Morrison, Jessica; Dai, Shuo; Ren, Jie; Taylor, Amanda; Wilkerson, Mitchell; John, Gilbert; Xie, Aihua

2014-06-01

210

Molecular determinants of the interaction between Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragments and claudin-3.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to the extracellular loop 2 of a subset of claudins, e.g. claudin-3. Here, the molecular mechanism of the CPE-claudin interaction was analyzed. Using peptide arrays, recombinant CPE-(116-319) bound to loop 2 peptides of mouse claudin-3, -6, -7, -9, and -14 but not of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10-13, 15, 16, 18-20, and 22. Substitution peptide mapping identified the central motif (148)NPL(150)VP, supposed to represent a turn region in the loop 2, as essential for the interaction between CPE and murine claudin-3 peptides. CPE-binding assays with claudin-3 mutant-transfected HEK293 cells or lysates thereof demonstrated the involvement of Asn(148) and Leu(150) of full-length claudin-3 in the binding. CPE-(116-319) and CPE-(194-319) bound to HEK293 cells expressing claudin-3, whereas CPE-(116-319) bound to claudin-5-expressing HEK293 cells, also. This binding was inhibited by substitutions T151A and Q156E in claudin-5. In contrast, removal of the aromatic side chains in the loop 2 of claudin-3 and -5, involved in trans-interaction between claudins, increased the amount of CPE-(116-319) bound. These findings and molecular modeling indicate different molecular mechanisms of claudin-claudin trans-interaction and claudin-CPE interaction. Confocal microscopy showed that CPE-(116-319) and CPE-(194-319) bind to claudin-3 at the plasma membrane, outside cell-cell contacts. Together, these findings demonstrate that CPE binds to the hydrophobic turn and flanking polar residues in the loop 2 of claudin-3 outside tight junctions. The data can be used for the specific design of CPE-based modulators of tight junctions, to improve drug delivery, and as chemotherapeutics for tumors overexpressing claudins. PMID:19429681

Winkler, Lars; Gehring, Claudia; Wenzel, Ariane; Müller, Sebastian L; Piehl, Christian; Krause, Gerd; Blasig, Ingolf E; Piontek, Jörg

2009-07-10

211

Acid phosphatase test proves superior to standard phenotypic identification procedure for Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from water  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is used as an indicator for persistent faecal pollution as well as to monitor the efficacy of water treatment processes. For these purposes, differentiation between C. perfringens and other Clostridia is essential and is routinely carried out by phenotypic standard tests as proposed in the ISO/CD 6461-2:2002 (ISO_LGMN: lactose fermentation, gelatine liquidation, motility and nitrate reduction). Because the ISO_LGMN procedure is time consuming and labour intensive, the acid phosphatase test was investigated as a possible and much more rapid alternative method for confirmation. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare confirmation results obtained by these two phenotypic methods using genotypically identified strains, what to our knowledge has not been accomplished before. For this purpose, a species specific PCR method was selected based on the results received for type strains and genotypically characterised environmental strains. For the comparative investigation type strains as well as presumptive C. perfringens isolates from water and faeces samples were used. The acid phosphatase test revealed higher percentage (92%) of correctly identified environmental strains (n = 127) than the ISO_LGMN procedure (83%) and proved to be a sensitive and reliable confirmation method.

Ryzinska-Paier, G.; Sommer, R.; Haider, J.M.; Knetsch, S.; Frick, C.; Kirschner, A.K.T.; Farnleitner, A.H.

2011-01-01

212

Tetracycline and penicillin resistant Clostridium perfringens isolated from the fangs and venom glands of Loxosceles laeta: Its implications in loxoscelism treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venom of Loxosceles spiders produces severe dermonecrotic damage, intravascular hemolysis, systemic alterations and risk of death. Clostridium perfringens is present in the microbial flora of the fangs and venom glands of Loxosceles intermedia. Its inoculation with the venom may infect the wound site and exacerbate the dermonecrotic damage. This anaerobic bacterium is widely distributed in nature and capable of

A. Catalán; M. C. Espoz; W. Cortés; H. Sagua; J. González; J. E. Araya

2010-01-01

213

Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Expressing the Carboxy-Terminal Domain of Alpha Toxin from Clostridium perfringens Induces Protective Responses against Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis (NE) is a widespread disease in chickens that causes high mortality and reduced growth performance. Traditionally, NE was controlled by the routine application of antimicrobials in the feed, a practice that currently is unpopular. Consequently, there has been an increase in the occurrence of NE, and it has become a threat to the current objective of

Bereket Zekarias; Hua Mo; Roy Curtiss

2008-01-01

214

X-ray structure of a novel endolysin encoded by episomal phage phiSM101 of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall composed of a mesh polymer of peptidoglycans, which provides physical protection. Endolysins encoded by phages infecting bacteria can hydrolyse peptidoglycans in the bacterial cell wall, killing the host bacteria immediately. The endolysin (Psm) encoded by episomal phage phiSM101 of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A strain SM101 exhibits potent lytic activity towards most strains of Clostridium perfringens. Psm has an N-terminal catalytic domain highly homologous to N-acetylmuramidases belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 25 family, and C-terminal tandem repeated bacterial Src homology 3 (SH3_3) domains as the cell wall-binding domain. The X-ray structure of full-length Psm and a catalytic domain of Psm in complex with N-acetylglucosamine were determined to elucidate the catalytic reaction and cell wall recognition mechanisms of Psm. The results showed that Psm may have adopted a neighbouring-group mechanism for the catalytic hydrolysing reaction in which the N-acetyl carbonyl group of the substrate was involved in the formation of an oxazolinium ion intermediate. Based on structural comparisons with other endolysins and a modelling study, we proposed that tandem repeated SH3_3 domains of Psm recognized the peptide side-chains of peptidoglycans to assist the catalytic domain hydrolysing the glycan backbone. PMID:24674022

Tamai, Eiji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Nariya, Hirofumi; Miyata, Shigeru; Okabe, Akinobu; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Maki, Jun; Kamitori, Shigehiro

2014-04-01

215

Necrotic enteritis-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens displace non-necrotic enteritis strains from the gut of chicks.  

PubMed

We inoculated broiler chicks with mixtures of Clostridium perfringens strains to investigate the single strain dominance observed in natural cases of necrotic enteritis (NE) [Nauerby, B., Pedersen, K., Madsen, M., 2003. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 257-266]. Pre-inoculation bacteriologic culture of chick intestines yielded up to six pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types of C. perfringens. Birds developed typical NE lesions in response to administration (2x per day for 4 days) of a combined inoculum comprising one NE strain (JGS4143, PFGE pattern 8) and four non-NE strains (from piglet necrotizing enteritis, chicken normal flora, human gas gangrene, and bovine neonatal enteritis). After inoculation commenced, only the NE strain was recovered through the first post-inoculation day, in spite of intense efforts to recover pre-challenge flora strains and the other challenge strains. Thereafter, pre-inoculation and previously undetected PFGE types were found, and JGS4143 became undetectable. Birds inoculated simultaneously with five NE strains (from disease in chickens or turkeys, and including JGS4143) also developed lesions, but again only JGS4143 was recovered through the 1st day post-challenge. At that time, birds began to be repopulated with pre-challenge PFGE types. Two NE strains (JGS4143 and JGS4064) produced bacteriocins, which inhibited each other and normal flora strains (n=17), while normal flora strains inhibited neither NE strains nor each other. Thus, it appears that naturally occurring dominance of the gut by NE strains can be reproduced experimentally. Bacteriocins directed against normal flora could possibly provide the necessary advantage, although inhibition of one NE strain by another suggests that other factors may be partially or completely responsible for the dominance. PMID:17850994

Barbara, Angelique J; Trinh, Hien T; Glock, Robert D; Glenn Songer, J

2008-01-25

216

Comparison of Tn5397 from Clostridium difficile ,T n916 from Enterococcus faecalis and the CW459tet(M) element from Clostridium perfringens shows that they have similar conjugation regions but different insertion and excision modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of the conjugative transposons Tn5397 from Clostridium difficile and Tn916 from Enterococcus faecalis, and the CW459tet(M) element from Clostridium perfringens, has revealed that these tetracycline-resistance elements are closely related. All three elements contain the tet(M) resistance gene and have sequence similarity throughout their central region. However, they have very different integration\\/excision modules. Instead of the int and xis

Adam P. Roberts; Priscilla A. Johanesen; Dena Lyras; Peter Mullany; Julian I. Rood

2001-01-01

217

A sporulation factor is involved in the morphological change of Clostridium perfringens biofilms in response to temperature.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation has been associated with bacterial pathogenesis, such as nosocomial and chronic infections, as the resistance of biofilms to environmental stresses has increased. Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic pathogen. This organism survives antibiotic treatment through the formation of biofilms or spores, but the environmental and regulatory factors involved in the biofilm formation remain unclear. Here, we observed that temperature regulates C. perfringens biofilm morphology. At 37°C, C. perfringens adhered to the substrate surface and formed a flat, thin biofilm, herein referred to as adhered biofilm. However, at 25°C, this bacterium did not adhere and produced a threadlike extracellular matrix, forming a viscous, thick biofilm, herein referred to as pellicle biofilm. Pellicle biofilm formation requires the sporulation master regulator, Spo0A, and the toxin regulator, CtrAB, and is enhanced in the absence of the global repressor, AbrB. These transcriptional regulator genes are regulated by each other and temperature. Adhered-biofilm formation requires AbrB and pilA2, which encodes a component of type IV pili (TFP). TFP expression was activated at 37°C and regulated through Spo0A, AbrB, and CtrAB. These results indicate that the morphology of C. perfringens biofilm is dependent on temperature through the differential production of extracellular matrix and the activity of TFP. Moreover, pellicle biofilm formation is involved in sporulation and toxin production. Here, we demonstrated that clostridial biofilm formation is closely associated with sporulation and that the morphological change of the biofilms could play an important role in the pathogenesis of this organism. PMID:24509316

Obana, Nozomu; Nakamura, Kouji; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2014-04-01

218

tISCpe8, an IS1595-Family Lincomycin Resistance Element Located on a Conjugative Plasmid in Clostridium perfringens?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a normal gastrointestinal organism that is a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and can potentially act as a source from which mobile elements and their associated resistance determinants can be transferred to other bacterial pathogens. Lincomycin resistance in C. perfringens is common and is usually encoded by erm genes that confer macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. In this study we identified strains that are lincomycin resistant but erythromycin sensitive and showed that the lincomycin resistance determinant was plasmid borne and could be transferred to other C. perfringens isolates by conjugation. The plasmid, pJIR2774, is the first conjugative C. perfringens R-plasmid to be identified that does not confer tetracycline resistance. Further analysis showed that resistance was encoded by the lnuP gene, which encoded a putative lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase and was located on tISCpe8, a functional transposable genetic element that was a member of the IS1595 family of transposon-like insertion sequences. This element had significant similarity to the mobilizable lincomycin resistance element tISSag10 from Streptococcus agalactiae. Like tISSag10, tISCpe8 carries a functional origin of transfer within the resistance gene, allowing the element to be mobilized by the conjugative transposon Tn916. The similarity of these elements and the finding that they both contain an oriT-like region support the hypothesis that conjugation may result in the movement of DNA modules that are not obviously mobile since they are not linked to conjugation or mobilization functions. This process likely plays a significant role in bacterial adaptation and evolution.

Lyras, Dena; Adams, Vicki; Ballard, Susan A.; Teng, Wee L.; Howarth, Pauline M.; Crellin, Paul K.; Bannam, Trudi L.; Songer, J. Glenn; Rood, Julian I.

2009-01-01

219

Development of multiplex PCR for the detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in drinking water.  

PubMed

Multiplex PCR amplification of lacZ, uidA and plc genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in drinking water. Detection by agarose gel electrophoresis yielded a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all coliform bacteria; a band of 147 bp for the uidA gene and a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all strains of E. coli; a band of 280 bp for the p/c gene for all strains of C. perfringens; and a negative result for all three genes when tested with other bacteria. The detection limit was 100 pg for E. coli and C. perfringens, and 1 ng for coliform bacteria when measured with purified DNA. This assay was applied to the detection of these bacteria in spiked water samples. Spiked water samples with 0-1,000 CFU/ml of coliform bacteria and/or E. coli and/or C. perfringens were detected by this multiplex PCR after a pre-enrichment step to increase the sensitivity and to ensure that the detection was based on the presence of cultivable bacteria. The result of bacterial detection from the multiplex PCR was comparable with that of a standard plate count on selective medium (p=0.62). When using standard plate counts as a gold standard, the sensitivity for this test was 99.1% (95% CI 95.33, 99.98) and the specificity was 90.9 % (95% CI 75.67, 98.08). Multiplex PCR amplification with a pre-enrichment step was shown to be an effective, sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous detection of these three microbiological parameters in drinking water. PMID:15906661

Tantawiwat, Suwalee; Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Wongwit, Waranya; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip

2005-01-01

220

Use of a Mariner-Based Transposon Mutagenesis System To Isolate Clostridium perfringens Mutants Deficient in Gliding Motility  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive pathogen that causes many human and animal diseases, including food poisoning and gas gangrene. C. perfringens lacks flagella but possesses type IV pili (TFP). We have previously shown that C. perfringens can glide across an agar surface in long filaments composed of individual bacteria attached end to end and that two TFP-associated proteins, PilT and PilC, are needed for this. To discover additional gene products that play a role in gliding, we developed a plasmid-based mariner transposon mutagenesis system that works effectively in C. perfringens. More than 10,000 clones were screened for mutants that lacked the ability to move away from the edge of a colony. Twenty-four mutants (0.24%) were identified that fit the criteria. The genes containing insertions that affected gliding motility fell into nine different categories. One gene, CPE0278, which encodes a homolog of the SagA cell wall-dependent endopeptidase, acquired distinct transposon insertions in two independent mutants. sagA mutants were unable to form filaments due to a complete lack of end-to-end connections essential for gliding motility. Complementation of the sagA mutants with a wild-type copy of the gene restored gliding motility. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutation in the sagA gene and found that this mutant had a phenotype similar to those of the transposon mutants. We hypothesize that the sagA mutant strains are unable to form the molecular complexes which are needed to keep the cells in an end-to-end orientation, leading to separation of daughter cells and the inability to carry out gliding motility.

Liu, Hualan; Bouillaut, Laurent; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

2013-01-01

221

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24674938

Józefiak, D; Kiero?czyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Hřjberg, O

2014-06-01

222

A Wide Variety of Clostridium perfringens Type A Food-Borne Isolates That Carry a Chromosomal cpe Gene Belong to One Multilocus Sequence Typing Cluster  

PubMed Central

Of 98 suspected food-borne Clostridium perfringens isolates obtained from a nationwide survey by the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority in The Netherlands, 59 strains were identified as C. perfringens type A. Using PCR-based techniques, the cpe gene encoding enterotoxin was detected in eight isolates, showing a chromosomal location for seven isolates and a plasmid location for one isolate. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG)5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis distinguished C. perfringens from other sulfite-reducing clostridia but did not allow for differentiation between various types of C. perfringens strains. To characterize the C. perfringens strains further, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed on eight housekeeping genes of both enterotoxic and non-cpe isolates, and the data were combined with a previous global survey covering strains associated with food poisoning, gas gangrene, and isolates from food or healthy individuals. This revealed that the chromosomal cpe strains (food strains and isolates from food poisoning cases) belong to a distinct cluster that is significantly distant from all the other cpe plasmid-carrying and cpe-negative strains. These results suggest that different groups of C. perfringens have undergone niche specialization and that a distinct group of food isolates has specific core genome sequences. Such findings have epidemiological and evolutionary significance. Better understanding of the origin and reservoir of enterotoxic C. perfringens may allow for improved control of this organism in foods.

Xiao, Yinghua; Wagendorp, Arjen; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

2012-01-01

223

Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in the feces of healthy North Americans  

PubMed Central

We investigated the frequency of C. perfringens in the normal fecal flora of healthy North Americans. About half of 43 subjects were colonized with C. perfringens at levels of ~106 cfu/g feces. Only type A strains were recovered. Spores sometimes outnumbered vegetative cells. Several genotypes were found. Some donors carried two genotypes, some only one. We found no alpha, beta2 or enterotoxin in the stools of any donors. Though some isolates carried toxin genes (e.g. cpe and cpb2) on plasmids, we saw no indication that healthy humans are the reservoir for the chromosomally-borne cpe recovered from cases of C. perfringens food poisoning.

Carman, Robert J.; Sayeed, Sameera; Li, Jihong; Genheimer, Christopher W.; Hiltonsmith, Megan F.; Wilkins, Tracy D.; McClane, Bruce A.

2008-01-01

224

Purification and characterization of N-acetylneuraminate lyase from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens cells were cultivated on a large scale using an automatic system. 2) N-Acetylneuraminate lyase, which is a cytosolic enzyme, was liberated from the bacteria by cell lysis using lysozyme in hypotonic solution. The enzyme was purified 770-fold by precepitation with ammonium sulfate, filtration on Sephadex A-50 and final preparative electrophoresis in a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. Yield: 12 mg from 1 kg wet cell paste; specific activity: 167 nkat/mg protein. 3) The enzyme preparation appeared homogeneous in analytical disc electrophoresis, in gel electrophroesis in 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate or 8m urea and in immunoelectrophoresis. Contaminating enzyme activities were not detected. 4) The isoelectric point of pH 4.7 was found for the enzyme. At 278 nm a molar extinction coefficient of 6.4 x 10(4)M-1 Xcm-1 was determined. The enzyme exhibited a Km value for N-acetylneuraminic acid of 2.8mM at its pH optimum of pH 7.2. The pH dependence of the Km value gives evidence that an ionizing guoup in the active center of the enzyme with a pKe value of 6.4 may be involved in the catalytic reaction. Pyruvate inhibited the cleavage reaction of N-acetylneuraminic acid competitively; Ki = 2.9mM. 5) An average molecular weight of 99200 was determined for the native enzyme using different methods. After denaturation in sokium dodecylsulfate or urea, a mean molecular weight of only 50000 could be demonstrated, indicating the existence of two enzyme subunits. The lyase molecule was shown by electron microscopy, using a negative staining technique, to consist of two hemispherical parts. 6) Two active sites per native enzyme molecule, probably corresponding to one active site per subunit, were found by incubation of the enzyme with radioactive pyruvate followed by borohydride reduction. The results obtained from chemical modification of the lyase with 5-diazonium-1H-tetrazole and iodocaetamide under various conditionsare interpreted as evidence for the presence of two reactive histidine residues in the enzyme molecule. It is probable that one residue per subunit forms the nucleophilic group participating in enzyme catalysis. A model suggesting the mechanism of reversible cleavage of N-acylneuraminic acids by the lyase is presented. PMID:182637

Nees, S; Schauer, R; Mayer, F

1976-06-01

225

Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and pH on the inactivation of spores of Clostridium perfringens type A and Clostridium sporogenes in buffer solutions.  

PubMed

To develop a spore inactivation strategy, the effect of 15-min hydrostatic pressure treatments (550 and 650 MPa) at 55 and 75 degrees C in citric acid buffer (4.75 and 6.5 pH) on spores of 5 isolates of Clostridium perfringens type A carrying the gene that encodes the C. perfringens enterotoxin (cpe) on the chromosome (C-cpe), 4 isolates carrying the cpe gene on a plasmid (P-cpe), and 2 strains of C. sporogenes were investigated. Treatments at 650 MPa, 75 degrees C and pH 6.5 were moderately effective against spores of P-cpe (approximately 3.7 decimal reduction, DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 2.1 DR) but not for C-cpe (approximately 1.0 DR) spores. Treatments at pH 4.75 were moderately effective against spores of P-cpe (approximately 3.2 DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 2.5 DR) but not of C-cpe (approximately 1.2 DR) when combined with 550 MPa at 75 degrees C. However, when pressure was raised to 650 MPa under the same conditions, high inactivation of P-cpe (approximately 5.1 DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 5.8 DR) spores and moderate inactivation of C-cpe (approximately 2.8 DR) spores were observed. Further advances in high-pressure treatment strategies to inactivate spores of cpe-positive C. perfringens type A and C. sporogenes more efficiently are needed. PMID:17995687

Paredes-Sabja, D; Gonzalez, M; Sarker, M R; Torres, J A

2007-08-01

226

Identification of a key residue for oligomerisation and pore-formation of Clostridium perfringens NetB.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a ?-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis. PMID:24625763

Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Savva, Christos G; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Naylor, Claire E; Moss, David S; Basak, Ajit K; Titball, Richard W

2014-03-01

227

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of ?-toxin (perfringolysin O), a pore-forming cytolysin of Clostridium perfringens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-Toxin (perfringolysin O), a cholesterol-binding, pore-forming cytolysin of Clostridium perfringens type A was crystallized by the vapor diffusion procedure using polyethyleneglycol 4000 and sodium chloride as precipitants in 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) buffer at pH 9.5. The diffraction patterns of precession photographs indicated that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system and the space group C222 1 with unit-cell dimensions of a = 47.7 Ĺ, b = 182.0 Ĺ and c = 175.8 Ĺ. Assuming that the asymmetric unit contains one or two molecules (Mw 52 700), the Vm value is calculated as 3.6 or 1.8 Ĺ 3/dalton, respectively. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 3 Ĺ resolution and are suitable for high resolution X-ray crystal structure determination.

Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Miki, Kunio

1996-10-01

228

A serotyping system for Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) type A, and studies on the type-specific antigens.  

PubMed

A serotyping scheme for Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) type A employing 57 antisera has been used to investigate the epidemiology of 153 food-poisoning outbreaks and 32 cases of gas gangrene and other clinical infections. Respectively 65% and 59% of the isolates were typable, and in 55% of the food-poisoning outbreaks the causative serotypes were established. Isolation and reporting methods that would render the typing scheme of even greater epidemiological value are described. The type-specific antigen was shown to reside in the capsule and to be lost from strains that had become rough. Development of roughness and its prevention are described. A great range of antisera and an internationally acceptable serotyping scheme is expected after integration of this set with those developed independently in America and Japan. PMID:63553

Hughes, J A; Turnbull, P C; Stringer, M F

1976-11-01

229

Development and Application of a Mouse Intestinal Loop Model To Study the In Vivo Action of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin ?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning, the second most commonly identified bacterial food-borne illness in the United States. CPE is produced by sporulating C. perfringens cells in the small intestinal lumen, where it then causes epithelial cell damage and villous blunting that leads to diarrhea and cramping. Those effects are typically self-limiting; however, severe outbreaks of this food poisoning, particularly two occurring in psychiatric institutions, have involved deaths. Since animal models are currently limited for the study of the CPE action, a mouse ligated intestinal loop model was developed. With this model, significant lethality was observed after 2 h in loops receiving an inoculum of 100 or 200 ?g of CPE but not using a 50-?g toxin inoculum. A correlation was noted between the overall intestinal histological damage and lethality in mice. Serum analysis revealed a dose-dependent increase in serum CPE and potassium levels. CPE binding to the liver and kidney was detected, along with elevated levels of potassium in the serum. These data suggest that CPE can be absorbed from the intestine into the circulation, followed by the binding of the toxin to internal organs to induce potassium leakage, which can cause death. Finally, CPE pore complexes similar to those formed in tissue culture cells were detected in the intestine and liver, suggesting that (i) CPE actions are similar in vivo and in vitro and (ii) CPE-induced potassium release into blood may result from CPE pore formation in internal organs such as the liver.

Caserta, Justin A.; Robertson, Susan L.; Saputo, Juliann; Shrestha, Archana; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco A.

2011-01-01

230

Molecular Characterization of Podoviral Bacteriophages Virulent for Clostridium perfringens and Their Comparison with Members of the Picovirinae  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium responsible for human food-borne disease as well as non-food-borne human, animal and poultry diseases. Because bacteriophages or their gene products could be applied to control bacterial diseases in a species-specific manner, they are potential important alternatives to antibiotics. Consequently, poultry intestinal material, soil, sewage and poultry processing drainage water were screened for virulent bacteriophages that lysed C. perfringens. Two bacteriophages, designated ?CPV4 and ?ZP2, were isolated in the Moscow Region of the Russian Federation while another closely related virus, named ?CP7R, was isolated in the southeastern USA. The viruses were identified as members of the order Caudovirales in the family Podoviridae with short, non-contractile tails of the C1 morphotype. The genomes of the three bacteriophages were 17.972, 18.078 and 18.397 kbp respectively; encoding twenty-six to twenty-eight ORF's with inverted terminal repeats and an average GC content of 34.6%. Structural proteins identified by mass spectrometry in the purified ?CP7R virion included a pre-neck/appendage with putative lyase activity, major head, tail, connector/upper collar, lower collar and a structural protein with putative lysozyme-peptidase activity. All three podoviral bacteriophage genomes encoded a predicted N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a putative stage V sporulation protein. Each putative amidase contained a predicted bacterial SH3 domain at the C-terminal end of the protein, presumably involved with binding the C. perfringens cell wall. The predicted DNA polymerase type B protein sequences were closely related to other members of the Podoviridae including Bacillus phage ?29. Whole-genome comparisons supported this relationship, but also indicated that the Russian and USA viruses may be unique members of the sub-family Picovirinae.

Volozhantsev, Nikolay V.; Oakley, Brian B.; Morales, Cesar A.; Verevkin, Vladimir V.; Bannov, Vasily A.; Krasilnikova, Valentina M.; Popova, Anastasia V.; Zhilenkov, Eugeni L.; Garrish, Johnna K.; Schegg, Kathleen M.; Woolsey, Rebekah; Quilici, David R.; Line, J. Eric; Hiett, Kelli L.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Svetoch, Edward A.; Seal, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

231

Evaluation of Media, Time and Temperature of Incubation, and Method of Enumeration of Several Strains of Clostridium perfringens Spores  

PubMed Central

Two basal media, containing the ingredients found in common in both SPS (BBL) and TSN (BBL) media and in the previously described media of Schaedler et al. (1965) and Starr et al (1971), but minus antibiotics, were selected as the most suitable for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens spores in a model system. These media were also used to study the influence of the presence of glucose, xylose, or ribose in various concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0%) on colony morphology and spore recovery. As the sugar concentration in the basal agar medium increased, the colonies of all the test organisms also increased in size, and more of the black colonies became white in color. At the 1.0% sugar level, glucose permitted only white colony development, whereas the pentoses were completely inhibitory. Both pour plates and most-probable-number tubes were inoculated with the spores of several strains of C. perfringens and incubated at 20, 30, 37, and 45 C for 24, 48, and 72 h. Statistical analyses of the enumeration data indicated, at the 99% confidence level, that a Trypticase(BBL)-yeast extract-glucose-sulfite-iron agar gave maximal population estimates at 37 C in 72 h.

Clifford, Walter J.; Anellis, Abe; Ross, E. W.

1974-01-01

232

Xylanase supplementation to a wheat-based diet alleviated the intestinal mucosal barrier impairment of broiler chickens challenged by Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of xylanase on the intestinal mucosal barrier in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens in a 21-day experiment. A total of 336 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatment groups. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of enzyme addition (with or without xylanase 5500 U/kg wheat-based diet), pathogen challenge (with or without C. perfringens challenge), and their interactions. Most C. perfringens-challenged birds had a congested mucosa and focal haemorrhagic lesions in the jejunum. Xylanase addition tended to reduce (P=0.09) the intestinal lesion score in the challenged birds. C. perfringens challenge resulted in decreased villus height/crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). Xylanase supplementation significantly increased this ratio in the jejunum (P<0.05) and also had the tendency to decrease crypt depth (P=0.065) and increase this ratio in the ileum (P=0.087). Xylanase addition significantly decreased the plasma endotoxin levels of the birds challenged with C. perfringens (P<0.05). Occludin mRNA expression in the jejunum and ileum was significantly decreased by C. perfringens challenge (P<0.05), but xylanase addition significantly increased its expression in the ileum. Xylanase supplementation also significantly increased MUC2 mRNA expression in the ileum (P<0.05). C. perfringens challenge resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic index in all three intestinal segments (P<0.05), but xylanase supplementation obviously decreased apoptotic index in the ileum (P<0.05). In conclusion, xylanase supplementation could alleviate the impairment of intestinal mucosal barrier induced by C. perfringens challenge. PMID:22702457

Liu, Dan; Guo, Shuangshuang; Guo, Yuming

2012-01-01

233

Use of a Multiplex PCR for the Detection of Toxin-Encoding Genes netB and tpeL in Strains of Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Some studies have shown that the NetB toxin may be an important virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. Additionally, research has shown that strains of C. perfringens positive for both the netB gene and a second toxin-encoding gene, tpeL, appear to be more virulent than strains with only netB. In the past, detection of these genes has been performed relatively inefficiently using two single locus PCRs. This report describes a novel multiplex PCR developed to detect netB and tpeL simultaneously in C. perfringens strains isolated from cases of necrotic enteritis in broilers, providing a more efficient diagnostic tool in the screening of strains for these genes.

Bailey, Matthew A.; Macklin, Kenneth S.; Krehling, James T.

2013-01-01

234

Mode of Action of Clostridium Perfringens Initiation Protein (Spore-Lytic Enzyme),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of certain strains of C. perfringens to be partially recovered from thermal injury by the addition of lysozyme in the plating medium was described by Cassier and Sebald (4) and Duncan et al. (8). The same recovery phenomenon occurred using ste...

S. S. Tang R. G. Labbe

1987-01-01

235

Detection of a Group II Intron without an Open Reading Frame in the Alpha-Toxin Gene of Clostridium perfringens Isolated from a Broiler Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA insertion of 834 bp, designated CPF-G2Im, was identified within the alpha toxin gene (cpa )o f Clostridium perfringens strain CPBC16ML, isolated from a broiler chicken. Sequence analysis of CPF-G2Im indicated that it was integrated 340 nucleotides downstream of the start codon of cpa. However, the insertion did not abolish the phospholipase C and hemolytic activities of CPBC16ML. To

Menglin Ma; Kaori Ohtani; Tohru Shimizu; Naoaki Misawa

2007-01-01

236

Noncytotoxic Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) Variants Localize CPE Intestinal Binding and Demonstrate a Relationship between CPE-Induced Cytotoxicity and Enterotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the symptoms of a very common food poisoning. To assess whether CPE-induced cytotoxicity is necessary for enterotoxicity, a rabbit ileal loop model was used to compare the in vivo effects of native CPE or recombinant CPE (rCPE), both of which are cytotoxic, with those of the noncytotoxic rCPE variants rCPE D48A and rCPE168-319. Both CPE

James G. Smedley III; Juliann Saputo; Jacquelyn C. Parker; Mariano E. Fernandez-Miyakawa; Susan L. Robertson; Bruce A. McClane; Francisco A. Uzal

2008-01-01

237

The relationship between the presence of Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium perfringens type A, Campylobacter spp, or fungi and fatal abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves.  

PubMed Central

A case-control study involving 30 unweaned beef calves was conducted to determine whether specific species of bacteria or fungi were associated with fatal abomasal ulcer formation. Special microbiological and histological techniques were used to detect Clostridium perfringens type A, Helicobacter pylori, or Campylobacter spp. It has been speculated that these bacteria are potential ulcerogenic agents of unweaned beef calves. Calves were recruited for the study at necropsy, with those dying of either a perforating or a hemorrhagic ulcer representing the cases, and calves of a similar age dying of a disease unrelated to the abomasum representing the controls. Helicobacter pylori was not visualized in or cultured from any of the abomasal tissue samples. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from 78.6% of the cases and 75% of the controls. These isolates were further dichotomized into "heavy" and "light" growth; no significant association was found between ulcers and the amount of growth. A light growth of Campylobacter spp. was recovered from 3 cases and 3 controls. There was no compelling evidence to suggest that Clostridium perfringens type A, Helicobacter pylori, or Campylobacter spp. were involved in ulcer formation.

Jelinski, M D; Ribble, C S; Chirino-Trejo, M; Clark, E G; Janzen, E D

1995-01-01

238

Gas gangrene caused by clostridium perfringens involving the liver, spleen, and heart in a man 20 years after an orthotopic liver transplant: a case report.  

PubMed

Despite advances in immunosuppression and liver transplant in the past, mortality and morbidity caused by infections remain major problems. We present a 71-year-old man who was admitted to our internal intensive care unit with septicemia. Upon admission, he had poorly localized epigastric pain and fever of 2 days ' duration. Twenty years earlier, he had undergone an orthotopic liver transplant. Testing revealed a high C-reactive protein level, elevated liver enzymes, and an acute kidney injury. A computer tomography scan showed 2 circular, non--rim-enhancing, totally emphysematous intrahepatic lesions. Additionally, gas could be seen in the portal veins mainly, as well as in the biliary system, in the right auricle, and the splenic veins. To the best of our knowledge, he showed no malignant lesion or predisposing trauma. Empirically, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was begun, and the patient was transferred to the operating suite. When surgery began, blood cultures revealed the presence of gram-positive bacilli, which were identified as Clostridium perfringens. Seven hours after the surgery, the patient developed asystole and died. In septic patients presenting with severe hemolysis, Clostridium perfringens infection must be considered in the absence of a malignant lesion or a predisposing trauma; a previous episode of gastroenteritis might be a predisposing trauma by impairing the barrier of the intestinal flora, leading to Clostridium perfringens infection. PMID:23962047

Kitterer, Daniel; Braun, Niko; Jehs, Margit C; Schulte, Bernhard; Alscher, M Dominik; Latus, Joerg

2014-04-01

239

Effect of meat ingredients (sodium nitrite and erythorbate) and processing (vacuum storage and packaging atmosphere) on germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores in ham during abusive cooling.  

PubMed

The effect of nitrite and erythorbate on Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ham during abusive cooling (15 h) was evaluated. Ham was formulated with ground pork, NaNO2 (0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) and sodium erythorbate (0 or 547 ppm). Ten grams of meat (stored at 5 °C for 3 or 24 h after preparation) were transferred to a vacuum bag and inoculated with a three-strain C. perfringens spore cocktail to obtain an inoculum of ca. 2.5 log spores/g. The bags were vacuum-sealed, and the meat was heat treated (75 °C, 20 min) and cooled within 15 h from 54.4 to 7.2 °C. Residual nitrite was determined before and after heat treatment using ion chromatography with colorimetric detection. Cooling of ham (control) stored for 3 and 24 h, resulted in C. perfringens population increases of 1.46 and 4.20 log CFU/g, respectively. For samples that contained low NaNO2 concentrations and were stored for 3 h, C. perfringens populations of 5.22 and 2.83 log CFU/g were observed with or without sodium erythorbate, respectively. Residual nitrite was stable (p > 0.05) for both storage times. Meat processing ingredients (sodium nitrite and sodium erythorbate) and their concentrations, and storage time subsequent to preparation of meat (oxygen content) affect C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during abusive cooling of ham. PMID:23664261

Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Valenzuela-Martinez, Carol; Cassada, David A; Snow, Daniel D; Juneja, Vijay K; Burson, Dennis E; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

2013-09-01

240

Studies on nitrate reductase of Clostridium perfringens. Purification, some properties, and effect of tungstate on its formation.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase (NaR) linked to reduced methyl viologen from Clostridium perfringens was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. DEAE-cellulose chromatography, disc electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and triple DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. The specific activity was increased 1,200-fold with a yield of 9%. The purified preparation was nearly homogeneous in disc electrophoresis. It was brown, and its spectrum showed a slight shoulder near 420 nm as well as a peak at 280 nm. The molecular weight was found to be 90,000 based on s020,w (5.8S) and 80,000 by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. In SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, it showed only a single band with a molecular weight of 90,000; it had no subunit structure. The isoelectric point was pH 5.5, and the optimum pH was 9. Mn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ stimulated the activity. Km for nitrate was 0.10 mM, and nitrate was stoichiometrically reduced to nitrite in the presence of 2 mM Mn2+. Ferredoxin fraction obtained from extracts of the bacterium was utilizable as an electron donor at pH 8. Cyanide and azide inhibited the enzyme. The formation of NaR was induced by nitrate and inhibited by 0.5 mM tungstate, but recovered in the presence of 0.1 mM molybdate; NaR of C. perfringens appears to be a molybdo-iron-sulfur protein. PMID:202590

Seki-Chiba, S; Ishimoto, M

1977-12-01

241

Novel Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin suicide gene therapy for selective treatment of claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing tumors.  

PubMed

Bacterial toxins are known to be effective for cancer therapy. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is produced by the bacterial Clostridium type A strain. The transmembrane proteins claudin-3 and -4, often overexpressed in numerous human epithelial tumors (for example, colon, breast, pancreas, prostate and ovarian), are the targeted receptors for CPE. CPE binding to them triggers formation of membrane pore complexes leading to rapid cell death. In this study, we aimed at selective tumor cell killing by CPE gene transfer. We generated expression vectors bearing the bacterial wild-type CPE cDNA (wtCPE) or translation-optimized CPE (optCPE) cDNA for in vitro and in vivo gene therapy of claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing tumors. The CPE expression analysis at messenger RNA and protein level revealed more efficient expression of optCPE compared with wtCPE. Expression of optCPE showed rapid cytotoxic activity, hightened by CPE release as bystander effect. Cytotoxicity of up to 100% was observed 72?h after gene transfer and is restricted to claudin-3-and -4-expressing tumor lines. MCF-7 and HCT116 cells with high claudin-4 expression showed dramatic sensitivity toward CPE toxicity. The claudin-negative melanoma line SKMel-5, however, was insensitive toward CPE gene transfer. The non-viral intratumoral in vivo gene transfer of optCPE led to reduced tumor growth in MCF-7 and HCT116 tumor-bearing mice compared with the vector-transfected control groups. This novel approach demonstrates that CPE gene transfer can be employed for a targeted suicide gene therapy of claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing tumors, leading to the rapid and efficient tumor cell killing in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21975465

Walther, W; Petkov, S; Kuvardina, O N; Aumann, J; Kobelt, D; Fichtner, I; Lemm, M; Piontek, J; Blasig, I E; Stein, U; Schlag, P M

2012-05-01

242

Determination of the incidence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens in wild birds near broiler chicken houses by sampling intestinal droppings.  

PubMed

Several methods were evaluated for collecting fecal and intestinal samples from wild birds found near broiler chicken houses. A few intestinal samples and cloacal swabs were obtained from European starlings and house sparrows. Most of the samples collected consisted of wild bird droppings found on or near the houses. Samples were collected from each of four farms of a broiler integrator during a grow-out cycle: a cycle in the summer for farm A, fall for farm B, and spring, summer, fall, and winter for farms C and D. Of the 25 wild bird intestinal and fecal samples collected from a broiler house on farm A during a grow-out cycle in July-August 1997, 24% were positive for Salmonella spp., 4% for Campylobacter jejuni, and 28% for Clostridium perfringens. Of the nine fecal samples collected from broiler house B in a grow-out cycle in September-November 1997, 33% were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 22% for C. perfringens. For farms C and D, of the 23 samples collected in March-April 1998, 0 were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 52% for C. perfringens; of 27 samples collected in June-July 1998, 4% were positive for Salmonella spp., 0 for C. jejuni, and 13% for C. perfringens; of 24 samples collected in August-October 1998, 14% were positive for Salmonella spp., 5% for C. jejuni, and 4% for C. perfringens; of 14 samples collected December 1998-January 1999, 0 were positive for Salmonella, 50% for C. jejuni, and 14% for C. perfringens. The incidence of these bacterial enteropathogens in wild birds near the broiler chicken houses suggests that wild birds that gain entry to poultry grow-out houses have the potential to transmit these pathogens to poultry. PMID:11007026

Craven, S E; Stern, N J; Line, E; Bailey, J S; Cox, N A; Fedorka-Cray, P

2000-01-01

243

The VirS/VirR Two-Component System Regulates the Anaerobic Cytotoxicity, Intestinal Pathogenicity, and Enterotoxemic Lethality of Clostridium perfringens Type C Isolate CN3685  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells cause both histotoxic infections (e.g., gas gangrene) and diseases originating in the intestines (e.g., hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis or lethal enterotoxemia). Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the molecular pathogenicity of C. perfringens vegetative cells causing diseases of intestinal origin remains poorly understood. However, C. perfringens beta toxin (CPB) was recently shown to be important when vegetative cells of C. perfringens type C strain CN3685 induce hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis and lethal enterotoxemia. Additionally, the VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system was found to control CPB production by CN3685 vegetative cells during aerobic infection of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. Using an isogenic virR null mutant, the current study now reports that the VirS/VirR system also regulates CN3685 cytotoxicity during infection of Caco-2 cells under anaerobic conditions, as found in the intestines. More importantly, the virR mutant lost the ability to cause hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis in rabbit small intestinal loops. Western blot analyses demonstrated that the VirS/VirR system mediates necrotizing enteritis, at least in part, by controlling in vivo CPB production. In addition, vegetative cells of the isogenic virR null mutant were, relative to wild-type vegetative cells, strongly attenuated in their lethality in a mouse enterotoxemia model. Collectively, these results identify the first regulator of in vivo pathogenicity for C. perfringens vegetative cells causing disease originating in the complex intestinal environment. Since VirS/VirR also mediates histotoxic infections, this two-component regulatory system now assumes a global role in regulating a spectrum of infections caused by C. perfringens vegetative cells.

Ma, Menglin; Vidal, Jorge; Saputo, Juliann; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco

2011-01-01

244

Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Is Sequence Related to Beta Toxin, NetB, and Staphylococcus Pore-Forming Toxins, but Shows Functional Differences  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens produces numerous toxins, which are responsible for severe diseases in man and animals. Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysins released by a number of C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. Delta toxin was characterized to be cytotoxic for cells expressing the ganglioside GM2 in their membrane. Here we report the genetic characterization of Delta toxin and its pore forming activity in lipid bilayers. Delta toxin consists of 318 amino acids, its 28 N-terminal amino acids corresponding to a signal peptide. The secreted Delta toxin (290 amino acids; 32619 Da) is a basic protein (pI 9.1) which shows a significant homology with C. perfringens Beta toxin (43% identity), with C. perfringens NetB (40% identity) and, to a lesser extent, with Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin and leukotoxins. Recombinant Delta toxin showed a preference for binding to GM2, in contrast to Beta toxin, which did not bind to gangliosides. It is hemolytic for sheep red blood cells and cytotoxic for HeLa cells. In artificial diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes, Delta and Beta toxin formed channels. Conductance of the channels formed by Delta toxin, with a value of about 100 pS to more than 1 nS in 1 M KCl and a membrane potential of 20 mV, was higher than those formed by Beta toxin and their distribution was broader. The results of zero-current membrane potential measurements and single channel experiments suggest that Delta toxin forms slightly anion-selective channels, whereas the Beta toxin channels showed a preference for cations under the same conditions. C. perfringens Delta toxin shows a significant sequence homolgy with C. perfringens Beta and NetB toxins, as well as with S. aureus alpha hemolysin and leukotoxins, but exhibits different channel properties in lipid bilayers. In contrast to Beta toxin, Delta toxin recognizes GM2 as receptor and forms anion-selective channels.

Manich, Maria; Knapp, Oliver; Gibert, Maryse; Maier, Elke; Jolivet-Reynaud, Colette; Geny, Blandine; Benz, Roland; Popoff, Michel R.

2008-01-01

245

Expression of a Clostridium perfringens genome-encoded putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase as a potential antimicrobial to control the bacterium  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a substantial role in non-foodborne human, animal, and avian diseases as well as human foodborne disease. Previously discovered C. perfringens bacteriophage lytic enzyme amino acid sequences were utilized to identify putative prophage lysins or autolysins by BLAST analyses encoded by the genomes of C. perfringens isolates. A predicted N-acetylmuramoyl–l-alanine amidase or MurnAc–lAA (also known as peptidoglycan aminohydrolase, NAMLA amidase, NAMLAA, amidase 3, and peptidoglycan amidase; EC 3.5.1.28) was identified that would hydrolyze the amide bond between N-acetylmuramoyl and l-amino acids in certain cell wall glycopeptides. The gene encoding this protein was subsequently cloned from genomic DNA of a C. perfringens isolate by polymerase chain reaction, and the gene product (PlyCpAmi) was expressed to determine if it could be utilized as an antimicrobial to control the bacterium. By spot assay, lytic zones were observed for the purified amidase and the E. coli expression host cellular lysate containing the amidase gene. Turbidity reduction and plate counts of C. perfringens cultures were significantly reduced by the expressed protein and observed morphologies for cells treated with the amidase appeared vacuolated, non-intact, and injured compared to the untreated cells. Among a variety of C. perfringens strains, there was little gene sequence heterogeneity that varied from 1 to 21 nucleotide differences. The results further demonstrate that it is possible to discover lytic proteins encoded in the genomes of bacteria that could be utilized to control bacterial pathogens.

Tillman, Glenn E.; Simmons, Mustafa; Garrish, Johnna K.; Seal, Bruce S.

2014-01-01

246

Haemorhagic enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type C and type A in silver foxes.  

PubMed

Type C and type A of C. perfringens were detected in the seat of natural infections in silver foxes characterized by symptoms of haemorrhagic enterotoxemia. In all of the dead foxes characteristic changes were noted in the small intestine and parenchymatous organs. The production of alpha and beta toxins by isolated bacteria was confirmed by the bioassay using white mice and by PCR. The results of the drug sensitivity testing showed that isolated strains were highly susceptible to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, metronidazole, doxycycline and penicillin with streptomycin. PMID:24724490

Jarosz, ? S; Gradzki, Z; Smiech, A; Kalinowski, M

2014-01-01

247

A claudin 3 and claudin 4-targeted Clostridium perfringens protoxin is selectively cytotoxic to PSA-producing prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of non-cutaneous cancer-related death in males, and effective strategies for treatment of metastatic disease are currently limited. The tight junction proteins, claudin 3 and claudin 4, serve as cell-surface receptors for the pore-forming Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin [CPE]. Most prostate cancer cells overexpress claudin 3 and claudin 4, and claudins are aberrantly distributed over the plasma membrane, making these cells particularly sensitive to cytolysis by CPE. Prostate cancer cells secrete PSA locally that is proteolytically active; however, circulating PSA is inactivated via binding to protease inhibitors. To overcome systemic toxicity of CPE, a modified protoxin was constructed with a tethered ligand attached to the C-terminus connected by a flexible linker containing a PSA-specific protease cleavage site. This engineered protoxin selectively and efficiently lyses PSA-producing prostate cancer cells whereas CLDN3 and CLDN4 positive cells that do not express PSA are resistant to cytolysis. PMID:24952257

Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Gabig, Theodore G

2014-09-01

248

Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C induced ROS production and cytotoxicity require PKC, MEK1 and NF?B activation.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called ?-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NF?B signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NF?B pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NF?B inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

2014-01-01

249

Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is produced in the intestines of broiler chicks inoculated with an alpha toxin mutant.  

PubMed

Poultry necrotic enteritis (NE) is caused by specific strains of Clostridium perfringens, most of which are type A. The role of alpha toxin (CPA) in NE has been called into question by the finding that an engineered cpa mutant retains full virulence in vivo[9]. This is in contrast to the finding that immunization with CPA toxoids protects against NE. We confirmed the earlier findings, in that 14-day-old Cornish × Rock broiler chicks challenged with a cpa mutant developed lesions compatible with NE in >90% of birds inoculated with the mutant. However, CPA was detected in amounts ranging from 10 to >100 ng per g of gut contents and mucosa in birds inoculated with the cpa mutant, the wildtype strain from which the mutant was constructed, and our positive control strain. There was a direct relationship between lesion severity and amount of CPA detected (R = 0.89-0.99). These findings suggest that the role of CPA in pathogenesis of NE requires further investigation. PMID:20934524

Coursodon, Christine F; Trinh, Hien T; Mallozzi, Michael; Vedantam, Gayatri; Glock, R D; Songer, J G

2010-12-01

250

A toxicological evaluation of a claudin modulator, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, in mice.  

PubMed

Tight junctions (TJs) maintain cellular polarity between the apical and basolateral region of epithelial cells. Claudin, a tetra-transmembrane protein, plays a pivotal role in the barrier function of TJs. We previously found that a claudin modulator, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), may be a promising candidate for improving the mucosal absorption of drugs. C-CPE is a fragment of enterotoxin, and putative CPE claudin receptors are highly expressed in liver and kidney. The safety and antigenicity of C-CPE must be evaluated for future clinical application. Therefore, we evaluated whether C-CPE administration in mice leads to tissue injury or production of antibodies. Intravenous administration of C-CPE at 5 mg/kg, which is a more than 25-fold higher dose than that used in a murine mucosal absorption model, did not increase biochemical markers of liver and kidney injury even after 11 injections once a week. Nasal C-CPE administration (2 mg/kg) once a week for 11 administrations also did not increase these biochemical markers, but 6 administrations of C-CPE resulted in elevation of C-CPE-specific serum IgG. These results indicate that development of a less antigenic claudin modulator will be essential for future clinical application of a C-CPE-based mucosal absorption enhancer. PMID:21812332

Suzuki, H; Kondoh, M; Li, X; Takahashi, A; Matsuhisa, K; Matsushita, K; Kakamu, Y; Yamane, S; Kodaka, M; Isoda, K; Yagi, K

2011-07-01

251

Clostridium perfringens Phospholipase C Induced ROS Production and Cytotoxicity Require PKC, MEK1 and NF?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called ?-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NF?B signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NF?B pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NF?B inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis.

Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Diaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

2014-01-01

252

Beta2 toxin is not involved in in vitro cell cytotoxicity caused by human and porcine cpb2-harbouring Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of intestinal disease in animals and humans. Its pathogenicity is attributed to the toxins it can produce, including the beta2 toxin. The presence of cpb2, the gene encoding the beta2 toxin, has been associated with diarrhoea in neonatal piglets and humans. However, the exact role of the beta2 toxin in the development of diarrhoea is still unknown. In this study we investigated the level of cytotoxicity to porcine IPI-21 and human Caco-2 cell-lines caused by porcine and human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens and the significance of the beta2 toxin for the induction of cell cytotoxicity. Supernatants of porcine cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains were cytotoxic to both cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity caused by supernatant of human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains was variable among strains. However, removal of the beta2 toxin by anti-beta2 toxin antibodies or degradation of the beta2 toxin by trypsin did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of any of the supernatants. These data suggest that beta2 toxin does not play a role in the development of cell cytotoxicity in in vitro experiments. In vivo studies are necessary to definitely define the role of beta2 toxin in the development of cell cytotoxicity and subsequent diarrhoea. PMID:24768003

Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Vernooij, Johannes C M; Gröne, Andrea

2014-06-25

253

Reactive oxygen species and the MEK/ERK pathway are involved in the toxicity of clostridium perfringens ?-toxin, a prototype bacterial phospholipase C.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens, the most broadly distributed pathogen in nature, produces a prototype phospholipase C, also called ?-toxin, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. ?-Toxin causes plasma membrane disruption at high concentrations, but the role of intracellular mediators in its toxicity at low concentrations is unknown. This work demonstrates that ?-toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway in cultured cells and furthermore provides compelling evidence that O(2)(-.), hydrogen peroxide, and the OH(.) radical are involved in its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. The data show that antioxidants and MEK1 inhibitors reduce the cytotoxic and myotoxic effects of ?-toxin and demonstrate that edaravone, a clinically used hydroxyl radical trap, reduces the myonecrosis and the mortality caused by an experimental infection with C. perfringens in a murine model of gas gangrene. This knowledge provides new insights for the development of novel therapies to reduce tissue damage during clostridial myonecrosis. PMID:22904339

Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Araya-Castillo, Cindy; Pineda-Padilla, María-José; Clark, Graeme C; Titball, Richard W; Alape-Girón, Alberto

2012-10-01

254

High-level expression of his-tagged clostridial collagenase in Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium histolyticum collagenase is used to isolate cells from various organs and tissues for tissue engineering, and also to treat destructive\\u000a fibrosis; thus, the demand for high-grade enzyme preparations is increasing. In this study, we constructed a plasmid encoding\\u000a C. histolyticum type II collagenase (ColH) with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (ColH-his) to facilitate the purification of the enzyme through\\u000a immobilized

Eiji Tamai; Shigeru Miyata; Hiroaki Tanaka; Hirofumi Nariya; Motoo Suzuki; Osamu Matsushita; Naoya Hatano; Akinobu Okabe

2008-01-01

255

Controlled multiplex PCR of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains in food samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection ofClostridium(C.)perfringensenterotoxin gene (cpe) was established and compared with anin vitroantigenic detection method. ThecpePCR and the classical method of electric immunodiffusion gave identical results. The predicted specific amplicon of thecpegene was generated from all of the tested enterotoxigenicC. perfringensstrains. In contrast, cultures of any otherClostridiumspecies tested by PCR were negative (100%

H Schoepe; H Potschka; T Schlapp; J Fiedler; H Schau; G Baljer

1998-01-01

256

Xylanase supplementation of a wheat-based diet improved nutrient digestion and mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.05). During infection (d 14-21), challenge tended to decrease ADG (P = 0.063) and significantly increased FCR (P < 0.05), whereas xylanase addition greatly reduced FCR (P < 0.05). Clostridium perfringens infection decreased AME values and apparent ileal digestibility of DM of diets (P < 0.05). Xylanase supplementation increased AME values regardless of infection and apparent ileal digestibility of CP in challenged birds (P < 0.05). Activities of duodenal ?-amylase and chymotrypsin and pancreatic trypsin were decreased by C. perfringens infection (P < 0.05). Xylanase supplementation elevated pancreatic chymotrypsin activity and reduced duodenal ?-amylase and trypsin activities (P < 0.05). It also decreased jejunal ?-amylase activity and increased pancreatic ?-amylase as well as jejunal sucrase activities in uninfected birds (P < 0.05). The duodenal mRNA expression of sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), H(+)-dependent peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) were downregulated (P < 0.05), but ileal SGLT1 gene expression was increased by infection (P < 0.05). Xylanase addition upregulated expression of jejunal SGLT1, PepT1, and L-FABP genes as well as ileal PepT1 and L-FABP genes in challenged broilers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, xylanase supplementation of wheat-based diets improved FCR and AME in birds irrespective of C. perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds. PMID:24570428

Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming

2014-01-01

257

Characterization of bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and identification of phage lytic enzymes as alternatives to antibiotics for potential control of the bacterium1  

PubMed Central

There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control bacterial pathogens as alternatives to currently used antibiotics. Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human foodborne disease as well as nonfoodborne human, animal, and avian diseases. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feeds have reported increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated diseases in poultry. To address these issues, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins encoded by the genomes of bacteriophages, are being identified in our laboratory. Poultry intestinal material, soil, sewage, and poultry processing drainage water were screened for virulent bacteriophages that could lyse C. perfringens and produce clear plaques in spot assays. Bacteriophages were isolated that had long noncontractile tails, members of the family Siphoviridae, and with short noncontractile tails, members of the family Podoviridae. Several bacteriophage genes were identified that encoded N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, lysozyme-endopeptidases, and a zinc carboxypeptidase domain that has not been previously reported in viral genomes. Putative phage lysin genes (ply) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant lysins were amidases capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays, but did not lyse any clostridia beyond the species. Consequently, bacteriophage gene products could eventually be used to target bacterial pathogens, such as C. perfringens via a species-specific strategy, to control animal and human diseases without having deleterious effects on beneficial probiotic bacteria.

Seal, Bruce S.

2014-01-01

258

Tissue distribution and safety evaluation of a claudin-targeting molecule, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.  

PubMed

We previously found that claudin (CL) is a potent target for cancer therapy using a CL-3 and -4-targeting molecule, namely the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE). Although CL-3 and -4 are expressed in various normal tissues, the safety of this CL-targeting strategy has never been investigated. Here, we evaluated the tissue distribution of C-CPE in mice. Ten minutes after intravenous injection into mice, C-CPE was distributed to the liver and kidney (24.0% and 9.5% of the injected dose, respectively). The hepatic level gradually fell to 3.2% of the injected dose by 3 h post-injection, whereas the renal C-CPE level gradually rose to 46.5% of the injected dose by 6 h post-injection and then decreased. A C-CPE mutant protein lacking the ability to bind CL accumulated in the liver to a much lesser extent (2.0% of the dose at 10 min post-injection) than did C-CPE, but its renal profile was similar to that of C-CPE. To investigate the acute toxicity of CL-targeted toxin, we intravenously administered C-CPE-fused protein synthesis inhibitory factor to mice. The CL-targeted toxin dose-dependently increased the levels of serum biomarkers of liver injury, but not of kidney injury. Histological examination confirmed that injection of CL-targeted toxin injured the liver but not the kidney. These results indicate that potential adverse hepatic effects should be considered in C-CPE-based cancer therapy. PMID:24231339

Li, Xiangru; Saeki, Rie; Watari, Akihiro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

2014-02-14

259

In vivo antimicrobial potentials of garlic against Clostridium perfringens and its promotant effects on performance of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate in vivo antimicrobial potential of garlic against Clostridium perferinges and resultant promotant effects on performance of the broiler chickens. Garlic powder was used as an alternative to GPAs (Growth Promotant Antibiotics) to prevent subclinical Necrotic Enteritis (NE) due to C. perferinges. 120 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed to six treatment groups of 20 chicks each (2 replicates(-10) chicks). Six isonutrient diets supplemented with garlic at graded levels of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g kg(-1) were fed to the birds for seven weeks. Data were collected weekly on performance parameters including feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Also, on the 21 35 and 49th days of the study, two birds per group were randomly selected, slaughtered and dissected. 1 g of caecal contents per each bird were sampled into labelled sterile sample bottles. The samples were subjected to culturing, bacterial identification and colony counting. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that garlic significantly (p > 0.05) depressed feed intake (3310 g feed/bird at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation) but improved FCR. The supplement has no significant effect on weight gain but C. perfringens colony counts in the treated groups, were numerically reduced (lowest count, 0.93 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation), as compared to the control. It is therefore concluded that diets could be supplemented with garlic at dose range of 1.0 to 1.5 g kg(-1) to prevent subclinical NE and achieve improved performance in birds. PMID:24517015

Jimoh, A A; Ibitoye, E B; Dabai, Y U; Garba, S

2013-12-15

260

Analysis of genetic similarities between Clostridium perfringens isolates isolated from patients with gas gangrene and from hospital environment conducted with the use of the PFGE method.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of genetic similarity, with the use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), of Clostridium perfringens isolates originating from patients with gas gangrene and from the hospital environment. The study encompassed two patients with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene, who were hospitalized in one of the hospitals of the Ma?opolska province in the time period between 31st March 2012 and 18th May 2012. Clostridium perfringens isolates genotyping indicated that the isolates originating from the two studied patients did not display genetic similarity and represented two different PFGE types, which corresponded to two different clones (clone A and B). Whereas the strains isolated from the hospital environment were genetically identical with the strain coming from the second patient and represented one PFGE type, which corresponded to one clone (clone A). As a result of the study, it is possible to conclude that both patients developed endogenous infection. Even so, the examination of the hospital environment indicates the possibility of the appearance of exogenous infections. It prompts recommending and following the exact regulations of sanitary regime in the ward and the operating theater if a patient is diagnosed with gas gangrene. PMID:24791817

Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Bulanda, Ma?gorzata

2014-03-01

261

The Clostridium perfringens Germinant Receptor Protein GerKC Is Located in the Spore Inner Membrane and Is Crucial for Spore Germination  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium perfringens causes a variety of diseases in both humans and animals, and spore germination is thought to be the first stage of C. perfringens infection. Previous studies have indicated that the germinant receptor (GR) proteins encoded by the bicistronic gerKA-gerKC operon as well as the proteins encoded by the gerKB and gerAA genes are required for normal germination of C. perfringens spores. We now report the individual role of these GR proteins by analyzing the germination of strains carrying mutations in gerKA, gerKC, or both gerKB and gerAA. Western blot analysis was also used to determine the location and numbers of GerKC proteins in spores. Conclusions from this work include the following: (i) gerKC mutant spores germinate extremely poorly with KCl, l-asparagine, a mixture of asparagine and KCl, or NaPi; (ii) gerKC spores germinate significantly more slowly than wild-type and other GR mutant spores with a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid and very slightly more slowly with dodecylamine; (iii) the germination defects in gerKC spores are largely restored by expressing the wild-type gerKA-gerKC operon in trans; (iv) GerKC is required for the spores' viability, almost certainly because of the gerKC spores' poor germination; and (v) GerKC is located in the spores' inner membrane, with ?250 molecules/spore. Collectively, these results indicate that GerKC is the main GR protein required for nutrient and nonnutrient germination of spores of C. perfringens food-poisoning isolates.

Banawas, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Korza, George; Li, Yunfeng; Hao, Bing; Setlow, Peter

2013-01-01

262

Development of an integrated model for heat transfer and dynamic growth of Clostridium perfringens during the cooling of cooked boneless ham.  

PubMed

Numerous small meat processors in the United States have difficulties complying with the stabilization performance standards for preventing growth of Clostridium perfringens by 1 log10 cycle during cooling of ready-to-eat (RTE) products. These standards were established by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture in 1999. In recent years, several attempts have been made to develop predictive models for growth of C. perfringens within the range of cooling temperatures included in the FSIS standards. Those studies mainly focused on microbiological aspects, using hypothesized cooling rates. Conversely, studies dealing with heat transfer models to predict cooling rates in meat products do not address microbial growth. Integration of heat transfer relationships with C. perfringens growth relationships during cooling of meat products has been very limited. Therefore, a computer simulation scheme was developed to analyze heat transfer phenomena and temperature-dependent C. perfringens growth during cooling of cooked boneless cured ham. The temperature history of ham was predicted using a finite element heat diffusion model. Validation of heat transfer predictions used experimental data collected in commercial meat-processing facilities. For C. perfringens growth, a dynamic model was developed using Baranyi's nonautonomous differential equation. The bacterium's growth model was integrated into the computer program using predicted temperature histories as input values. For cooling cooked hams from 66.6 degrees C to 4.4 degrees C using forced air, the maximum deviation between predicted and experimental core temperature data was 2.54 degrees C. Predicted C. perfringens growth curves obtained from dynamic modeling showed good agreement with validated results for three different cooling scenarios. Mean absolute values of relative errors were below 6%, and deviations between predicted and experimental cell counts were within 0.37 log10 CFU/g. For a cooling process which was in exact compliance with the FSIS stabilization performance standards, a mean net growth of 1.37 log10 CFU/g was predicted. This study introduced the combination of engineering modeling and microbiological modeling as a useful quantitative tool for general food safety applications, such as risk assessment and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) plans. PMID:15862875

Amézquita, A; Weller, C L; Wang, L; Thippareddi, H; Burson, D E

2005-05-25

263

Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.  

PubMed

The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease. PMID:2894790

Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

1988-02-01

264

Toxin-associated and other genes in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS)  

PubMed Central

This study examined known or possible virulence-associated genes in type A Clostridium perfringens from cases of both bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and compared these to isolates from calves that were healthy or had undifferentiated diarrheal illness. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to genotype the 218 C. perfringens isolates. Isolates were sourced from healthy and diarrheic young and mature cattle (n = 191), from calves with confirmed or suspected BCA (n = 22), and from mature cattle with JHS (n = 5). Of 216 isolates (96%), 208 were positive for the cpa gene and 13% (29/218) were positive for atypical cpb2. Three of 8 (37.5%) confirmed BCA isolates, 2 of 13 (15.4%) suspected BCA isolates, and no JHS isolates tested positive for atypical cpb2. As all isolates were negative for cpb, cpb2, cpe, etx, netB, and tpeL, the results of the present study do not support a role for these genes in BCA or JHS. A subset of unique genes identified in 1 bovine clostridial abomasitis isolate (F262), for which a genome sequence is available, was searched for in 8 BCA isolates by PCR. None of the 10 genes was consistently present in all or even in a majority of BCA isolates. Many of these genes were also variably and inconsistently present in type A isolates from calves that did not have BCA. Although a virulence signature to aid in the diagnosis of BCA caused by C. perfringens type A was not identified, further work may discover a gene or group of genes that would constitute such a signature.

Schlegel, Benjamin J.; Nowell, Victoria J.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Soltes, Glenn; Prescott, John F.

2012-01-01

265

Toxin-associated and other genes in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS).  

PubMed

This study examined known or possible virulence-associated genes in type A Clostridium perfringens from cases of both bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and compared these to isolates from calves that were healthy or had undifferentiated diarrheal illness. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to genotype the 218 C. perfringens isolates. Isolates were sourced from healthy and diarrheic young and mature cattle (n = 191), from calves with confirmed or suspected BCA (n = 22), and from mature cattle with JHS (n = 5). Of 216 isolates (96%), 208 were positive for the cpa gene and 13% (29/218) were positive for atypical cpb2. Three of 8 (37.5%) confirmed BCA isolates, 2 of 13 (15.4%) suspected BCA isolates, and no JHS isolates tested positive for atypical cpb2. As all isolates were negative for cpb, cpb2, cpe, etx, netB, and tpeL, the results of the present study do not support a role for these genes in BCA or JHS. A subset of unique genes identified in 1 bovine clostridial abomasitis isolate (F262), for which a genome sequence is available, was searched for in 8 BCA isolates by PCR. None of the 10 genes was consistently present in all or even in a majority of BCA isolates. Many of these genes were also variably and inconsistently present in type A isolates from calves that did not have BCA. Although a virulence signature to aid in the diagnosis of BCA caused by C. perfringens type A was not identified, further work may discover a gene or group of genes that would constitute such a signature. PMID:23543949

Schlegel, Benjamin J; Nowell, Victoria J; Parreira, Valeria R; Soltes, Glenn; Prescott, John F

2012-10-01

266

Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

Lisle, J. T.; Smith, J. J.; Edwards, D. D.; McFeters, G. A.

2004-01-01

267

Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

Ao, Z.; Kocher, A.; Choct, M.

2012-01-01

268

Modeling of Clostridium perfringens vegetative cell inactivation in beef-in-sauce products: a meta-analysis using mixed linear models.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to predict Clostridium perfringens vegetative cell inactivation during the final reheating step of two beef-in-sauce products prepared and distributed in a French hospital for exposure in risk assessment. In order to account for variability according to experts and international organization recommendations, published data were used to estimate the thermal inactivation parameters of a probabilistic model. Mixed effects models were proposed to describe variability on D(ref) the decimal reduction time at temperature T(ref). Many models differing by their description of variability on D(ref) were tested. Based on goodness-of-fit and parsimony of the model, the one including three random effects was chosen. That model describes random effects of vegetative cell culture conditions, strains and other uncontrolled experimental factors. In order to check the ability of the model to predict inactivation under dynamic thermal conditions, model validation was carried out on published non isothermal data. This model was then used to predict C. perfringens vegetative cell inactivation using temperature profiles inside beef-in-sauce products registered in a French hospital and to explore control measures easier to apply than French regulations. PMID:22236760

Jaloustre, S; Guillier, L; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

2012-03-01

269

Concentration of Giardia lamblia cysts, Legionella pneumophila, Clostridium perfringens, human enteric viruses, and coliphages from large volumes of drinking water, using a single filtration.  

PubMed

Poliovirus, coliphages, Giardia lamblia cysts, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Legionella pneumophila were concentrated simultaneously in a single pass by sequential filtration of large volumes of drinking water through 3- and 1-micron wound electronegative fiberglass cartridge filters (25.4 cm). Filtration was performed under acidic conditions (pH 3.5) in the presence of 0.001 M aluminum chloride to enhance adsorption. Elution of all the microorganisms entrapped or adsorbed to the filters was obtained by a slow backwash elution with a 1.5% beef extract solution, pH 9.75, containing 0.5% Tween 80. Tween 80 was shown to enhance recovery of the bacteriophages, bacteria, and parasites. Giardia cysts were efficiently eluted (71%) and could be reconcentrated by low-speed centrifugation and purified by sucrose density gradient flotation at a final recovery of 52%. Legionella pneumophila cells were eluted at 64% and were further concentrated by low-speed centrifugation at an overall recovery of 55%. C. perfringens spores and coliphages were eluted at efficiencies of 82 and 86%, respectively, and reconcentrated with minimal loss by a detergent - protein flotation method. Poliovirus was eluted at 93% and reconcentrated at 78% efficiency by organic flocculation. PMID:2555036

Payment, P; Bérubé, A; Perreault, D; Armon, R; Trudel, M

1989-10-01

270

In-Vitro Effects of Clostridium Welchii TypeD Epsilon Toxin on GuineaPig, Mouse, Rabbit and Sheep Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME bacterial products can affect the performance of the lympho-reticular system (see Stuart, 1970). Recently it has been shown that Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin can cause mitochondria1 swelling in murine lymphoblastoid cells .and murine plasmacytoid cells (Douglas, Zuckerman and Ooka, 1976). As Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin shares some of the properties of V. cholerae enterotoxin (Buxton, 1978b) it was decided

D. BUXTON

1978-01-01

271

Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Expressing the Carboxy-Terminal Domain of Alpha Toxin from Clostridium perfringens Induces Protective Responses against Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis (NE) is a widespread disease in chickens that causes high mortality and reduced growth performance. Traditionally, NE was controlled by the routine application of antimicrobials in the feed, a practice that currently is unpopular. Consequently, there has been an increase in the occurrence of NE, and it has become a threat to the current objective of antimicrobial-free farming. The pathogenesis of NE is associated with the proliferation of C. perfringens in the small intestine and the secretion of large amounts of alpha toxin, the major virulence factor. Since there is no vaccine for NE, we have developed a candidate live oral recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (RASV) that delivers a nontoxic fragment of alpha toxin. The 3? end of the plc gene, encoding the C-terminal domain of alpha toxin (PlcC), was cloned into plasmids that enable the expression and secretion of PlcC fused to a signal peptide. Plasmids were inserted into Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium host strain ?8914, which has attenuating pabA and pabB deletion mutations. Three-day-old broiler chicks were orally immunized with 109 CFU of the vaccine strain and developed alpha toxin-neutralizing serum antibodies. When serum from these chickens was added into C. perfringens broth cultures, bacterial growth was suppressed. In addition, immunofluorescent microscopy showed that serum antibodies bind to the bacterial surface. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA titers in RASV-immunized chickens were low; however, when the chickens were given a parenteral boost injection with a purified recombinant PlcC protein (rPlcC), the RASV-immunized chickens mounted rapid high serum IgG and bile IgA titers exceeding those primed by rPlcC injection. RASV-immunized chickens had reduced intestinal mucosal pathology after challenge with virulent C. perfringens. These results indicate that oral RASV expressing an alpha toxin C-terminal peptide induces protective immunity against NE.

Zekarias, Bereket; Mo, Hua; Curtiss, Roy

2008-01-01

272

Conjugative Transfer of the Escherichia coli–Clostridium perfringensShuttle Vector pJIR1457 to Clostridium botulinumType A Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RP4-oriT shuttle vector pJIR1457 originally developed forClostridium perfringenswas successfully transferred by conjugation fromEscherichia colitoClostridium botulinumtype A strains and to a nontoxigenicC. botulinumtype A–transposon Tn916mutant strain lacking the entire toxin gene cluster. The light chain (LC) of botulinum toxin was highly expressed in the toxin deletion mutant strain from a pJIR1457 construct containing the recombinant botulinal gene for LC. This

Marite Bradshaw; Michael C. Goodnough; Eric A. Johnson

1998-01-01

273

[A case of food poisoning caused by C. perfringens].  

PubMed

A case of food borne infection among a hundred inhabitants of a home for the old aged, caused by Clostridium perfringens (Clostridium welchii) following consumption of a filled veal roll is reported. PMID:2903578

Mol, H; Vincentie, H M; van Kessel, R P

1988-10-15

274

Immunological responses to Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in two genetically divergent lines of chickens as influenced by major histocompatibility complex genotype.  

PubMed

Chickens genetically selected for low (LA) or high (HA) antibody response to SRBC displayed a correlated change in MHC, so that LA chickens were 96% B13 and HA chickens were 96% B21. The LA line appears to be less susceptible to invasion by extracellular pathogens, whereas HA chickens are more resistant to infection by intracellular organisms. Resistance to Clostridium perfringens is one instance in which the lines do not follow their established trend of pathogen susceptibility, where during a clinical outbreak of necrotic enteritis, B21B21 genotypes experienced significantly less mortality than B13B13 genotypes. A study was carried out to assess immunological differences between LA and HA lines during exposure to C. perfringens ?-toxin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from each genetic line, cultured with or without lipopolysaccharide (4 h), and exposed to varying concentrations of ?-toxin (1; 10; 100; and 1,000 U/L) for 2 and 4 h. Evaluation of cellular proliferation, percentage of cytotoxicity, and immunological gene expression was carried out in a series of experiments. Cells isolated from HA chickens had significantly increased proliferation than those from LA chickens at low toxin levels (1 and 10 U/L) and significantly decreased proliferation at high toxin levels (100 and 1,000 U/L). Following exposure to lipopolysaccharide, the percentage of cytotoxicity was higher for LA than HA cells. In both assays, HA cells displayed superior performance following lipopolysaccharide-stimulation. Gene expression analysis of immune transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR revealed significantly upregulated expression of interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-13 (2 h), IL-15, and CXCLi1 (4 h) in HA than LA chickens. Cells isolated from the LA line displayed significantly elevated expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-13 (4 h), IL-16, IL-18, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CXCLi1 (2 h), and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-? factor (LITAF) compared with the HA line. Clearly, these 2 genetic lines display highly divergent immune responses in regards to C. perfringens toxin exposure. PMID:22334734

Sumners, L H; Cox, C M; Kim, S; Salevsky, J E; Siegel, P B; Dalloul, R A

2012-03-01

275

The Agr-like quorum-sensing system regulates sporulation and production of enterotoxin and beta2 toxin by Clostridium perfringens type A non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease strain F5603.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens type A strains producing enterotoxin (CPE) cause one of the most common bacterial food-borne illnesses, as well as many cases of non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease. Recent studies have shown that an Agr-like quorum-sensing system controls production of chromosomally encoded alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O by C. perfringens, as well as sporulation by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. The current study explored whether the Agr-like quorum-sensing system also regulates sporulation and production of two plasmid-encoded toxins (CPE and beta2 toxin) that may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease strain F5603. An isogenic agrB null mutant was inhibited for production of beta2 toxin during vegetative growth and in sporulating culture, providing the first evidence that, in C. perfringens, this system can control production of plasmid-encoded toxins as well as chromosomally encoded toxins. This mutant also showed reduced production of alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O during vegetative growth. Importantly, when cultured in sporulation medium, the mutant failed to efficiently form spores and was blocked for CPE production. Complementation partially or fully reversed all phenotypic changes in the mutant, confirming that they were specifically due to inactivation of the agr locus. Western blots suggest that this loss of sporulation and sporulation-specific CPE production for the agrB null mutant involves, at least in part, Agr-mediated regulation of production of Spo0A and alternative sigma factors, which are essential for C. perfringens sporulation. PMID:21464088

Li, Jihong; Chen, Jianming; Vidal, Jorge E; McClane, Bruce A

2011-06-01

276

LRP1 is a receptor for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin indicating a two-receptor model of clostridial glycosylating toxins.  

PubMed

Large glycosylating toxins are major virulence factors of various species of pathogenic Clostridia. Prototypes are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which cause antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The current model of the toxins' action suggests that receptor binding is mediated by a C-terminal domain of combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROP). This model is challenged by the glycosylating Clostridium perfringens large cytotoxin (TpeL toxin) that is devoid of the CROP domain but still intoxicates cells. Using a haploid genetic screen, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) as a host cell receptor for the TpeL toxin. LRP1-deficient cells are not able to take up TpeL and are not intoxicated. Expression of cluster IV of LRP1 is sufficient to rescue toxin uptake in these cells. By plasmon resonance spectroscopy, a KD value of 23 nM was determined for binding of TpeL to LRP1 cluster IV. The C terminus of TpeL (residues 1335-1779) represents the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the toxin. RBD-like regions are conserved in all other clostridial glycosylating toxins preceding their CROP domain. CROP-deficient C. difficile toxin B is toxic to cells, depending on the RBD-like region (residues 1349-1811) but does not interact with LRP1. Our data indicate the presence of a second, CROP-independent receptor-binding domain in clostridial glycosylating toxins and suggest a two-receptor model for the cellular uptake of clostridial glycosylating toxins. PMID:24737893

Schorch, Björn; Song, Shuo; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Bock, Hans H; May, Petra; Herz, Joachim; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Aktories, Klaus

2014-04-29

277

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1) from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

PubMed Central

In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

278

Recombinant Expression of Two Bacteriophage Proteins That Lyse Clostridium perfringens and Share Identical Sequences in the C-Terminal Cell Wall Binding Domain of the Molecules but Are Dissimilar in Their N-Terminal Active Domains  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins that are responsible for disease symptoms and pathogenesis in a variety of animals, humans, and poultry. The organism is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease, and C. perfringens is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens, which in the acute form can cause increased mortality among broiler flocks. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in feeds have had increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. To address this issue, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins from the genomes of bacteriophages, are identified. Two putative phage lysin genes (ply) from the clostridial phages phiCP39O and phiCP26F were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant proteins were purified to near homogeneity. Gene and protein sequencing revealed that the predicted and chemically determined amino acid sequences of the two recombinant proteins were homologous to N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases. The proteins were identical in the C-terminal putative cell-wall binding domain, but only 55% identical to each other in the presumptive N-terminal catalytic domain. Both recombinant lysins were capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays. The observed reduction in turbidity was correlated with up to a 3 log cfu/mL reduction in viable C. perfringens on brain–heart infusion agar plates. However, other member species of the clostridia were resistant to the lytic activity by both assays.

Simmons, Mustafa; Donovan, David M.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Seal, Bruce S.

2014-01-01

279

Use of Genetically Manipulated Strains of Clostridium perfringens Reveals that Both Alpha-Toxin and Theta-Toxin Are Required for Vascular Leukostasis To Occur in Experimental Gas Gangrene  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) pathology is a paucity of leukocytes infiltrating the necrotic tissue. The cause of this paucity most likely relates to the observation of leukocyte aggregates at the border of the area of tissue necrosis, often within the microvasculature itself. Infecting mice with genetically manipulated strains of Clostridium perfringens type A (deficient in either alpha-toxin or theta-toxin production) resulted in significantly reduced leukocyte aggregation when alpha-toxin was absent and complete abrogation of leukocyte aggregation when theta-toxin was absent. Thus, both alpha-toxin and theta-toxin are necessary for the characteristic vascular leukostasis observed in clostridial myonecrosis.

Ellemor, Darren M.; Baird, Rebecca N.; Awad, Milena M.; Boyd, Richard L.; Rood, Julian I.; Emmins, John J.

1999-01-01

280

Cysteine-Scanning Mutagenesis Supports the Importance of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Amino Acids 80 to 106 for Membrane Insertion and Pore Formation  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the gastrointestinal symptoms of the second most common bacterial food-borne illness. Previous studies suggested that a region named TM1, which has amphipathic characteristics and spans from amino acids 81 to 106 of the native CPE protein, forms a ?-hairpin involved in ?-barrel pore formation. To further explore the potential role of TM1 in pore formation, the single Cys naturally present in CPE at residue 186 was first altered to alanine by mutagenesis; the resultant rCPE variant, named C186A, was shown to retain cytotoxic properties. Cys-scanning mutagenesis was then performed in which individual Cys mutations were introduced into each TM1 residue of the C186A variant. When those Cys variants were characterized, three variants were identified that exhibit reduced cytotoxicity despite possessing binding and oligomerization abilities similar to those of the C186A variant from which they were derived. Pronase challenge experiments suggested that the reduced cytotoxicity of those two Cys variants, i.e., the F91C and F95C variants, which model to the tip of the ?-hairpin, was attributable to a lessened ability of these variants to insert into membranes after oligomerization. In contrast, another Cys variant, i.e., the G103C variant, with impaired cytotoxicity apparently inserted into membranes after oligomerization but could not form a pore with a fully functional channel. Collectively, these results support the TM1 region forming a ?-hairpin as an important step in CPE insertion and pore formation. Furthermore, this work identifies the first amino acid residues specifically involved in those two steps in CPE action.

Chen, Jianwu; Theoret, James R.; Shrestha, Archana; Smedley, James G.

2012-01-01

281

Gene expression profiling within the spleen of Clostridium perfringens-challenged Broilers fed antibiotic-medicated and non-medicated diets  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium perfringens (Cp) is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry when it overgrows in the small intestine. NE disease has previously been controlled through the use of growth-promoting antibiotics. This practice was recently banned in European countries, leading to significantly increased incidence of NE threatening the poultry industry. Control strategies and technology as substitutes to dietary antibiotics are therefore urgently required. To develop the substitutes, it is important to understand host immune responses to Cp infection. However, the knowledge is still lacking. We therefore investigated gene expression profiles within immunologically-relevant tissue, the spleen, in order to identify factors that are involved in immunity to NE and have potential as therapeutic targets. Results Use of a 44 K Agilent chicken genome microarray revealed significant up-regulation of many immune-associated genes in Cp-challenged chickens, including galectin 3, IFNAR1, IgY-receptor, TCR?, granzyme A, and mannose-6-P-R, which were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR assays. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was conducted using the High Throughput Gene Ontology Functional Annotation database. Medicated and Non-medicated chickens had similar annotation profiles with cell activities and regulation being the most dominant biological processes following Cp infection. Conclusion Broiler chickens demonstrated an intricate and holistic magnitude of host response to Cp challenge and the development of NE. Although the influence of dietary antibiotics appeared to be less significant than the disease process, both had a considerable impact on the host response. Markers previously identified in intestinal inflammatory diseases of other species, including humans, and indicators of enhanced antibody responses, appeared to be involved in the chicken response to Cp challenge. The significance in host immune responses of immune mediators identified from the present study warrants further studies to verify their functions during NE development and to determine their potential application to control NE disease.

Sarson, Aimie J; Wang, Ying; Kang, Zhumei; Dowd, Scot E; Lu, Yang; Yu, Hai; Han, Yanming; Zhou, Huaijun; Gong, Joshua

2009-01-01

282

Challenging the roles of CD44 and lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in conveying Clostridium perfringens iota toxin cytotoxicity in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Translational exploration of bacterial toxins has come to the forefront of research given their potential as a chemotherapeutic tool. Studies in select tissues have demonstrated that Clostridium perfringens iota toxin binds to CD44 and lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) cell-surface proteins. We recently demonstrated that LSR expression correlates with estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and that LSR signaling directs aggressive, tumor-initiating cell behaviors. Herein, we identify the mechanisms of iota toxin cytotoxicity in a tissue-specific, breast cancer model with the ultimate goal of laying the foundation for using iota toxin as a targeted breast cancer therapy. Methods In vitro model systems were used to determine the cytotoxic effect of iota toxin on breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. The use of overexpression and knockdown technologies confirmed the roles of LSR and CD44 in regulating iota toxin endocytosis and induction of cell death. Lastly, cytotoxicity assays were used to demonstrate the effect of iota toxin on a validated set of tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cell lines. Results Treatment of 14 breast cancer cell lines revealed that LSR+/CD44- lines were highly sensitive, LSR+/CD44+ lines were slightly sensitive, and LSR-/CD44+ lines were resistant to iota cytotoxicity. Reduction in LSR expression resulted in a significant decrease in toxin sensitivity; however, overexpression of CD44 conveyed toxin resistance. CD44 overexpression was correlated with decreased toxin-stimulated lysosome formation and decreased cytosolic levels of iota toxin. These findings indicated that expression of CD44 drives iota toxin resistance through inhibition of endocytosis in breast cancer cells, a role not previously defined for CD44. Moreover, tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells exhibited robust expression of LSR and were highly sensitive to iota-induced cytotoxicity. Conclusions Collectively, these data are the first to show that iota toxin has the potential to be an effective, targeted therapy for breast cancer.

2014-01-01

283

Structural requirement in Clostridium perfringens collagenase mRNA 5' leader sequence for translational induction through small RNA-mRNA base pairing.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is pathogenic to humans and animals, and the production of its toxins is strictly regulated during the exponential phase. We recently found that the 5' leader sequence of the colA transcript encoding collagenase, which is a major toxin of this organism, is processed and stabilized in the presence of the small RNA VR-RNA. The primary colA 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) forms a long stem-loop structure containing an internal bulge and masks its own ribosomal binding site. Here we found that VR-RNA directly regulates colA expression through base pairing with colA mRNA in vivo. However, when the internal bulge structure was closed by point mutations in colA mRNA, translation ceased despite the presence of VR-RNA. In addition, a mutation disrupting the colA stem-loop structure induced mRNA processing and ColA-FLAG translational activation in the absence of VR-RNA, indicating that the stem-loop and internal bulge structure of the colA 5' leader sequence is important for regulation by VR-RNA. On the other hand, processing was required for maximal ColA expression but was not essential for VR-RNA-dependent colA regulation. Finally, colA processing and translational activation were induced at a high temperature without VR-RNA. These results suggest that inhibition of the colA 5' leader structure through base pairing is the primary role of VR-RNA in colA regulation and that the colA 5' leader structure is a possible thermosensor. PMID:23585542

Obana, Nozomu; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji

2013-06-01

284

In Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of Binding Affinity between N and C-Domains of Clostridium perfringens Alpha Toxin  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin/phospholipase C (CP-PLC) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known to cause soft tissue infections like gas gangrene in humans and animals. It is the first bacterial toxin demonstrated to be an enzyme with phospholipase, sphingomyelinase and lecithinase activities. The toxin is comprised of an enzymatic N-domain and a binding C-domain interconnected by a flexible linker. The N-domain alone is non-toxic to mammalian cells, but incubation with C-domain restores the toxicity, the mechanism of which is still not elucidated. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the formation of a stable N and C-domain complex, to determine possible interactions between the two domains in silico and to characterize the in vitro and in vivo correlates of the interaction. To establish the existence of a stable N and C-domain hybrid, in vitro pull down assay and dot-Far Western blotting assays were employed, where it was clearly revealed that the two domains bound to each other to form an intermediate. Using bioinformatics tools like MetaPPISP, PatchDock and FireDock, we predicted that the two domains may interact with each other through electrostatic interactions between at least six pairs of amino acids. This N and C-domains interacted with each other in 1:1 ratio and the hybrid lysed mouse erythrocytes in a slower kinetics when compared with wild type native Cp-PLC. BALB/c mice when challenged with N and C-domain hybrid demonstrated severe myonecrosis at the site of injection while no death was observed. Our results provide further insight into better understanding the mechanism for the toxicity of Cp-PLC N and C-domain mixture.

Uppalapati, Siva Ramakrishna; Kingston, Joseph Jeyabalaji; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

2013-01-01

285

Influence of high gas production during thermophilic anaerobic digestion in pilot-scale and lab-scale reactors on survival of the thermotolerant pathogens Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni in piggery wastewater.  

PubMed

Safe reuse of animal wastes to capture energy and nutrients, through anaerobic digestion processes, is becoming an increasingly desirable solution to environmental pollution. Pathogen decay is the most important safety consideration and is in general, improved at elevated temperatures and longer hydraulic residence times. During routine sampling to assess pathogen decay in thermophilic digestion, an inversely proportional relationship between levels of Clostridium perfringens and gas production was observed. Further samples were collected from pilot-scale, bench-scale thermophilic reactors and batch scale vials to assess whether gas production (predominantly methane) could be a useful indicator of decay of the thermotolerant pathogens C. perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni. Pathogen levels did appear to be lower where gas production and levels of methanogens were higher. This was evident at each operating temperature (50, 57, 65 degrees C) in the pilot-scale thermophilic digesters, although higher temperatures also reduced the numbers of pathogens detected. When methane production was higher, either when feed rate was increased, or pH was lowered from 8.2 (piggery wastewater) to 6.5, lower numbers of pathogens were detected. Although a number of related factors are known to influence the amount and rate of methane production, it may be a useful indicator of the removal of the pathogens C. perfringens and C. jejuni. PMID:19500814

Skillman, L C; Bajsa, O; Ho, L; Santhanam, B; Kumar, M; Ho, G

2009-07-01

286

Mechanism of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Interaction with Claudin-3/-4 Protein Suggests Structural Modifications of the Toxin to Target Specific Claudins*  

PubMed Central

Claudins (Cld) are essential constituents of tight junctions. Domain I of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE) binds to the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of a subset of claudins, e.g. Cld3/4 and influences tight junction formation. We aimed to identify interacting interfaces and to alter claudin specificity of cCPE. Mutagenesis, binding assays, and molecular modeling were performed. Mutation-guided ECL2 docking of Cld3/4 onto the crystal structure of cCPE revealed a common orientation of the proposed ECL2 helix-turn-helix motif in the binding cavity of cCPE: residues Leu150/Leu151 of Cld3/4 bind similarly to a hydrophobic pit formed by Tyr306, Tyr310, and Tyr312 of cCPE, and Pro152/Ala153 of Cld3/4 is proposed to bind to a second pit close to Leu223, Leu254, and Leu315. However, sequence variation in ECL2 of these claudins is likely responsible for slightly different conformation in the turn region, which is in line with different cCPE interaction modes of Cld3 and Cld4. Substitutions of other so far not characterized cCPE residues lining the pocket revealed two spatially separated groups of residues (Leu223, Asp225, and Arg227 and Leu254, lle258, and Asp284), which are involved in binding to Cld3 and Cld4, albeit differently. Involvement of Asn148 of Cld3 in cCPE binding was confirmed, whereas no evidence for involvement of Lys156 or Arg157 was found. We show structure-based alteration of cCPE generating claudin binders, which interact subtype-specific preferentially either with Cld3 or with Cld4. The obtained mutants and mechanistic insights will advance the design of cCPE-based modulators to target specific claudin subtypes related either to paracellular barriers that impede drug delivery or to tumors.

Veshnyakova, Anna; Piontek, Jorg; Protze, Jonas; Waziri, Negar; Heise, Ivonne; Krause, Gerd

2012-01-01

287

Mechanism of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin interaction with claudin-3/-4 protein suggests structural modifications of the toxin to target specific claudins.  

PubMed

Claudins (Cld) are essential constituents of tight junctions. Domain I of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE) binds to the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of a subset of claudins, e.g. Cld3/4 and influences tight junction formation. We aimed to identify interacting interfaces and to alter claudin specificity of cCPE. Mutagenesis, binding assays, and molecular modeling were performed. Mutation-guided ECL2 docking of Cld3/4 onto the crystal structure of cCPE revealed a common orientation of the proposed ECL2 helix-turn-helix motif in the binding cavity of cCPE: residues Leu(150)/Leu(151) of Cld3/4 bind similarly to a hydrophobic pit formed by Tyr(306), Tyr(310), and Tyr(312) of cCPE, and Pro(152)/Ala(153) of Cld3/4 is proposed to bind to a second pit close to Leu(223), Leu(254), and Leu(315). However, sequence variation in ECL2 of these claudins is likely responsible for slightly different conformation in the turn region, which is in line with different cCPE interaction modes of Cld3 and Cld4. Substitutions of other so far not characterized cCPE residues lining the pocket revealed two spatially separated groups of residues (Leu(223), Asp(225), and Arg(227) and Leu(254), lle(258), and Asp(284)), which are involved in binding to Cld3 and Cld4, albeit differently. Involvement of Asn(148) of Cld3 in cCPE binding was confirmed, whereas no evidence for involvement of Lys(156) or Arg(157) was found. We show structure-based alteration of cCPE generating claudin binders, which interact subtype-specific preferentially either with Cld3 or with Cld4. The obtained mutants and mechanistic insights will advance the design of cCPE-based modulators to target specific claudin subtypes related either to paracellular barriers that impede drug delivery or to tumors. PMID:22128179

Veshnyakova, Anna; Piontek, Jörg; Protze, Jonas; Waziri, Negar; Heise, Ivonne; Krause, Gerd

2012-01-13

288

Evidence for a one-hit theory in the immune bactericidal reaction and demonstration of a multi-hit response for hemolysis by streptolysin O and Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin.  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for estimating the number of hits necessary to lyse or kill cells in which various concentrations of the cells are treated with a constant amount of the lytic or killing agent in a constant reaction volume. The reaction may be due to a single-component agent or occur by a sequential chain of reactions due to a multi-component agent, even including side, abortive, or counter-reactions. It was clearly shown by this method that immune bactericidal reactions followed a one-hit theory. It was shown by this method that streptolysin O required four or five hits for hemolysis and Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin required two hits. These results were confirmed by both logarithmic dose-response and survival analyses. It was also shown that streptolysin O and theta-toxin can act complementarily on accumulation of the hits for hemolysis. PMID:177364

Inoue, K; Akiyama, Y; Kinoshita, T; Higashi, Y; Amano, T

1976-02-01

289

Partial Characterization of an Enzyme Fraction with Protease Activity Which Converts the Spore Peptidoglycan Hydrolase (SleC) Precursor to an Active Enzyme during Germination of Clostridium perfringens S40 Spores and Analysis of a Gene Cluster Involved in the Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spore cortex-lytic enzyme of Clostridium perfringens S40 which is encoded by sleC is synthesized at an early stage of sporulation as a precursor consisting of four domains. After cleavage of an N-terminal presequence and a C-terminal prosequence during spore maturation, inactive proenzyme is converted to active enzyme by processing of an N-terminal prosequence with germination-specific protease (GSP) during germination.

SEIKO SHIMAMOTO; RYUICHI MORIYAMA; KAZUHIRO SUGIMOTO; SHIGERU MIYATA; SHIO MAKINO

2001-01-01

290

Evidence that the Agr-like Quorum Sensing System Regulates the Toxin Production, Cytotoxicity and Pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens Type C Isolate CN3685  

PubMed Central

Summary C. perfringens possesses at least two functional quorum sensing (QS) systems, i.e., an Agr-like system and a LuxS-dependent AI-2 system. Both of those QS systems can reportedly control in vitro toxin production by C. perfringens but their importance for virulence has not been evaluated. Therefore, the current study assessed whether these QS systems might regulate the pathogenicity of CN3685, a C. perfringens type C strain. Since type C isolates cause both hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis and fatal enterotoxemias (where toxins produced in the intestines are absorbed into the circulation to target other internal organs), the ability of isogenic agrB or luxS mutants to cause necrotizing enteritis in rabbit small intestinal loops or enterotoxemic lethality in mice was evaluated. Results obtained strongly suggest that the Agr-like QS system, but not the LuxS-dependent AI-2 QS system, is required for CN3685 to cause hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis, apparently because the Agr-like system regulates the production of beta toxin, which is essential for causing this pathology. The Agr-like system, but not the LuxS-mediated AI-2 system, was also important for CN3685 to cause fatal enterotoxemia. These results provide the first direct evidence supporting a role for any QS system in clostridial infections.

Vidal, Jorge E.; Ma, Menglin; Saputo, Julian; Garcia, Jorge; Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.

2011-01-01

291

A gene (sleC) encoding a spore-cortex-lytic enzyme from Clostridium perfringens S40 spores; cloning, sequence analysis and molecular characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiserum was raised against a 31 kDa spore-cortex-lytic enzyme, which is released during germination of Clostridium pedringens 540 spores. Western blotting of dormant spore and vegetative cell fractions separated by SDS-PAGE indicated that the 31 kDa enzyme is spore-specific and that the enzyme in the dormant spore exists as a 36 kDa protein which has no cortex-lytic activity. A gene

Shigeru Miyata; Ryuichi Moriyama; Nobuko Miyahara; Shio Makino

1995-01-01

292

In-vitro effects of Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin on guinea-pig, mouse, rabbit and sheep cells.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin, at relatively low concentrations, killed guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The cells became swollen, the nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes "blistered" and discontinuous, and the cytoplasm appeared structureless. Formalinised epsilon prototoxin was shown to bind closely to the outer surface of the cells and it is concluded that this site represents the location of the receptors for epsilon toxin. In addition the toxin at higher concentrations killed rabbit peritoneal macrophages after increased periods of incubation, but had no demonstrable effect on other cells from guinea-pigs, rabbits, mice and sheep. PMID:210279

Buxton, D

1978-08-01

293

The use of an immunoperoxidase technique to investigate by light and electron microscopy the sites of binding of Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin in mice.  

PubMed

Mice were given an intravenous dose of formalinised C. welchii type-D epsilon prototoxin and an immunoperoxidase technique was used to demonstrate this antigen in the tissues. The antigen was found to bind to the luminal surface of the endothelial lining of certain blood vessels, to the luminal surface of the cells lining the loops of Henlé and distal convoluted tubules in the kidney, and to the hepatic sinusoids. As it has been shown previously that formalinised epsilon prototoxin and epsilon toxin can compete for the same receptor sites it is postulated that the binding sites demonstrated represent the location of the receptors for C. welchii type-D epsilon toxin. PMID:210278

Buxton, D

1978-08-01

294

Glycoside Hydrolase Family 89 ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Clostridium perfringens Specifically Acts on GlcNAc?1,4Gal?1R at the Non-reducing Terminus of O-Glycans in Gastric Mucin*  

PubMed Central

In mammals, ?-linked GlcNAc is primarily found in heparan sulfate/heparin and gastric gland mucous cell type mucin. ?-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (?GNases) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 89 are widely distributed from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Human lysosomal ?GNase is well known to degrade heparin and heparan sulfate. Here, we reveal the substrate specificity of ?GNase (AgnC) from Clostridium perfringens strain 13, a bacterial homolog of human ?GNase, by chemically synthesizing a series of disaccharide substrates containing ?-linked GlcNAc. AgnC was found to release GlcNAc from GlcNAc?1,4Gal?1pMP and GlcNAc?1pNP substrates (where pMP and pNP represent p-methoxyphenyl and p-nitrophenyl, respectively). AgnC also released GlcNAc from porcine gastric mucin and cell surface mucin. Because AgnC showed no activity against any of the GlcNAc?1,2Gal?1pMP, GlcNAc?1,3Gal?1pMP, GlcNAc?1,6Gal?1pMP, and GlcNAc?1,4GlcA?1pMP substrates, this enzyme may represent a specific glycosidase required for degrading ?-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans of the class III mucin secreted from the stomach and duodenum. Deletion of the C-terminal region containing several carbohydrate-binding module 32 (CBM32) domains significantly reduced the activity for porcine gastric mucin; however, activity against GlcNAc?1,4Gal?1pMP was markedly enhanced. Dot blot and ELISA analyses revealed that the deletion construct containing the C-terminal CBM-C2 to CBM-C6 domains binds strongly to porcine gastric mucin. Consequently, tandem CBM32 domains located near the C terminus of AgnC should function by increasing the affinity for branched or clustered ?-GlcNAc-containing glycans. The agnC gene-disrupted strain showed significantly reduced growth on the class III mucin-containing medium compared with the wild type strain, suggesting that AgnC might have an important role in dominant growth in intestines.

Fujita, Masaya; Tsuchida, Akiko; Hirata, Akiko; Kobayashi, Natsumi; Goto, Kohtaro; Osumi, Kenji; Hirose, Yuriko; Nakayama, Jun; Yamanoi, Takashi; Ashida, Hisashi; Mizuno, Mamoru

2011-01-01

295

Claudin-4 Overexpression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Is Associated with Hypomethylation and Is a Potential Target for Modulation of Tight Junction Barrier Function Using a C-Terminal Fragment of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Claudin-4, a tight junction (TJ) protein and receptor for the C-terminal fragment of Clos- tridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), is overex- pressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previous research suggests DNA methylation is a mechanism for claudin-4 overexpression in cancer and that C-CPE acts as an absorption-enhancing agent in claudin-4- expressing cells. We sought to correlate claudin-4 overexpression in EOC

Babak Litkouhi; Joseph Kwong; Chun-Min Lo; James G. Smedley III; Bruce A. McClane; Margarita Aponte; Zhijian Gao; Jennifer L. Sarno; Jennifer Hinners; William R. Welch; Ross S. Berkowitz; Samuel C. Mok; Elizabeth I. O. Garner

2007-01-01

296

ClosTron-mediated engineering of Clostridium.  

PubMed

The genus Clostridium is a diverse assemblage of Gram positive, anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria. Whilst certain species have achieved notoriety as important animal and human pathogens (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium perfringens), the vast majority of the genus are entirely benign, and are able to undertake all manner of useful biotransformations. Prominent amongst them are those species able to produce the biofuels, butanol and ethanol from biomass-derived residues, such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinkii, Clostridium thermocellum, and Clostridium phytofermentans. The prominence of the genus in disease and biotechnology has led to the need for more effective means of genetic modification. The historical absence of methods based on conventional strategies for "knock-in" and "knock-out" in Clostridium has led to the adoption of recombination-independent procedures, typified by ClosTron technology. The ClosTron uses a retargeted group II intron and a retro-transposition-activated marker to selectively insert DNA into defined sites within the genome, to bring about gene inactivation and/or cargo DNA delivery. The procedure is extremely efficient, rapid, and requires minimal effort by the operator. PMID:21815105

Kuehne, Sarah A; Heap, John T; Cooksley, Clare M; Cartman, Stephen T; Minton, Nigel P

2011-01-01

297

Polymer Partitioning and Ion Selectivity Suggest Asymmetrical Shape for the Membrane Pore Formed by Epsilon Toxin  

PubMed Central

Using poly-(ethylene glycol)s of different molecular weights, we probe the channels formed in planar lipid bilayers by epsilon toxin secreted by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens. We find that the pore is highly asymmetric. The cutoff size of polymers entering the pore through its opening from the cis side, the side of toxin addition, is ?500 Da, whereas the cutoff size for the polymers entering from the trans side is ?2300 Da. Comparing these characteristic molecular weights with those reported earlier for OmpF porin and the ?-Hemolysin channel, we estimate the radii of cis and trans openings as 0.4 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively. The simplest geometry corresponding to these findings is that of a truncated cone. The asymmetry of the pore is also confirmed by measurements of the reversal potential at oppositely directed salt gradients. The moderate anionic selectivity of the channel is salted-out more efficiently when the salt concentration is higher at the trans side of the pore.

Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Karginov, Vladimir A.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2010-01-01

298

Epsilon Aurigae  

SciTech Connect

Epislon Aurigae is an eclipsing binary system in the Milky Way. The eclipse of 1982-84 was the first one in which the star could be observed at both ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. A star model is derived for Epsilon Aurigae which gives a plausible and detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic and photometric data. In this model the main cause of the eclipse is a ring of large dust particles, which absorbs half of the light of the primary star. The hot companion star is embedded in this ring and appears less luminous than it is because the ring absorbs part of its light. The ring is heated slightly by the companion star and emits some of the observed infrared flux as thermal radiation. The model postulates a shell made up of gas that envelops the ring of dust. The gaseous shell is ionized by the radiation of the hot star emitted in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the ring, and it is formed of matter that could be either escaping from the hot star or transferred to it by the primary star. The primary star being a supergiant star and the companion, a young star.

Hack, M.

1985-01-01

299

[Clostridium infection in the puerperium following cesarean section].  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens infections in the puerperal period are rare. A 22-year old patient, after caesarean section at another hospital, was admitted to our clinic showing clinical signs of haemolysis, slight uraemia, a crepitation of tissue and sonographical signs of air bubble formation in the uterus. Since clostridium perfringens infections show a high mortality rate, early operative measures under high-dose Penicillin treatment are indicated. In this case, hysterectomy and salpingectomy were performed. Both ovaries were unaffected and could be conserved. In addition, a peritoneal lavage was done. Our patient was discharged as cured after a postoperative course without any complications. There is no evidence in the literature for the efficacy of either antitoxin treatment or a high oxygen therapy. PMID:2583437

Baltzer, J; Geissler, K; Gloning, K P; Schramm, T; Haider, M

1989-11-01

300

Insights in metabolism and toxin production from the complete genome sequence of Clostridium tetani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decryption of prokaryotic genome sequences progresses rapidly and provides the scientific community with an enormous amount of information. Clostridial genome sequencing projects have been finished only recently, starting with the genome of the solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum in 2001. A lot of attention has been devoted to the genomes of pathogenic clostridia. In 2002, the genome sequence of C. perfringens,

Holger Brüggemann; Gerhard Gottschalk

2004-01-01

301

Insights in metabolism and toxin production from the complete genome sequence of Clostridium tetani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decryption of prokaryotic genome sequences progresses rapidly and provides the scientific community with an enormous amount of information. Clostridial genome sequencing projects have been finished only recently, starting with the genome of the solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum in 2001. A lot of attention has been devoted to the genomes of pathogenic clostridia. In 2002, the genome sequence of C. perfringens,

Holger Br; Gerhard Gottschalkb

302

Unexpected wide substrate specificity of C. perfringens ?-toxin phospholipase C.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called ?-toxin, is the main virulence factor for gas gangrene in humans. The lipase activity serves the bacterium to generate lipid signals in the host eukaryotic cell, and ultimately to degrade the host cell membranes. Several previous reports indicated that CpPLC was specific for phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Molecular docking studies described in this paper predict favorable interactions of the CpPLC active site with other phospholipids, e.g. phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and, to a lesser extent, phosphatidylglycerol. On the basis of these predictions, we have performed experimental studies showing ?-toxin to degrade all the phospholipids mentioned above. The molecular docking data also provide an explanation for the observed lower activity of CpPCL on sphingomyelin as compared to the glycerophospholipids. PMID:21704605

Urbina, Patricia; Collado, M Isabel; Alonso, Alicia; Gońi, Félix M; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Lensink, Marc F

2011-10-01

303

Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 ?L.mL(-1)-0.39 ?L.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 ?L.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties were different in particular plant species. The highest% of inhibition after 30 min. of reaction was observed at Origanum vulgare (93%), Satureia montana (90.66%) and Lavandula augustifolia (90.22%). PMID:24813985

Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Vukovi?, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vat?ák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

2014-01-01

304

Physical and genetic map of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum (formerly Clostridium acetobutylicum) NCP 262 chromosome.  

PubMed

A physical and genetic map of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP 262 chromosome was constructed. The order of macrorestriction fragments was determined by analysing fragments generated after single and double digestion with the restriction enzymes BssHII, I-CeuI, Sse8387I, RsrII and SfiI and separation by PFGE. The I-CeuI backbone of C. saccharobutylicum was constructed by indirect end-labelling with rrs- and 3' rrl-specific probes located on either side of the I-CeuI site in the rrn operon, and reciprocal separation of BssHII and I-CeuI digestion products by two-dimensional PFGE. The positions of BssHII fragments on the physical map were determined using a library of linking clones containing BssHII cleavage sites. The size of the circular genome was estimated to be 5.3 Mb with a mean resolution of approximately 140 kb. The chromosome of C. saccharobutylicum contains 12 rrn operons, located on 46% of the chromosome, which are transcribed divergently from the deduced origin of replication. The genetic map was constructed by determining the location of 28 genes involved in house-keeping, heat-shock response, sporulation, electron transfer and acid- and solvent-formation. Comparison of the C. saccharobutylicum genetic map with those of the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium beijerinckii indicated C. saccharobutylicum to be most similar to the latter two Clostridium species, with the order of the genes within the gyrAB and recA loci being conserved. PMID:11429467

Keis, S; Sullivan, J T; Jones, D T

2001-07-01

305

Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.  

PubMed

The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny. PMID:21264064

Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

2011-01-01

306

Ultraviolet variations of epsilon UMa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OAO-2 spectrometer observations of the Ap variable epsilon UMa indicate that the photometric variations are due to variable ultraviolet absorption from apparently overabundant metals. These data also point out the presence of a secondary maximum of the Fe-group elements, notably Cr, that has not been reported.

Molnar, M. R.

1975-01-01

307

Hybrid Phage Formation among Different Conversion Phages. Ii. Between Phages Epsilon 15 and Epsilon 34.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isolated phage strains are hybrids between epsilon 15 and epsilon 34, of which genetic material consists mainly of epsilon 15 genome into which gene(s) of the phage epsilon 34 responsible for the synthesis of 0-34 antigen is incorporated by genetic re...

S. Hagiwara H. Uetake

1968-01-01

308

Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

Byappanahalli, M. N.; Whitman, R. L.

2009-01-01

309

Gas discharge plasmas are effective in inactivating Bacillus and Clostridium spores.  

PubMed

Bacterial spores are the most resistant form of life and have been a major threat to public health and food safety. Nonthermal atmospheric gas discharge plasma is a novel sterilization method that leaves no chemical residue. In our study, a helium radio-frequency cold plasma jet was used to examine its sporicidal effect on selected strains of Bacillus and Clostridium. The species tested included Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium botulinum type A and type E. The plasmas were effective in inactivating selected Bacillus and Clostridia spores with D values (decimal reduction time) ranging from 2 to 8 min. Among all spores tested, C. botulinum type A and C. sporogenes were significantly more resistant to plasma inactivation than other species. Observations by phase contrast microscopy showed that B. subtilis spores were severely damaged by plasmas and the majority of the treated spores were unable to initiate the germination process. There was no detectable fragmentation of the DNA when the spores were treated for up to 20 min. The release of dipicolinic acid was observed almost immediately after the plasma treatment, indicating the spore envelope damage could occur quickly resulting in dipicolinic acid release and the reduction of spore resistance. PMID:22075631

Tseng, Shawn; Abramzon, Nina; Jackson, James O; Lin, Wei-Jen

2012-03-01

310

Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host receptor for the binary toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT)  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Hypervirulent strains of the pathogen, which are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality of CDI, produce the binary actin-ADP ribosylating toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) in addition to the Rho-glucosylating toxins A and B. CDT depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton, increases adherence and colonization of Clostridia by induction of microtubule-based cell protrusions and, eventually, causes death of target cells. Using a haploid genetic screen, we identified the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor as the membrane receptor for CDT uptake by target cells. Moreover, we show that Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, which is a related binary actin-ADP ribosylating toxin, enters target cells via the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor. Identification of the toxin receptors is essential for understanding of the toxin uptake and provides a most valuable basis for antitoxin strategies.

Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Carette, Jan E.; Bell, George W.; Schwan, Carsten; Guttenberg, Gregor; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

311

Clostridium difficile Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... doorknobs, telephones or keyboards, for example) to avoid spreading the infection to others. ... a nursing home, and they’re currently having an epidemic of Clostridium difficile infections. Should she be tested? ...

312

Nosocomial diarrhea: evaluation and treatment of causes other than Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is common among hospitalized patients but the causes are distinct from those of diarrhea in the community. We review existing data about the epidemiology of nosocomial diarrhea and summarize recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of diarrhea. Clinicians should recognize that most cases of nosocomial diarrhea have a noninfectious etiology, including medications, underlying illness, and enteral feeding. Apart from Clostridium difficile, the frequency of infectious causes such as norovirus and toxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides fragilis remains largely undefined and test availability is limited. Here we provide a practical approach to the evaluation and management of nosocomial diarrhea when tests for C. difficile are negative. PMID:22700831

Polage, Christopher R; Solnick, Jay V; Cohen, Stuart H

2012-10-01

313

A new measurement of CP violation parameter. var epsilon. prime /. var epsilon  

SciTech Connect

The E731 experiment at Fermilab has measured the CP violation parameter Re({var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon}) in K{sub L,S}{yields}{pi}{pi} decay. Four decay modes were collected simultaneously to reduce systematic errors. The result is Re({var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon})={minus}0.0005 {plus minus} 0.0014 (stat.) {plus minus} 0.0006 (syst.), and gives no evidence for direct CP violation. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Yamanaka, Taku.

1990-01-01

314

Tailored Cyclodextrin Pore Blocker Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT  

PubMed Central

Some Clostridium difficile strains produce, in addition to toxins A and B, the binary toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT), which ADP-ribosylates actin and may contribute to the hypervirulence of these strains. The separate binding and translocation component CDTb mediates transport of the enzyme component CDTa into mammalian target cells. CDTb binds to its receptor on the cell surface, CDTa assembles and CDTb/CDTa complexes are internalised. In acidic endosomes, CDTb mediates the delivery of CDTa into the cytosol, most likely by forming a translocation pore in endosomal membranes. We demonstrate that a seven-fold symmetrical positively charged ?-cyclodextrin derivative, per-6-S-(3-aminomethyl)benzylthio-?-cyclodextrin, which was developed earlier as a potent inhibitor of the translocation pores of related binary toxins of Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, protects cells from intoxication with CDT. The pore blocker did not interfere with the CDTa-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin or toxin binding to Vero cells but inhibited the pH-dependent membrane translocation of CDTa into the cytosol. In conclusion, the cationic ?-cyclodextrin could serve as the lead compound in a development of novel pharmacological strategies against the CDT-producing strains of C. difficile.

Roeder, Maurice; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Karginov, Vladimir A.; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

2014-01-01

315

Tailored Cyclodextrin Pore Blocker Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT.  

PubMed

Some Clostridium difficile strains produce, in addition to toxins A and B, the binary toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT), which ADP-ribosylates actin and may contribute to the hypervirulence of these strains. The separate binding and translocation component CDTb mediates transport of the enzyme component CDTa into mammalian target cells. CDTb binds to its receptor on the cell surface, CDTa assembles and CDTb/CDTa complexes are internalised. In acidic endosomes, CDTb mediates the delivery of CDTa into the cytosol, most likely by forming a translocation pore in endosomal membranes. We demonstrate that a seven-fold symmetrical positively charged ?-cyclodextrin derivative, per-6-S-(3-aminomethyl)benzylthio-?-cyclodextrin, which was developed earlier as a potent inhibitor of the translocation pores of related binary toxins of Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, protects cells from intoxication with CDT. The pore blocker did not interfere with the CDTa-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin or toxin binding to Vero cells but inhibited the pH-dependent membrane translocation of CDTa into the cytosol. In conclusion, the cationic ?-cyclodextrin could serve as the lead compound in a development of novel pharmacological strategies against the CDT-producing strains of C. difficile. PMID:25029374

Roeder, Maurice; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Karginov, Vladimir A; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

2014-01-01

316

Relationship between gastrointestinal dysbiosis and Clostridium botulinum in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is a balanced ecosystem that can get out of balance and predisposed to clostridial diseases or other pathological conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gut microbiota in dairy cows suffering from chronic botulism. Cows were investigated for Clostridium (C.) botulinum in faeces and rumen fluids. In order to study the relationship between botulism and gastrointestinal microbiota, faeces and rumen fluid were tested for bacterial composition using conventional microbiological culture techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Protozoa were analyzed in rumen fluid microscopically. The presence of C. botulinum was associated with specific changes in the faecal microbiota, especially a significant reduction of total aerobic bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens and yeast and fungi. Also C. botulinum positive rumen fluid had significantly more Bacteroides spp., C. histolyticum group, Alfa- proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria; as well as significantly fewer Euryaracheota, and the protozoa Epidinium spp. Dasytricha spp., Diplodiniinae spp. and Ophryoscolex spp. In conclusion, C. botulinum is common in dairy cows in Germany but the incidence of botulism is associated with microbial changes and composition in the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteria, yeast and protozoa appear to be crucial in the colonization process; however, the chronology of these events and role of each microbial group needs further evaluation. PMID:24747040

Krüger, Monika; Shehata, Awad A; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Ständer, Norman; Schrödl, Wieland

2014-06-01

317

Genetic MAP of Salmonella Phage Epsilon 34.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previous report that the genetic map of the phage epsilon 34 is circular has been reconfirmed by extending experiments using larger number of its mutants. DNA molecules extracted from epsilon 34 phage particles are circularly permuted with respect to ba...

S. Ikawa S. Toyama H. Uetake

1968-01-01

318

Clostridium tetani bacteraemia.  

PubMed

Tetanus is a neuromuscular disease in which Clostridium tetani exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produces muscle spasms, incapacitating its host. To our knowledge, C. tetani bacteraemia has never been reported in the literature. The ideal management of this entity remains unresolved given that there is no literature to guide the therapy. PMID:22977074

Hallit, Rabih Riad; Afridi, Muhammad; Sison, Raymund; Salem, Elie; Boghossian, Jack; Slim, Jihad

2013-01-01

319

The search for companions to Epsilon Eridani.  

PubMed

The authors review efforts to examine the star Epsilon Eridani and determine the possibility for the existence of an Earth-like planet. Early data indicated that there must be a habitable ecosphere about 82.5 million Km from the primary. Research into the existence of another planetary system determined that Epsilon Eridani was a binary star with an Oort cloud system, indicating the possibility of planet formation. A review of the evidence suggests that the presence of the small red Dwarf companion star precludes the existence of a planetary system surrounding Epsilon Eridani. It is suggested that observations continue to provide further data about the formation of binary systems. PMID:11540498

Lawton, A T; Wright, P

1990-12-01

320

Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves  

PubMed Central

Four 9-month-old Simmental male calves were presented with a history of sudden death. The necropsy and microscopic findings allowed a diagnosis of enteritis and severe intraluminal hemorrhage with blood clots in the jejunum, suggestive of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome.

Savic, Bozidar; Prodanovic, Radisa; Ivetic, Vojin; Radanovic, Oliver; Bojkovski, Jovan

2012-01-01

321

Photocatalytic inactivation of Clostridium perfringens spores on TiO 2 electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection of drinking water is commonly carried out by chlorination, however research has shown this method to be ineffective against certain protozoan, viral and biofilm forming microorganisms. Furthermore, chlorination can result in the formation of mutagenic disinfection by-products. Semiconductor photocatalysis may be a possible alternative to chlorination for point-of-use drinking water disinfection. In this work TiO2 electrodes were fabricated using

Patrick S. M. Dunlop; Trudy A. McMurray; Jeremy W. J. Hamilton; J. Anthony Byrne

2008-01-01

322

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in River Water by Using a New Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been performed to measure and compare bacterial activities in various watery environments, with the goal of understanding the roles of the isolated microorganisms.C. perfringensand especially its spores, which are more tolerant to various physicochemical effects than the other faecal indicator bacteria, could serve as a useful indicator in ecosystems having stress factors. In order to determine the

Eugenia Bezirtzoglou; Dimitris Dimitriou; Athena Panagiou

1996-01-01

323

Characterization of the bovine epsilon gene.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin E is quantitatively a minor immunoglobulin class in serum, but nevertheless the major class of antibody mediating type I hypersensitivity reactions and hence, type I allergic phenomena. The bovine epsilon gene is one of the as yet uncharacterized mammalian immunoglobulin genes. We have therefore cloned and determined the cDNA sequence and genomic organization of the gene. It contains four constant region domain-encoding exons (CH1 to CH4) with a high homology to sheep C epsilon (87%) and to a lower degree to dog (62%), horse (58%), chimpanzee, orangutan, human (55%), mouse (52%) and rat (52%) C epsilon genes. Southern blot analysis of bovine genomic DNA, revealed the existence of a single C epsilon gene with a presence of allelic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Images Figure 4

Mousavi, M; Rabbani, H; Hammarstrom, L

1997-01-01

324

Exosporial membrane plasticity of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium difficile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examines the morphological alterations of the exosporial membranes of Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 3584 and Clostridium difficile ATCC 43594 and 9689 endospores in relation to their possible function during germination in the attachment\\/colonization process of these pathogenic bacteria. There is no reported function for the exosporial membrane, nor exposporial appendages, of clostridial endospores. Advances in high resolution, scanning electron

B. J. Panessa-Warren; G. T. Tortora; J. B. Warren

1997-01-01

325

Prophage Carriage and Diversity within Clinically Relevant Strains of Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Prophages are encoded in most genomes of sequenced Clostridium difficile strains. They are key components of the mobile genetic elements and, as such, are likely to influence the biology of their host strains. The majority of these phages are not amenable to propagation, and therefore the development of a molecular marker is a useful tool with which to establish the extent and diversity of C. difficile prophage carriage within clinical strains. To design markers, several candidate genes were analyzed including structural and holin genes. The holin gene is the only gene present in all sequenced phage genomes, conserved at both terminals, with a variable mid-section. This allowed us to design two sets of degenerate PCR primers specific to C. difficile myoviruses and siphoviruses. Subsequent PCR analysis of 16 clinical C. difficile ribotypes showed that 15 of them are myovirus positive, and 2 of them are also siphovirus positive. Antibiotic induction and transmission electron microscope analysis confirmed the molecular prediction of myoviruses and/or siphovirus presence. Phylogenetic analysis of the holin sequences identified three groups of C. difficile phages, two within the myoviruses and a divergent siphovirus group. The marker also produced tight groups within temperate phages that infect other taxa, including Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus spp., which suggests the potential application of the holin gene to study prophage carriage in other bacteria. This study reveals the high incidence of prophage carriage in clinically relevant strains of C. difficile and correlates the molecular data to the morphological observation.

Shan, Jinyu; Patel, Krusha V.; Hickenbotham, Peter T.; Nale, Janet Y.; Hargreaves, Katherine R.

2012-01-01

326

Molecular dynamics simulations for pure epsilon-CL-20 and epsilon-CL-20-based PBXs.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics has been employed to simulate the well-known high energy density compound epsilon-CL-20 (hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane) crystal and 12 epsilon-CL-20-based PBXs (polymer bonded explosives) with four kinds of typical fluorine polymers, i.e., polyvinylidenedifluoride, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, fluorine rubber (F(2311)), and fluorine resin (F(2314)) individually. The elastic coefficients, isotropic mechanical properties (tensile moduli, bulk moduli, shear moduli, and poission's ratios), and bonding energy are first reported for epsilon-CL-20 crystal and epsilon-CL-20-based polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). The mechanical properties of epsilon-CL-20 can be effectively improved by blending with a small amount of fluorine polymers, and the whole effect of the adding fluorine polymers to improve mechanical properties of PBXs along the three crystalline surfaces of epsilon-CL-20 is found to be (100) approximately (001) > (010). The interaction between each of the crystalline surfaces and each of the fluorine polymers is different, and the ordering of binding energy for the three surfaces is (001) > (100) > (010); F(2314) always has the strongest binding ability with the three different surfaces. F(2314) can best improve the ductibility and tenacity of PBX when it is positioned on epsilon-CL-20 (001) crystal surface. The calculations on detonation performances for pure epsilon-CL-20 crystal and the four epsilon-CL-20-based PBXs show that adding a small amount of fluorine polymer into pure epsilon-CL-20 will lower detonation performance, but each detonation parameter of the obtained PBXs is still excellent. PMID:16599487

Xu, Xiao-Juan; Xiao, He-Ming; Xiao, Ji-Jun; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Hui; Li, Jin-Shan

2006-04-13

327

Precession of the epsilon ring of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that the outer and inner boundaries of the epsilon ring of Uranus can be fitted by aligned Keplerian ellipses. Four possible mechanisms for maintaining uniform precession in the epsilon ring are considered: the ring's self-gravity, precession due to a satellite, smooth pressure gradients, and shocklike phenomena. It is proposed that apse alignment is maintained by the self-gravity of the ring. In this case, a ring mass of approximately 5 x 10 to the 18th g and a mean surface density at quadrature of about 25 g/sq cm are estimated.

Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.

1979-01-01

328

Clostridium difficile infection  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of antibiotic- and healthcare-associated diarrhea, and its containment and treatment imposes a significant financial burden, estimated to be over $3 billion in the USA alone. Since the year 2000, CDI epidemics/outbreaks have occurred in North America, Europe and Asia. These outbreaks have been variously associated with, or attributed to, the emergence of Clostridium difficile strains with increased virulence, an increase in resistance to commonly used antimicrobials such as the fluoroquinolones, or host susceptibilities, including the use of gastric acid suppressants, to name a few. Efforts to elucidate C. difficile pathogenic mechanisms have been hampered by a lack of molecular tools, manipulatable animal models, and genetic intractability of clinical C. difficile isolates. However, in the past 5 y, painstaking efforts have resulted in the unraveling of multiple C. difficile virulence-associated pathways and mechanisms. We have recently reviewed the disease, its associated risk factors, transmission and interventions (Viswanathan, Gut Microbes 2010). This article summarizes genetics, non-toxin virulence factors, and host-cell biology associated with C. difficile pathogenesis as of 2011, and highlights those findings/factors that may be of interest as future intervention targets.

Vedantam, Gayatri; Clark, Andrew; Chu, Michele; McQuade, Rebecca; Mallozzi, Michael; Viswanathan, V. K.

2012-01-01

329

Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: Candidate Organisms other than Clostridium Difficile  

PubMed Central

Backgraound/Aims The direct toxic effects of antibiotics on the intestine can alter digestive functions and cause pathogenic bacterial overgrowth leading to antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clostridium Difficile (C. Difficile) is widely known to be responsible for 10~20% of AAD cases. However, Klebsiella oxytoca, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida species might also contribute to AAD. Methods We prospectively analyzed the organisms in stool and colon tissue cultures with a C. Difficile toxin A assay in patients with AAD between May and December 2005. In addition, we performed the C. Difficile toxin A assays using an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay technique. Patients were enrolled who had diarrhea with more than three stools per day for at least 2 days after the initiation of antibiotic treatment for up to 6~8 weeks after antibiotic discontinuation. Results Among 38 patients (mean age 59±18 years, M:F=18:20), the organism isolation rates were 28.9% (11/38) for stool culture, 18.4% (7/38) for colon tissue cultures and 13.2% (5/38) for the C. Difficile toxin A assay. The overall rate of identification of organisms was 50.0% (19/38). Of the five patients that had a positive result by the C. Difficile toxin A assay, two had no organism isolated by the stool or colon tissue culture. The organisms isolated from the stool cultures were C. Difficile (4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (3), Candida species (3), and Staphylococcus aureus (1). C. Difficile (4) and K. pneumoniae (3) were isolated from the colon tissue culture. Conclusions For C. Difficile negative AAD patients, K. pneumoniae, Candida species, and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be potential causative organisms.

Song, Hyun Joo; Jung, Sung-Ae; Choi, Hee Jung; Lee, Mi Ae; Ryu, Kum Hei; Kim, Seong-Eun; Yoo, Kwon

2008-01-01

330

Comparison of 3 agar media in Fung double tubes and Petri plates to detect and enumerate Clostridium spp. in broiler chicken intestines.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that may lead to necrotic enteritis, resulting in poor feed efficiency and increased mortality in chickens. It is estimated that C. perfringens infects almost 1 million people in the United States every year. The objective of this research was to compare the Fung double tube (FDT) and conventional Petri plates using 3 different media to detect and enumerate Clostridium spp. in chicken intestines. Nine Cobb 500 broilers were randomly selected and euthanized at 21 and 42 d of age for a total of 18 samples. The jejunum and ileum from each broiler were harvested and studied in 2 methods and 3 media combinations, utilizing a 2 × 3 factorial totaling 6 treatments. The 2 methods were FDT and conventional Petri plates, and the 3 media were Shahidi-Ferguson Perfringens (SFP) with egg yolk supplement, polymyxin B, and kanamycin (E); SFP with polymyxin B and kanamycin (P); and SFP with d-cycloserine (C). Enumerations were performed after 24 h of incubation at 37°C. At 21 d, counts using medium C with FDT (4.51 log10 cfu/g) and plates (2.38 log10 cfu/g) were higher (P < 0.05) than using media E or P. On d 42, there were no differences among plate treatments and medium E had the highest counts (0.98 log10 cfu/g). Of all the FDT, medium C (5.35 log10 cfu/g) had the highest counts (P < 0.05), followed by medium P (3.54 log10 cfu/g). This study illustrates that the FDT method is able to enumerate Clostridium spp. at higher levels (P < 0.001) than the conventional Petri plate method; therefore, the FDT should be implemented and further explored. PMID:23687145

Barrios, M A; Saini, J K; Rude, C M; Beyer, R S; Fung, D Y C; Crozier-Dodson, B A

2013-06-01

331

Multiplicity of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two distinct collagenolytic enzyme fractions have been separated from a crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase preparation by gradient elution. The first of these fractions, though very active against native collagen and synthetic collagenase substrat...

I. Mandl S. Keller J. Manahan

1964-01-01

332

Solubility of (epsilon)-CL-20 in selected materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubility of the epsilon polymorph of CL-20 was determined in thirteen liquids over temperature range ambient to 74C using high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments included (epsilon)-CL-20 produced by two different synthesis routes; one lo...

E. von Holtz D. Ornellas M. F. Foltz J. E. Clarkson

1992-01-01

333

CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Clostridium perfingens  

SciTech Connect

CTP: phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) was identified in the cell envelope fraction of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The association of this enzyme with the cell envelope fraction of cell extracts was demonstrated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation and by activity sedimenting with the 100,000 x g pellet. The enzyme exhibited a broad pH optimium between pH 6.5 and pH 7.5. Enzyme activity was dependent on magnesium (5 mM) or manganese (1 mM) ions. Activity was also dependent on the addition on the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 (5 mM). The apparent Km values for CTP and phosphatidic acid were 0.18 mM and 0.22 mM respectively. Thioreactive agents inhibited activity, indicating that a sulfhydryl group is essential for activity. Maximal enzyme activity was observed at 50 degrees C. (Refs. 24).

Carmen, G.M.; Zaniewski, R.L.; Cousminer, J.J.

1982-01-01

334

Longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in healthy horses in a community setting.  

PubMed

Point prevalence studies have reported carriage rates of enteric pathogens in healthy horses, but longitudinal data are lacking. Commensal E. coli is an indicator organism to evaluate antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria, yet there are limited data for horses. The objectives of this study were to investigate and molecularly characterize isolates of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella, collected sequentially over a one year period, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile for E. coli. Fecal samples were collected monthly from 25 adult horses for one year. Selective cultures were performed for all above bacteria. C. difficile isolates were characterized via PCR toxin gene profiling and ribotyping. Broth microdilution was performed to assess antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of E. coli. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile was isolated from 15/275 (5.45%) samples from 10/25 (40%) horses. Four horses were positive at multiple sampling times but different ribotypes were found in three. Ribotypes included 078 (n=6), 001 (n=6) and C (n=3). C. perfringens was not isolated, nor was Salmonella. E. coli was isolated from 232/300 (77%) fecal samples. Resistance to ? 1 and ? 3 antimicrobials was present in 31/232 (13.4%) and 6/232 (2.6%) respectively. Only two horses shed the same strain of toxigenic C. difficile for more than one month, indicating that shedding is transient. The high number of ribotype 078 is consistent with recent emergence of this strain in the local horse population. The low prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal E. coli suggests that healthy horses are not likely a major reservoir of resistance for enteric bacteria. PMID:22554764

Schoster, A; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Reid-Smith, R J; Janecko, N; Shewen, P E; Weese, J S

2012-10-12

335

Epsilon Negative Zeroth-Order Resonator Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is confirmed that zeroth-order resonance appears in the epsilon negative (ENG) meta-structured transmission line (MTL) as well as in the conventional double negative (DNG) MTL. The zeroth-order resonant characteristics are described using dispersion relation of ENG MTL based on Bloch and Floquet theory. Appling the novel concept of the ENG zeroth-order resonator (ZOR), an ENG ZOR antenna is proposed.

Jae-Hyun Park; Young-Ho Ryu; Jae-Gon Lee; Jeong-Hae Lee

2007-01-01

336

Isolation of Clostridium thermocellum auxotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of biomass of fuels and chemical feedstocks by microbial fermentation offers the potential of solving two of today's important problems: waste accumulation and exhaustion of fossil fuels. Microorganisms with the capabilities of converting biomass components such as cellulos and hemicellulose to chemicals and fuels in a single step are of particular interest. One such microorganism is Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe which degrades cellulose to ethanol and organic acids. For efficient industrial use, the cellulolytic capacity of this strain must be improved by genetic means. Spontaneous and UV irradiation-induced auxotrophic mutants of Clostridium thermocellum, an anaerobic cellulolytic thermophile, were isolated after penicillin enrichment in a chemically defined medium.

Mendez, B.S.; Gomez, R.F.

1982-02-01

337

Epsilon Aurigae - Intriguing Changes with Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epsilon Aurigae has baffled generations of astrophysicists, and the need to hold a Special Session about this system arises from the depth and persistence of our bafflement. Although the obvious (dominant) star - an early-F supergiant - is partially eclipsed during its 27-year period such that the overall brightness drops by 1 magnitude in V, the spectrum of the system does not change. That fact is what has made epsilon Aurigae traditionally famous. Moreover, the dark object that moves in front must have gigantic proportions. However, it is not actually true to say that the spectrum does not change. It is still recognizeably an early-F supergiant but it changes significantly during eclipse ingress and egress, in ways that provide invaluable information about the mysterious body that was in front throughout 2010 (and still is). Nothing is yet known regarding the properties or constancy of the dark body, and to that end we have sought new information from the long series of spectra in heritage (photographic) archives. The two richest sets of high-dispersion spectra are from the DAO, dating back to 1972, and Mount Wilson, dating back to 1929, offering resolving power of the order of 50,000 and including both blue and red spectral regions. While both sets cover the 1983 eclipse (as do many independent photometric datasets), the Mount Wilson spectra are unique in their rich cover of the 1956 eclipse, and include some of the 1929 event. We have digitized about 300 plates, and are analysing the information by comparing spectra at all orbital phases with new CCD ones as far as possible. The poster will summarize the findings, which will be described in greater detail during the Special Session on epsilon Aurigae on Tuesday January 11.

Griffin, R. E. M.

2011-01-01

338

Out of Eclipse Monitoring of Epsilon Aurigae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epsilon Aurigae received significant attention during its last eclipse when between 2009-2011 it was occulted by a companion enshrouded in a dark disk. We have continued to observe it to better understand regular changes in the spectrum of the primary star outside eclipse and control against their influence in the in-eclipse spectrum. More than year after the end of the last eclipse, we have identified a few variable spectral features in the primary and also some influence of the dark disk that lingered past the predicted end of the eclipse.

Martin, John C.; Foster, C.; O'Brien, J. A.

2013-01-01

339

Revealing the Hot Side of Epsilon Aurigae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request a small investment of 24 minutes of Spitzer time, to obtain four IRAC observations of epsilon Aurigae. A naked eye object located near Capella, epsilon Aurigae is the eclipsing binary star with the longest known orbital period, showing a single long duration (~2 yr) eclipse every 27.1 yr. For much of the last 200 years, the nature of the eclipsing object defied explanation. We recently demonstrated that epsilon Aurigae consists of a high luminosity F0 post-AGB star in orbit with a B5 V star surrounded by a solar system sized (~8 AU diameter) disk of cool, dust-dominated material. The eclipse of epsilon Aurigae is a rare event; moreover, it is a unique astrophysical opportunity, since the backlighting of the disk by the high luminosity eclipsed star reveals details that cannot be detected in similar dusty disks around single stars. The current eclipse started in August 2009 and ended in July 2011; we are now in the post-eclipse phase, when the irradiation-heated side of the disk will begin rotating into view. The goals for these observations include: (1) extend our ongoing IRAC monitoring campaign covering the current eclipse to post-eclipse visits; (2) provide a consistent, well-calibrated space-based set of IR photometry for comparison with ongoing ground-based work; and (3) use the composite results to constrain the thermal profile of the disk. A key expectation of these particular observations is to reveal the irradiation-heated portion of the disk, which will be visible on its trailing side following eclipse. Observations of this side of the disk will be crucial to test and constrain new models of disk structure. As part of our overall monitoring campaign with Spitzer, Hubble, Herschel, and numerous ground-based facilities, these proposed observations will make an important contribution to the understanding of stellar evolution in binary stars, including mass transfer and evolution studies, along with new insights into astrophysical disks and post-AGB star evolution.

Hoard, Donald; Stencel, Robert; Howell, Steve

2012-12-01

340

Epsilon Aurigae at the End of Eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request a small investment of 24 minutes of Spitzer time, to obtain four IRAC observations of epsilon Aurigae. A naked eye object located near Capella, epsilon Aurigae is the eclipsing binary star with the longest known orbital period, showing a single long duration (~2 yr) eclipse every 27.1 yr. For much of the last 150 years, the nature of the eclipsing object defied explanation. We recently demonstrated that epsilon Aurigae consists of a high luminosity F0 post-AGB star in orbit with a B5 V star surrounded by a solar system sized (~8 AU diameter) disk of cool, dust-dominated material. The eclipse of epsilon Aurigae is a rare event; moreover, it is a unique astrophysical opportunity, since the backlighting of the disk by the high luminosity eclipsed star reveals details that cannot be detected in similar dusty disks around single stars. The current eclipse started in August 2009 and is expected to reach its photometric conclusion in May 2011 (with the spectroscopic conclusion as late as December 2011). The goals for these observations include: (1) extend our ongoing IRAC monitoring campaign covering the current eclipse to late-phase and post-eclipse visits; (2) provide a consistent, well-calibrated space-based set of IR photometry for comparison with ongoing ground-based work; and (3) use the composite results to constrain the thermal profile of the disk. A key expectation of these particular observations is to reveal the irradiation-heated portion of the disk, which will be visible on its trailing side following eclipse. Observations of this side of the disk will be crucial to test and constrain new models of disk structure. As part of our overall monitoring campaign with Spitzer, Hubble, Herschel, and numerous ground-based facilities, these proposed observations will make an important contribution to the understanding of stellar evolution in binary stars, including mass transfer and evolution studies, along with new insights into astrophysical disks and post-AGB star evolution.

Hoard, Donald; Stencel, R.; Howell, S.

2011-05-01

341

Nonlinear models in 2 + epsilon dimensions  

SciTech Connect

The general nonlinear scalar model is studied at asymptotically low temperature near two dimensions. The low-temperature expansion is renormalized, and effective algorithms are derived for calculation to all orders in the renormalized expansion. The renormalization group coefficients are calculated in the two-loop approximation, and topological properties of the renormalization group equations are investigated. Special attention is paid to the infrared instabilities of the fixed points, since they provide the continuum limits of the model. The model consists of a scalar field phi on Euclidean 2 + epsilon space whose values phi(x) lie in a finite-dimensional differentiable manifold. 4 figures.

Friedan, D.H.

1980-08-01

342

The Final Measurement of Epsilon'/Epsilon from KTeV  

SciTech Connect

The authors present precise measurements of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains about 15 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and 70 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}'/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. they find the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} {bar h}s{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They test CPT symmetry by finding the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter {epsilon}, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o}, and the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub +-}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}. these results are consistent with other experimental results and with CPT symmetry.

Worcester, E.T.

2009-10-01

343

The Final Measurement of Epsilon'/Epsilon from KTeV  

SciTech Connect

We present precise measurements of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at FNAL. We measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. We find the KL-KS mass difference {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} hs{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. We test CPT symmetry by finding the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter {epsilon}, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o}, and the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub {+-}}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}. These results are consistent with other experimental results and with CPT symmetry.

Worcester, E.T.

2009-09-01

344

Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

Zhou, YE

1995-01-01

345

CD3-epsilon overexpressed in prothymocytes acts as an oncogene.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Upon engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen, its associated CD3 proteins recruit signal transduction molecules, which in turn regulate T lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and thymocyte development. Because some signal transducing molecules recruited by CD3-epsilon, i.e., p56lck and p59fyn, are oncogenic and since we previously found that overexpression of CD3-epsilon transgenes causes a block in T lymphocyte and NK cell development, we tested the hypothesis that aberrant CD3-epsilon signaling leads both to abnormal T lymphocyte death and lymphomagenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten independently derived transgenic mouse lines were generated with four different genomic CD3-epsilon constructs. Mice either homozygous or hemizygous for each transgene were analyzed for an arrest in T lymphocyte development and for the occurrence of T cell lymphomas. RESULTS: Aggressive clonal T cell lymphomas developed at very high frequencies in seven mouse lines with intermediate levels of copies of CD3-epsilon derived transgenes. However, these lymphomas were not found when high copy numbers of CD3-epsilon transgenes caused a complete block in early thymic development or when a transgene was used in which the exons coding for the CD3-epsilon protein were deleted. Analyses of a series of double mutant mice, tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null, indicated that lymphomagenesis was initiated in lineage-committed prothymocytes, i.e., before rearrangement of the T cell receptor genes. In addition, the transgene coding for the CD3-epsilon cytoplasmic domain and its transmembrane region induced a T cell differentiation signal in premalignant tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null mice. CONCLUSION: The nonenzymatic CD3-epsilon protein acted as a potent oncogene when overexpressed early in T lymphocyte development. Lymphomagenesis was dependent on signal transduction events initiated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD3-epsilon. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Wang, B.; She, J.; Salio, M.; Allen, D.; Lacy, E.; Lonberg, N.; Terhorst, C.

1997-01-01

346

Epsilon Metal Summary Report FY 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Epsilon-metal ({var_epsilon}-metal) phase was selected in FY 2009 as a potential waste form to for immobilizing the noble metals found in the undissolved solids + aqueous stream, and the soluble Tc from ion-exchange process, each resulting from proposed aqueous reprocessing. {var_epsilon}-metal phase is observed in used nuclear fuel and the natural reactors of Oklobono in Gabon, where the long-term corrosion behavior was demonstrated. This makes {var_epsilon}-metal a very attractive waste form. Last fiscal year, {var_epsilon}-metal was successfully fabricated by combining the five-metals, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Re (surrogate for Tc), into pellets followed by consolidation with an arc melter. The arc melter produced fully dense samples with the epsilon structure. However, some chemistry differences were observed in the microstructure that resulted in regions rich in Re and Mo, and others rich in Pd, while Ru and Rh remained fairly constant throughout. This year, thermal stability (air), and corrosion testing of the samples fabricated by arc melting were the main focus for experimental work. Thermal stability was measured with a differential scanning calorimeter - thermogravimetric analyzer, by both ramp heating as well as step heating. There is clear evidence during the ramp heating experiment of an exothermic event + a weight loss peak both beginning at {approx}700 C. Step heating showed an oxidation event at {approx}690 C with minimal weight gain that occurs just before the weight loss event at 700 C. The conclusion being that the e-metal begins to oxidize and then become volatile. These findings are useful for considering the effects of voloxidation process. Three different pellets were subjected to electrochemical testing to study the corrosion behavior of the epsilon-metal phase in various conditions, namely acidic, basic, saline, and inert. Test was done according to an interim procedure developed for the alloy metal waste form. First an open circuit potential was measured, followed by linear polarization sweeps. The linear polarization sweep range was the Tafel equation was fit to the linear polarization sweep data to determine the corrosion rate of each pellet in each test solution. The average calculated corrosion rates of the three pellets according to solution conditions were: -1.91 x 10{sup -4} mm/yr (0.001 M NaOH), -1.48 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.01 M NaCl), -8.77 x 10{sup -4} mm/yr (0.001 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), -2.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.001 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaCl), and -1.54 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.001 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.01 M NaCl). Three single-pass flow through (SPFT) test were conducted at a flow rate of 10 ml/day, at 90 C, and pH of 2.5, 7.0, and 9.0 for up to 322 days. Results of the tests indicate that dissolution rates were 5 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup 2} d{sup -1} at pH 9.0, 1.2 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at pH 7.0, and 2 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at pH 2.5. The sample used for the pH 7.0 SPFT test contains extra Re compared to samples used for the other two SPFT test, which came from a single pellet. The corrosion data measured this year indicate that the {var_epsilon}-metal phase is chemically durable. The two chemically different phases, but structurally the same, behave differently during dissolution according to the microstructure changes observed in both the electrochemical and in SPFT test. Characterization of the test specimens after testing suggests that the dissolution is complex and involves oxidative dissolution followed by precipitation of both oxide and metallic phases. These data suggest that the dissolution in the electrochemical and SPFT tests is different; a process that needs further investigation.

Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.

2011-09-30

347

Geometrical approach to Feynman integrals and the epsilon-expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of the geometrically-inspired representations to the epsilon-expansion of the two-point function with different masses is considered. Explicit result for an arbitrary term of the expansion is obtained in terms of log-sine integrals. Construction of the epsilon-expansion in the three-point case is also discussed.

A. I. Davydychev

1999-01-01

348

Epsilon Aurigae - Two-year Totality Transpiring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 27 year period eclipsing binary, epsilon Aurigae, exhibits the hallmarks of a classical Algol system, except that the companion to the F supergiant primary star is surprisingly under-luminous for its mass. Eclipse ingress appears to have begun shortly after the predicted time in August 2009, near JD 2,455,065. At the University of Denver, we have focused on near-infrared interferometry, spectroscopy, and photometry with the superior instrumentation available today, compared to that of the 1983 eclipse. Previously obtained interferometry indicates that the source is asymmetric (Stencel, et. al. 2009 APLJ) and initial CHARA+MIRC closure-phase imaging shows hints of resolved structures. In parallel, we have pursued SPEX near-IR spectra at NASA IRTF in order to confirm whether CO molecules only seen during the second half of the 1983 eclipse will reappear on schedule. Additionally, we have obtained J and H band photometry using an Optec SSP-4 photometer with a newly written control and analysis suite. Our goal is to refine daytime photometric methods in order to provide coverage of the anticipated mid-eclipse brightening during summer 2010, from our high-altitude observatory atop Mt. Evans, Colorado. Also, many parallel observations are ongoing as part of the epsilon Aurigae international campaign (http://www.hposoft.com/Campaign09.html). In this report, we describe the progress of the eclipse and ongoing observations. We invite interested parties to get involved with the campaign for coverage of the 2009-2011 eclipse via the campaign websites: http://www.hposoft.com/Campaign09.html - and - http://www.du.edu/ rstencel/epsaur.htm - and - http://www.citizensky.org . This research is supported in part by the bequest of William Herschel Womble to the University of Denver. We are grateful to the participants in the observing campaign and invite interested parties to join us in monitoring the star for the balance of the eclipse.

Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Stencel, R. E.; Hopkins, J. L.

2010-01-01

349

Perturbative matching of the staggered four-fermion operators for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}  

SciTech Connect

Using staggered fermions, we calculate the perturbative corrections to the bilinear and four-fermion operators that are used in the numerical study of weak matrix elements for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}. We present results for one-loop matching coefficients between continuum operators, calculated in the naive dimensional regularization (NDR) scheme, and gauge invariant staggered fermion operators. In particular, we concentrate on Feynman diagrams of the current-current insertion type. We also present results for the tadpole improved operators. These results, combined with existing results for penguin diagrams, provide a complete one-loop renormalization of the staggered four-fermion operators. Therefore, using our results, it is possible to match a lattice calculation of K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} mixing and K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays to the continuum NDR results with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

Lee, Weonjong

2001-09-01

350

Genetic Manipulation of Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium and is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. For many years this organism was considered genetically intractable, but in the past 10 years, multiple methods have been developed or adapted for genetic manipulation of C. difficile. This unit describes the molecular techniques used for genetic modification of this organism, including methods for gene disruption, complementation, plasmid introduction and integration, and cross-species conjugations.

Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M.; Sorg, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

351

Electrotransformation studies in Clostridium cellulolyticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Electropermeabilization of Clostridium cellulolyticum was optimized using ATP leakage assays. Electrotransformation was then performed under optimized conditions (6 to 7.5 kV\\u000a cm?1 field strength applied during 5 ms to a mixture containing methylated plasmids and late exponential phase cell suspensions\\u000a (10 molecules:1 cell) in a sucrose-containing buffer). Transformants were only obtained when 7 or 7.5 kV cm?1 pulses were applied.

C Tardif; H Maamar; M Balfin; JP Belaich

2001-01-01

352

Novel System for Efficient Isolation of Clostridium Double-Crossover Allelic Exchange Mutants Enabling Markerless Chromosomal Gene Deletions and DNA Integration  

PubMed Central

Isolation of Clostridium mutants based on gene replacement via allelic exchange remains a major limitation for this important genus. Use of a heterologous counterselection marker can facilitate the identification of the generally rare allelic exchange events. We report on the development of an inducible counterselection marker and describe its utility and broad potential in quickly and efficiently generating markerless DNA deletions and integrations at any genomic locus without the need for auxotrophic mutants or the use of the mobile group II introns. This system is based on a codon-optimized mazF toxin gene from Escherichia coli under the control of a lactose-inducible promoter from Clostridium perfringens. This system is potentially applicable to almost all members of the genus Clostridium due to their similarly low genomic GC content and comparable codon usage. We isolated all allelic-exchange-based gene deletions (ca_p0167, sigF, and sigK) or disruptions (ca_p0157 and sigF) we attempted and integrated a 3.6-kb heterologous DNA sequence (made up of a Clostridium ljungdahlii 2.1-kb formate dehydrogenase [fdh] gene plus a FLP recombination target [FRT]-flanked thiamphenicol resistance marker) into the Clostridium acetobutylicum chromosome. Furthermore, we report on the development of a plasmid system with inducible segregational instability, thus enabling efficient deployment of the FLP-FRT system to generate markerless deletion or integration mutants. This enabled expeditious deletion of the thiamphenicol resistance marker from the fdh integrant strain as well as the sigK deletion strain. More generally, our system can potentially be applied to other organisms with underdeveloped genetic tools.

Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Fast, Alan G.

2012-01-01

353

Phylogenetic analysis and PCR detection of Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium novyi types A and B, and Clostridium septicum based on the flagellin gene.  

PubMed

The flagellin genes (fliC) of Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium novyi types A and B, and Clostridium septicum were analysed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The five Clostridium species have at least two copies of the flagellin gene (fliC) arranged in tandem on the chromosome. The deduced N- and C-terminal aminoacid sequences of the flagellin proteins (FliCs) of these clostridia are well conserved but their central region aminoacid sequences are not. Phylogenic analysis based on the N-terminal aminoacid sequence of the FliC protein revealed that these clostridia, which belong to Clostridium 16S rDNA phylogenic cluster I (), are more closely related to Bacillus subtilis than to Clostridium difficile, which belongs to the cluster XI. Moreover, a multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) system based on the fliC sequence was developed to rapidly identify C. chauvoei, C. haemolyticum, C. novyi types A and B, and C. septicum. PCR of each Clostridium amplified a species-specific band. The multiplex PCR system may be useful for rapid identification of pathogenic clostridia. PMID:11900959

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Kojima, Akemi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ogikubo, Yasuaki; Takikawa, Noriyasu; Tamura, Yutaka

2002-05-01

354

Near-wall k-epsilon turbulence modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow fields from a turbulent channel simulation are used to compute the budgets for the turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (epsilon). Data from boundary layer simulations are used to analyze the dependence of the eddy-viscosity damping-function on the Reynolds number and the distance from the wall. The computed budgets are used to test existing near-wall turbulence models of the k-epsilon type. It was found that the turbulent transport models should be modified in the vicinity of the wall. It was also found that existing models for the different terms in the epsilon-budget are adequate in the region from the wall, but need modification near the wall. The channel flow is computed using a k-epsilon model with an eddy-viscosity damping function from the data and no damping functions in the epsilon-equation. These computations show that the k-profile can be adequately predicted, but to correctly predict the epsilon-profile, damping functions in the epsilon-equation are needed.

Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.

1987-01-01

355

Determination of epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine in fresh food products.  

PubMed

epsilon-N-Pyrrolylnorleucine was determined in different fresh food products to study its presence as a normal component of food proteins. Twenty-two different products were screened: cod, cuttlefish, salmon, sardine, trout, beef, chicken, pork, broad bean, broccoli, chickpea, garlic, green pea, lentil, mushroom, soybean, spinach, sunflower, almond, hazelnut, peanut, and walnut. Foods were homogenized, their proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and hydrolyzed with 2 N NaOH for 20 h, and the epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine content was determined by capillary electrophoresis. The epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine, which was identified by HPLC/MS in sardine muscle hydrolysate, ranged in the 22 foods analyzed from 0.24 to 6.36 micromol/g. This concentration was correlated with the protein content of the food (r = 0.687, p = 0.00041). In addition, the epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine/lysine ratio was found to be a function of the lipid, iron, and protein contents of the food (r = 0.881, p < 0.0001) and was directly correlated with lipid and iron contents and inversely correlated with the protein content. These results are in agreement with the oxidative stress origin proposed for epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine and suggest that the epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine/lysine ratio is a characteristic of each food. In addition, epsilon-N-pyrrolylnorleucine seemed to be a normal component of many fresh food products, in which it may be acting as a natural antioxidant. PMID:10552475

Zamora, R; Alaiz, M; Hidalgo, F J

1999-05-01

356

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

357

Identification of the structural and functional domains of the large serine recombinase TnpX from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Members of the large serine resolvase family of site-specific recombinases are responsible for the movement of several mobile genetic elements; however, little is known regarding the structure or function of these proteins. TnpX is a serine recombinase that is responsible for the movement of the chloramphenicol resistance elements of the Tn4451/3 family. We have shown that TnpX binds differentially to its transposon and target sites, suggesting that resolvase-like excision and insertion were two distinct processes. To analyze the structural and functional domains of TnpX and, more specifically, to define the domains involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions, we conducted limited proteolysis studies on the wild-type dimeric TnpX(1-707) protein and its functional truncation mutant, TnpX(1-597). The results showed that TnpX was organized into three major domains: domain I (amino acids (aa) 1-170), which included the resolvase catalytic domain; domain II (aa 170-266); and domain III (aa 267-707), which contained the dimerization region and two separate regions involved in binding to the DNA target. A small polypeptide (aa 533-587) was shown to bind specifically to the TnpX binding sites providing further evidence that it was the primary DNA binding region. In addition, a previously unidentified DNA binding site was shown to be located between residues 583 and 707. Finally, the DNA binding and multerimization but not the catalytic functions of TnpX could be reconstituted by recombining separate polypeptides that contain the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. These data provide evidence that TnpX has separate catalytic, DNA binding, and multimerization domains. PMID:15542858

Lucet, Isabelle S; Tynan, Fleur E; Adams, Vicki; Rossjohn, Jamie; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

2005-01-28

358

Tailored ss-Cyclodextrin Blocks the Translocation Pores of Binary Exotoxins from C. Botulinum and C. Perfringens and Protects Cells from Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin are binary exotoxins, which ADP-ribosylate actin in the cytosol of mammalian cells and thereby destroy the cytoskeleton. C2 and iota toxin consists of two individual proteins, an enzymatic active (A-) component and a separate receptor binding and translocation (B-) component. The latter forms a complex with the A-component on the surface of target cells and after receptor-mediated endocytosis, it mediates the translocation of the A-component from acidified endosomal vesicles into the cytosol. To this end, the B-components form heptameric pores in endosomal membranes, which serve as translocation channels for the A-components. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that a 7-fold symmetrical positively charged ß-cyclodextrin derivative, per-6-S-(3-aminomethyl)benzylthio-ß-cyclodextrin, protects cultured cells from intoxication with C2 and iota toxins in a concentration-dependent manner starting at low micromolar concentrations. We discovered that the compound inhibited the pH-dependent membrane translocation of the A-components of both toxins in intact cells. Consistently, the compound strongly blocked transmembrane channels formed by the B-components of C2 and iota toxin in planar lipid bilayers in vitro. With C2 toxin, we consecutively ruled out all other possible inhibitory mechanisms showing that the compound did not interfere with the binding of the toxin to the cells or with the enzyme activity of the A-component. Conclusions/Significance The described ß-cyclodextrin derivative was previously identified as one of the most potent inhibitors of the binary lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis both in vitro and in vivo, implying that it might represent a broad-spectrum inhibitor of binary pore-forming exotoxins from pathogenic bacteria.

Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Karginov, Vladimir A.; Popoff, Michel R.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Barth, Holger

2011-01-01

359

VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF {epsilon} ORIONIS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of {epsilon} Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of H{alpha} (net) and He I {lambda}5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I {lambda}5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both H{alpha} and He I {lambda}5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both H{alpha} and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

Thompson, Gregory B. [Department of Physics, Adrian College, Adrian, MI 49221 (United States); Morrison, Nancy D., E-mail: gthompson@adrian.edu, E-mail: nmorris@utnet.utoledo.edu [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2013-04-15

360

The September epsilon Perseids in 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unexpected high activity (outburst) of the meteor shower September epsilon Perseids (SPE) was observed on 2013 September 9/10. The similar event occurred in 2008. We analysed SPE meteors observed in a frame of the European stations network (EDMONd) and collected in the video meteor orbits database EDMOND. Also, we compared two AMOS all-sky video observations of SPE meteors, performed at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory in Modra (AGO) and Arboretum in Tesarske Mlynany (ARBO) stations of the Slovak Video Meteor Network (SVMN). We obtained activity profiles of the 2013 SPE outburst during four hours around its maximum. Along with SPE activity profiles binned at 10 minutes for single-station meteors, we gained orbital characteristics of SPE meteors observed during the outburst, as well as a mean orbits of the SPE meteor stream in interval 2001-2012. The SPE outburst was confirmed by radio forward-scatter observations as well. The obtained observational results might be the starting point for modeling and explanation of SPE outbursts.

Gajdoš, Štefan; Tóth, Juraj; Kornoš, Leonard; Koukal, Jakub; Piffl, Roman

2014-04-01

361

Clostridium difficile infection: nursing considerations.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which commonly causes diarrhoea in inpatients. C. difficile affects hospitalised patients worldwide and can pose a significant risk to patients. This article explores the transmission and risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). There are many aspects to the prevention and control of CDI: appropriate antibiotic use, early instigation and maintenance of prevention and control strategies, and high standards of environmental cleanliness, education, and surveillance. This article discusses the role of the nurse in each of these prevention and control activities. PMID:25052676

Mitchell, Brett G; Russo, Phillip L; Race, Paul

2014-07-23

362

Regulation of toxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani.  

PubMed

Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins are structurally and functionally related proteins that are potent inhibitors of neuroexocytosis. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes, whereas tetanus toxin (TeNT) does not form any complex. The BoNT and ANTP genes are clustered in a DNA segment called the botulinum locus, which has different genomic localization (chromosome, plasmid, phage) in the various Clostridium botulinum types and subtypes. The botulinum locus genes are organized in two polycistronic operons (ntnh-bont and ha/orfX operons) transcribed in opposite orientations. A gene called botR lying between the two operons in C. botulinum type A encodes an alternative sigma factor which regulates positively the synthesis of BoNT and ANTPs at the late exponential growth phase and beginning of the stationary phase. In Clostridium tetani, the gene located immediately upstream of tent encodes a positive regulatory protein, TetR, which is related to BotR. C. botulinum and C. tetani genomes contain several two-component systems and predicted regulatory orphan genes. In C. botulinum type A, four two-component systems have been found that positively or negatively regulate the synthesis of BoNT and ANTPs independently of BotR/A. The synthesis of neurotoxin in Clostridia seems to be under the control of complex network of regulation. PMID:23769754

Connan, Chloé; Denčve, Cécile; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

2013-12-01

363

INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE  

SciTech Connect

We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hopkins, Jeffrey L. [Hopkins Phoenix Observatory, Phoenix, AZ 85033 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen [Department of Physics, Cincinnati University, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William, E-mail: rstencel@du.edu [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

2011-11-15

364

Copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and quaternized epsilon-caprolactone as gene carriers.  

PubMed

New copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone (CL) and gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone quaternized by pyridine (Py+CL) were investigated as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Copolymers with two molar compositions (50 Py+CL/50 CL and 80 Py+CL/20 CL), each with a diblock or a random structure, were used to prepare nanoparticulate complexes with DNA. Average size and surface charge of the complexes and extent of the complexation were measured. The DNA condensation by the copolymers was analysed by a gel retardation assay. Cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of the copolymers were also evaluated in HeLa cells and compared with polyethylenimine 50 kDa. The size of the polyplexes was approximately 200 nm. The zeta potential first increased with the copolymer/DNA charge ratio and became positive for charge ratios in the 2-4 range depending on the type of copolymer. DNA was completely condensed within the nanoparticles and the degree of interaction was very high. Cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency were found to be comparable to polyethylenimine 50 kDa. The experimental results suggest that the novel copolymers can be used as novel gene delivery vectors. PMID:17258343

Vroman, Benoît; Mazza, Michaël; Fernandez, Manuela R; Jérôme, Robert; Préat, Véronique

2007-03-12

365

Genetic determinants of pancreatic epsilon-cell development.  

PubMed

Recently, the expression of the peptide hormone ghrelin was detected in alpha-cells of the islets of Langerhans as well as in epsilon-cells, a newly discovered endocrine cell type, but it remains unclear how the latter is related in lineage to the four classical islet cell types, alpha-, beta-, delta-, and PP-cells. Here, we provide further evidence that ghrelin is predominantly produced in the alpha-cells of mouse islets but also in single hormone ghrelin-secreting epsilon-cells. We additionally demonstrate that pancreatic epsilon-cells derive from Neurogenin3-expressing precursor cells and their genesis depends on Neurogenin3 activity. Furthermore, our data indicate that the number of ghrelin-producing cells is differentially regulated during pancreas morphogenesis by the homeodomain-containing transcription factors Arx, Pax4, and Pax6. Arx mutants lack ghrelin+ glucagon+ alpha-cells whereas Pax4 mutants develop an excess of these cells. Importantly, the ghrelin+ glucagon- epsilon-cell population is not affected following Arx or Pax4 disruption. In contrast, the loss of Pax6 provokes an unexpected increase of the ghrelin+ glucagon- epsilon-cell number which is not due to increased proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that the development of ghrelin-producing cells is differentially dependent on Neurogenin3 in different domains of the gastrointestinal tract and that, in the endocrine pancreas, epsilon-cell genesis does not require Arx or Pax4 activities but is antagonized by Pax6. PMID:16122727

Heller, R Scott; Jenny, Marjorie; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed; Tomasetto, Catherine; Madsen, Ole D; Mellitzer, Georg; Gradwohl, Gerard; Serup, Palle

2005-10-01

366

SPORULATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM I.  

PubMed Central

Tsuji, Kiyoshi (National Canners Association Research Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) and William E. Perkins. Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum I. Selection of an aparticulate sporulation medium. J. Bacteriol. 84:81–85. 1962.—The thermal resistances of Clostridium botulinum spores produced in seven different liquid media were compared. A 5% solution of a commercially produced mixture of dehydrated enzymatic hydrolyzates of casein and animal tissues yielded spores of maximal thermostability. Sporulation in this medium was almost complete under the conditions employed. The suspensions were essentially free of vegetative cells and sporangia and could be thoroughly washed. The incubation time at 30 C was found to have a negligible effect on thermal resistance for periods between 4 and 21 days. Supplementing the medium yielding the most thermolabile spores with various divalent cations did not enhance the thermal resistance of the spores produced. The identical amino acids and related compounds were found in spores exhibiting the maximal and minimal thermal resistance when they were analyzed chromatographically. The more thermostable spores contained a higher concentration of glucosamine.

Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Perkins, William E.

1962-01-01

367

Preparation and characterization of magnetic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microspheres.  

PubMed

In this article, nano-magnetite particles (ferrofluid, Fe3O4) were prepared by chemical co-deposition method. A series of biodegradable triblock poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization method from epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol) diol (PEG) using stannous octoate as catalyst. And the magnetic PCEC composite microspheres were prepared by solvent diffusion method. The properties of the ferrofluid, PCEC copolymer, and magnetic PCEC microspheres were studied in detail by SEM, VSM, XRD, Malvern Laser Particle Sizer, 1H-NMR, GPC, and TG/DTG. Effects of macromolecular weight and concentration of polymer, and the time for ultrasound dispersion on properties of magnetic microspheres were also investigated. The obtained magnetic PCEC microspheres might have great potential application in targeted drug delivery system or cell separation. PMID:17701292

Gou, Ma Ling; Qian, Zhi Yong; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yong Bo; Huang, Mei Juan; Kan, Bing; Wen, Yan Juan; Dai, Mei; Li, Xing Yi; Gong, Chang Yang; Tu, Ming Jing

2008-03-01

368

Clostridium difficile MazF Toxin Exhibits Selective, Not Global, mRNA Cleavage  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is an important, emerging nosocomial pathogen. The transition from harmless colonization to disease is typically preceded by antimicrobial therapy, which alters the balance of the intestinal flora, enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon. One of the most perplexing aspects of the C. difficile infectious cycle is its ability to survive antimicrobial therapy and transition from inert colonization to active infection. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been implicated in facilitating persistence after antibiotic treatment. We identified only one TA system in C. difficile strain 630 (epidemic type X), designated MazE-cd and MazF-cd, a counterpart of the well-characterized Escherichia coli MazEF TA system. This E. coli MazF toxin cleaves mRNA at ACA sequences, leading to global mRNA degradation, growth arrest, and death. Likewise, MazF-cd expression in E. coli or Clostridium perfringens resulted in growth arrest. Primer extension analysis revealed that MazF-cd cleaved RNA at the five-base consensus sequence UACAU, suggesting that the mRNAs susceptible to cleavage comprise a subset of total mRNAs. In agreement, we observed differential cleavage of several mRNAs by MazF-cd in vivo, revealing a direct correlation between the number of cleavage recognition sites within a given transcript and its susceptibility to degradation by MazF-cd. Interestingly, upon detailed statistical analyses of the C. difficile transcriptome, the major C. difficile virulence factor toxin B (TcdB) and CwpV, a cell wall protein involved in aggregation, were predicted to be significantly resistant to MazF-cd cleavage.

Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Suzuki, Motoo; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Montville, Thomas J.; Kirn, Thomas J.; Ouyang, Ming

2012-01-01

369

Clostridium difficile MazF toxin exhibits selective, not global, mRNA cleavage.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is an important, emerging nosocomial pathogen. The transition from harmless colonization to disease is typically preceded by antimicrobial therapy, which alters the balance of the intestinal flora, enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon. One of the most perplexing aspects of the C. difficile infectious cycle is its ability to survive antimicrobial therapy and transition from inert colonization to active infection. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been implicated in facilitating persistence after antibiotic treatment. We identified only one TA system in C. difficile strain 630 (epidemic type X), designated MazE-cd and MazF-cd, a counterpart of the well-characterized Escherichia coli MazEF TA system. This E. coli MazF toxin cleaves mRNA at ACA sequences, leading to global mRNA degradation, growth arrest, and death. Likewise, MazF-cd expression in E. coli or Clostridium perfringens resulted in growth arrest. Primer extension analysis revealed that MazF-cd cleaved RNA at the five-base consensus sequence UACAU, suggesting that the mRNAs susceptible to cleavage comprise a subset of total mRNAs. In agreement, we observed differential cleavage of several mRNAs by MazF-cd in vivo, revealing a direct correlation between the number of cleavage recognition sites within a given transcript and its susceptibility to degradation by MazF-cd. Interestingly, upon detailed statistical analyses of the C. difficile transcriptome, the major C. difficile virulence factor toxin B (TcdB) and CwpV, a cell wall protein involved in aggregation, were predicted to be significantly resistant to MazF-cd cleavage. PMID:22544268

Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Suzuki, Motoo; Hurley, Jennifer M; Montville, Thomas J; Kirn, Thomas J; Ouyang, Ming; Woychik, Nancy A

2012-07-01

370

Expression of a catalytically inactive transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (tm-PTP epsilon) delays optic nerve myelination.  

PubMed

Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation is integral to the process of oligodendrocyte differentiation. To interfere with the subset of the phosphorylation cycle overseen by protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (PTP epsilon) in oligodendrocytes, we applied a substrate-trapping approach in the development of transgenic mice overexpressing a catalytically inactive, transmembrane PTP epsilon-hemaglutinin (tm-PTP epsilon-HA) from the dual promoter element of the gene encoding the myelin protein 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP). Transgene expression peaked during the active myelinating period, at 2-3 weeks postnatal. Two tyrosine phosphoproteins, alpha-enolase and beta-actin, were phosphorylated to a greater degree in transgenic mice. Despite a high degree of tm-PTP epsilon-HA expression, myelin was grossly normal in nearly all axonal tracts. Phenotypic abnormalities were limited to optic nerve, where a decrease in the degree of myelination was reflected by reduced levels of myelin proteins on postnatal day 21 (PND21), as well as a decrease in the density of differentiated oligodendrocytes. The optic chiasm was reduced in thickness in transgenic mice; optic nerves similarly exhibited a reduction in transverse width. Further analyses of the optic pathway demonstrated that transgenic protein was unexpectedly present in retinal ganglion cells, whose axons are the targets of myelination by optic nerve oligodendrocytes. On PND28, transgenic protein declined dramatically in both oligodendrocytes and retinal ganglion cells contributing to the recovery of optic nerve myelination. Thus, delayed myelination arises only when tm-PTP epsilon-HA is simultaneously expressed in myelin-forming glia and their neuronal targets. While tm-PTP epsilon related signaling pathways may figure in axon-glial interactions, interfering with tm-PTP epsilon activity does not perceptibly affect the development or myelinating capacity of most oligodendrocytes. PMID:15390114

Muja, Naser; Lovas, Gabor; Romm, Elena; Machleder, Dietrich; Ranjan, Mukul; Gallo, Vittorio; Hudson, Lynn D

2004-12-01

371

Regulation of Neurotoxin Production and Sporulation by a Putative agrBD Signaling System in Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum?  

PubMed Central

A significant number of genome sequences of Clostridium botulinum and related species have now been determined. In silico analysis of these data revealed the presence of two distinct agr loci (agr-1 and agr-2) in all group I strains, each encoding putative proteins with similarity to AgrB and AgrD of the well-studied Staphylococcus aureus agr quorum sensing system. In S. aureus, a small diffusible autoinducing peptide is generated from AgrD in a membrane-located processing event that requires AgrB. Here the characterization of both agr loci in the group I strain C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and of their homologues in a close relative, Clostridium sporogenes NCIMB 10696, is reported. In C. sporogenes NCIMB 10696, agr-1 and agr-2 appear to form transcriptional units that consist of agrB, agrD, and flanking genes of unknown function. Several of these flanking genes are conserved in Clostridium perfringens. In agreement with their proposed role in quorum sensing, both loci were maximally expressed during late-exponential-phase growth. Modulation of agrB expression in C. sporogenes was achieved using antisense RNA, whereas in C. botulinum, insertional agrD mutants were generated using ClosTron technology. In comparison to the wild-type strains, these strains exhibited drastically reduced sporulation and, for C. botulinum, also reduced production of neurotoxin, suggesting that both phenotypes are controlled by quorum sensing. Interestingly, while agr-1 appeared to control sporulation, agr-2 appeared to regulate neurotoxin formation.

Cooksley, Clare M.; Davis, Ian J.; Winzer, Klaus; Chan, Weng C.; Peck, Michael W.; Minton, Nigel P.

2010-01-01

372

Regulation of neurotoxin production and sporulation by a Putative agrBD signaling system in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum.  

PubMed

A significant number of genome sequences of Clostridium botulinum and related species have now been determined. In silico analysis of these data revealed the presence of two distinct agr loci (agr-1 and agr-2) in all group I strains, each encoding putative proteins with similarity to AgrB and AgrD of the well-studied Staphylococcus aureus agr quorum sensing system. In S. aureus, a small diffusible autoinducing peptide is generated from AgrD in a membrane-located processing event that requires AgrB. Here the characterization of both agr loci in the group I strain C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and of their homologues in a close relative, Clostridium sporogenes NCIMB 10696, is reported. In C. sporogenes NCIMB 10696, agr-1 and agr-2 appear to form transcriptional units that consist of agrB, agrD, and flanking genes of unknown function. Several of these flanking genes are conserved in Clostridium perfringens. In agreement with their proposed role in quorum sensing, both loci were maximally expressed during late-exponential-phase growth. Modulation of agrB expression in C. sporogenes was achieved using antisense RNA, whereas in C. botulinum, insertional agrD mutants were generated using ClosTron technology. In comparison to the wild-type strains, these strains exhibited drastically reduced sporulation and, for C. botulinum, also reduced production of neurotoxin, suggesting that both phenotypes are controlled by quorum sensing. Interestingly, while agr-1 appeared to control sporulation, agr-2 appeared to regulate neurotoxin formation. PMID:20453132

Cooksley, Clare M; Davis, Ian J; Winzer, Klaus; Chan, Weng C; Peck, Michael W; Minton, Nigel P

2010-07-01

373

Physical Characterization of Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxin Genes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DNA fragments encompassing the neurotoxin genes of Clostridium botulinum types B and E have been cloned and their entire nucleotide sequences determined. Similarly, recombinant clones carrying all but the extreme 51 end of the type F gene have been obtain...

N. P. Minton

1992-01-01

374

Draft genome sequence of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679, the common nontoxigenic surrogate for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum.  

PubMed

Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is widely used as a nontoxigenic surrogate for proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum in the derivation and validation of thermal processes in food. Here we report the draft assembly and annotation of the C. sporogenes PA 3679 genome. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a high degree of relatedness between C. sporogenes PA 3679 and sequenced strains of proteolytic C. botulinum. PMID:22374960

Bradbury, Mark; Greenfield, Paul; Midgley, David; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Vriesekoop, Frank; Brown, Janelle L

2012-03-01

375

Constipation in Clostridium difficile infection  

PubMed Central

A patient presented to our hospital with worsening shortness of breath, cough and respiratory distress that slowly worsened over 7–10 days. She had a viral-like illness with runny nose and cough for 1 week, which became productive of yellowish sputum. She was treated with antibiotic and steroid with clinical improvement. Her leucocyte count continued to increase despite discontinuation of both antibiotic and steroid. All culture results returned negative. She did not have any abdominal pain or diarrhoea. Her stool was positive for Clostridium difficile toxin assayed by PCR. A CT of abdomen showed distension of cecum and proximal colon. She was treated with intravenous metronidazole, oral and rectal vancomycin and intravenous immunoglobulin. She developed multi-organ failure and died.

Kawsar, Hameem I; Gopal, K V; Shahnewaz, Jamila; Daw, Hamed A

2012-01-01

376

Mechanism of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase reaction.  

PubMed

alpha-Amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase catalyzes the exchange of the alpha-hydrogen of the substrate with deuterium during racemization in deuterium oxide. The rate of the hydrogen exchange measured by 1H NMR is lower than that of racemization in deuterium oxide for both the enantiomers. Both the enantiomers of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam show an overshoot of the optical rotation during the enzymatic racemization in deuterium oxide (but not in water). This phenomenon may be attributable to a primary deuterium isotope effect at the alpha-position: alpha-deuterium isotope effects of 3.6 and 2.0 were observed for the racemization of the D and L enantiomers of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam, respectively. Results of tritium-labeling experiments showed that the enzyme catalyzes both retention and inversion of configuration of the substrate with a similar probability in each turnover. Conversion of [alpha-2H]-D-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam in water and unlabeled D-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam in deuterium oxide into the L isomer under nearly single turnover conditions with the enzyme showed significant internal return of the alpha-hydrogen. These results support a single base mechanism for the racemization reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. PMID:3955003

Ahmed, S A; Esaki, N; Tanaka, H; Soda, K

1986-01-28

377

[Bleeding after extracorporeal circulation and epsilon-aminocaproic acid].  

PubMed

In order to assess the efficacy of epsilon aminocaproic acid in reducing bleeding after extracorporeal circulation for aorto-coronary bypass grafting, a double blind study was carried out in 57 patients. The efficiency of epsilon aminocaproic acid was assessed by the fibrinolytic activity as measured by a Von Kaulla test one hour after injection of protamine, by the amount of blood transfusions required and by the measurement of blood losses between the end of the injection of protamine and transfer of the patient to the intensive care unit, and then during the first 24 h following operation. No significant difference (p less than 0.05) between the group of treated patients and the group with placebo could be found concerning the postoperative bleeding, the amount of blood transfusions necessary and the occurrence of fibrinolysis. It was therefore concluded that there was no reason to routinely use epsilon aminocaproic acid after aorto-coronary bypass grafting. PMID:3878109

Saussine, M; Delpech, S; Allien, M; Grolleau, D; Daures, M F; Coulon, P; Chaptal, P A

1985-01-01

378

Epsilon-near-zero mode for active optoelectronic devices.  

PubMed

The electromagnetic modes of a GaAs quantum well between two AlGaAs barriers are studied. At the longitudinal optical phonon frequency, the system supports a phonon polariton mode confined in the thickness of the quantum well that we call epsilon-near-zero mode. This epsilon-near-zero mode can be resonantly excited through a grating resulting in a very large absorption localized in the single quantum well. We show that the reflectivity can be modulated by applying a voltage. This paves the way to a new class of active optoelectronic devices working in the midinfrared and far infrared at ambient temperature. PMID:23368264

Vassant, S; Archambault, A; Marquier, F; Pardo, F; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Pelouard, J L; Greffet, J J

2012-12-01

379

Epsilon-Near-Zero Mode for Active Optoelectronic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic modes of a GaAs quantum well between two AlGaAs barriers are studied. At the longitudinal optical phonon frequency, the system supports a phonon polariton mode confined in the thickness of the quantum well that we call epsilon-near-zero mode. This epsilon-near-zero mode can be resonantly excited through a grating resulting in a very large absorption localized in the single quantum well. We show that the reflectivity can be modulated by applying a voltage. This paves the way to a new class of active optoelectronic devices working in the midinfrared and far infrared at ambient temperature.

Vassant, S.; Archambault, A.; Marquier, F.; Pardo, F.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Pelouard, J. L.; Greffet, J. J.

2012-12-01

380

The Challenge of Observing the Recent Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This author participated in the 'International Epsilon Aurigae Campaign' in 2009. A total of 100 V-band observations were made in Holtsville, New York for the 2009-2011 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. A lightcurve has been plotted using data from these observations, which cover the phase before, during and after the eclipse. The lightcurve shows precise timing during the first, second, third and fourth contacts and possibly mid-eclipse brightening. The magnitude and the duration of the eclipse in photometric V band are discussed. This poster represents the work by Frank J Melillo and the observations were close enough to generate the true shape of the lightcurve.

Melillo, Frank J.

2013-07-01

381

Isolation and characterization of an Fe,-S8 ferredoxin (ferredoxin II) from Clostridium thermoaceticum.  

PubMed Central

A second ferredoxin protein was isolated from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermoaceticum and termed ferredoxin II. This ferredoxin was found to contain 7.9 +/- 0.3 iron atoms and 7.4 +/- 0.4 acid-labile sulfur atoms per mol of protein. Extrusion studies of the iron-sulfur centers showed the presence of two [Fe4-S4] centers per mol of protein and accounted for all of the iron present. The absorption spectrum was characterized by maxima at 390 nm (epsilon 390 = 30,400 M-1cm-1) and 280 nm (epsilon 280 = 41.400 M-1 cm-1) and by a shoulder at 300 nm. The ration of the absorbance of the pure protein at 390 nm to the absorbance at 280 nm was 0.74. Electron paramagnetic resonance data showed a weak signal in the oxidized state, and the reduced ferredoxin exhibited a spectrum typical of [Fe4-S4] clusters. Double integration of the reduced spectra showed that two electrons were necessary for the complete reduction of ferredoxin II. Amino histidine, and 1 arginine, and a molecular weight of 6,748 for the native protein. The ferredoxin is stable under anaerobic conditions for 60 min at 70 degrees C. The average oxidation-reduction potential for the two [Fe4-S4] centers was measured as -365 mV.

Elliott, J I; Ljungdahl, L G

1982-01-01

382

Detecting Heat-Resistant Cl. Perfringens Type a Strain in Human Feces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the investigation of the feces of practically healthy adults the presence of heat-resistant strains of Cl. perfringens type A was revealed in 0.8%, and during the investigation of patients with symptoms of food poisoning heat-resistant strains of C...

V. V. Zhazanova G. V. Medvedovskaya

1969-01-01

383

Membrane H+ Conductance of Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium acetobutylicum: Evidence for Electrogenic Na+/H+ Antiport in Clostridium thermoaceticum  

PubMed Central

H+ conductance in de-energized cells of Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium acetobutylicum was determined from the rate of realkalinization of the medium after an acid pulse. In both organisms, cell membrane proton permeability was increased by fermentation end products and ionophores. In C. thermoaceticum, H+ conductance was increased by Na+ ions compared with K+ as counterions. In these cells, addition of Na+, but not K+, elicited efflux of H+; H+ efflux was stimulated by SCN? and decreased by various ionophores. We concluded that C. thermoaceticum possesses an electrogenic Na+/H+ antiporter. In contrast, C. acetobutylicum cells did not have an electrogenic Na+/H+ antiporter.

Terracciano, Joseph S.; Schreurs, Wilhelmus J. A.; Kashket, Eva R.

1987-01-01

384

Energy Transfer by Magnetopause Reconnection and the Substorm Parameter Epsilon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expression for the magnetopause reconnection power based on the dawn-dusk component of the reconnection electric field, that reduces to the substorm parameter epsilon for the limit that involves equal geomagnetic (B sub(G)) and magnetosheath (B sub(M))...

W. D. Gonzalez-Alarcon A. L. C. Gonzalez

1983-01-01

385

Providing a Virtual Initiation for Epsilon Pi Tau  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the requirements of the Epsilon Pi Tau (EPT) initiation is the apprentice has to physically be at the initiation (EPT, 2004). Since the majority of nontraditional students and working professionals are physically removed from an initiation site, they have missed the opportunity to join EPT. On 8 April, 2005, the Beta Mu Chapter of The…

Sanders, Craig S.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

2005-01-01

386

Clostridium difficile in the ICU  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management has become more daunting over the past decade because of alarming increases in CDI incidence and severity both in the hospital and in the community. This increase has concomitantly caused significant escalation of the health-care economic burden caused by CDI, and it will likely be translated to increased ICU admission and attributable mortality. Some possible causes for difficulty in management of CDI are as follows: (1) inability to predict and prevent development of severe/complicated or relapsing CDI in patients who initially present with mild symptoms; (2) lack of a method to determine who would have benefited a priori from initiating vancomycin treatment first instead of treatment with metronidazole; (3) lack of sensitive and specific CDI diagnostics; (4) changing epidemiology of CDI, including the emergence of a hypervirulent, epidemic C difficile strain associated with increased morbidity and mortality; (5) association of certain high-usage nonantimicrobial medications with CDI; and (6) lack of treatment regimens that leave the normal intestinal flora undisturbed while treating the primary infection. The objective of this article is to present current management and prevention guidelines for CDI based on recommendations by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America and potential new clinical management strategies on the horizon.

Dubberke, Erik R.; Kollef, Marin

2011-01-01

387

Clostridium difficile in haematological malignancy.  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients with haematological malignancies who developed Clostridium difficile bowel infection or colonisation are described. All isolates of C difficile were toxigenic in vitro and faecal cytotoxin (toxin B) was detected in 20/26 episodes. Ten of 20 episodes with detectable faecal cytotoxin were associated with typical antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In the other 10 episodes (nine patients), there was a severe unusual illness which was associated with detection of C difficile. The unusual features of the illness were pronounced jaundice (total bilirubin greater than or equal to 44 mumol/l), abdominal pain and distension, and initial constipation followed either by diarrhoea or by large bowel stasis. Four of these patients died within seven days. Bacteraemia was often a presenting feature in neutropenic patients subsequently shown to have C difficile. This was not the case in non-neutropenic patients. Bacteraemia was commonly polymicrobial and in two cases C difficile was isolated from blood culture. The clinical implications of recognition of this atypical C difficile associated syndrome are discussed.

Rampling, A; Warren, R E; Bevan, P C; Hoggarth, C E; Swirsky, D; Hayhoe, F G

1985-01-01

388

Preparation and characterization of blends of star-poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) and oligo(epsilon-caprolactone).  

PubMed

Polymer blending provides a relatively facile means of combining the separate desirable properties of different polymers into a single material. In this paper blends of a low-molecular-weight star co-polymer of epsilon-caprolactone and D,L-lactide with a linear oligo(epsilon-caprolactone) are prepared and characterized as a possible biodegradable injectable drug-delivery vehicle. The melting characteristics, melt viscosity and degree of crystallinity of the blends were measured, and an in vitro degradation study was performed over a period of 12 weeks. The blends all had a single glass transition temperature and an onset of melting point near body temperature, with the melting point range decreasing as the star co-polymer content increased. The melt viscosity of the blends increased as the star co-polymer content increased, in a manner consistent with miscible blend behavior. The star co-polymer degraded fastest, with a more than 60% mass decrease over the 12-week period. As the oligo(epsilon-caprolactone) content increased, the degradation rate decreased, with the oligo(epsilon-caprolactone) exhibiting a mass loss of only 12% over the 12-week period. PMID:16128234

Tomkins, A; Kontopoulou, M; Amsden, B

2005-01-01

389

Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls f