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Sample records for closure system yucca

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  2. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  3. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  4. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    C. I. Nichol; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; D. E. Clark; M. L. Clark; K. L. Skinner; A. D. Watkins; H. B. Smartt

    2011-10-01

    The Waste Package Closure System (WPCS), for the closure of radioactive waste in canisters for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste in the Yucca Mountain Repository was designed, fabricated, and successfully demonstrated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This article focuses on the robotic hardware and tools necessary to remotely weld and inspect the closure lid welds. The system was operated remotely and designed for use in a radiation field, due to the SNF contained in the waste packages being closed.

  5. Welding Robot and Remote Handling System for the Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, M.E.; Holt, T.E.; LaValle, D.R.; Pace, D.P.; Croft, K.M.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2008-07-01

    In preparation for the license application and construction of a repository for housing the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste in Yucca Mountain, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with preparing a mock-up of a full-scale prototype system for sealing the waste packages (WP). Three critical pieces of the closure room include two PaR Systems TR4350 Telerobotic Manipulators and a PaR Systems XR100 Remote Handling System (RHS). The TR4350 Manipulators are 6-axis programmable robots that will be used to weld the WP lids and purge port cap as well as conduct nondestructive examinations. The XR100 Remote Handling System is a 4-axis programmable robot that will be used to transport the WP lids and process tools to the WP for operations and remove equipment for maintenance. The welding and RHS robots will be controlled using separate PaR 5/21 CIMROC Controllers capable of complex motion control tasks. A tele-operated PaR 4350 Manipulator will also be provided with the XR100 Remote Handling System. It will be used for maintenance and associated activities within the closure room. (authors)

  6. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  7. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  8. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  9. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  10. Nuclear chief condemned over Yucca closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The head of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been attacked by Republicans in Congress over his actions in the mothballing of the proposed 10bn Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository in Nevada.

  11. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  12. Calculation of Post-Closure Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in Yucca Mountain Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    S. Webb; M. Itamura

    2004-03-16

    Natural convection heat and mass transfer under post-closure conditions has been calculated for Yucca Mountain drifts using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. Calculations have been performed for 300, 1000, 3000, and 10,000 years after repository closure. Effective dispersion coefficients that can be used to calculate mass transfer in the drift have been evaluated as a function of time and boundary temperature tilt.

  13. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste disposal containers for the Yucca Mountain Project: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Domian, H.A.; Robitz, E.S.; Conrardy, C.C.; LaCount, D.F.; McAninch, M.D.; Fish, R.L.; Russell, E.W.

    1991-09-01

    In GFY 89, a project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable method for fabricating thin-walled monolithic waste containers for service within the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. A concurrent project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable closure process for these containers after they have been filled with high-level nuclear waste. Phase 1 for both the fabrication and closure projects was a screening phase in which candidate processes were selected for further laboratory testing in Phase 2. This report describes the final results of the Phase 1 efforts. It also describes the preliminary results of Phase 2 efforts.

  14. DESIGN OF A ROBOTIC WELDING SYSTEM FOR CLOSURE OF WASTE STORAGE CANISTERS

    SciTech Connect

    H.B. Smartt; A.D. Watkins; D.P. Pace; R.J. Bitsoi; E.D> Larsen T.R. McJunkin; C.R. Tolle

    2005-04-07

    This work reported here was done to provide a conceptual design for a robotic welding and inspection system for the Yucca Mountain Repository waste package closure system. The welding and inspection system is intended to make the various closure welds that seal and/or structurally join the lids to the waste package vessels. The welding and inspection system will also perform surface and volumetric inspections of the various closure welds and has the means to repair closure welds, if required. The system is designed to perform these various activities remotely, without the necessity of having personnel in the closure cell.

  15. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  16. Evaluating the Potential Impact of Using the Transport, Aging and Disposal (TAD) Canister on Yucca Mountain Pre-Closure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spradley, L.; Abkowitz, M.; Clarke, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    The development and preliminary use of an integrated model to explore the impact of various operational scenarios of the pre-closure waste management system of Yucca Mountain (YM) is described. The capabilities of the model are illustrated by applying it to a simplified operational scenario using Transport, Aging, and Disposal (TAD) Canisters. The application uses existing data on spent nuclear fuel to model the effect on above ground aging at YM by varying four parameters: (1) utility loading behavior, (2) thermal limit for transportation casks, (3) thermal limit for emplacement, and (4) emplacement capacity at YM. Results show that the thermal limit for emplacement is the most important parameter with respect to above ground aging demands at YM. Transportation heat limit is also important, but less so if the capacity of YM is expanded or if older fuel is sent first. Easing the constraint of the emplacement limit, if feasible, would be a preferable method of reducing aging demands, especially under an expanded emplacement capacity. Consequently, there may be incentive for Department of Energy (DOE) to either specify a lower transportation limit or a higher emplacement limit if it wishes to reduce the potential demands on the Aging Facility at YM. (authors)

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  18. Historical development and evolution of EPRI's post-closure dose assessment of potential releases to the biosphere from the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Kozak, Matthew W

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) post-closure dose assessment for potential releases of radionuclides from the proposed High Level Waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The starting point for this work was the 1995 publication of Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources of the National Research Council. This report proposed the development and application of an individual risk-based standard for releases from the repository to replace the existing one, which was based on radionuclide release limits. This in turn implied the development and application of methods to assess radiation doses to humans. Accordingly, EPRI produced a methodology for such dose assessment as part of its Total System Performance Assessment program for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. The methodology initially addressed releases via groundwater and then releases associated with extrusive igneous events. The methodology was updated and applied over the following years to take account of regulatory developments, changes in estimates of the source term to the biosphere, peer review through international model comparison exercises, new site generic data, and new data concerning conditions at the point of compliance in Amargosa Valley. The main outputs were Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors, which relate radionuclide levels in environmental media to the annual individual doses to a member of a hypothetical critical group and to the regulator-defined Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual. Most recently, consideration has been given to uncertainty in the dose estimates based on a probabilistic analysis. The paper provides a perspective on the evolution of the dose assessments in response to the developments listed above. PMID:22048489

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  1. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. 6 refs., 83 figs., 57 tabs.

  2. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D.

  3. Yucca Mountain project container fabrication, closure and non-destructive evaluation development activities; Summary and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    In this presentation, container fabrication, closure, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) process development activities are described. All of these activities are interrelated, and will contribute to the metal barrier selection activity. The plan is to use a corrosion-resistant material in the form of a cylinder with a wall thickness of {approximately}1cm (2cm for pure copper.) The materials under consideration include the three austenitic alloys: stainless steel-304L, stainless steel-316L and alloy 825, as well as the three copper alloys: CDA 102, CDA 613, and CDA 715. This document reviews the recommended procedures and processes for fabricating, closing and evaluating each of the candidate materials. (KGD)

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  5. Quick actuating closure and handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; White, Dorsey E., III; Updike, Benjamin T.; Gregory, Peyton B.

    1988-01-01

    A quick activating closure and handling system, which utilizes conical sections for locking, was developed to allow quick access to the combustor internal components of the 8 ft High Temperature Tunnel. These critical components include the existing methane spraybar, a transpiration cooled nozzle and the new liquid oxygen (LOX) injection system housed within the combustor. A substantial cost savings will be realized once the mechanism is installed since it will substantially reduce the access time and increase the time available for conducting wind tunnel tests. A need exists for more frequent inspections when the wind tunnel operates at the more severe conditions generated by using LOX in the combustor. A loads analysis and a structural (finite element) analysis were conducted to verify that the new closure system is compatible with the existing pressure shell. In addition, strain gages were placed on the pressure vessel to verify how the pressure shell reacts to transient pressure loads. A scale model of the new closure system was built to verify the operation of the conical sections in the locking mechanisms.

  6. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  7. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson

    2001-12-13

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times.

  8. Evaluation of geographic information systems for three-dimensional ground-water modeling, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, A. Keith; Ervin, Elisabeth M.; Downey, Joe S.

    1991-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional representations of the geologic system at Yucca Mountain have been developed using a Geoscientific Information System, which is an expansion of a traditional Geographic Information Systems. These advanced, three dimensional, representations of Yucca Mountain are required to adequately evaluate the complex geologic and hydrologic conditions surrounding the site. This Geoscientific Information System will be used to store, analyze, and display site data. The system also will provide a link between geologic and hydrologic data and the numerical ground-water-flow model resulting in more easy testing of hypotheses concerning the conceptual model of the geohydrologic system at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  10. Repository Safety Strategy: Strategy for Protecting Public Health and Safety after Closure of a Yucca Mountain Repository, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    1998-01-01

    The updated Strategy to Protect Public Health and Safety explains the roles that the natural and engineered systems are expected to play in achieving the objectives of a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain. These objectives are to contain the radionuclides within the waste packages for thousands of years, and to ensure that annual doses to a person living near the site will be acceptably low. This strategy maintains the key assumption of the Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) strategy that the potential repository level (horizon) will remain unsaturated. Thus, the strategy continues to rely on the natural attributes of the unsaturated zone for primary protection by providing a setting where waste packages assisted by other engineered barriers are expected to contain wastes for thousands of years. As in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) strategy, the natural system from the walls of the underground openings (drifts) to the human environment is expected to provide additional defense by reducing the concentrations of any radionuclides released from the waste packages. The updated Strategy to Protect Public Health and Safety is the framework for the integration of site information, repository design and assessment of postclosure performance to develop a safety case for the viability assessment and a subsequent license application. Current site information and a reference design are used to develop a quantitative assessment of performance to be compared with a performance measure. Four key attributes of an unsaturated repository system that are critical to meeting the objectives: (1) Limited water contacting the waste packages; (2) Long waste package lifetime; (3) Slow rate of release of radionuclides from the waste form; and (4) Concentration reduction during transport through engineered and natural barriers.

  11. Simulation of ventilation efficiency, and pre-closure temperatures in emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using Monte Carlo and composite thermal-pulse methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.B.; Buesch, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Predictions of waste canister and repository driftwall temperatures as functions of space and time are important to evaluate pre-closure performance of the proposed repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Variations in the lithostratigraphic features in densely welded and crystallized rocks of the 12.8-million-year-old Topopah Spring Tuff, especially the porosity resulting from lithophysal cavities, affect thermal properties. A simulated emplacement drift is based on projecting lithophysal cavity porosity values 50 to 800 m from the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block cross drift. Lithophysal cavity porosity varies from 0.00 to 0.05 cm3/cm3 in the middle nonlithophysal zone and from 0.03 to 0.28 cm3/cm3 in the lower lithophysal zone. A ventilation model and computer program titled "Monte Carlo Simulation of Ventilation" (MCSIMVENT), which is based on a composite thermal-pulse calculation, simulates statistical variability and uncertainty of rock-mass thermal properties and ventilation performance along a simulated emplacement drift for a pre-closure period of 50 years. Although ventilation efficiency is relatively insensitive to thermal properties, variations in lithophysal porosity along the drift can result in a range of peak driftwall temperatures can range from 40 to 85??C for the preclosure period. Copyright ?? 2004 by ASME.

  12. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  13. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  14. System safety analysis of the Yucca Mountain tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G.; Booth, L.; Eisler, L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine to be used at Yucca Mountain. This analysis required three steps to complete the risk evaluation: hazard/scenario identification, consequence assessment, and frequency assessment. The result was a `risk evaluation` of the scenarios identified in this analysis in accordance with MIL-STD-882C. The risk assessment in this analysis characterized the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and included recommendations for mitigating all identified risks.

  15. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W.; Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models.

  16. A tunnel boring system for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.N.

    1994-12-31

    Design of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) tunnel boring machine (TBM) and backup began in June of 1993, with fabrication, machining and light assembly proceeding through to the end of the year. The original specifications for the project were contained in the request for quote for the YMP TBM and in Construction & Tunneling Services proposal document. As with all complex custom assignments, much of the finer details of the definition of the final scope of delivery was concurrent with the design effort itself. The summation of this effort is described in this paper. The major technical scope of the machine delivery is defined by the parameters listed in TABLE 1. Within the confines of the installed power and design excavation rates, the final product has been tailored to suit the particular needs of the project.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface closure and seal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300-Area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-02-06

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents.

  19. USER'S GUIDE TO CLOSURE EVALUATION SYSTEM: CES BETA-TEST VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool designed to serve as a checklist for identifying potential design problems in landfill closures. he CES system is comprised of three component systems designed to provide advice about closures of hazardous waste land ...

  20. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the...

  1. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the...

  2. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the...

  3. Demonstration of a consolidated tank closure system

    SciTech Connect

    Faldowski, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    In 2004, AEA Technology (AEAT) developed and demonstrated a strategy for employing a single Power Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixing System to both retrieve the bulk and heel waste from a tank and intimately mix the residuals with specially formulated grout. The strategy involved a multi-phased approach to understanding the specific problems associated with the tank and waste material, developing a suitable grout formulation, designing a single set of purpose-built equipment, mixing the grout and heel, and monitoring the grouted product as it cured. The result of the demonstration was a stable simulated waste form which met Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for grouted Low Level Waste (LLW). This approach enables subsequent disposal of the tank in place via filling the void space with additional grout or removal of the tank for alternative disposal. In 2005, AEAT expanded the earlier work by demonstrating that a single system could be used to mix and retrieve a simulated, non-Newtonian bulk waste and heel from a large, flat-bottomed, cylindrical tank with internal obstructions. Retrieval of the simulated waste left only 13 mm of residuals behind. Following retrieval, the same Power Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixing Equipment was used to mix the residuals with a specially formulated grout, resulting in a stable, uniform product which met the NRC requirements for grouted LLW. (authors)

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sloop, Christy

    2013-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 569 comprises the following nine corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area • 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area • 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area • 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area • 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area • 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area • 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area • 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area • 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 569 based on the implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-2.

  5. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  7. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-07-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The ``weeps model`` now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive.

  8. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  9. Perturbation Methods and Closure Approximations in Nonlinear Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel Herschel Eli

    In the first section of this thesis, Hamiltonian theories of guiding center and gyro-center motion are developed using modern symplectic methods and Lie transformations. Littlejohn's techniques, combined with the theory of resonant interaction and island overlap, are used to explore the problem of adiabatic invariance and onset of stochasticity. As an example, we consider the breakdown of invariance due to resonance between drift motion and gyromotion in a tokamak. A Hamiltonian is developed for motion in a straight magnetic field with electrostatic perturbations in the gyrokinetic ordering, from which nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are constructed which have the property of phase space preservation, useful for computer simulation. Energy invariants are found and various limits of the equations are considered. For small Larmor radius the equations are similar to those of Lee. Several new effects appear which are absent from conventional theories. We show that the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev neglects several important gyrokinetic effects. In the second section, statistical closure theories are applied to simple dynamical systems. We use the logistic map as an example because of its universal properties and simple quadratic nonlinearity. The first closure considered is the Direct Interaction Approximation of Kraichnan, which is found to fail when applied to the logistic map because it cannot approximate the bounded support of the map's equilibrium distribution. By imposing a periodicity constraint on a Langevin form of the D.I.A. a new stable closure is developed. The relation between the predictability theory of Kraichnan and the theory of Liapunov exponents is considered. Realizability constraints on the moments of a distribution are formulated using Kuhn-Tucker multipliers. Results are related to the work of Sandri and Kraichnan, but the variational technique employed allows for a more elegant and general approach. The realizability criteria are

  10. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Gauthier, J.H. |

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  11. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. PMID

  12. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  13. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  14. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming

    2012-03-01

    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  16. Conceptual Model for Radionuclide Release from the Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J.; Woocay, A.

    2008-12-01

    Over time, nuclear waste packages at Yucca Mountain repository are likely to fail gradually or in stages, due to general or localized corrosion. Rock fall and other physical (or chemical) disturbances will lead to different general corrosion rates and different times of penetration. In the long run, the waste package is likely to evolve into a combination of failure locations mixed with relicts of intact Alloy-22 (or other waste package materials). Release of radionuclides (mostly by dissolution in water) from the waste packages is one of the most important factors determining the performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. In this paper we develop a conceptual model of radionuclide release from the EBS. In this system, residual heat release in the waste, in conjunction with the capillary effect, is anticipated to set up flow systems in the relict protected areas, where liquid water flows into the protected area toward the warmest region, and vapor flows outward away from the warmest region - effectively preventing release and sometimes sequestering radionuclides in the relict sheltered areas (dead ends). We derive a dimensionless group that specifies the condition for the internal heat driven flow system, and estimates the minimum size of the covered areas required to sequester radionuclides and prevent release. Over time, the minimum area required for protection slowly increases while general corrosion decreases the average size of relict areas. Convolution of the two processes suggests that radionuclide release from the flow-through system of partially failed waste packages will be gradual and long delayed (100,000 - 1,000,000 years), even in the case of early penetration by localized corrosion.

  17. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Webb; J.T. George; R.E. Finley

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Some results from the second iteration of total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    The second preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential radioactive-waste-repository site at Yucca Mountain has recently been completed. This paper summarizes results for nominal aqueous and gaseous releases using the composite-porosity flow model. The results are found to be sensitive to the type of unsaturated-zone flow, to percolation flux and climate change, to saturated-zone dilution, to container-wetting processes and container-corrosion processes, to fuel-matrix alteration rate and radionuclide solubilities (especially for {sup 237}Np), and to bulk permeability and retardation of gaseous {sup 14}C. These are areas that should be given priority in the site-characterization program. Specific recommendations are given in the full report of the study.

  19. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Subrepository scale hydrothermal analysis in support of total system performance assessment at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.

    1994-12-31

    A coupled thermo-hydrologic model is developed to investigate the impact of emplacing high-level nuclear wastes on heat and fluid flow at the subrepository scale, and to develop abstracted results for input to the current total system performance assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain. Numerical computations are carried out in 2-D axisymmetric geometry, using a range of thermal loads, to generate spatial/temporal evolutions in temperature and saturation fields within individual emplacement panels. These results are analyzed to understand the general nature of liquid movement in the repository due to waste heat, and also to define various temperature dependent mechanistic and phenomenological coefficients for predicting waste package and geosphere performance.

  1. Detailed design report for an operational phase panel-closure system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-11

    Under contract to Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse), Waste Isolation Division (WID), IT Corporation has prepared a detailed design of a panel-closure system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Preparation of this detailed design of an operational-phase closure system is required to support a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application and a non-migration variance petition. This report describes the detailed design for a panel-closure system specific to the WIPP site. The recommended panel-closure system will adequately isolate the waste-emplacement panels for at least 35 years. This report provides detailed design and material engineering specifications for the construction, emplacement, and interface-grouting associated with a panel-closure system at the WIPP repository, which would ensure that an effective panel-closure system is in place for at least 35 years. The panel-closure system provides assurance that the limit for the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) will be met at the point of compliance, the WIPP site boundary. This assurance is obtained through the inherent flexibility of the panel-closure system.

  2. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  3. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 571: Area 9 Yucca Flat Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide documentation and justification that no further corrective action is needed for the closure of CAU 571 based on the implementation of corrective actions. This includes a description of investigation activities, an evaluation of the data, and a description of corrective actions that were performed. The CAIP provides information relating to the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, that information will not be repeated in this document.

  5. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  6. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J.; Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  7. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  8. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  11. Identification of structures, systems, and components important to safety at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D.; Klamerus, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    This study recommends which structures, systems, and components of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain are important to safety. The assessment was completed in April 1990 and uses the reference repository configuration in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report and follows the methodology required at that time by DOE Procedure AP6.10-Q. Failures of repository items during the preclosure period are evaluated to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. Items are important to safety if, in the event they fail to perform their intended function, an accident could result which causes a dose commitment greater than 0.5 rem to the whole body or any organ of an individual in an unrestricted area. This study recommends that these repository items include the structures that house spent fuel and high-level waste, the associated filtered ventilation exhaust systems, certain waste- handling equipment, the waste containers, the waste treatment building structure, the underground waste transporters, and other items listed in this report. This work was completed April 1990. 27 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Material balance and diets in biological life support systems: a relationship with a coefficient of closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Somova, L. A.

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) of various coefficients of closure were considered The basic coefficient of closure was accepted equal to 66%. With increase in coefficient of closure food requirements for the greater degree should be satisfied due to the manufacture of food inside the BLSS. In this connection food values were estimated both in the basic variant, and in those with increased coefficients of closure. Metabolic massflow rates were estimated at the input and output of the BLSS as well as inside it. Human massflow rates were submitted on the basis of characteristics of the 'reference man'. Stoichiometric synthesis - degradation equations of organic substances in the BLSS were obtained. A problem of nitrogen imbalance was shown to occur under an incomplete BLSS closure. To compensate losses of nitrogen with urine and feces, food and nitrogen-containing additives should be introduced into the BLSS.

  13. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  14. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  17. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  18. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  19. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  20. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  1. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Stepp, C.; Hossain, Q.; Nesbit, S.; Hardy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC`s importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads.

  2. Construction of a wireless communication contact closure system for liquid chromatography with multiple parallel mass spectrometers and other detectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A contact closure system has been constructed and implemented that utilizes two contact closure sender boards that communicate wirelessly to four contact closure receiver boards to distribute start signals from two or three liquid chromatographs to fourteen instruments, pumps, detectors, or other co...

  3. Yucca EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the disposal of commercial and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Notice of Intent for the EIS was placed in the Federal Register on August 7; the period for public comment (the "scoping" period) will end December 5, 1995.

  4. Nitinol clip distal migration and resultant popliteo-tibial artery occlusion complicating access closure by the StarClose SE vascular closure system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Chan Jong; Park, Cheol Wan

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity ischemia following deployment of a vascular closure device for access site closure after a transfemoral endovascular procedure rarely occurs. A 68-year-old woman diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm was treated by endovascular coil embolization. The StarClose SE device was deployed for right femoral arteriotomy closure. After 2 days, critical ischemia occurred on her right lower leg due to total occlusion of the popliteo-tibial artery. Emergent surgical embolectomy was performed and the nitinol clip of the StarClose device was captured in the lumen of the tibioperoneal trunk. Although StarClose is an extravascular closure system, intravascular deployment, distal migration, and resultant critical limb ischemia can occur. PMID:27030445

  5. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Degradation of the Engineered Barriers System in the Yucca Mountain Repository Using the EBSPA Code

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2007-07-01

    Based on a probabilistic model previously proposed, a Monte Carlo simulation code (EBSPA) has been developed to predict the lifetime of the engineered barriers system within the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The degradation modes considered in the EBSPA are general passive corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking for the drip shield; and general passive corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking for the waste package. Two scenarios have been simulated using the EBSPA code: (a) a conservative scenario for the conditions thought likely to prevail in the repository, and (b) an aggressive scenario in which the impact of the degradation processes is overstated. (authors)

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  7. Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model Supporting the Total System Performance Assessment for the Proposed Repository at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Duan, Y.; Ezzedine, S.; James, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    The MultiScale ThermoHydrologic Model (MSTHM) is used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The MSTHM uses the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to represent thermal-hydrologic (TH) processes occurring at scales from a few tens of centimeters around individual waste packages and emplacement drifts (tunnels) all the way to the kilometer scale for heat flow through the mountain. The MSTHM is used to predict the anticipated range of TH conditions within emplacement drifts and adjoining host rock. To be defensible, the range in predicted TH conditions must address the influence of the variability and uncertainty of engineered- and natural-system parameters that significantly influence those conditions. Parameter-sensitivity analyses show that the most important natural-system parameters are host-rock thermal conductivity and percolation flux through the repository. These analyses show that the key engineered-system parameter is the waste-package-to-waste- package variability in heat output. The range in TH conditions is also influenced by the "edge-cooling" effect, where waste packages closer to the repository edge cool more quickly than those closer to the repository center. To account for this effect, the MSTHM represents the geometric details of the repository layout. Improvements have also been made to how the MSTHM incorporates hydrostratigraphic and percolation-flux data from the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model, which supports ambient flow and transport simulations for TSPA. Other improvements allow more parameter sensitivity cases to be investigated. Twelve cases are analyzed, including four percolation-flux scenarios (10-, 30-, 50- and 90-percentile) and three host-rock thermal-conductivities (10- percentile, mean, and 90-percentile). Using the results of stochastic analyses, weighting factors are applied to the twelve cases. This work was performed under the auspices of

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  9. Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.S.

    1992-12-01

    This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago.

  10. Entrapment of the StarClose Vascular Closure System After Attempted Common Femoral Artery Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Thor Johnson, D.; Fidelman, Nicholas; Kerlan, Robert K.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.

    2012-08-15

    A complication of the StarClose Vascular Closure System (Abbott, Des Plaines, IL) after a transarterial hepatic chemoembolization is described. After attempted clip deployment, the entire device became lodged in the tissues overlying the common femoral artery and could not be removed percutaneously. Successful removal of the device required surgical cutdown for removal and arterial repair. Entrapment of the StarClose vascular closure deployment system is a potentially serious complication that has been reported in the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, but has not been recognized in the literature.

  11. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  12. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  13. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  14. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  15. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  16. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative to each other. Section 6 also discusses

  17. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    SciTech Connect

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W.

    1989-08-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow.

  18. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales.

  19. How the Lean Management System is Working on a Closure Project - 13242

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH) manages the River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP), a 10-year contract, in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Strategic planning sessions in 2009 identified key performance areas that were essential to closure and in which focused change could result in dramatic performance improvement. Lean Management Systems (Lean) was selected as the methodology to achieve the desired results. The Lean Process is built upon the fundamentals of the power of respect for people and the practice of continuous process improvement. Lean uses week-long, focused sessions that teach a selected team the techniques to recognize waste within their own work processes, propose potential solutions, and then conduct experiments during the week to test their solutions. In 2011, the Lean process was implemented in the Waste Operations organization. From there it was expanded to closure documents, field remediation, and decommissioning and demolition. WCH identified the following Lean focus areas: 1) closure document processes that required extensive internal preparation, and lengthy external review and approval cycles; 2) allocation of limited transportation and waste disposal resources to meet aggressive remediation schedules; 3) effective start-of-the-day routines in field operations; 4) improved excavation and load-out processes; and 5) approaches to strengthen safety culture and support disciplined operations. Since the introduction of Lean, RCCP has realized many successes and also gained some unexpected benefits. (authors)

  20. 75 FR 28655 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request of the State Agency, the Department... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including...

  1. USER'S GUIDE TO CLOSURE EVALUATION SYSTEM: CES BETA-TEST VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool, developed by the U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, to assist reviewers and preparers of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit applications. CES is designed to serve as a checklis...

  2. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.; Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  3. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D. |; Magaritz, M.

    1992-10-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient ({minus}0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient ({minus}0.10) and a 0. 83{minus}meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone.

  4. A new system for crack closure of cementitious materials using shrinkable polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, Anthony; Joseph, Christopher; Lark, Robert; Isaacs, Ben; Dunn, Simon; Weager, Brendon

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents details of an original crack-closure system for cementitious materials using shrinkable polymer tendons. The system involves the incorporation of unbonded pre-oriented polymer tendons in cementitious beams. Crack closure is achieved by thermally activating the shrinkage mechanism of the restrained polymer tendons after the cement-based material has undergone initial curing. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a series of small scale experiments on pre-cracked prismatic mortar specimens. The results from these tests show that, upon activation, the polymer tendon completely closes the preformed macro-cracks and imparts a significant stress across the crack faces. The potential of the system to enhance the natural autogenous crack healing process and generally improve the durability of concrete structures is addressed.

  5. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  7. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  8. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  10. Complexity VIII. Ontology of closure in complex systems: The C* hypothesis and the O° notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jerry LR

    1999-03-01

    Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to extend the Birkhoff-von Neumann criterion for quantum systems to complex natural objects. The C* hypothesis is being constructed to be consistent with algebraic category theory (Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1987, 1997, Chandler, 1990, 1991, Chandler, Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1996). Five aspects of closure will be used to construct a framework for categories of complex systems: 1. Truth functions in mathematics and the natural sciences 2. Systematic descriptions in the mks and O° notations 3. Organizational structures in hierarchical scientific languages 4. Transitive organizational pathways in the causal structures of complex behaviors 5. Composing additive, multiplicative and exponential operations in complex systems Truth functions can be formal or objective or subjective, depending on the complexity of the system and on our capability to represent the fine structure of the system symbolically, observationally or descriptively. "Complete" material representations of the fine structure of a system may allow truth functions to be created over sets of one to one correspondences. Less complete descriptions can support less stringent truth functions based on coherence or subjective judgments. The role of human values in creating and perpetuating truth functions can be placed in context of the degree of fine structure in the system's description. The organization of complex systems are hypothesized to be categorizable into degrees relative to one another, thereby creating an ordering relationship. This ordering relationship is denoted by the symbols: O°1, O°2,O°3

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  13. Modeling closure of the Pd-Ag system in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Orman, J.; Matthes, M.; Fischer-Gödde, M.; Krawczynski, M. J.; Kleine, T.

    2015-12-01

    J.A. Van Orman1, M. Matthes2, M. Fischer-Godde2, M.J. Krawczynski3, T. Kleine21 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (james.vanorman@case.edu) 2 Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany 3 Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 The short-lived Pd-107/Ag-107 system can provide constraints on the timing of assembly and cooling of iron meteorite parent bodies, but to interpret the dates derived from this system it is necessary to understand the closure conditions. Palladium is strongly enriched in the metal phases, and sulphide (troilite) is the primary sink for radiogenic silver. Closure of the system hence depends primarily on the transfer of Ag-107 from metal to troilite. Because cation diffusion in troilite is extremely rapid, Ag-107 transfer is likely to be controlled by diffusion through the metal. Sugiura and Hoshino (2003) estimated a closure temperature of ~1100 K for the Pd/Ag system in iron meteorites under the assumption that the diffusion rate of Ag in the metal is similar to that of Ni diffusion in taenite. Here we consider the problem in more detail, utilizing constraints on Ag diffusion in taenite and kamacite from the metallurgical literature to numerically model diffusive exchange between metal and troilite with simultaneous radiogenic ingrowth. The process is complicated by exsolution of the metal into bcc kamacite and fcc taenite phases during cooling. We will discuss approaches to the treatment of this issue and their influence on the derived closure temperatures. Sugiura N., Hoshino H. (2003) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 38, 117-143.

  14. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  15. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC): case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Malinger, Stanisław; Świrkowicz, Józef; Hermann, Jacek; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a standard in the treatment of chronic and difficult healing wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy is applied to the wound via a special vacuum-sealed sponge. Nowadays, the endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system (E-VAC) has been proven to be an important alternative in patients with upper and lower intestinal leakage not responding to standard endoscopic and/or surgical treatment procedures. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system provides perfect wound drainage and closure of various kinds of defect and promotes tissue granulation. Our experience has shown that E-VAC may significantly improve the morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, E-VAC may be useful in a multidisciplinary approach - from upper gastrointestinal to rectal surgery complications. On the other hand, major limitations of the E-VAC system are the necessity of repeated endoscopic interventions and constant presence of well-trained staff. Further, large-cohort studies need to be performed to establish the applicability and effectiveness of E-VAC before routine widespread use can be recommended. PMID:26240633

  16. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC): case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Malinger, Stanisław; Świrkowicz, Józef; Hermann, Jacek; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a standard in the treatment of chronic and difficult healing wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy is applied to the wound via a special vacuum-sealed sponge. Nowadays, the endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system (E-VAC) has been proven to be an important alternative in patients with upper and lower intestinal leakage not responding to standard endoscopic and/or surgical treatment procedures. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system provides perfect wound drainage and closure of various kinds of defect and promotes tissue granulation. Our experience has shown that E-VAC may significantly improve the morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, E-VAC may be useful in a multidisciplinary approach – from upper gastrointestinal to rectal surgery complications. On the other hand, major limitations of the E-VAC system are the necessity of repeated endoscopic interventions and constant presence of well-trained staff. Further, large-cohort studies need to be performed to establish the applicability and effectiveness of E-VAC before routine widespread use can be recommended. PMID:26240633

  17. Yucca Mountain near-field environment considerations for engineered barrier system design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.

    1991-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation`s first High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository. This responsibility includes materials testing and selections, design criteria development, waste form characterizations, performance assessments, and Near-Field (NF) environment characterization. These areas of responsibility are interrelated and to a large extent depend on environmental conditions surrounding the EBS components. The focus of this paper is to discuss what is currently known about the NF environment, particularly those aspects whose interaction with EBS components have significant impacts on the performance of the EBS and its ability to contribute to the isolation of radioactive waste. Reference designs and design/processes assumptions are used to evaluate the expected NF environmental conditions. This report will not focus on providing parameter values but rather on the processes that influence those parameters and on the impacts of those parameters on the performance of EBS components. Where values are given, they should be viewed as typical of YM as a whole but not necessarily representative of the actual NF environment conditions that surround the EBS components. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  19. Waste package for Yucca Mountain repository; Strategy for regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.; Short, D.; Stahl, D.

    1989-12-31

    This paper summarizes the strategy given in the site characterization plan (SCP) for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the engineered barrier system (EBS) contained in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 60 (10 CFR60), particularly 10 CFR 60,1113, and other applicable documents. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. This strategy involves an iterative process designed to achieve compliance with the requirements for substantially complete containment and EBS release. The strategy will be implemented in such a manner that sufficient evidence will be provided for presentation to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) so that it may make a finding that there is reasonable assurance that these performance requirements will indeed be met.

  20. Closure temperature in cooling bi-mineralic systems: I. Definition and with application to REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijing; Liang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems and to investigate the physical meaning of temperatures calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer. We conduct numerical simulations of diffusive redistribution of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and mineral-mineral partition coefficients. Following Dodson's treatment, the closure temperature in bi-mineralic systems can be defined by the evolution of either average trace element concentrations in the two minerals or their ratio. The latter defines an effective partition coefficient. Closure temperatures calculated based on the two definitions are compared for a range of cooling rates, grain sizes, mineral proportions, and temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients. Temperatures defined by the effective partition coefficient are recommended. Application to diffusive redistribution of rare earth elements (REE) in orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene systems demonstrates that closure temperature differences among REE are small and hence their average value may be used as the closure temperature for the cooling two-pyroxene system. The average closure temperature of REE in the two-pyroxene system is essentially the same as the temperature calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer and practically independent of pyroxene modal abundance in the system. Differences in temperatures calculated using the REE- and major element-based two-pyroxene thermometers can be used to infer cooling rate of two

  1. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, Nicholas A [Kennewick, WA

    1989-01-01

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell.

  2. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, Nicholas A.

    1989-04-04

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell.

  3. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1987-04-22

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell. 6 figs.

  4. Successful management of abdominal wound dehiscence using a vacuum assisted closure system combined with mesh-mediated medial traction

    PubMed Central

    Hompes, R; Venkatasubramaniam, A; Arnold, S

    2015-01-01

    Management of the open abdomen has advanced significantly in recent years with the increasing use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) techniques leading to increased rates of fascial closure. We present the case of a patient who suffered two complete abdominal wall dehiscences after an elective laparotomy, meaning primary closure was no longer possible. She was treated successfully with a VAC system combined with continuous medial traction using a Prolene® mesh. This technique has not been described before in the management of patients following wound dehiscence. PMID:25519257

  5. Successful management of abdominal wound dehiscence using a vacuum assisted closure system combined with mesh-mediated medial traction.

    PubMed

    Lord, A C; Hompes, R; Venkatasubramaniam, A; Arnold, S

    2015-01-01

    Management of the open abdomen has advanced significantly in recent years with the increasing use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) techniques leading to increased rates of fascial closure. We present the case of a patient who suffered two complete abdominal wall dehiscences after an elective laparotomy, meaning primary closure was no longer possible. She was treated successfully with a VAC system combined with continuous medial traction using a Prolene(®) mesh. This technique has not been described before in the management of patients following wound dehiscence. PMID:25519257

  6. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  7. Space Station environmental control and life support system distribution and loop closure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William R.; Reuter, James L.; Schunk, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Space Station's environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) encompasses functional elements concerned with temperature and humidity control, atmosphere control and supply, atmosphere revitalization, fire detection and suppression, water recovery and management, waste management, and EVA support. Attention is presently given to functional and physical module distributions of the ECLSS among these elements, with a view to resource requirements and safety implications. A strategy of physical distribution coupled with functional centralization is for the air revitalization and water reclamation systems. Also discussed is the degree of loop closure desirable in the initial operational capability status Space Station's oxygen and water reclamation loops.

  8. Persistence, Turing Instability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Diffusive Plankton System with Delay and Quadratic Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Wei, Junjie

    A reaction-diffusion plankton system with delay and quadratic closure term is investigated to study the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton. Sufficient conditions independent of diffusion and delay are obtained for the persistence of the system. Our conclusions show that diffusion can induce Turing instability, delay can influence the stability of the positive equilibrium and induce Hopf bifurcations to occur. The computational formulas which determine the properties of bifurcating periodic solutions are given by calculating the normal form on the center manifold, and some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  9. Laceration of the Common Femoral Artery Following Deployment of the StarClose{sup TM} Vascular Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Michael Walkden, Miles Belli, Anna Maria

    2008-07-15

    StarClose is a novel arterial closure device which achieves hemostasis, following arteriotomy, via a nitinol clip deployed on the outer arterial wall. Since its introduction to the market, several studies have shown StarClose to be both safe and effective, with few major complications encountered. We report a case of common femoral artery laceration following deployment of the StarClose vascular closure system. We conclude that the injury occurred secondary to intravascular misplacement of the nitinol clip.

  10. Repository Safety Strategy: Plan to Prepare Safety Case to Support Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation and Licensing Considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2001-01-18

    A key issue for the site recommendation and license application considerations for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain is the ability of that site to protect the public from any undue radiological risk before and after permanent closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is therefore preparing a case regarding preclosure and postclosure safety of a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain. This document, Revision 4 of the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS), reports the current status of this safety case and the plans to complete it. This document updates its predecessors to reflect project developments and information learned since previous revisions. This revision is based on the work to date, including RSS workshops conducted from February through June 2000. While previous revisions focused solely on postclosure safety, Revision 4 also addresses the preclosure safety case. This volume, Volume I, presents the preclosure safety strategy. Volume II presents the postclosure safety strategy.

  11. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  12. Stress-relaxation and tension relief system for immediate primary closure of large and huge soft tissue defects: an old-new concept: new concept for direct closure of large defects.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Stress-relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress-relaxation. We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress-relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure. All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26 cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress-relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135 min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved. In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress-relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical procedures for a wide range

  13. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. PMID:26654992

  14. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  15. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2001-09-17

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  16. Transient 120,000-year response of the large regional flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada to complex cyclical variability in paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Schwartz, F. W.; Sudicky, E. A.; McLaren, R. G.; Huber, M.; Apted, M.

    2009-12-01

    A regional flow model is used to explore the transient behavior of a flow system at Yucca Mountain due to a significant variability in Pleistocene and Holocene climates. Simulations involve a 39 km slice of the Death Valley Flow System through Yucca Mountain toward the Amargosa Desert. The long time scale over which infiltration has changed (tens-of-thousands of years) is matched by the large physical extent of the flow system (many tens-of-kilometers). Paleo-infiltration rates were estimated using a juniper pollen percentage that extends from the last interglacial period (approximately 120 ka BP) to present. Flow and 14C transport simulations show that the flow system changes markedly as a function of paleoclimate. At the last glacial maximum (20 ka BP), the recharge to the flow system was about an order-of-magnitude higher than present and water table was more than 100 meters higher. With large basin time constants, flow is complicated because hydraulic heads at a given location reflect conditions of the past, but at another location the flow may reflect present conditions. This complexity is also manifested by processes that depend on flow, for example 14C transport. Without a model that accounts for the historical transients in recharge for at least the last 20,000 years, there is no simple way to deconvolve the 14C dates to explain patterns of flow.

  17. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  18. High Level Waste Tank Closure Modeling with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    BOLLINGER, JAMES

    2004-07-29

    Waste removal from 49 underground storage tanks located in two tank farms involves three steps: bulk waste removal, water washing to remove residual waste, and in some cases chemical cleaning to remove additional residual waste. Not all waste can be completely removed by these processes-resulting in some residual waste loading following cleaning. Completely removing this residual waste would be prohibitively expensive; therefore, it will be stabilized by filling the tanks with grout. Acceptable residual waste loading inventories were determined using one-dimensional groundwater transport modeling to predict future human exposure based on several scenarios. These modeling results have been incorporated into a geographic information systems (GIS) application for rapid evaluation of various tank closure options.

  19. Early Surgical Management of Large Scalp Infantile Hemangioma Using the TopClosure® Tension-Relief System.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanyong; Yang, Xilin; Zhao, Yueqiang; Fan, Huajun; Yu, Mosheng; Topaz, Moris

    2015-11-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy and childhood. The majority do not need medical intervention. However, large ulcerated scalp IHs may lead to fatal bleeding as well as severe cosmetic disfigurement that indicate early surgical excision, inflicting substantial surgical risks, with short- and long-term morbidity.The TopClosure Tension-Relief System (TRS) is an innovative skin stretching and wound closure-secure system that facilitates primary closure of relatively large skin defects. This system has been shown as a substitute for skin grafts, flaps, or tissue expanders.We describe a case of a giant IH of the scalp usually requiring a complex surgical approach, which was immediately primarily closed applying the TRS.A 3-day-old female infant presented with a giant scalp hemangioma at birth that rapidly grew in the neonatal period with early signs of ulceration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant scalp hemangioma with immediate primary closure of the defect using the TRS. Surgical procedure and postoperative period were uneventful.Early surgical resections of IHs at infancy carry substantial surgical risks and morbidity. This is the first reported case of early resection of a scalp hemangioma in the neonatal period, with successful immediate primary closure by application of stress-relaxation technique through the TRS. The application of the TopClosure TRS in this age group has significant advantages. It reduces the complexity and length of surgery, reducing blood loss, eliminating donor site morbidity, improving wound aesthetics, and minimizing the need for future reconstructive procedures. PMID:26632734

  20. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  1. Conceptualization of the predevelopment groundwater flow system and transient water-level responses in Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a set of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within the two major aquifer systems underlying the area. Aquifers and confining units within these systems were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. Maps of the hydraulic-head distributions in the major aquifer systems were developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. The maps, in conjunction with regional and detailed hydrogeologic cross sections, were used to conceptualize flow within and between aquifer systems. Aquifers and confining units are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two aquifer systems: alluvial-volcanic or carbonate. The carbonate aquifers are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours, are indicated on the maps and sections and discussed for the alluvial-volcanic and regional carbonate aquifers. Flow in the alluvial-volcanic aquifer generally is constrained by the bounding volcanic confining unit, whereas flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is constrained by the siliceous confining unit. Hydraulic heads in the alluvial-volcanic aquifer typically range from 2,400 to 2,530 feet and commonly are elevated about 20-100 feet above heads in the underlying regional carbonate

  2. Closure Temperature in Cooling Bi-Mineralic Systems With Application to REE-in-Two-Pyroxene Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, L.; Liang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems [1, 2]. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that usually contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to systematically examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems. This study is also motivated by our quest for the physical meaning of temperatures derived from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer that is based on temperature-dependent REE partitioning between coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) in mafic and ultramafic rocks [3]. To better understand closure temperatures and their relations to the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer, we conduct numerical simulations of diffusive re-equilibration of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient. Following Dodson's approach for mono-mineralic systems, we define the closure temperature of a trace element in cooling bi-mineralic systems using two methods: (1) by following the evolution of average concentration of the trace element in each mineral; (2) by tracing the variation of an effective partition coefficient (ratio of the average concentrations between the two minerals). Closure temperatures calculated using the two definitions are identical for a wide range of grain sizes and cooling rates. Additional simulations for a range of temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients reveal that in addition to parameters introduced in Dodson's equation (pre-exponential factor D0, activation energy E, mineral grain size, and cooling rate), temperature-dependent partition coefficients are also important in determining the closure temperature for the bi-mineralic systems. Our

  3. 75 FR 34172 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was amended on May 11, 2010 to... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2010 (75 FR 28655). At the request of a company... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including...

  4. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  5. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  6. Making the Postclosure Safety Case for the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    P. Swift; A.V. Luik

    2006-08-28

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in its advisory standard for geological repositories promulgated jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, explicitly distinguishes between the concepts of a safety case and a safety assessment. As defined in the advisory standard, the safety case is a broader set of arguments that provide confidence and substantiate the formal analyses of system safety made through the process of safety assessment. Although the IAEAYs definitions include both preclosure (i.e., operational) safety and post-closure performance in the overall safety assessment and safety case, the emphasis in here is on long-term performance after waste has been emplaced and the repository has been closed. This distinction between pre- and postclosure aspects of the repository is consistent with the U.S. regulatory framework defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 197, or 40 CFR 197) [2] and implemented by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Chapter 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63, or 10 CFR 63) [3]. The separation of the pre- and postclosure safety cases is also consistent with the way in which the U.S. Department of Energy has assigned responsibilities for developing the safety case. Bechtel SAIC Company is the Management and Operating contractor responsible for the design and operation of the Yucca Mountain facility and is therefore responsible for the preparation of the preclosure aspects of the safety case. Sandia National Laboratories has lead responsibility for scientific work evaluating post-closure performance, and therefore is responsible for developing the post-closure aspects of the safety case. In the context of the IAEA definitions, both preclosure and postclosure safety, including safety assessment and the safety case, will be documented in the license application being prepared for the

  7. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-12-31

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

  9. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-ming; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  10. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin

    2011-12-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  11. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. L.

    2002-02-27

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

  12. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  13. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  14. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  15. TRA Closure Plan REV 0-9-20-06 HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    Winterholler, K.

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump were characterized as having managed hazardous waste. The reactor drain tank and canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  16. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  17. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  18. Implementation of Localized Corrosion in the Performance Assessment Model for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Jain, S. David Sevougian, Patrick D. Mattie, Kevin G. Mon, and Robert J. Mackinnon

    2006-04-30

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to analyze the ability of the natural and engineered barriers of the Yucca Mountain repository to isolate nuclear waste over the 10,000-year period following repository closure. The principal features of the engineered barrier system (EBS) are emplacement tunnels (or ''drifts'') containing a two-layer waste package (WP) for waste containment and a titanium drip shield to protect the waste package from seeping water and falling rock, The 20-mm-thick outer shell of the WP is composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The barrier function of the EBS is to isolate the waste from migrating water. The water and its associated chemical conditions eventually lead to degradation of the waste packages and mobilization of the radionuclides within the packages. There are five possible waste package degradation modes of the Alloy 22: general corrosion, microbially influenced corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, early failure due to manufacturing defects, and localized corrosion. This paper specifically examines the incorporation of the Alloy-22 localized corrosion model into the Yucca Mountain TSPA model, particularly the abstraction and modeling methodology, as well as issues dealing with scaling, spatial variability, uncertainty, and coupling to other sub-models that are part of the total system model.

  19. Percutaneous Vascular Closure System Based on an Extravascular, Bioabsorbable Polyglycolic Plug (ExoSeal): Results from 1000 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamusella, P; Wissgott, C; Jahnke, T; Brossmann, J; Scheer, F; Lüdtke, CW; Andresen, R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a percutaneous closure system based on a polyglycolic acid plug for achieving hemostasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study from 2011 to 2014, a percutaneous vascular closure system (ExoSeal) was used in 1000 patients (mean age 70.6 ± 10.2 years), using antegrade and retrograde techniques within the context of an angiographic intervention. The system was used in conjunction with transfemoral approaches with a sheath size of 6F. Post the intervention (on the following day and after 6 weeks), follow-up was conducted clinically and using color-coded duplex ultrasound. RESULTS Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 939/1000 patients (93.9%). In the remaining 61 cases, a correct positioning of the polyglycolic acid plug was not possible because of malfunctioning of the device, massive vascular wall calcifications, postoperative scar tissue, or too steep a puncture angle. In these cases, manual compression was successful. There was one retroperitoneal bleeding requiring transfusion. Minor complications were observed (7.4% in total) with 10 pseudoaneurysm (1%), 63 inguinal hematomas (up to 3 cm; 6.3%), and 1 stenosis (0.1%). CONCLUSION Safe and effective hemostasis is possible with the percutaneous ExoSeal closure system at puncture sizes of 6F. PMID:26085789

  20. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-30

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for the Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  1. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  2. A new cable-tie based sternal closure system: description of the device, technique of implantation and first clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wire closure still remains the preferred technique despite reasonable disadvantages. Associated complications, such as infection and sternal instability, cause time- and cost-consuming therapies. We present a new tool for sternal closure with its first clinical experience and results. Methods The sternal ZipFixTM System is based on the cable-tie principle. It primarily consists of biocompatible Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone implants and is predominantly used peristernally through the intercostal space. The system provides a large implant-to-bone contact for better force distribution and for avoiding bone cut through. Results 50 patients were closed with the ZipFixTM system. No sternal instability was observed at 30 days. Two patients developed a mediastinitis that necessitated the removal of the device; however, the ZipFixTM were intact and the sternum remained stable. Conclusions In our initial evaluation, the short-term results have shown that the sternal ZipFixTM can be used safely and effectively. It is fast, easy to use and serves as a potential alternative for traditional wire closure. PMID:22731778

  3. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  4. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: Some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance.

  5. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2003-01-01

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  6. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist form for the closure of the 216-B-3 Pond System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    This document describes the activities for partial closure of the 216-B-3 Pond System operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The Hanford site has been divided into operable units to facilitate cleanup under CERCLA, the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976, and RCRA corrective action provisions. An operable unit is a grouping of individual waste management units based primarily on geographic area, common waste sources, and similar geohydrologic properties. The Hanford Site waste management units have been categorized into past-practice units and TSD units. A past-practice unit is a waste management unit where waste has been disposed and is not subject to regulation as a TSD unit. All waste management units, including TSD units within an operable unit, generally will undergo investigation and remediation (closure) at the same time. 85 refs., 50 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  8. Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty versus systemic intraocular pressure-lowering medications as immediate management for acute phacomorphic angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky WY; Lai, Jimmy SM; Yick, Doris WF; Yuen, Can YF

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) and systemic intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications in the immediate management of acute phacomorphic angle closure. Methods Consecutive cases of acute phacomorphic angle closure were randomized to receive ALPI and an intravenous or oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor as initial treatment. Intravenous mannitol was administered for presenting IOP > 60 mmHg or IOP > 40 mmHg 2 hours posttreatment in both arms. Results Of 10 consecutive cases, six received medical therapy and four received ALPI. Fifty percent in the medical group and none in the ALPI group required intravenous mannitol. The ALPI group took less time to achieve IOP < 25 mmHg (18.8 ± 7.5 minutes versus 115.0 ± 97.0 minutes, P = 0.001, F test); had a greater IOP reduction within 30 minutes (69.8% ± 7.7% versus 40.9 ± 23.9%, P = 0.03, t-test); and had a consistently smaller post-attack cup to disc ratio (0.50 ± 0.02 versus 0.60 ± 0.20, P = 0.002, F test). Conclusion ALPI offers greater safety, consistency, and efficacy than systemic IOP-lowering medications as initial treatment for phacomorphic angle closure. PMID:23326185

  9. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  10. Fluid geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Brian D.; Moscati, Richard J.; Patterson, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, a site in southwest Nevada, has been proposed for a deep underground radioactive waste repository. An extensive database of geochemical and isotopic characteristics has been established for pore waters and gases from the unsaturated zone, perched water, and saturated zone waters in the Yucca Mountain area. The development of this database has been driven by diverse needs of the Yucca Mountain Project, especially those aspects of the project involving process modeling and performance assessment. Water and gas chemistries influence the sorption behavior of radionuclides and the solubility of the radionuclide compounds that form. The chemistry of waters that may infiltrate the proposed repository will be determined in part by that of water present in the unsaturated zone above the proposed repository horizon, whereas pore-water compositions beneath the repository horizon will influence the sorption behavior of the radionuclides transported toward the water table. However, more relevant to the discussion in this chapter, development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for the Yucca Mountain hydrologic system are strengthened through the incorporation of natural environmental tracer data into the process. Chemical and isotopic data are used to establish bounds on key hydrologic parameters and to provide corroborative evidence for model assumptions and predictions. Examples of specific issues addressed by these data include spatial and temporal variability in net fluxes, the role of faults in controlling flow paths, fracture-matrix interactions, the age and origin of perched water, and the distribution of water traveltimes.

  11. Stress–Relaxation and Tension Relief System for Immediate Primary Closure of Large and Huge Soft Tissue Defects: An Old–New Concept

    PubMed Central

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stress–relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure® tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure® TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress–relaxation. We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress–relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure. All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26 cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress–relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135 min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved. In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress–relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical

  12. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  13. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  14. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  15. Fluid Migration Patterns in Gas Hydrate System of Four-Way-Closure Ridge Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsieh; Berndt, Christian; Lin, Saulwood

    2016-04-01

    Four-Way-Closure (4WC) Ridge shows great potential as a hydrate prospect from collected multitude of marine geophysical datasets offshore southwestern Taiwan. The aim of my study is to better understand the fluid migration patterns and the possible source locations of the methane at this site. It is a cold seep site with an elongated NW-SE trending anticlinal ridge, which is formed by fault-related folds in the frontal segment of the lower slope domain of the Taiwan accretionary prism along its convergent boundary. So I detail recognized the regional feature structures of the 4WC Ridge, including the thrust faulting and a seismic chimney beneath the seepage sites. I plan to study the temperature perturbation at the 4WC Ridge to better understand gas hydrate system there. To quantify the amount of temperature perturbation near the fault zone, we need to correct the temperature field data for other geological processes. One important correction we want to make concerns the topographic effects on the shallow crust temperature field. So we used 3D finite element method to quantify how much temperature perturbation can be attributed to the local bathymetry at the 4WC Ridge. This model will give us a temperature field based on pure thermal conduction. Then, we can compare the model temperature field with the temperature field derived from thousands of BSRs from the seismic cube, and interpret any resulting temperature discrepancy. As our previous study, we known several geological processes can cause such a discrepancy, including advective fluid migration. If the fault zone fluid migration hypothesis is correct and gas hydrate system reacts to the deep warm fluids from below it, we expect that the BSR will become shallower near the fluid pathways, and the BSR-based temperature field might be a few degrees Celsius higher than in the 3D thermal conductive temperature field. Otherwise, the two temperature fields should be similar. This study is important for hydrate

  16. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  17. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, B00000000-01717-2200-00099, Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during the site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. A parallel effort was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and is reported in Wilson et al. (1994, in press).

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  19. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in national park system units

    SciTech Connect

    Burghardt, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Because bat habitat is threatened by increased urban development, deforestation, and exploitation of caves, abandoned mines have become critical to the survival of numerous bat species. To date, the National Park Service has placed 71 bat-compatible closures in 11 parks. Habitat surveys for bats and other species are an integral part of the abandoned mine inventory process. When surveys outside mines slated for closure reveal potential habitat, qualified wildlife biologists accompanied by experienced abandoned mine safety personnel conduct internal surveys. Several internal surveys are often useful to determine various species using a mine for different purposes through the seasons of the year. Once the determination is made that a mine slated for closure merits habitat preservation, gates are designed to suit the specific needs of resident species. Construction takes place in a season when the mine is uninhabited, or at a time and in a manner that will cause the least disturbance. The National Park Service and Bat Conservation International recently developed an interpretive warning sign which attempts to prevent vandalism of bat gates by educating the public on the potential hazards inside the mine, the value of bats in ecosystems, and the importance of bat conservation efforts. These signs are available through Bat Conservation International.

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  1. Development of the Performance Confirmation Program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G.D. LeCain; R. Snell; D. Barr; S.W. Goodin; D. Weaver; F.D. Hansen

    2006-03-17

    The Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation program consists of tests, monitoring activities, experiments, and analyses to evaluate the adequacy of assumptions, data, and analyses that form the basis of the conceptual and numerical models of flow and transport associated with a proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Performance Confirmation program uses an eight-stage risk-informed, performance-based approach. Selection of the Performance Confirmation activities (a parameter and a test method) for inclusion in the Performance Confirmation program was done using a risk-informed performance-based decision analysis. The result of this analysis and review was a Performance Confirmation base portfolio that consists of 20 activities. The 20 Performance Confirmation activities include geologic, hydrologic, and construction/engineering testing. Several of the activities were initiated during site characterization and are ongoing. Others activities will commence during construction and/or post emplacement and will continue until repository closure.

  2. Development of the performance confirmation program at YUCCA mountain, nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeCain, G.D.; Barr, D.; Weaver, D.; Snell, R.; Goodin, S.W.; Hansen, F.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation program consists of tests, monitoring activities, experiments, and analyses to evaluate the adequacy of assumptions, data, and analyses that form the basis of the conceptual and numerical models of flow and transport associated with a proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Performance Confirmation program uses an eight-stage risk-informed, performance-based approach. Selection of the Performance Confirmation activities for inclusion in the Performance Confirmation program was done using a risk-informed performance-based decision analysis. The result of this analysis was a Performance Confirmation base portfolio that consists of 20 activities. The 20 Performance Confirmation activities include geologic, hydrologie, and construction/engineering testing. Some of the activities began during site characterization, and others will begin during construction, or post emplacement, and continue until repository closure.

  3. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  4. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  5. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  6. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  10. Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large-scale ICF laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikmatov, R. G.; Boley, Charles D.; Burdonsky, I. N.; Chernyak, V. M.; Fedorov, A. V.; Goltsov, A. Y.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Koptyaev, S. N.; Kovalsky, N. G.; Kuznetsov, V. N.; Milam, David; Murray, James E.; Pergament, Michael I.; Petryakov, V. M.; Smirnov, Ruslan V.; Sokolov, Victor I.; Zhuzhukalo, E. V.

    1999-07-01

    Pinhole plasma effects on parameters of the laser beam passing through the spatial filter in conditions of interest for large scale ICF laser facilities were investigated. The experiments on pinhole irradiation were conducted at power density range 1010-1011 W/cm2 with approximately 15 ns laser pulses. Al, Fe, and Ta pinholes were used. The diagnostic approach was chosen based on probing the pinhole region with frequency doubled 3-ns-long laser pulse. Ablative-plasma dynamics was studied with shadowgraphy and interferometry. Also measured were the parameters of transmitted probing beam in the near- and far-fields. The rate of pinhole 'closure' is found to decrease with the increase in the atomic number of pinhole material. The rate o pinhole closure ranges from approximately 5*106 cm/s for aluminum pinhole down to approximately 2*106 cm/s for tantalum pinhole in experiments with power density at the pinhole edge of approximately 50 GW/cm2. For aluminum and steel pinholes the parameters of the transmitted probing beam deteriorate to unacceptable level for approximately 15-20 ns after the irradiation start. In the same experimental conditions the pinholes of tantalum exhibits acceptable performance till the end of the irradiation process. Fast plasma jets converging to the pinhole axis with velocities up to approximately 107 cm/s and significantly deteriorating transmitted probing beam quality are observed. Reasonable agreement was found between the data obtained in experiments with circular pinholes and linear edge experiments.

  11. Evaluation of negative pressure vacuum-assisted system in acute and chronic wounds closure: our experience.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, S; Guarro, G; Pica, A; Alfano, C

    2012-10-01

    Negative-pressure therapy or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been used in clinical applications since the 1940's and has increased in popularity over the past decade. This dressing technique consists of an open cell foam dressing put into the wound cavity, a vacuum pump produces a negative pressure and an adhesive drape. A controlled sub atmospheric pressure from 75 to 150 mmHg is applied. The vacuum-assisted closure has been applied by many clinicians to chronic wounds in humans; however it cannot be used as a replacement for surgical debridement. The initial treatment for every contaminated wound should be the necrosectomy. The VAC therapy has a complementary function and the range of its indications includes pressure sores, stasis ulcers, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, post traumatic and post operative wounds, infected wounds such as necrotizing fasciitis or sternal wounds, soft-tissue injuries, bone exposed injuries, abdominal open wounds and for securing a skin graft. We describe our experience with the VAC dressing used to manage acute and chronic wounds in a series of 135 patients, with excellent results together with satisfaction of the patients. PMID:23095568

  12. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  13. An investigation into the placement of force delivery systems and the initial forces applied by clinicians during space closure.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, C; Ireland, A J; Sherriff, M

    1997-05-01

    This in vitro investigation was designed to establish not only how clinicians apply forces for space closure when using the straight wire appliance and sliding mechanics, but also to quantify the initial force levels produced. A single typodont, with residual extraction space in each quadrant, was set up to simulate space closure using sliding mechanics. On two occasions, at least 2 months apart, 18 clinicians were asked to apply three force delivery systems to the typodont, in the manner in which they would apply it in a clinical situation. The three types of force delivery system investigated were elastomeric chain, an elastomeric module on a steel ligature, and a nickel-titanium closed coil spring. A choice of spaced or unspaced elastomeric chain produced by a single manufacturer was provided. The amount of stretch which was placed on each type of system was measured and, using an Instron Universal Testing Machine, the initial force which would be generated by each force delivery system was established. Clinicians were assessed to examine their consistency in the amount of stretch which each placed on the force delivery systems, their initial force application and their ability to apply equivalent forces with the different types of force delivery system. The clinicians were found to be consistent in their method of application of the force delivery systems and, therefore, their force application, as individuals, but there was a wide range of forces applied as a group. However, most clinicians applied very different forces when using different force delivery systems. When using the module on a ligature the greatest force was applied, whilst the nickel titanium coil springs provided the least force. PMID:9218110

  14. Some possibilities of a closure degree increase and matter turnover intensification in the bioregenerative life support system BIOS-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Velichko, V. V.; Degermendzhy, Á. G.; Lasseur, Ch.; Lamaze, B.

    The problems of scientific-technical substantiation of perspective joint IBP-ESA works on imitation of functioning of stationary bioregenerative life support systems BLSS on Moon and or Mars are discussed With this purpose the possibilities of matter turnover intensification and closure degree increase which can be achieved after modernization of the BIOS-3 BLSS designed and constructed at Institute of Biophysics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences IBP SB RAS Russia are considered These works are performed in the frame of INTAS IA project under the joint SB RAS-ESA financial support Specifically at the expense of intensity increase of photosynthetic active radiation from 150 to 250 Wt m 2 the productivity of photosynthesizing unit on oxygen and biomass is supposed to increase on 50 on average The given substantiation is based upon analysis of carried out preliminary experiments in a laboratory environment and in the BIOS-3 facility and also on series of experiments carried out at present time The results of technical reconstruction of lighting and thermoregulation systems demonstrating practical possibility of these plans implementation are produced On the grounds of mass exchange processes intensification the problems of a crew supply with vegetarian food and oxygen under a smaller photosynthesizing unit size are considered Some possibilities of the humans wastes utilization under combination of physicochemical and biological methods and necessary technical decisions allowing closure increase of matter turnover are

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTCs 1, 2, and 3 (Revision 0, September 2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert; Marutzky, Sam

    2000-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate Corrective Action Alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 97, collectively known as the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU, consists of 720 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU extends over several areas of the NTS and constitutes one of several areas used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity as well as downgradient of the underground test areas. Based on site history, the Yucca Flat underground nuclear tests were conducted in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate rocks; whereas, the Climax Mine tests were conducted in an igneous intrusion located in northern Yucca Flat. Particle-tracking simulations performed during the regional evaluation indicate that the local Climax Mine groundwater flow system merges into the much larger Yucca Flat groundwater flow systems during the 1,000-year time period of interest. Addressing these two areas jointly and simultaneously investigating them as a combined CAU has been determined the best way to proceed with corrective action investigation (CAI) activities. The purpose and scope of the CAI includes characterization activities and model development conducted in five major sequential steps designed to be consistent with FFACO Underground Test Area Project's strategy to predict the location of the contaminant boundary, develop and implement a corrective action, and close each CAU. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs in the subsequent corrective action decision document.

  16. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

    2005-03-14

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region

  17. OVERVIEW OF MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING NATURAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF THE HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    M. Zhu

    2006-05-30

    For two decades, extensive hydrologic investigations have been conducted for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste in fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Extensive field and laboratory geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical testing has provided a large amount of data for developing the conceptual understanding of these processes and parameters for quantifying these processes. A suite of sophisticated numerical models has been developed to assess the long-term performance of the natural barrier of unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) to flow of groundwater and transport of radionuclides released from the repository. This work focuses on characterizing surface and subsurface processes of climate change, infiltration, percolation in the UZ and groundwater flow in the SZ, as well as on predicting hydrologic responses of the natural system to the emplacement of waste packages in drifts, including seepage of water into emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport in the UZ and SZ. These models are then abstracted into a total system performance assessment (TSPA) model. The TSPA integrates these natural attributes with features of engineered systems, and through systematic stochastic analyses involving Monte Carlo simulations, predicts the dose consequences and groundwater concentrations for at least 10,000 years for various future climate conditions, waste types, release scenarios, and transport pathways. The TSPA predictions demonstrate compliance with postclosure individual and groundwater protection standards in the license application for the repository. This presentation provides an overview of the development and use of these natural-system models, including the infiltration model, the site-scale UZ flow model, the seepage calibration and abstraction models, the UZ radionuclide transport and abstraction models, and the site-scale SZ flow and transport models. It describes the approaches used in the design and construct of these

  18. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Fluorinel Dissolution Process Makeup and Cooling and Heating Systems Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan Tank Systems INTEC-066, INTEC-067, INTEC-068, and INTEC-072

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Davis

    2007-05-01

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the fluorinel dissolution process makeup and cooling and heating systems located in the Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility (CPP-666), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The systems to be closed include waste piping associated with the fluorinel dissolution process makeup systems. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards.

  19. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  20. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  1. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  2. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. K.

    2007-11-07

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

  3. Laser-assisted skin closure at 1.32 microns: the use of a software-driven medical laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dew, Douglas K.; Hsu, Tung M.; Hsu, Long S.; Halpern, Steven J.; Michaels, Charles E.

    1991-06-01

    This study investigated the use of a computerized 1 .3 micron Nd:YAG laser to seal approximated wound edges in pig skin. The medical laser system used was the DLS Type 1 , 1 .32 micron Nd:YAG laser (Laser Surgery Software, Inc.). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of laser assisted skin closure using the DLS YAG laser in a large animal model. Effectiveness was judged on the basis of wound dehiscence, infection, unusual healing result and consistency of results. Comparative cosmetic result was also evaluated. In this study, the DLS YAG laser was used to close scalpel-induced, full-thickness wounds. The pig model was chosen for its many integumentary similarities to man. Controls included scalpel-induced wounds closed using suture, staple and some with norepair. After adequate anesthesia was achieved, the dorsum of Yucutan pigs (approximately 75- 100 pounds) each was clipped with animal hair clippers from the shoulder area to the hind legs. The area was then shaved with a razor blade, avoiding any inadvertent cuts or abrasions of the skin. The dorsum was divided into four rows of four parallel incisions made by a #15 scalpel blade. Full-thickness incisions, 9 cm long, were placed over the dorsum of the pigs and then closed either with one loosely approximating Prolene" suture (the "no repair' group), multiple interrupted 6-0 nylon sutures, staples or laser. The experimental tissue sealing group consisted of 1 69 laser assisted closures on 1 3 pigs. Sutured control wounds were closed with 6-0 nylon, full thickness, simple, interrupted sutures. Eight sutures were placed 1 cm apart along the 9 cm incision. Stapled control wounds were approximated using two evenly spaced 3-0 VicryP' sub-dermal sutures and the dermis closed using Proximate' skin staples. Eight staples were placed 1 cm apart along the 9 cm incision. The no-repair incisions were grossly approximated using a single 2-0 Prolene full thickness, simple, interrupted suture located at the

  4. Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain—estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, André; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2004-06-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility—ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of 1×10 -11 m 2 and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  5. Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain--estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Unger, André; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2004-06-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of 1 x 10(-11) m2 and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level. PMID:15134873

  6. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  7. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  8. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  9. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  10. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  11. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  12. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Materials and Methods: Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Conclusion: Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media. PMID:25709675

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.; Shevenell, L., Garside, L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  14. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 63.113 Section 63.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical...

  15. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.161 Section 63.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  16. 10 CFR 63.111 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.111 Section 63.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN,...

  17. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.161 Section 63.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  18. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 63.113 Section 63.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical...

  19. 10 CFR 63.111 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.111 Section 63.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN,...

  20. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 63.113 Section 63.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical...

  1. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.161 Section 63.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  2. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.161 Section 63.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  3. 10 CFR 63.111 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.111 Section 63.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN,...

  4. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 63.113 Section 63.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical...

  5. 10 CFR 63.111 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.111 Section 63.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN,...

  6. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.161 Section 63.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  7. 10 CFR 63.111 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure. 63.111 Section 63.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN,...

  8. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 63.113 Section 63.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical...

  9. Preliminary LIBS analysis of Yucca Mountain manganese oxide minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.; Pettit, D.; Cremers, D.

    1996-01-01

    The licensing and performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain will require the characterization of radionuclide sorptive capacity of the host rock, which in turn calls for hundreds of analyses based on extensive sampling or in situ measurements. A rapid method specifically for characterizing the manganese oxide minerals occurring heterogeneously throughout the Yucca Mountain block as fracture surface coatings is needed. Our unique solution is a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) surface-analysis technique that is usable in the field to produce high-resolution atomic emission spectra. In tests with manganese oxide minerals and fracture surface coatings from a few Yucca Mountain core samples, we used four spectral bands to show that qualitative measurement of all constituent elements except K and Na (in the presence of Mn) is possible with LIBS. Detailed calibration of final hardware will make the system quantitative.

  10. Local crack closure measurements: Development of a measurement system using computer vision and a far-field microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M.A.; Zhao, W.; McNeill, S.R.; Helm, J.D.; Piascik, R.S.; Riddell, W.T.

    1999-07-01

    An accurate and relatively simple methodology for estimating crack closure loads has been developed. Using this method, measurements may be taken at a user-specified position behind the crack tip during the entire fatigue crack growth process. The methodology has three distinct components: (a) an imaging system having adequate magnification with minimal distortion, (b) a simple, Windows-based procedure for image acquisition and image analysis, and (c) techniques for applying a random, high contrast pattern on the specimen's surface. To meet the imaging requirements, a far-field microscope objective capable of high magnifications was employed to image small regions on the order of 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm. The regions were near the crack tip. To meet the requirements of a user-friendly system, a Windows-based data-acquisition interface was developed to run the system on a common PC. Using the interface, images are acquired automatically during a loading/unloading cycle and stored digitally. Image analysis is performed on the saved images to rapidly obtain the crack opening displacement as a function of load; these data are used to estimate the crack closure load. Finally, two methodologies for applying a random, high-contrast pattern with average sizes of 4 to 20 {micro}m were developed. The first method uses 11 {micro}m filter paper and a low-pressure compressed air supply to apply small particles of photocopier toner powder to the surface of the specimen. The second method uses contact lithography to achieve a random pattern with smaller feature sizes, on the order of 2 to 8 {micro}m. Baseline tests of the overall system have demonstrated that it is both easy to use and accurate. Specifically, (a) the PC interface has demonstrated that images can be acquired automatically while the loading frame is cycling at 0.01 Hz, and (b) the crack tip opening displacement data have been shown to have errors on the order of 0.05 pixels for the toner powder patterns, corresponding to

  11. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Prediction of release rates for a potential waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, M.M.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear waste may be placed in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain in waste packages. The waste will consist of spent fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods, as well as borosilicate glass in steel pour containers, each enclosed in sealed containers. Current design calls for the waste packages to be surrounded by an air gap. Although the waste package is generally not seen as the primary barrier for nuclear waste isolation, it must in fact meet specific regulatory requirements. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the release rate of any radionuclide from the engineered barrier system following the containment period shall not exceed one part in 100,000 per year of the inventory of that radionuclide calculated to be present at 1000 years following permanent closure. For low-inventory radionuclides, those that constitute less than 0.1 percent of the calculated total curie inventory at 1000 years, the allowable annual release is a constant value, equal to 10{sup {minus}8} of the total curie inventory in the repository at 1000 years. Therefore it is necessary to calculate release rates for waste packages at Yucca Mountain. We calculate release rates for key radionuclides using analytic solutions presented in a companion report. We consider both wet-drip and moist- continuous water-contact modes. We consider the release three types of species: solubility-limited species, species released congruent with solid-solid alteration of spent-fuel matrix or borosilicate glass, and readily soluble species from the fuel-cladding gap, gas plenum, and readily accessible grain boundaries. In each case we give the release rates of the species as a function of time. 22 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  14. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box, Partial

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  17. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: MINERALOGY DATA FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Steinborn

    2002-08-01

    This DQR uses the technical assessment methods according to Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2QY Rev. 0, ICN 3, to qualify DTN LADB831321AN98.002. The data addressed in this DQR have been cited in CRWMS M&O (2000b) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high level nuclear waste. CRWMS M&O (2000b) refers to mineral analyses that are unqualified. Within the context of this DQR, the term mineral analyses includes: (1) the determination of the identity of specific crystalline phases from the Yucca Mountain Site by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as well as, (2) determination of mineral abundance as a percentage of the total mineral content of samples collected from drill core, side wall core and drill cuttings. These data are used among other purposes to define the spatial distribution of minerals at the Yucca Mountain Site, for correlation with geologic properties, and may be used as input in developing both unsaturated and saturated zone flow and transport models for the YMP Total System Performance Assessment. This DQR evaluates the unqualified data within DTNs within the context of supporting such kinds of studies on the YMP. The unqualified data considered in this DQR were identified and directly used in CRWMS M&O (2000b) in which the mineral analyses are used to create three-dimensional representations of mineral distributions. The purpose of this DQR is to recommend data that can be cited as qualified for use in technical products to support the License Application. The qualified data were placed in new DTNs generated as a result of the evaluation. The appropriateness and limitations (if any) of the data with respect to intended use are addressed in this DQR. In accordance with Attachment 1 of procedure AP-3.15Q, Rev. 3, ICN 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs'', it has been determined that the unqualified mineral abundance data for core material are not used in the direct calculation of Principal

  18. ACCOUNTING FOR A VITRIFIED PLUTONIUM WASTE FORM IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT (TSPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J

    2007-02-12

    A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass appears to be a viable option for dispositioning excess weapons-useable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990s to support the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP). Further refinement of the vitrification process was accomplished as part of the Am/Cm solution vitrification project. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt% Pu and to be very tolerant of the impurities accompanying the plutonium material streams. Thus, this waste form would be suitable for dispositioning plutonium owned by the Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) that may not be well characterized and may contain high levels of impurities. The can-in-canister technology demonstrated in the PIP could be utilized to dispose of the vitrified plutonium in the federal radioactive waste repository. The can-in-canister technology involves placing small cans of the immobilized Pu form into a high level waste (HLW) glass canister fitted with a rack to hold the cans and then filling the canister with HLW glass. Testing was completed to demonstrate that this technology could be successfully employed with little or no impact to current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operation and that the resulting canisters were essentially equivalent to the present HLW glass canisters to be dispositioned in the federal repository. The performance of wastes in the repository and, moreover, the performance of the entire repository system is being evaluated by the Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) using a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) methodology. Technical bases documents (e.g., Analysis/Modeling Reports (AMR)) that address specific issues regarding

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  20. Practical postcalibration uncertainty analysis: Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    James, Scott C; Doherty, John E; Eddebbarh, Al-Aziz

    2009-01-01

    The values of parameters in a groundwater flow model govern the precision of predictions of future system behavior. Predictive precision, thus, typically depends on an ability to infer values of system properties from historical measurements through calibration. When such data are scarce, or when their information content with respect to parameters that are most relevant to predictions of interest is weak, predictive uncertainty may be high, even if the model is "calibrated." Recent advances help recognize this condition, quantitatively evaluate predictive uncertainty, and suggest a path toward improved predictive accuracy by identifying sources of predictive uncertainty and by determining what observations will most effectively reduce this uncertainty. We demonstrate linear and nonlinear predictive error/uncertainty analyses as applied to a groundwater flow model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the United States' proposed site for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Linear and nonlinear uncertainty analyses are readily implemented as an adjunct to model calibration with medium to high parameterization density. Linear analysis yields contributions made by each parameter to a prediction's uncertainty and the worth of different observations, both existing and yet-to-be-gathered, toward reducing this uncertainty. Nonlinear analysis provides more accurate characterization of the uncertainty of model predictions while yielding their (approximate) probability distribution functions. This article applies the above methods to a prediction of specific discharge and confirms the uncertainty bounds on specific discharge supplied in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application. PMID:19744249

  1. The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events, and Processes (FEPS) at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    G. Freeze

    2002-03-25

    A performance assessment is required to demonstrate compliance with the post-closure performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), as stated in 10 CFR Part 63.1 13 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). A performance assessment is defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (66 FR 55732, p. 55794) as an analysis that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of those FEPs upon the performance of the potential geologic repository; and (3) estimates the expected dose incurred by a specified reasonably maximally exposed individual as a result of releases caused by significant FEPs. The performance assessment must also provide the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs in the performance assessment as stated in 10 CFR 63.114 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). An initial approach for FEP development, in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000e), was documented in Freeze et al. (2001). The development of a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the post-closure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is an ongoing, iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. Although comprehensiveness of the FEPs list cannot be proven with absolute certainty, confidence can be gained through a combination of formal and systematic reviews (both top-down and bottom-up), audits, and comparisons with other FEP lists and through the application of more than one classification scheme. To support TSPA-SR, DOE used a multi-step approach for demonstrating comprehensiveness of the initial list of FEPs. Input was obtained from other international radioactive waste disposal programs as compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to establish a general list of FEPs. The list was subsequently refined to include YMP

  2. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 264... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90 days after...

  3. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within...

  4. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  5. D and D (System Closure) Mockup Testing Demonstration. Remediation of Legacy Radioactive Piping and Tank Systems at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Brown, Ch.; Hart, A.; Welty, B.; Winterholler, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated mockup demonstration of technologies and equipment designed to remove radioactively contaminated piping systems from underground vaults and pipe trenches at the Idaho National Laboratory. The integrated mockup demonstration included performing a bench scale wax fixative study and field demonstrations of the remotely operated equipment that will be used to remove radioactively contaminated pipe systems. The bench-scale wax fixative study involved defining optimum temperature and moisture conditions for effectively filling pipe sections containing residual wastes with a wax based fixative. The field demonstrations involved dismantling underground vault and trench piping systems, including pipe sections filled with the wax fixative. The purpose of the demonstration was to ensure the selected technologies and equipment would be effective prior to field deployment. The demonstration was conducted as a joint effort by MSE Technology Applications, Inc., and CWI on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte Montana. In summary: The mockup included two main tests at the MSE facility: 1) a vault mockup that included stainless and carbon steel pipe cutting and removal; and 2) a trench mockup that included cutting and removing buried Duriron and ductile iron piping. Both mockups included cutting and removing a pipe filled with the WAXFIX stabilizing material. Based on the MSE moisture tests, project personnel concluded that the WAXFIX product would be effective when used on wastes with different moisture contents that may be encountered in piping systems during the closure of the TRA-630 Catch Tank System at INL. A section of stainless steel pipe was also used to test a number of leak stop alternatives for wax leaks that may be encountered in a degraded piping system. Both the vault and the trench mockup demonstration proved successful for ICP, DOE, and MSE. The ICP

  6. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  7. Organisational closure in biological organisms.

    PubMed

    Mossio, Matteo; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of this paper consists in arguing that biological organisms realize a specific kind of causal regime that we call "organisational closure"; i.e., a distinct level of causation, operating in addition to physical laws, generated by the action of material structures acting as constraints. We argue that organisational closure constitutes a fundamental property of biological systems since even its minimal instances are likely to possess at least some of the typical features of biological organisation as exhibited by more complex organisms. Yet, while being a necessary condition for biological organization, organisational closure underdetermines, as such, the whole set of requirements that a system has to satisfy in order to be taken as a paradigmatic example of organism. As we suggest, additional properties, as modular templates and control mechanisms via dynamical decoupling between constraints, are required to get the complexity typical of full-fledged biological organisms. PMID:21162371

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  9. BOLIVAR and GULFREX MCS Data Constrain Closure of the Grenada Backarc Basin During Oblique Collision Between the Lesser Antilles Arc System and Northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, T. J.; Mann, P.; Christeson, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles evolved from the mid-Cretaceous as an extensional arc system formed above a steeply dipping slab of Atlantic oceanic crust. The arc became extensional during the Paleocene - early Eocene along normal faults at the eastern edge of the basin as the present-day Lesser Antilles chain rifted away from the Aves Ridge. Backarc rifting ceased during the early Eocene, leaving the 140 km wide 3 km deep Grenada backarc basin. Sediment accumulation reached nearly 8 km during the Paleogene with another 1.5 km of sediments accumulating during the Neogene. In this presentation, we combine newly acquired MCS lines from the BOLIVAR study with existing GULFREX data collected in 1975 to document the structural and stratigraphic effects of closure of the Grenada backarc basin because of the progressive, oblique collision between the Lesser Antilles arc system and northern South America. The southern end of the Grenada basin has been narrowed from an undeformed width of approximately 100 km to a deformed width of 30 km, and rotated nearly 90 degrees to the west as the arc system obliquely collides with the South American margin. Shortening of the colliding backarc basin is mainly accommodated by inversion of Paleogene normal faults on the eastern edge of the basin, folding, low-angle thrust faults, and possibly shale diapirism. We propose that this closure in the area is a backthrusting response during Oligocene - late Miocene closure along the leading edge of the oblique arc-continent collision in the Eastern Venezuelan basin.

  10. Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.A.

    1988-12-31

    Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Seismic monitoring of the Yucca Mountain facility

    SciTech Connect

    Garbin, H.D.; Herrington, P.B.; Kromer, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Questions have arisen regarding the applicability of seismic sensors to detect mining (re-entry) with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). Unlike cut and blast techniques of mining which produce impulsive seismic signals, the TBM produces seismic signals which are of long duration. (There are well established techniques available for detecting and locating the sources of the impulsive signals.) The Yucca Mountain repository offered an opportunity to perform field evaluations of the capabilities of seismic sensors because during much of 1996, mining there was progressing with the use of a TBM. During the mining of the repository`s southern branch, an effort was designed to evaluate whether the TBM could be detected, identified and located using seismic sensors. Three data acquisition stations were established in the Yucca Mountain area to monitor the TBM activity. A ratio of short term average to long term average algorithm was developed for use in signal detection based on the characteristics shown in the time series. For location of the source of detected signals, FK analysis was used on the array data to estimate back azimuths. The back azimuth from the 3 component system was estimated from the horizontal components. Unique features in the timing of the seismic signal were used to identify the source as the TBM.

  12. Evaluation of Aquaponics Techniques for Enhancing Productivity and Degree of Closure of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Highfield, Eric

    A number of researchers in space bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) have advocated the inclusion of fish-rearing. Fish have relatively high feed to production ratios and can utilize some waste products from other system components. In recent years, there has been much advance in an approach to combining fish-culture with hydroponically-grown crops called “aquaponics”. Aquaponics systems vary but generally include: fish-rearing unit, settling basin, biofilter, hydroponic plant unit and sump where water is pumped back and the cycle continues. Aquaponics research and application has grown since these systems have the potential to increase overall productivity of both crops and fish. Since the fish waste is used as the growth medium of the food plants, there are environmental benefits in reduced discharge of nutrient-rich wastewater which has been one of the drawbacks of conventional aquaculture. In addition, since water use is reduced 95+% over field agriculture, since water from the hydroponic tanks is fed back to the fish tanks and water is recycled apart from evapotranspiration losses, conservation of water resources and applications in water-limited arid regions are other benefits fueling the spread of aquaponics around the world. These considerations also make utilization of aquaponic approaches desirable in BLSS for space application. This paper will examine some recent research results with aquaponics and explore how it might be utilized for food production and reduction of consumables in space life support. In addition, a review and comparison with other fish-culture options previously advanced will evaluate whether aquaponics can improve production efficiency, reduce inputs and better recycle critical resources. Finally, we will explore whether for the space environment, even more advanced aquaponics systems are possible where consumables such as fish-food can be partially or completely supplied from other subsystems of the BLSS and ET water

  13. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  14. Mechanics of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Elber, Wolf (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.

  15. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  16. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  17. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  18. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  19. Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, M.C.; Phillips, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques. Significant travel time differences exist between the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa source areas; relative amplitude patterns at Yucca Mountain also shift with changing source azimuth. The three models, UNEPM1, UNEPM2, and UNEYF1, successfully predict the travel time and amplitude data for all three paths. 24 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  1. Assessing materials (''Getters'') to immobilize or retard the transport of technetium through the engineered barrier system at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B E

    1999-03-15

    Current performance assessment calculations show that technetium (Tc) and neptunium (Np) will deliver the major fraction of the radiation dose to the accessible environment from the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Therefore, materials that can immobilize or delay the transport of Tc or Np (getters) are being considered for addition to either the waste-package or the backfill adjacent to the waste-package. Of the two radionuclides, Tc presents the greater challenge in identifying a suitable getter material. This report identifies several materials that warrant further consideration for immobilizing and/or sorbing Tc as additives to the backfill, and recommends active carbon and an inorganic oxide for initial testing. Other materials, such as zero valent iron, might be useful as getters if they were placed in the waste package itself, a subject that merits further investigation.

  2. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain shapes.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the CAU 428 site located at the TTR and are documented in this report: Preplanning and site preparation; Excavating and removing impacted soil; Removing septic tank contents; Closing septic tanks by filling them with clean soil; Collecting verification samples to verify that COCs have been removed to approved levels; Backfilling the excavations to surface grade with clean soil; Disposal of excavated materials following applicable federal, state, and DOE/NV regulations in accordance with Section 2.3 of the CAP (DOE/NV, 2000); and Decontamination of equipment as necessary. Closure was accomplished following the approved CAP (DOE/NV, 2000). Verification sample data demonstrate that all COCs were removed to the remediation standards. Therefore, the site is clean-closed.

  4. Closure models for turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Tarbell, J.M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    In this paper, a simple procedure based on fast and slow reaction asymptotics has been employed to drive first-order closure models for the nonlinear reaction terms in turbulent mass balances from mechanistic models of turbulent mixing and reaction. The coalescence-redispersion (CRD) model, the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the three-environment (3E) model, and the four-environment (4E) model have been used to develop closure equations. The closure models have been tested extensively against experimental data for both single and multiple reactions. The closures based on slow asymptotics for the CRD, 3E and 4E models provide very good predictions of all of the experimental data, while other models available either in the literature or derived here are not adequate. The simple new closure equations developed in this paper may be useful in modeling systems involving turbulent mixing and complex chemical reactions.

  5. Role of field-aligned current closure via the Pedersen, Hall, and atmospheric displacement current in the formation of ionospheric current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.; Song, Y.; Lysak, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    To consider the transmission process of electromagnetic disturbances carried by field-aligned current (FAC) into the ionospheric and atmospheric loading region, we construct a simplified model for the ionosphere-atmosphere-Earth electromagnetically coupled system. The ionospheric slab (conductor) separated by Earth_fs ground plane by the atmospheric region forms a capacitor. Outgoing current flows in the ionospheric slab and return current flows in the ground plane, forming an inductor. Thus, the ionospheric slab acts as if it has a capacitor in parallel to a ground inductor in series. Electric energy is stored in the dielectric atmospheric region due to the electric field between ionospheric slab and ground plane. Charge present in the ionospheric slab and induced in the ground plane creates a shunt self-capacitance. Magnetic energy associated to currents is stored in the ionospheric slab. The magnetic field links the loop formed by the conductor and ground plane and creates a series self-inductance. This model clarifies the roles of the FAC closure via the currents in the ionosphere-atmosphere-Earth electromagnetically coupled system. Electromagnetic energy associated with FACs is dissipated in the ionosphere through Joule dissipation of the ionospheric divergent Pedersen current carried by ions. On the other hand, the FAC closure via the divergent Hall current carried by electrons increases the energy of the rotational Hall current, causing it to radiate Poynting fluxes that lead to the growth of a poloidal-type magnetic field in the magnetosphere and atmosphere. Furthermore, the FAC closure via the atmospheric displacement current provides Poynting fluxes for the generation of a non-local ionospheric current system. In this study, we will show the physical details of the redistribution process of the FAC_fs momentum and energy into current in the ionosphere-atmosphere loading region.

  6. GEOCHEMICAL AND ISOTOPIC CONSTRAINTS ON GROUND-WATER FLOW DIRECTIONS, MIXING AND RECHARGE AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    A. Meijer; E. Kwicklis

    2000-08-17

    This analysis is governed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Analysis and Modeling Report Development Plan entitled ''Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Directions, Mixing and Recharge at Yucca Mountain'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). As stated in this Development Plan, the purpose of the work is to provide an analysis of groundwater recharge rates, flow directions and velocities, and mixing proportions of water from different source areas based on groundwater geochemical and isotopic data. The analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data is intended to provide a basis for evaluating the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain independently of analyses based purely on hydraulic arguments. Where more than one conceptual model for flow is possible, based on existing hydraulic data, hydrochemical and isotopic data may be useful in eliminating some of these conceptual models. This report documents the use of geochemical and isotopic data to constrain rates and directions of groundwater flow near Yucca Mountain and the timing and magnitude of recharge in the Yucca Mountain vicinity. The geochemical and isotopic data are also examined with regard to the possible dilution of groundwater recharge from Yucca Mountain by mixing with groundwater downgradient from the potential repository site. Specifically, the primary tasks of this report, as listed in the AMR Development Plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), consist of the following: (1) Compare geochemical and isotopic data for perched and pore water in the unsaturated zone with similar data from the saturated zone to determine if local recharge is present in the regional groundwater system; (2) Determine the timing of the recharge from stable isotopes such as deuterium ({sup 2}H) and oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O), which are known to vary over time as a function of climate, and from radioisotopes such as carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) and chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl); (3) Determine the magnitude of recharge from relatively

  7. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  8. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  9. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  10. Chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Warren, R.G.; Hagan, R.C.; Luedemann, G.

    1986-10-01

    The chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada is described. These tuffs contain substantial amounts of zeolites that are highly sorptive of certain radionuclides. Because of their widespread distribution, the zeolitic tuffs could provide important barriers to radionuclide migration. Physical properties of these tuffs and of their constituent zeolites are influenced by their chemical compositions. This study defines the amount of chemical variability within diagenetically altered tuffs and within diagenetic minerals at Yucca Mountain. Zeolitic tuffs at Yucca Mountain formed by diagenetic alteration of rhyolitic vitric tuffs. Despite their similar starting compositions, these tuffs developed compositions that vary both vertically and laterally. Widespread chemical variations were the result of open-system chemical diagenesis in which chemical components of the tuffs were mobilized and redistributed by groundwaters. Alkalies, alkaline earths, and silica were the most mobile elements during diagenesis. The zeolitic tuffs can be divided into three compositional groups: (1) calcium- and magnesium-rich tuffs associated with relatively thin zones of alteration in the unsaturated zone; (2) tuffs in thick zones of alteration at and below the water table that grade laterally from sodic compositions on the western side of Yucca Mountain to calcic compositions on the eastern side; and (3) potassic tuffs at the north end of Yucca Mountain. Physical properties of tuffs and their consistuent zeolites at Yucca Mountain may be affected by variations in compositions. Properties important for assessment of repository performance include behavior and ion exchange.

  11. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  12. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and... comply with the liner requirements of § 264.573(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the...

  13. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and... comply with the liner requirements of § 264.573(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ..., the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them...

  18. Preliminary geochemical/geophysical model of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Cederberg, G.A.

    1987-12-31

    A comprehensive geochemical/geophysical model incorporates the current and relevant stratigraphic, petrologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, and material data associated with a candidate repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A geochemical/geophysical model will provide support and confidence to the Systems Performance calculations, determine whether the data collected as part of the site characterization provide the information needed by the design and performance assessment task, and provide the most accurate and referenced foundation on which to base the radionuclide transport calculations. In this report, the known repository data are compiled and unknown parameter values are estimated based on the available data. It is concluded that more data are needed before the geochemical/geophysical model of Yucca Mountain can be regarded as satisfactory and suitable base for multidimensional predicative flow and transport simulations. Recommendations for future studies concerning site characterization and data acquisition are presented. 36 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces {sup 237}Np which has a half-life of 2.14 {times} 10{sup 6} years. Consequently, the transport of {sup 237}Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the materials in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry.

  20. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  1. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ken

    2007-11-26

    This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

  2. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  3. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R.; Valentine, G.; Crowe, B.

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  4. Nonlocal Closures for Plasma Fluid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric

    2003-10-01

    Theoretical tools applied to lab and astrophysical plasmas tend toward two extremes: kinetic models rife with physics but operating for short times and fluid models employing simplified closure relations but operating for long times. Until computers are fast enough to calculate kinetic physics over resistive times, efforts to extend plasma fluid models to handle a wider range of physics are critical. In this work, we generalize the program of fluid closure to capture kinetic effects in nonlocal, integral forms for higher-order fluid moments. These closures embody collisional, particle-trapping and Landau physics by integrating the fluid drives and closure moments along characteristics of the distribution function, F. The inversion of an operator that includes these physical effects begins with an expansion in eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Next, the characteristics of F are identified by diagonalizing the resultant system of hyperbolic equations. Integrating and taking the closure moments of F results in coupled Volterra equations involving the fluid drives and closures. It is shown that the collisional and nearly collisionless limits of these integral equations match onto previous expressions. In addition to significantly advancing the realism of previous fluid closures, integration along comparatively few ( ˜ 100)characteristics represents a significant reduction in work compared to kinetic treatments that follow millions of particles. These characteristics uncover the essential velocity-space dependence of F and hence render this closure scheme suitable for simulation of long time scale behavior. As a specific example, we conclude this talk by discussing the incorporation of these closures in plasma fluid simulations of neoclassical tearing modes in ITER-relevant discharges.

  5. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-10-19

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  6. Groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    The chemistry of groundwater at Yucca Mountain and vicinity has been reviewed and compared with the chemistry of water from the Nevada Test Site and surrounding areas such as the Amargosa Desert and Oasis Valley. Sodium is the primary cation and carbonate is the primary anion in water from the saturated zone of the tuffaceous aquifer at Yucca Mountain. Other major cations present are calcium, potassium, and magnesium; other major anions are sulfate and chloride, with lesser quantities of fluoride and nitrate. Aqueous silica is also present. The primary purpose of this review was to survey water-composition data and look for relations among the compositional variables that could provide insight into the processes that control the composition and would ultimately affect radionuclide transport. The following conclusions were inferred from the review. Major cation concentrations are controlled by rock dissolution and mineral precipitation reactions as well as by cation exchange with existing minerals. Aqueous carbonate initially comes from atmospheric and soil-zone carbon dioxide, but there is evidence at Yucca Mountain that carbon dioxide in the gas phase of the unsaturated zone supplies additional carbonate to saturated-zone water in the tuffaceous aquifer as mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions raise the pH of the water. This combination is effectively mineral dissolution and precipitation in a system that is open with respect to carbon dioxide. A carbon model for this process is discussed.

  7. Stomatal guard cells co-opted an ancient ABA-dependent desiccation survival system to regulate stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Lind, Christof; Dreyer, Ingo; López-Sanjurjo, Enrique J; von Meyer, Katharina; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lang, Daniel; Zhao, Yang; Kreuzer, Ines; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ronne, Hans; Reski, Ralf; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2015-03-30

    During the transition from water to land, plants had to cope with the loss of water through transpiration, the inevitable result of photosynthetic CO2 fixation on land [1, 2]. Control of transpiration became possible through the development of a new cell type: guard cells, which form stomata. In vascular plants, stomatal regulation is mediated by the stress hormone ABA, which triggers the opening of the SnR kinase OST1-activated anion channel SLAC1 [3, 4]. To understand the evolution of this regulatory circuit, we cloned both ABA-signaling elements, SLAC1 and OST1, from a charophyte alga, a liverwort, and a moss, and functionally analyzed the channel-kinase interactions. We were able to show that the emergence of stomata in the last common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants coincided with the origin of SLAC1-type channels capable of using the ancient ABA drought signaling kinase OST1 for regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:25802151

  8. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system associated with incomplete dural closure following posterior fossa surgery: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Jacob, Jeffrey T; Welker, Kirk M; Cutrer, Fred M; Link, Michael J; Atkinson, John L D; Wetjen, Nicholas M

    2015-11-01

    This report reviews a series of 3 patients who developed superficial siderosis following posterior fossa operations in which dural closure was incomplete. In all 3 patients, revision surgery and complete duraplasty was performed to halt the progression of superficial siderosis. Following surgery, 2 patients experienced resolution of their CSF xanthochromia while 1 patient had reduced CSF xanthochromia. In this paper the authors also review the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. The authors suggest that posterior fossa dural patency and pseudomeningocele are risk factors for the latent development of superficial siderosis and recommend that revision duraplasty be performed in patients with posterior fossa pseudomeningoceles and superficial siderosis to prevent progression of the disease. PMID:26067619

  9. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  10. [Use of the ion-exchange substrate to optimize mineral nutrition of plants within a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kudenko, Yu A; Anishchenko, O V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to test manageability of nutrient solutions containing mineralized human exometabolites by using an ion-exchange substrate (IES) for cultivating wheat in a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure. Object of the investigation was wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Lysovsky cv. l. 232). Crops were raised on clayite in a growth chamber of a hydroponic conveyor system under continuous light. Correction of nutrient solution was to lift the limits of crop supply with minerals. The experimental crop grew in nutrient solution with immersed IES "BIONA-312"; nutrient solution for the control crop was corrected by adding mineral salts. Solution correction did not have a noteworthy effect on the yield, CO2-gas exchange or mineral composition of wheat plants. IES makes simple the technology of plant cultivation on solutions enriched with human exometabolites. PMID:26035997

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  12. Performance predictions for mechanical excavators in Yucca Mountain tuffs; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Gertsch, L.; Neil, D.; Friant, J.

    1992-09-01

    The performances of several mechanical excavators are predicted for use in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain: Tunnel boring machines, the Mobile Miner, a roadheader, a blind shaft borer, a vertical wheel shaft boring machine, raise drills, and V-Moles. Work summarized is comprised of three parts: Initial prediction using existing rock physical property information; Measurement of additional rock physical properties; and Revision of the initial predictions using the enhanced database. The performance predictions are based on theoretical and empirical relationships between rock properties and the forces-experienced by rock cutters and bits during excavation. Machine backup systems and excavation design aspects, such as curves and grades, are considered in determining excavator utilization factors. Instanteous penetration rate, advance rate, and cutter costs are the fundamental performance indicators.

  13. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  14. Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Mon, K. G.; Bullard, B. E.; Longsine, D. E.; Mehta, S.; Lee, J. H.; Monib, A. M.

    2002-02-26

    The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on a robust waste container design, among other EBS components. Part of the SR process involves sensitivity studies aimed at elucidating which model parameters contribute most to the drip shield and waste package degradation characteristics. The model parameters identified included (a) general corrosion rate model parameters (temperature-dependence and uncertainty treatment), and (b) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model parameters (uncertainty treatment of stress and stress intensity factor profiles in the Alloy 22 waste package outer barrier closure weld regions, the SCC initiation stress threshold, and the fraction of manufacturing flaws oriented favorably for through-wall penetration by SCC). These model parameters were reevaluated and new distributions were generated. Also, early waste package failures due to improper heat treatment were added to the waste package degradation model. The results of these investigations indicate that the waste package failure profiles are governed by the manufacturing flaw orientation model parameters and models used.

  15. Approaches to Quantify Potential Contaminant Transport in the Lower Carbonate Aquifer from Underground Nuclear Testing at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada - 12434

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert W.; Birdie, Tiraz; Wilborn, Bill; Mukhopadhyay, Bimal

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative modeling of the potential for contaminant transport from sources associated with underground nuclear testing at Yucca Flat is an important part of the strategy to develop closure plans for the residual contamination. At Yucca Flat, the most significant groundwater resource that could potentially be impacted is the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA), a regionally extensive aquifer that supplies a significant portion of the water demand at the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site. Developing and testing reasonable models of groundwater flow in this aquifer is an important precursor to performing subsequent contaminant transport modeling used to forecast contaminant boundaries at Yucca Flat that are used to identify potential use restriction and regulatory boundaries. A model of groundwater flow in the LCA at Yucca Flat has been developed. Uncertainty in this model, as well as other transport and source uncertainties, is being evaluated as part of the Underground Testing Area closure process. Several alternative flow models of the LCA in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU have been developed. These flow models are used in conjunction with contaminant transport models and source term models and models of contaminant transport from underground nuclear tests conducted in the overlying unsaturated and saturated alluvial and volcanic tuff rocks to evaluate possible contaminant migration in the LCA for the next 1,000 years. Assuming the flow and transport models are found adequate by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, the models will undergo a peer review. If the model is approved by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, it will be used to identify use restriction and regulatory boundaries at the start of the Corrective Action Decision Document Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. These initial boundaries may be revised at the time of the Closure Report phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. (authors)

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT FEATURE, EVENT, AND PROCESS (FEP) DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    G. Freeze; P. Swift; N. Brodsky

    2000-10-11

    A Total System Performance Assessment for Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) has recently been completed (CRWMS M&O, 2000b) for the potential high-level waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The TSPA-SR is an integrated model of scenarios and processes relevant to the postclosure performance of the potential repository. The TSPA-SR scenarios and model components in turn include representations of all features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified as being relevant (i.e., screened in) for analysis. The process of identifying, classifying, and screening potentially relevant FEPs thus provides a critical foundation for scenario development and TSPA analyses for the Yucca Mountain site (Swift et al., 1999). The objectives of this paper are to describe (a) the identification and classification of the comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, and (b) the development, structure, and use of an electronic database for storing and retrieving screening information about the inclusion and/or exclusion of these Yucca Mountain FEPs in TSPA-SR. The FEPs approach to scenario development is not unique to the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). General systematic approaches are summarized in NEA (1992). The application of the FEPs approach in several other international radioactive waste disposal programs is summarized in NEA ( 1999).

  17. PORE-WATER ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION AND UNSATURATED-ZONE FLOW, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    C. Yang

    2000-10-23

    Site characterization at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, has included studies of recharge, flow paths, percolation flux, perched water bodies, and chemical compositions of the water in the thick unsaturated zone (UZ). Samples of pore water from cores of two recently drilled boreholes, USW SD-6 near the ridge top of Yucca Mountain and USW WT-24 north of Yucca mountain, were analyzed for isotopic compositions as part of a study by the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033. The purpose of this report is to interpret {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H, {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O isotopic compositions of pore water from the core of boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 in relation to sources of recharge and flow paths in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Borehole designation USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 subsequently will be referred to as SD-6 and WT-24. The sources of recharge and flow paths are important parameters that can be used in a UZ flow model, total system performance assessment (TSPA), and the license application (LA) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  19. Pattern and timing of diversification in Yucca (Agavaceae): specialized pollination does not escalate rates of diversification

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle; Althoff, David M; Balcázar-Lara, Manuel; Leebens-Mack, James; Segraves, Kari A

    2007-01-01

    The yucca–yucca moth interaction is one of the most well-known and remarkable obligate pollination mutualisms, and is an important study system for understanding coevolution. Previous research suggests that specialist pollinators can promote rapid diversification in plants, and theoretical work has predicted that obligate pollination mutualism promotes cospeciation between plants and their pollinators, resulting in contemporaneous, parallel diversification. However, a lack of information about the age of Yucca has impeded efforts to test these hypotheses. We used analyses of 4322 AFLP markers and cpDNA sequence data representing six non-protein-coding regions (trnT–trnL, trnL, trnL intron, trnL–trnF, rps16 and clpP intron 2) from all 34 species to recover a consensus organismal phylogeny, and used penalized likelihood to estimate divergence times and speciation rates in Yucca. The results indicate that the pollination mutualism did not accelerate diversification, as Yucca diversity (34 species) is not significantly greater than that of its non-moth-pollinated sister group, Agave sensu latissimus (240 species). The new phylogenetic estimates also corroborate the suggestion that the plant–moth pollination mutualism has at least two origins within the Agavaceae. Finally, age estimates show significant discord between the age of Yucca (ca 6–10 Myr) and the current best estimates for the age of their pollinators (32–40 Myr). PMID:18048283

  20. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  1. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  2. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  3. Examining Repository Loading Options to Expand Yucca Mountain Repository Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Nicholson, Mark; Proctor, W. Cyrus; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David

    2007-07-01

    Siting a high level nuclear waste repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. Given the difficulty in siting the Yucca Mountain repository and the already identified need for additional capacity, the concept of expanding the capacity of the Yucca Mountain repository is of significant interest to the nuclear industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). As the capacity of the repository is limited by the decay heat inventory of the spent nuclear fuel in relation to the thermal design limits, expanding the capacity requires appropriate schemes for decay heat and spent fuel loading management. The current Yucca Mountain repository is based on a single level, fixed drift spacing design for a fixed area or footprint. Studies performed to date investigating the capacity of Yucca Mountain often assume that the loading of spent fuel is uniform throughout the repository and use the concept of a linear loading or areal power density (APD). However, use of linear loading or APD can be problematic with the various cooling times involved. The temperature within the repository at any point in time is controlled by the integral of the heat deposited in the repository. The integral of the decay heat varies as a function of pre-loading cooling periods even for a fixed linear loading. A meaningful repository capacity analysis requires the use of a computer model that describes the time-dependent temperature distributions of the rock from the dissipation of the heat through the repository system. If variations from the current Yucca Mountain repository design were to be considered, expanding the capacity of the repository would be pursued in several ways including: (1) increase the footprint size; (2) implement multiple-levels in the repository for the given footprint; (3) allow the drift distance to vary within thermal limits; and, (4) allow non-uniform loading of wastes into the drifts within thermal limits. Options (1) and (2) have been investigated by other

  4. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  5. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. 40 CFR 264.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.310... Landfills § 264.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of...) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained...

  7. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  8. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  9. Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-15

    The Yucca Mountain Project is one part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (the Program) which was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, and as amended in 1987. The Program`s goal is to site the nation`s first geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste, in the form of spent fuel rod assemblies, generated by the nuclear power industry and a smaller quantity of Government radioactive waste. The Program, which also encompasses the transportation system and the multipurpose canister system was not the subject of this Report. The subject of this Review was only the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada. While the Review was directed toward the Yucca Mountain Project rather than the Program as a whole, there are certain elements of the Project which cannot be addressed except through discussion of some Program issues. An example is the Total System Life Cycle Cost addressed in Section 7 of this report. Where Program issues are discussed in this Report, the reader is reminded of the scope limitations of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) contract to review only the Yucca Mountain Project. The primary scope of the Review was to respond to the specific criteria contained in the NARUC scope of work. In responding to these criteria, the Review Team understood that some interested parties have expressed concern over the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act relative to the Yucca Mountain Project and the nature of activities currently being carried out by the Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain Project site. The Review Team has attempted to analyze relevant portions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as Amended, but has not conducted a thorough analysis of this legislation that could lead to any specific legal conclusions about all aspects of it.

  10. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  11. Yucca Mountain reveals its secrets to scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Teitelbaum, S.

    1994-12-31

    US nuclear power plants have generated some 20,000 metric tons of waste, according to Carl P. Gertz, former Department of Energy (DOE) project manager for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization, and Sheldon Teitelbaum, senior writer for the Las Vegas-based Science Application International Corporation. In the search for disposal methods, DOE fixed on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a {open_quotes}sprawling heap of volcanic tuff{close_quotes} situated on a parcel of federally owned land 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The authors maintain that Yucca Mountain`s sparse population, dry climate, deep watertable, and 5,000-foot-thick layer of compressed volcanic rock may make it a suitable long-term storage facility. Nevertheless, Gertz and Teitelbaum say, much research must be done before the site is formally adopted as a repository and begins to receive shipments of high-level nuclear waste.

  12. Characterization and Prediction of Subsurface Pneumatic PressureVariations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1998-01-02

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being investigated as the proposed site for geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste. A massive data collection effort for characterization of the unsaturated zone is being carried out at the site. The USGS is monitoring the subsurface pressure variations due to barometric pumping in several boreholes. Numerical models are used to simulate the observed subsurface pressure variations. Data inversion is used to characterize the unsaturated system and estimate the pneumatic diffusivity of important geologic features. Blind predictions of subsurface response and subsequent comparison to recorded data have built confidence in the models of Yucca Mountain.

  13. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  14. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  15. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  16. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.; Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  17. Nevada told to process Yucca permits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The U.S. District Court in Nevada ruled this March that the state must begin processing permits that would allow the Department of Energy to conduct scientific studies on Yucca Mountain, the heavily debated proposed location of the nation's nuclear waste repository. The studies will determine the stability of the site, located about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas.Carl Gertz, DOE's director of the Yucca Mountain Project, is careful to say that processing the permits does not mean issuing the permits. Beatrice Reilley, of the same office, adds that it is “debatable” whether or not the state is making progress in processing the permits.

  18. Technical bases for Yucca Mountain standards

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The United States currently has no place to dispose of the high-level radioactive waste resulting from the production of the nuclear weapons and the operation of nuclear electronic power plants. The only option under formal consideration at this time is to place the waste in an underground geologic respository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This book shows the extent to which the authors` scientific knowledge can guide the federal government in developing a standard to protect the health of the public from wastes in such a respository at Yucca Mountain.

  19. Groundwater Oxidizing and Reducing Conditions Near Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qudah, O. M.; Woocay, A.; Walton, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater data from 73 wells in Yucca Mountain region were analyzed to better understand geochemical conditions and to make reducing/oxidizing (Redox) environment comparisons. Major ion chemistry, silica, fluoride and associated saturation indices, determined with PHREEQC, were sequentially examined using the multivariate statistical methods of principal component factor analysis and k means cluster analysis. Analysis of both major ion concentration data and their saturation indices allow simultaneous consideration of arithmetic (raw concentrations) and logarithmic (saturation indices) variables that describe the hydrochemical system and therefore can provide further insight into the system's behavior. The factor analysis of the major ion and saturation indices transforms the variables into a tractable number of descriptive factors that are rotated to summarize the chemical groundwater system and better interpret system variation. Results obtained from these analyses show a good agreement with literatures results. Literature indicates that the saturated zone (SZ) located to the east and south of the Yucca Mountain has reducing conditions, and oxidizing conditions are found elsewhere in the SZ flow system.

  20. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Fabryka-Martin, June T.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-02-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  1. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  2. Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    2001-11-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

  3. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-05-13

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  4. The effect of closure processing on the microbial inactivation of biological indicators at the closure-container interface.

    PubMed

    Berger, T J; May, T B; Nelson, P A; Rogers, G B; Korczynski, M S

    1998-01-01

    Two biological indicators are routinely used by the Hospital Products Division to demonstrate the sterilization of the closure-container interface. The use of a moist heat (Clostridium sporogenes) and a dry heat (Bacillus subtilis) biological indicator allows a better understanding of the parameters that impact sterilization of the closure-container system. The ability to sterilize a given closure-container interface is defined in large part by closure moisture and product time above 100 degrees C. The data will demonstrate several different means to alter these two key factors, thereby enhancing sterilization of the closure-container interface. A categorization of closure types and processing parameters allows for more efficient cycle development in the R&D facility and a higher success rate for the final subprocess validation in the manufacturing steam vessels. PMID:9610171

  5. Nitrogen economics of root foraging: Transitive closure of the nitrate–cytokinin relay and distinct systemic signaling for N supply vs. demand

    PubMed Central

    Ruffel, Sandrine; Krouk, Gabriel; Ristova, Daniela; Shasha, Dennis; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.

    2011-01-01

    As sessile organisms, root plasticity enables plants to forage for and acquire nutrients in a fluctuating underground environment. Here, we use genetic and genomic approaches in a “split-root” framework—in which physically isolated root systems of the same plant are challenged with different nitrogen (N) environments—to investigate how systemic signaling affects genome-wide reprogramming and root development. The integration of transcriptome and root phenotypes enables us to identify distinct mechanisms underlying “N economy” (i.e., N supply and demand) of plants as a system. Under nitrate-limited conditions, plant roots adopt an “active-foraging strategy”, characterized by lateral root outgrowth and a shared pattern of transcriptome reprogramming, in response to either local or distal nitrate deprivation. By contrast, in nitrate-replete conditions, plant roots adopt a “dormant strategy”, characterized by a repression of lateral root outgrowth and a shared pattern of transcriptome reprogramming, in response to either local or distal nitrate supply. Sentinel genes responding to systemic N signaling identified by genome-wide comparisons of heterogeneous vs. homogeneous split-root N treatments were used to probe systemic N responses in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in nitrate reduction and hormone synthesis and also in decapitated plants. This combined analysis identified genetically distinct systemic signaling underlying plant N economy: (i) N supply, corresponding to a long-distance systemic signaling triggered by nitrate sensing; and (ii) N demand, experimental support for the transitive closure of a previously inferred nitrate–cytokinin shoot–root relay system that reports the nitrate demand of the whole plant, promoting a compensatory root growth in nitrate-rich patches of heterogeneous soil. PMID:22025711

  6. Novel application of polyelectrolyte multilayers as nanoscopic closures with hermetic sealing.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Stephanie A; Ada, Sena; Gibson, Phillip; Camesano, Terri A; Nagarajan, R

    2012-03-01

    Closure systems for personnel protection applications, such as protective clothing or respirator face seals, should provide effective permeation barrier to toxic gases. Currently available mechanical closure systems based on the hook and loop types (example, Velcro) do not provide adequate barrier to gas permeation. To achieve hermetic sealing, we propose a nonmechanical, nanoscopic molecular closure system based on complementary polyelectrolyte multilayers, one with a polycation outermost layer and the other with a polyanion outermost layer. The closure surfaces were prepared by depositing polyelectrolyte multilayers under a variety of deposition conditions, on conformable polymer substrates (thin films of polyethylene teraphthalate, PET or polyimide, PI). The hermetic sealing property of the closures was evaluated by measuring the air flow resistance using the dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC) at different humidity conditions. The DMPC measurements show that the polyelectrolyte multilayer closures provide significantly large resistance to air flow, approximately 20-800 times larger than that possible with conventional hook and loop type closure systems, at all humidity levels (from 5 to 95% relative humidity). Hence, from the point of view of providing a hermetic seal against toxic gas permeation, the polyelectrolyte multilayer closures are viable candidates for further engineering development. However, the adhesive strength of the multilayer closures measured by atomic force microscopy suggests that the magnitude of adhesion is much smaller than what is possible with mechanical closures. Therefore, we envisage the development of a composite closure system combining the mechanical closure to provide strong adhesion and the multilayer closure to provide hermetic sealing. PMID:22391415

  7. Organizational closure and conceptual coherence

    PubMed

    Scott

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581

  8. Natural Barriers of the Geosphere at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlt, H.; Kotra, J.; Mohanty, S.; Winterle, J.

    2005-05-01

    Geological repositories designed to isolate high-level radioactive waste need natural and engineered barriers that prevent or slow the release of radioactive elements into the accessible environment to acceptable regulatory limits. Under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) regulations, a barrier is any material, structure, or feature that prevents or substantially reduces the rate of movement of water or radionuclides from the repository to the accessible environment. In 1982, Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act which directed the NRC to include multiple barriers in regulating geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Accordingly, as provided in 10 CFR Part 63, the NRC's regulations for Yucca Mountain require a repository to include multiple barriers to ensure the system is robust and not wholly dependent on any single barrier. Any potential license application to construct a repository at Yucca Mountain must identify the multiple barriers (both natural and engineered), describe the capabilities of each barrier, and provide the technical bases for the capabilities of the barriers. The NRC believes that understanding the capability of the repository's component barriers improves understanding of the overall system. The objective of this paper is to discuss potential natural barriers of the geosphere at Yucca Mountain and describe the NRC regulatory requirements for such barriers. To better understand the natural barriers of the geosphere, it helps to divide the barriers into groups of features and their associated processes. Natural barriers, i.e., barriers not constructed by man, ideally include processes that delay the transport of radionuclides from reaching the accessible environment or limit the amount of water that can seep from a ground surface to the depth of an underground repository. Natural barriers at Yucca Mountain may include: topographic influences on precipitation runoff; soil and plants influences on evaporation and

  9. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ``simple`` analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ``failure`` distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ``failures``. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides.

  10. Review breathes life into Yucca site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the long-term safety of the Yucca Mountain repository for nuclear waste in Nevada has improved the chances that it may go ahead, despite being mothballed by the administration of US president Barack Obama back in 2010.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 219 with no further corrective action beyond the application of a use restriction at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 20 through October 12, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 219 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. A best management practice was implemented at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03, and corrective action was performed at CAS 23-20-01 between January and April 2006. In addition, a use restriction will be applied to CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03 to provide additional protection to Nevada Test Site personnel. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 219 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs

  12. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  13. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  14. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  15. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  16. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  17. 50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Permits and Public Participation and Closure...

  18. 50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Permits and Public Participation and Closure...

  19. 50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Permits and Public Participation and Closure...

  20. Airway closure in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dutrieue, Brigitte; Verbanck, Sylvia; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2005-08-25

    Recent single breath washout (SBW) studies in microgravity and on the ground have suggested an important effect of airway closure on gas mixing in the human lung, reflected particularly in the phase III slope of vital capacity SBW and bolus tests. In order to explore this effect, we designed a SBW in which subjects inspired 2-l from residual volume (RV) starting with a 150 ml bolus of He and SF6. In an attempt to vary the pattern of airways closure configuration before the test, the experiments were conducted in 1G and in microgravity during parabolic flight allowing the pre-test expiration to RV to be either in microgravity or at 1.8 G, with the actual test gas inhalation performed entirely in microgravity. Contrary to our expectations, the measured phase III slope and phase IV height and volume obtained from seven subjects in microgravity were essentially identical irrespective of the gravity level during the pre-test expiration to RV. The results suggest that airway closure configuration at RV before the test inspiration has no apparent impact on phases III and IV generation. PMID:15979418

  1. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

    2013-09-01

    Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

  2. Effects of Different Eddy Covariance Correction Schemes on Energy Balance Closure and Comparisons with the Modified Bowen Ratio System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eddy covariance (EC) and modified Bowen ratio (MBR) systems typically yield subtly different estimates of H, LE, and Fc. Our study analyzed the discrepancies between EC and MBR systems by first considering the role of the data processing algorithm used to estimate fluxes using EC and later examinin...

  3. Patent Foramen Ovale: Stroke and Device Closure.

    PubMed

    Suradi, Hussam S; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2016-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common finding in healthy adults and has long been implicated in cryptogenic stroke. The pathogenesis is hypothesized to be caused by microemboli gaining access into the systemic circulation via a PFO. Proposed treatment options include medical therapy and/or PFO closure. Despite numerous studies and several randomized trials, much debate persists regarding the efficacy of this approach in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke in cryptogenic stroke patients. This article reviews the association between PFO and cryptogenic stroke, as well as current evidence for PFO device closure. PMID:27150171

  4. Development of the risk-based, phased-in approach for the international harmonization of the regulation of container closure systems for drugs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin-Chau; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2016-06-01

    The main concern for container closure systems of drugs is to ensure suitability for the intended use which is associated with issues regarding protection, compatibility, safety, and performance. Among various concerns, leachables may pose a safety hazard to patients, while risks might vary depending on the dosage form and the administration route. Stringent regulatory authorities such as the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration have established risk-based regulatory requirements and published corresponding guidelines to facilitate implementation. Taiwan, a member of the Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, makes every effort to harmonize with international regulations and to strengthen protection of public health through regulatory controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory framework and policies set by stringent regulatory authorities. The strategy proposed for the development of an eventual guideline was sent to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for decision. A risk-based, phased-in approach which was extensively discussed in the expert committee was proposed. The approach proposed herein could also serve as a starting point which is worth considered by other countries in which international harmonization is in process. PMID:27016398

  5. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  6. 36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available for inspection at the park visitor center. Notice will also be posted near or within the facility... Section 13.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority....

  7. 36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... available for inspection at the park visitor center. Notice will also be posted near or within the facility... Section 13.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority....

  8. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the

  9. Real-Time Soil Characterization and Analysis Systems Used at US Department of Energy Closure Sites in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L. G.; Carpenter, M. V.; Giles, J. R.; Danahy, R. J.

    2003-02-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  10. Erosional decay of the Yucca Mountain crest, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, K.; Robl, J.; Matthai, S.

    2009-07-01

    A simple numerical landscape evolution model is used to investigate the rate of erosional decay of the Yucca Mountain crest in Nevada, USA — a location proposed as a permanent repository for high level radioactive waste. The model is based on a stream power approach in which we assume that the rate of erosion is proportional to the size of the catchment as a proxy for water flux and to the square of the topographic gradient. The proportionality constants in the model are determined using the structural history of the region: extensional tectonics has dissected the region into a series of well-defined tilt blocks in the last 11 my and the ratio of fault displacement and gully incision during this time is used to scale the model. Forward predictions of our model into the future show that the crest will denude to the level of the proposed site between 500,000 years and 5 my. This prediction is based on conservative estimates for all involved parameters. Erosion may be more rapid if other processes are involved. For example, our model does not consider continuing uplift or catastrophic surface processes as they have been recorded in the region. We conclude that any "total system performance analysis" (TSPA — as has been performed for the Yucca Mountain region to predict geological events inside the ridge) must consider erosion as an integral part of its predictions.

  11. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude and reduced {sup 13}C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  12. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  13. 36 CFR 13.1910 - KNHL and developed area closures and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... closures and restrictions will be available at the park visitor center. Violating these closures or... closures and restrictions. 13.1910 Section 13.1910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1910 - KNHL and developed area closures and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... closures and restrictions will be available at the park visitor center. Violating these closures or... closures and restrictions. 13.1910 Section 13.1910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special...

  15. Quantitative and mechanistic measurements of parenteral vial container/closure integrity. Leakage quantitation.

    PubMed

    Morton, D K; Lordi, N G; Ambrosio, T J

    1989-01-01

    Leakage across the parenteral vial/closure seal interface is quantitatively measured in terms of mass of gas per unit time using a differential pressure method of leakage measurement. With this test system, uncoated, Purcoat coated, and film coated closures are compared for their ability to seal nondefective and defective vial surfaces. Correlations are made between closure sealing performance and rubber viscoelasticity, closure coating material type and thickness, and crimped vial residual seal force. PMID:2709241

  16. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weydert, J.C.; Ponder, G.M.

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  17. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  18. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  19. Certification report for final closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report represents the Geotek Engineering Company, Inc., (Geotek) record of activities to support certification of final closure Of the subject Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II. Ex as noted herein, final closure of the landfill was completed in accordance with the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill 11 Closure/Post Closure Plan, Revision 2, submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on April 14, 1992, and approved by TDEC on May 27, 1994 (the ``Closure Plan``). minor modification to the Closure Plan allowing partial closure of the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II (Phase 1) was approved by TDEC on August 3, 1994. The Phase I portion of the closure for the subject landfill was completed on March 25, 1995. A closure certification report entitled Certification Report for Partial Closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was submitted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES) on March 28, 1995. The final closure represents the completion of the closure activities for the entire Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II Site. The contents of this report and accompanying certification are based on observations by Geotek engineers and geologists during closure activities and on review of reports, records, laboratory test results, and other information furnished to Geotek by LMES.

  20. Modeling Temporal-Spatial Earthquake and Volcano Clustering at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. Parsons; G.A. Thompson; A.H. Cogbill

    2006-05-31

    The proposed national high-level nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain is close to Quaternary faults and cinder cones. The frequency of these events is low, with indications of spatial and temporal clustering, making probabilistic assessments difficult. In an effort to identify the most likely intrusion sites, we based a 3D finite element model on the expectation that faulting and basalt intrusions are primarily sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of the least principal stress in extensional terranes. We found that in the absence of fault slip, variation in overburden pressure caused a stress state that preferentially favored intrusions at Crater Flat. However, when we allowed central Yucca Mountain faults to slip in the model, we found that magmatic clustering was not favored at Crater Flat or in the central Yucca Mountain block. Instead, we calculated that the stress field was most encouraging to intrusions near fault terminations, consistent with the location of the most recent volcanism at Yucca Mountain, the Lathrop Wells cone. We found this linked fault and magmatic system to be mutually reinforcing in the model in that dike inflation favored renewed fault slip.

  1. Earthquake and volcano clustering via stress transfer at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Cogbill, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed national high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain is close to Quaternary cinder cones and faults with Quaternary slip. Volcano eruption and earthquake frequencies are low, with indications of spatial and temporal clustering, making probabilistic assessments difficult. In an effort to identify the most likely intrusion sites, we based a three-dimensional finite-element model on the expectation that faulting and basalt intrusions are sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of the least principal stress in extensional terranes. We found that in the absence of fault slip, variation in overburden pressure caused a stress state that preferentially favored intrusions at Crater Flat. However, when we allowed central Yucca Mountain faults to slip in the model, we found that magmatic clustering was not favored at Crater Flat or in the central Yucca Mountain block. Instead, we calculated that the stress field was most encouraging to intrusions near fault terminations, consistent with the location of the most recent volcanism at Yucca Mountain, the Lathrop Wells cone. We found this linked fault and magmatic system to be mutually reinforcing in the model in that Lathrop Wells feeder dike inflation favored renewed fault slip. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  2. Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A report on current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, Karsten

    Thick unsaturated zones in semi-arid regions have some unique attributes that are favorable for long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. The disposal concept at Yucca Mountain takes advantage of low ambient water fluxes. Evaluation of site suitability must be based on an understanding of two-phase (liquid-gas) fluid flow and heat transfer processes in a heterogeneous, fractured rock mass. A large body of relevant knowledge has been accumulated in various fields, including petroleum and geothermal reservoir engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and soil science. Complications at Yucca Mountain arise from the partly episodic and localized nature of water seepage in fracture networks. This limits the applicability of spatial and temporal averaging, and poses great challenges for numerical modeling. Significant flow and heat transfer effects may occur in the gas phase. Observations of natural and man-made chemical tracers as well as controlled field experiments have provided much useful information on mass transport at Yucca Mountain, including the occurrence of fast preferential flow. It is now clear that fracture-matrix interactions are considerably weaker than would be expected from a concept of water flowing in fractures as areally extensive sheets. The Yucca Mountain system is expected to be quite robust in coping with larger seepage rates, as may occur under future more pluvial climatic conditions.

  3. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  4. Academy issues report on Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The National Academy of Sciences released a report on April 13 concluding that Yucca Mountain, the proposed nuclear waste repository site located about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nev., is not at risk from groundwater infiltration. “There is no evidence to support the assertion that the water table has risen periodically hundreds of meters from deep within the crust,” the report states.According to vice chairman of the NAS panel George A. Thompson of Stanford University, the panel was charged with evaluating whether the water table has risen in the past to the level of the proposed repository or if this might happen in the future. The panel was not responsible for determining whether Yucca Mountain is suitable as a repository site.

  5. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  6. Regulatory compliance for a Yucca Mountain Repository: A performance assessment perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.R.; Van Luik, A.E.; Gil, A.V.; Brocoum, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is scheduled to submit a License Application in the year 2002. The License Application is to show compliance with the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which implement standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These standards are being revised, and it is not certain what their exact nature will be in term of either the performance measure(s) or the time frames that are to be addressed. This paper provides some insights pertaining to this regulatory history, an update on Yucca Mountain performance assessments, and a Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project perspective on proper standards based on Project experience in performance assessment for its proposed Yucca Mountain Repository system. The Project`s performance assessment based perspective on a proper standard applicable to Yucca Mountain may be summarized as follows: a proper standard should be straight forward and understandable; should be consistent with other standards and regulations; and should require a degree of proof that is scientifically supportable in a licensing setting. A proper standard should have several attributes: (1) propose a reasonable risk level as its basis, whatever the quantitative performance measure is chosen to be, (2) state a definite regulatory time frame for showing compliance with quantitative requirements, (3) explicitly recognize that the compliance calculations are not predictions of actual future risks, (4) define the biosphere to which risk needs to be calculated in such a way as to constrain potentially endless speculation about future societies and future human actions, and (5) have as its only quantitative requirement the risk limit (or surrogate performance measure keyed to risk) for the total system.

  7. Characterization and prediction of subsurface pneumatic response at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1999-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being investigated as the proposed site for geologic disposal of the United States' high level nuclear waste. A massive effort to collect data for characterization of the thermo-hydrologic behavior of the unsaturated zone is being conducted at the site. Several boreholes have been instrumented by the United States Geological Survey and the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office for passive pneumatic monitoring of the subsurface. One-, two- and three-dimensional numerical models are used to simulate the observed subsurface pressure variations. The data are inverted using these models in order to characterize the unsaturated system and estimate the pneumatic diffusivity of important geologic features. Blind predictions of subsurface response and subsequent comparison to recorded data have built confidence in the models of Yucca Mountain. Inversions show that the pneumatic response of the system is dominated by the Paintbrush non-welded unit (PTn). Faults are shown to be fast pathways for gas flow but affect subsurface response only on a relatively local scale. Estimates of the diffusivity of the tuffs that comprise Yucca Mountain range from a low of 0.008 m 2/s in the non-welded pre-Yucca bedded tuff layer to a high of 4 m 2/s in the densely welded, fractured Topopah Spring tuff. Estimates of diffusivity in fault zones at Yucca Mountain range between 0.03 m 2/s and 1500 m 2/s with the highest being in the Drill Hole Wash fault where it intersects the Topopah Spring tuff.

  8. Assessment of engineered barrier system and design of waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1988-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established two post-closure performance objectives for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in a geologic repository. These require containment of the waste followed by controlled release. The EBS for a repository in unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain is designed to meet these performance objectives. The major components are the waste form, container, air gap, and borehole liner. Assessment of post-closure performance of the EBS is based on allocating performance for various components toward meeting overall design objectives. Because of the unprecedented time periods considered, 1000 to 10,000 years, computer modeling is essential and will be used in conjunction with testing to assess whether the performance allocations are met. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  9. DOE`s Yucca Mountain studies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies.

  10. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  11. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  12. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  14. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  15. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km of cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C. The HD

  16. Suitability of Exoseal Vascular Closure Device for Antegrade Femoral Artery Puncture Site Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, Christopher Liebl, Andrea; Poullos, Nektarios; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of the Exoseal vascular closure device for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods. In a prospective study from February 2011 to January 2012, a total of 93 consecutive patients received a total of 100 interventional procedures via an antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. An Exoseal vascular closure device (6F) was used for closure in all cases. Puncture technique, duration of manual compression, and use of compression bandages were documented. All patients were monitored by vascular ultrasound and color-coded duplex sonography of their respective femoral artery puncture site within 12 to 36 h after angiography to check for vascular complications. Results. In 100 antegrade interventional procedures, the Exoseal vascular closure device was applied successfully for closure of the femoral artery puncture site in 96 cases (96 of 100, 96.0 %). The vascular closure device could not be deployed in one case as a result of kinking of the vascular sheath introducer and in three cases because the bioabsorbable plug was not properly delivered to the extravascular space adjacent to the arterial puncture site, but instead fully removed with the delivery system (4.0 %). Twelve to 36 h after the procedure, vascular ultrasound revealed no complications at the femoral artery puncture site in 93 cases (93.0 %). Minor vascular complications were found in seven cases (7.0 %), with four cases (4.0 %) of pseudoaneurysm and three cases (3.0 %) of significant late bleeding, none of which required surgery. Conclusion. The Exoseal vascular closure device was safely used for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery, with a high rate of procedural success (96.0 %), a low rate of minor vascular complications (7.0 %), and no major adverse events.

  17. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  18. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  19. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  20. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a containment... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  2. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.258... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  3. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  4. Data Qualification Report: Pore Water Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller; R. Monks; C. Warren; W. Wowak

    2000-06-09

    Pore water data associated with Data Tracking Number (DTN) No.LL990702804244.100 are referenced in the Analysis and Model Reports (AMRs) prepared to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository for high-level nuclear waste. It has been determined, in accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q Rev. 1, ICN 1, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs'', Attachment 6 , that the DTN-referenced data are used in AMRs that provide a direct calculation of ''Principal Factors'' for the Post-closure Safety Case or Potentially Disruptive Processes or Events. Therefore, in accordance with the requirements of procedure AP-SIII.2Q, Rev 0, ICN 2, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data'', Section 5.3.1 .a, a Data Qualification Report has been prepared for submittal to the Assistant Manager, Office of Project Execution for concurrence. This report summarizes the findings of the Data Qualification Team assembled to evaluate unqualified ''pore water data'' represented by DTN No. LL990702804244.100. This DTN is currently used in the following AMRs: Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models (CRWMS M&O 2000a), Environment of the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier (CRWMS M&O 2000b), and Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model (CRWMS M&O 2000c). Mineral composition of pore water submitted to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS) using the subject DTN were acquired data from the analysis pore water samples sent to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) by UFA Ventures, Inc. and analyzed by LLNL's Analytical Sciences/Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ASD). The purpose and scope of the AMRs that reference the subject DTN and the potential application of pore water data is described below. These AMRs use only that data associated with the specific samples: ESF-HD-PERM-1, ESF-HD-PERM-2, and ESF-HD-PERM-3

  5. Passive Seismic Monitoring for Rockfall at Yucca Mountain: Concept Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J; Twilley, K; Murvosh, H; Tu, Y; Luke, B; Yfantis, A; Harris, D B

    2003-03-03

    For the purpose of proof-testing a system intended to remotely monitor rockfall inside a potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, a system of seismic sub-arrays will be deployed and tested on the surface of the mountain. The goal is to identify and locate rockfall events remotely using automated data collecting and processing techniques. We install seismometers on the ground surface, generate seismic energy to simulate rockfall in underground space beneath the array, and interpret the surface response to discriminate and locate the event. Data will be analyzed using matched-field processing, a generalized beam forming method for localizing discrete signals. Software is being developed to facilitate the processing. To date, a three-component sub-array has been installed and successfully tested.

  6. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  7. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  8. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  9. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be...

  10. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  11. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  12. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  13. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  14. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2007-12-11

    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  15. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 03-05-002-SW02, Septic Waste System • CAS 03-05-002-SW06, Septic Waste System These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re

  16. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  17. Nevada Test Site flood inundation study: Part of US Geological Survey flood potential and debris hazard study, Yucca Mountain Site for USDOE, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J.O. III

    1992-12-31

    The Geological Survey (GS), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purposes of these studies are to provide hydrologic and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear waste repository, and to evaluate the ability of the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) to isolate the waste in compliance with regulatory requirements. The Bureau of Reclamation was selected by the GS as a contractor to provide probable maximum flood (PMF) magnitudes and associated inundation maps for preliminary engineering design of the surface facilities at Yucca Mountain. These PMF peak flow estimates and associated inundation maps are necessary for successful waste repository design and construction. The standard step method for backwater computations, incorporating the Bernouli energy equation and the results of the PMF study were chosen as the basis for defining the areal extent of flooding.

  18. Assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J. R.; Kleiner, M. T.; Das, R.; Gaughan, J. P.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and vessel loop assisted closure are two common methods used to assist with the closure of fasciotomy wounds. This retrospective review compares these two methods using a primary outcome measurement of skin graft requirement. Methods A retrospective search was performed to identify patients who underwent fasciotomy at our institution. Patient demographics, location of the fasciotomy, type of assisted closure, injury characteristics, need for skin graft, length of stay and evidence of infection within 90 days were recorded. Results A total of 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 underwent vessel loop closure and seven underwent NPWT assisted closure. Patients who underwent NPWT assisted closure were at higher risk for requiring skin grafting than patients who underwent vessel loop closure, with an odds ratio of 5.9 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 31.24). There was no difference in the rate of infection or length of stay between the two groups. Demographic factors such as age, gender, fracture mechanism, location of fasciotomy and presence of open fracture were not predictive of the need for skin grafting. Conclusion This retrospective descriptive case series demonstrates an increased risk of skin grafting in patients who underwent fasciotomy and were treated with NPWT assisted wound closure. In our series, vessel loop closure was protective against the need for skin grafting. Due to the small sample size in the NPWT group, caution should be taken when generalising these results. Further research is needed to determine if NPWT assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds truly leads to an increased requirement for skin grafting, or if the vascular injury is the main risk factor. PMID:23610668

  19. 234U/238U evidence for local recharge and patterns of groundwater flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, J.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Neymark, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U ratios in saturated-zone and perched ground water were used to investigate hydrologic flow and downgradient dilution and dispersion in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, a potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The U data were obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry on more than 280 samples from the Death Valley regional flow system. Large variations in both U concentrations (commonly 0.6-10 ??g 1-1) and 234U/238U activity ratios (commonly 1.5-6) are present on both local and regional scales; however, ground water with 234U/238U activity ratios from 7 up to 8.06 is restricted largely to samples from Yucca Mountain. Data from ground water in the Tertiary volcanic and Quaternary alluvial aquifers at and adjacent to Yucca Mountain plot in 3 distinct fields of reciprocal U concentration versus 234U/238U activity ratio correlated to different geographic areas. Ground water to the west of Yucca Mountain has large U concentrations and moderate 234U/238U whereas ground water to the east in the Fortymile flow system has similar 234U/238U, but distinctly smaller U concentrations. Ground water beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain has intermediate U concentrations but distinctive 234U/238U activity ratios of about 7-8. Perched water from the lower part of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain has similarly large values of 234U/238U. These U data imply that the Tertiary volcanic aquifer beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain is isolated from north-south regional flow. The similarity of 234U/238U in both saturated- and unsaturated-zone ground water at Yucca Mountain further indicates that saturated-zone ground water beneath Yucca Mountain is dominated by local recharge rather than regional flow. The distinctive 234U/238U signatures also provide a natural tracer of downgradient flow. Elevated 234U/238U in ground water from two water-supply wells east of Yucca Mountain are interpreted as the result of induced

  20. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  1. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  2. Potentiometric-surface map, 1993, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The revised potentiometric surface map here, using mainly 1993 average water levels, updates earlier maps of this area. Water levels are contoured with 20-m intervals, with additional 0.5-m contours in the small-gradient area SE of Yucca Mountain. Water levels range from 728 m above sea level SE of Yucca to 1,034 m above sea level north of Yucca. Potentiometric levels in the deeper parts of the volcanic rock aquifer range from 730 to 785 m above sea level. The potentiometric surface can be divided into 3 regions: A small gradient area E and SE of Yucca, a moderate-gradient area on the west side of Yucca, and a large-gradient area to the N-NE of Yucca. Water levels from wells at Yucca were examined for yearly trends (1986-93) using linear least-squares regression. Of the 22 wells, three had significant positive trends. The trend in well UE-25 WT-3 may be influenced by monitoring equipment problems. Tends in USW WT-7 and USW WTS-10 are similar; both are located near a fault west of Yucca; however another well near that fault exhibited no significant trend.

  3. Hydrologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-04-29

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  4. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  5. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  6. Multiphysics processes in partially saturated fractured rock: Experiments and models from Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2012-09-01

    closure/opening caused by changes in normal stress across fractures was the dominant mechanism for thermally induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability during rock mass heating/cooling and that fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Significant effort was devoted to predicting the long-term stability of underground excavations under (mechanical) strength degradation and seismic loading, perhaps one of the most challenging tasks within the project. We note that such long-term strength degradation is actually an example of a chemically mediated process governed by underlying (microscopic) stress corrosion and chemical diffusion processes. In the Yucca Mountain Project, such chemically mediated mechanical changes were considered implicitly through model calibrations against laboratory and in situ heater experiments at temperatures anticipated to be experienced by the rock. A possible future research direction would be to simulate such processes mechanistically in a complete coupled THMC framework where C denotes chemical processes.

  7. Transcatheter device occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula by exit closure: the road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Bhavesh M; Shah, Jayal; Shukla, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) manifests as cyanosis and predisposes to serious complications of right-to-left shunt, and therefore necessitates early treatment. The emergence of antegrade transcatheter closure of feeding arteries as treatment of choice is limited by inherent risk of either recanalization or reappearance of new feeders and potential risk of systemic embolization. Additional closure of the draining vessel by transcatheter device occlusion should overcome the limitations of conventional antegrade technique. We describe two cases of successful transcatheter closure of a large PAVF by antegrade device closure of feeders as well as transseptal retrograde closure of the exiting channel. PMID:24402810

  8. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  9. Technical Data Catalog: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    This report presents reference information contained in the Yucca Mountain Project Automated Technical Data Tracking System. The Department of Energy is seeking to design and maintain a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. However, before this repository can be built, the DOE must first do a comprehensive site evaluation. This evaluation is subject to many regulations. This report fulfills the reporting requirements of the Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a quarterly basis. This catalog contains: description of data; time, place, and method of acquisition; and where data may be examined.

  10. Practical post-calibration uncertainty analysis: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Doherty, J.; Eddebbarh, A.

    2009-12-01

    The values of parameters in a groundwater flow model govern the precision of predictions of future system behavior. Predictive precision, thus, typically depends on an ability to infer values of system properties from historical measurements through calibration. When such data are scarce, or when their information content with respect to parameters that are most relevant to predictions of interest is weak, predictive uncertainty may be high, even if the model is “calibrated.” Recent advances help recognize this condition, quantitatively evaluate predictive uncertainty, and suggest a path toward improved predictive accuracy by identifying sources of predictive uncertainty and by determining what observations will most effectively reduce this uncertainty. We demonstrate linear and nonlinear predictive error/uncertainty analyses as applied to a groundwater flow model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the US’s proposed site for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Both of these types uncertainty analysis are readily implemented as an adjunct to model calibration with medium to high parameterization density. Linear analysis yields contributions made by each parameter to a prediction’s uncertainty and the worth of different observations, both existing and yet-to-be-gathered, toward reducing this uncertainty. Nonlinear analysis provides more accurate characterization of the uncertainty of model predictions while yielding their (approximate) probability distribution functions. This paper applies the above methods to a prediction of specific discharge and confirms the uncertainty bounds on specific discharge supplied in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations confirm that hydrogeologic units thought to be flow barriers have probability distributions skewed toward lower permeabilities.

  11. Colloid transport and deposition in water-saturated Yucca Mountain tuff as determined by ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Gamerdinger, A P; Kaplan, D I

    2001-08-15

    Colloid mobility and deposition were determined in model systems consisting of quartz sand or crushed Yucca Mountain tuff, latex microspheres (colloidal particles), and simulated groundwater. Ionic strength (I) was manipulated as a first step in defining limiting conditions for colloid transport in a system modeled after geochemical conditions at the Yucca Mountain site. Solutions of deionized water (DI), 0.1x, 1x, and 10x (the ionic strength of simulated groundwater) (I = 0.0116 M) were used in saturated columns under steady-state flow conditions. Separate experiments with conservative tracers indicated stable hydrodynamic conditions that were independent of I. Colloids were completely mobile (no deposition) in the DI and 0.1x solutions; deposition increased to 11-13% for 1x and to 89-97% for 10x treatments with similar results for sand and tuff. Deposition was described as a pseudo-first-order process; however, a decreasing rate of deposition was apparent for colloid transport at the 10x condition through the tuff. A linear dependence of colloid removal (extent and deposition rate coefficient) on I is illustrated for the model Yucca Mountain system and for a glass-KCl system reported in the literature. This simple relationship for saturated systems may be useful for predicting deposition efficiencies under conditions of varying ionic strength. PMID:11529572

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this CR is to document that closure activities have met the approved closure standards detailed in the NDEP-approved CAP for CAU 271. The purpose of the Errata Sheet is as follows: In Appendix G, Use Restriction (UR) Documentation, the UR form and drawing of the UR area do not reflect the correct coordinates. Since the original UR was put into place, the UR Form has been updated to include additional information that was not on the original form. This Errata Sheet replaces the original UR Form and drawing. In place of the drawing of the UR area, an aerial photograph is included which reflects the UR area and the correct coordinates for the UR area.

  13. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  14. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  15. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  16. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  17. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  18. SYSTHESIS OF VOLCANISM STUDIES FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.

    1997-09-23

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin

  19. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  20. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  1. Mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1985-10-01

    Quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis of tuffs and silicic lavas, using matrix-flushing techniques, has been used to obtain a model of three-dimensional mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This method of analysis is especially useful in tuff, where the most abundant phases are commonly too fine grained for optical determination. The three-dimensional distributions of primary glass and of tridymite are particularly well constrained. Vitric nonwelded glasses occur above and below the welded devitrified Topopah Spring Member, but the glass in the lower nonwelded vitric zone is progressively altered to zeolites to the east where the zone is closer to the static water level. The zeolites clinoptilolite, mordenite, heulandite, and erionite have all been found at Yucca Mountain, but only mordenite and clinoptilolite are abundant and can be mapped between many drill holes and at many depths. Heulandite distribution is also mappable, but only below the densely welded devitrified part of the Topopah Storing Member. Erionite has been confirmed only once, as a fracture coating. There is a fairly continuous smectite-rich interval immediately above the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member, but no evidence suggests that the smectites can provide information on the paleogroundwater table. There are at least four mappable zeolitized zones in Yucca Mountain, and the thicker zones tend to coincide with intervals that retained glass following early tuff devitrification. Problems in extrapolation occur where zones of welding pinch out. No phillipsite has been found, and some samples previously reported to contain phillipsite or erionite were reexamined with negative results. The deeper alteration to albite and analcime was not sampled in every drill hole, and the distribution of these phases is difficult to map.

  2. Closure in Knee Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Total Knee replacement (TKR) is one of the commonest arthroplasty surgeries performed. Various techniques of closures in TKR are described. This technical note describes an useful technique of achieving water tight closure in TKR. An optimal tension watertight closure also reduces the chances of dead space hematomas and infection. The author has described his technique where the soft tissues are never unduly compromised. In his experience the patient can be mobilized freely in bed and even allowed to sleep prone after first wound check.

  3. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  4. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  5. Rock mass mechanical property estimations for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    Rock mass mechanical properties are important in the design of drifts and ramps. These properties are used in evaluations of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of potential host rock within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Representative intact rock and joint mechanical properties were selected for welded and nonwelded tuffs from the currently available data sources. Rock mass qualities were then estimated using both the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Q) and Geomechanics Rating (RMR) systems. Rock mass mechanical properties were developed based on estimates of rock mass quality, the current knowledge of intact properties, and fracture/joint characteristics. Empirical relationships developed to correlate the rock mass quality indices and the rock mass mechanical properties were then used to estimate the range of rock mass mechanical properties.

  6. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  7. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-05-03

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process.

  8. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation.

  9. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  10. Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Site atlas 1997. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for an underground repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Atlas is a tool used to cartographically display some of the Geographic Information System (GIS) data in the form of thematic map products. Essentially, the Site Atlas is a compilation of map products that are designed to illustrate the location and extent of site characterization studies. Additionally, the Site Atlas provides maps showing project administrative boundaries and basemaps in the vicinity of the project. The data are current through September 1997. The Atlas is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains GIS maps and supporting characteristic data for geology; stratigraphy; tectonics; volcanism; hydrology; geochemistry; environmental issues; paleontology; repository design; YMP boreholes, trenches, pits, pavements, and exposures; basemap features; and surface-based testing activities, and Part 2 contains 1:6,000- and 1:12,000-scale orthophotography basemaps and orthophotography-based hypsography maps (topographic data). This data is shown at a 50% reduction. The maps and orthophotographs in this Site Atlas are provided to YMP participants as an informational source only and are not for making precise measurements. The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description statement on each map identifies the quality status of the thematic data presented. The Site Atlas is not a comprehensive guide; it does not include all scientific features or studies undertaken for the YMP. The features presented are a small subset of the total work being conducted for the project.

  11. Constructing the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Replogle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), approximately 160 km (100 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This facility is being used to obtain geological, hydrological, geomechanical, thermomechanical and geochemical information to characterize, Yucca Mountain as a potential site to isolate High-Level Radioactive Waste from the accessible environment. The ESF, when completed, will consist of two ramps from surface (North and South ramp) to the potential repository horizon formations, a drift connecting the two ramps, test alcoves, and above and below ground operational support facilities. The ramps and connecting drift are being mined by a 7.62 m (25 ft) diameter, fully shielded, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This paper describes the current status of the construction of the ESF and test alcoves. At the time of this writing, the following has been accomplished: North Ramp excavation is complete; four test alcoves have been excavated and are in use for scientific experiments; the excavation has reached the potential repository horizon; the drift connecting the two ramps is being excavated, and the excavation of a test alcove for thermal testing is in progress. The mining operations are ahead of schedule, and to date March 26, 1996, the TBM has excavated over 4623 m(15,160 ft.) without any major breakdowns or accidents. The average advance for a three shift (two mining shifts) production day has been 33.46 m (110 ft.). Maximum advance for a week was 218.3 m (716 ft.). An Alpine Miner (AM 75) roadheader is being used to excavate test alcoves. The major ground support system consists of Supper Swellex rock bolts, steel sets as required, Williams rock bolts and channels, and welded wire fabric. Various sections of the tunnel have been instrumented, and the entire excavation has been geologically mapped. To date, the site conditions have been those predicted.

  12. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The recent, 1992, report prepared by the Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/Hydrothermal Systems at Yucca Mountain for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? has generated critical reviews by Somerville et al. (1992) and by Archambeau (1992). These reviews were submitted as reports to the Nuclear Waste Project Office, State of Nevada by Technology and Resource Assessment Corporation under Contract No. 92/94.0004. A copy of the review report by C. B. Archambeau was also sent to Dr. Frank Press, President of the National Academy of Sciences, along with a cover letter from Dr. Archambeau expressing his concerns with the NRC report and his suggestion that the Academy President consider a re-evaluation of the issues covered by the NRC report. Dr. Press responded in a letter to Dr. Archambeau in February of this year which stated that, based on his staff recommendations and a review report by Dr. J. F. Evernden of the United States Geological Survey, he declined to initiate any further investigations and that, in his view, the NRC report was a valid scientific evaluation which was corroborated by Evernden`s report. He also enclosed, with his letter, a copy of the report he received from his staff. In March of this year Dr. Archambeau replied to the letter and NRC staff report sent by Dr. Press with a detailed point-by-point rebuttal of the NRC staff report to Press. Also, in March, a critical review of Dr. Evernden`s report by M. Somerville was submitted to the Nuclear Waste Project Office of the State of Nevada and this report, along with the earlier review of the NRC report by Somerville et al., was included as attachments to the letter sent to Dr. Press.

  13. Moment Closure Approximations of the Boltzmann Equation Based on \\varphi -Divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalik, M. R. A.; van Brummelen, E. H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with approximations of the Boltzmann equation based on the method of moments. We propose a generalization of the setting of the moment-closure problem from relative entropy to \\varphi -divergences and a corresponding closure procedure based on minimization of \\varphi -divergences. The proposed description encapsulates as special cases Grad's classical closure based on expansion in Hermite polynomials and Levermore's entropy-based closure. We establish that the generalization to divergence-based closures enables the construction of extended thermodynamic theories that avoid essential limitations of the standard moment-closure formulations such as inadmissibility of the approximate phase-space distribution, potential loss of hyperbolicity and singularity of flux functions at local equilibrium. The divergence-based closure leads to a hierarchy of tractable symmetric hyperbolic systems that retain the fundamental structural properties of the Boltzmann equation.

  14. A study of fatigue crack closure using electric potential and compliance techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. K.; Cassatt, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare closure data obtained on the same specimen with crack tip compliance gage and electric potential techniques. Equivalent results on closure using the two techniques were obtained on 7075-T651 aluminum center cracked panels. The results also indicated that closure was a function of stress ratio, specimen thickness and maximum applied stress intensity. Maximum stress intensity had a particularly strong effect on closure in the range of applied stresses used. This observed dependence of closure on specimen thickness and maximum stress intensity should account for many of the discrepancies in closure behavior found in the literature. Observations on potential system behavior during closure measurements are also reported.

  15. Pinhole closure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Afeyan, B. B.; Boley, C. D.; Estabrook, K. G.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milam, D.; Murray, J. E.; Nielsen, N. D.; Sell, W. D.; Zakharenkov, Y. A.

    1998-07-20

    Spatial-filter pinholes and knife-edge samples were irradiated in vacuum by 1053-nm, 5-20 ns pulses at intensities to 500 GW/cm. The knife-edge samples were fabricated of plastic, carbon, ahnuinum, stainless steel, molybdenum, tantalum, gold and an absorbing glass. Time-resolved two-beam interferometry with a 40-ns probe pulse was used to observe phase shifts in the expanding laser-induced plasma. For all of these materials, at any time during square-pulse irradiation, the phase shift fell exponentially with distance from the edge of the sample. The expansion was characterized by the propagation velocity V2x of the contour for a 2(pi) phase shift. To within experimental error, V2x, was constant during irradiation at a particular intensity, and it increased linearly with intensity for intensities <300 GW/cn2. For metal samples, V, exhibited an approximate M-0.5 dependence where M is the atomic mass. Plasmas of plastic, carbon and absorbing glass produced larger phase shifts, and expanded more rapidly, than plasmas of the heavy metals. The probe beam and interferometer were also used to observe the closing of pinholes. With planar pinholes, accumulation of on-axis plasma was observed along with the advance of plasma away from the edge of the hole. On-axis closure was not observed in square, 4-leaf pinholes.

  16. Per-catheter ASD closure.

    PubMed

    Latson, L A

    1998-01-01

    Per-catheter devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have been evolving since 1974. The four major devices available for use on a limited basis in early 1997 are reviewed. These include (in alphabetical order) the Angel Wing device, the ASDOS device, the Buttoned device, and the CardioSeal device (successor to the Clamshell). Sufficient data have been collected to indicate that transcatheter ASD closure is a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients. The advantages of the concept of per-catheter closure over surgical closure should lead to the continued development of devices and techniques for per-catheter treatment of ASD and other septal defects in the years to come. PMID:9396853

  17. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levich, R.A.; Linden, R.M.; Patterson, R.L.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program. The first day focuses on the regional setting with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The field trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, an element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will compromise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, hydrology and geochemistry and will include the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis and the seismicity and seismic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the results of recent hydrologic studies by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Program Office, and the relationship of the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  18. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  19. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  20. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  1. 27 CFR 19.662 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.662 Section 19.662 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Closures § 19.662 Affixing closures. Closures...

  2. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries. PMID:22569220

  3. Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

    1992-01-01

    The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

  4. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. GENISES: A GIS Database for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper provides a general description of the Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES) database design. The GENISES database is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Database (TDB). The GENISES database has been developed and is maintained by EG & G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (EG & G/EM). As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Characterization Technical Data Management System, GENISES provides a repository for geographically oriented technical data. The primary objective of the GENISES database is to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project with an effective tool for describing, analyzing, and archiving geo-referenced data. The database design provides the maximum efficiency in input/output, data analysis, data management and information display. This paper provides the systematic approach or plan for the GENISES database design and operation. The paper also discusses the techniques used for data normalization or the decomposition of complex data structures as they apply to GIS database. ARC/INFO and INGRES files are linked or joined by establishing ``relate`` fields through the common attribute names. Thus, through these keys, ARC can allow access to normalized INGRES files greatly reducing redundancy and the size of the database.

  6. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  7. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H. |

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity.

  8. Using science soundly: The Yucca Mountain standard

    SciTech Connect

    Fri, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    Using sound science to shape government regulation is one of the most hotly argued topics in the ongoing debate about regulatory reform. Even though no one advaocates using unsound science, the belief that even the best science will sweep away regulatory controversy is equally foolish. As chair of a National Research Council (NRC) committee that studied the scientific basis for regulating high-level nuclear waste disposal, the author learned that science alone could resolve few of the key regulatory questions. Developing a standard that specifies a socially acceptable limit on the human health effects of nuclear waste releases involves many decisions. As the NRC committee learned in evaluating the scientific basis for the Yucca Mountain standard, a scientifically best decision rarely exists. More often, science can only offer a useful framework and starting point for policy debates. And sometimes, science`s most helpful contribution is to admit that it has nothing to say. The Yucca mountain study clearly illustrates that excessive faith in the power of science is more likely to produce messy frustration than crisp decisions. A better goal for regulatory reform is the sound use of science to clarify and contain the inevitable policy controversy.

  9. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  10. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... or decontaminated, he or she must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  11. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... practicably removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in...

  12. Estimation of percolation flux from borehole temperature data at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Bodvarsson, G S; Kwicklis, E; Shan, C; Wu, Y S

    2003-01-01

    Temperature data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain are analyzed to estimate percolation-flux rates and overall heat flux. A multilayer, one-dimensional analytical solution is presented for determining percolation flux from temperature data. Case studies have shown that the analytical solution agrees very well with results from the numerical code, TOUGH2. The results of the analysis yield percolation fluxes in the range from 0 to 20 mm/year for most of the deep boreholes. This range is in good agreement with the results of infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain. Percolation flux for the shallower boreholes, however, cannot be accurately determined from temperature data alone because large gas flow in the shallow system alters the temperature profiles. Percolation-flux estimates for boreholes located near or intersecting major faults are significantly higher than those for other boreholes. These estimates may be affected by gas flow in the faults. PMID:12714282

  13. Parallel computing simulation of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the application of parallel computing techniques to large-scale modeling of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study, parallel computing techniques, as implemented into the TOUGH2 code, are applied in large-scale numerical simulations on a distributed-memory parallel computer. The modeling study has been conducted using an over-1-million-cell three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data for the highly heterogeneous fractured formation at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of various surface infiltration scenarios (under current and possible future climates) on flow through the UZ system, using various hydrogeological conceptual models with refined grids. The results indicate that the 1-million-cell models produce better resolution results and reveal some flow patterns that cannot be obtained using coarse-grid modeling models. PMID:12714301

  14. Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model Supporting the Licence Application for the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    T.A> Buscheck; Y. Sun; Y. Hao

    2006-03-28

    The MultiScale ThermoHydrologic Model (MSTHM) predicts thermal-hydrologic (TH) conditions within emplacement tunnels (drifts) and in the adjoining host rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the proposed site for a radioactive waste repository in the US. Because these predictions are used in the performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain repository, they must address the influence of variability and uncertainty of the engineered- and natural-system parameters that significantly influence those predictions. Parameter-sensitivity studies show that the MSTHM predictions adequately propagate the influence of parametric variability and uncertainty. Model-validation studies show that the influence of conceptual-model uncertainty on the MSTHM predictions is insignificant compared to that of parametric uncertainty, which is propagated through the MSTHM.

  15. Simulating the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshal; J.F. Whelan

    2001-07-23

    Heat transfer within Earth's upper crust is primarily by conduction, and conductive thermal models adequately explain the cooling history of deep, batholith-scale intrusions and surrounding wall rocks, as confirmed by numerous thermochronometric studies. However, caldera magmatic systems require consideration of the small and localized component of hydrothermal convection and numerical models to simulate additional boundary conditions, irregular magma chamber shapes, and complex intrusive histories. At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository, simulating the detailed thermal history at any location in the unsaturated zone requires knowledge of the shape of the magma chamber and its proximity to Yucca Mountain (the southern margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex is approximately 8 km north of the potential repository site), the temporal and spatial extent of hydrothermal convection, the erosional history of the area, and past levels of the water table.

  16. Massively parallel computing simulation of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-08-31

    This paper presents the application of parallel computing techniques to large-scale modeling of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study, parallel computing techniques, as implemented into the TOUGH2 code, are applied in large-scale numerical simulations on a distributed-memory parallel computer. The modeling study has been conducted using an over-one-million-cell three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data for the highly heterogeneous fractured formation at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of various surface infiltration scenarios (under current and possible future climates) on flow through the UZ system, using various hydrogeological conceptual models with refined grids. The results indicate that the one-million-cell models produce better resolution results and reveal some flow patterns that cannot be obtained using coarse-grid modeling models.

  17. Evaluating the Long-Term Safety of a Repository at Yucca Mountain 

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abe

    2009-07-17

    Regulations require that the repository be evaluated for its health and safety effects for 10,000 years for the Site Recommendation process. Regulations also require potential impacts to be evaluated for up to a million years in an Environmental Impact Statement. The Yucca Mountain Project is in the midst of the Site Recommendation process. The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) that supports the Site Recommendation evaluated safety for these required periods of time. Results showed it likely that a repository at this site could meet the licensing requirements promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The TSPA is the tool that integrates the results of many years of scientific investigations with design information to allow evaluations of potential far-future impacts of building a Yucca Mountain repository. Knowledge created in several branches of physics is part of the scientific basis of the TSPA that supports the Site Recommendation process.

  18. Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model Supporting the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T A; Sun, Y; Hao, Y

    2006-01-31

    The MultiScale ThermoHydrologic Model (MSTHM) predicts thermal-hydrologic (TH) conditions within emplacement tunnels (drifts) and in the adjoining host rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the proposed site for a radioactive waste repository in the U.S. Because these predictions are used in the performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain repository, they must address the influence of variability and uncertainty of the engineered- and natural-system parameters that significantly influence those predictions. Parameter-sensitivity studies show that the MSTHM predictions adequately propagate the influence of parametric variability and uncertainty. Model-validation studies show that the influence of conceptual-model uncertainty on the MSTHM predictions is insignificant compared to that of parametric uncertainty, which is propagated through the MSTHM.

  19. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  20. Strontium isotope geochemistry of soil and playa deposits near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.D.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    The isotopic composition of strontium contained in the carbonate fractions of soils provides an excellent tracer which can be used to test models for their origin. This paper reports data on surface coatings and cements, eolian sediments, playas and alluvial fan soils which help to constrain a model for formation of the extensive calcretes and fault infilling in the Yucca Mountain region. The playas contain carbonate with a wide range of strontium compositions; further work will be required to fully understand their possible contributions to the pedogenic carbonate system. Soils from an alluvial fan to the west of Yucca Mountain show that only small amounts of strontium are derived from weathering of silicate detritus. However, calcretes from a fan draining a carbonate terrane have strontium compositions dominated locally by the limestone strontium component. Although much evidence points to an eolian source for at least some of the strontium in the pedogenic carbonates near Yucca Mountain, an additional component or past variation of strontium composition in the eolian source is required to model the pedogenic carbonate system.

  1. Evaporation of J13 and UZ pore waters at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N D; Gdowski, G E; Knauss, K G

    2000-10-01

    This work is motivated by a need to characterize the chemistry of aqueous films that might form at elevated temperatures on engineered components at the potential high-level, nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Such aqueous films might form through evaporation of water that seeps into the drifts, or by water vapor absorption by hydroscopic salts directly deposited on these components (possibly from previous evaporation events or possibly from air-blown particles drawn into the drifts through a drift ventilation system). There is no consensus at this time on the chemical composition of water that might come in contact with engineered components at Yucca Mountain. Two possibilities have received the most attention: well J13 water and pore waters from the unsaturated zone (UZ) above the repository horizon. These waters represent the two major types of natural waters at Yucca Mountain. Well J13 water is a dilute Na-HCO{sub 3}-CO{sub 3} water, representative of regional perched water and groundwater. The UZ pore waters are Ca-Cl-SO{sub 4}-rich waters with a higher dissolved ion content. These waters are less well-characterized. We have studied the evaporative evolution of these two major types of waters through a series of open system laboratory experiments, with and without crushed repository-horizon tuff present, conducted at sub-boiling temperatures (75 C-85 C).

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2004, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS 27-05-02, Leachfield. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from

  3. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, B.M.; Hall, I.J.; Peters, R.R.; Easterling, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic formations in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain are currently being studied as the host rock for a potential radioactive waste repository. Data from several drill holes have been collected to provide the preliminary information needed for planning site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. Hydrologic properties have been measured on the core samples and the variables analyzed here are thought to be important in the determination of groundwater travel times. This report presents a statistical analysis of four hydrologic variables: saturated-matrix hydraulic conductivity, maximum moisture content, suction head, and calculated groundwater travel time. It is important to modelers to have as much information about the distribution of values of these variables as can be obtained from the data. The approach taken in this investigation is to (1) identify regions at the Yucca Mountain site that, according to the data, are distinctly different; (2) estimate the means and variances within these regions; (3) examine the relationships among the variables; and (4) investigate alternative statistical methods that might be applicable when more data become available. The five different functional stratigraphic units at three different locations are compared and grouped into relatively homogeneous regions. Within these regions, the expected values and variances associated with core samples of different sizes are estimated. The results provide a rough estimate of the distribution of hydrologic variables for small core sections within each region.

  4. A closure scheme for chemical master equations

    PubMed Central

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Probability reigns in biology, with random molecular events dictating the fate of individual organisms, and propelling populations of species through evolution. In principle, the master probability equation provides the most complete model of probabilistic behavior in biomolecular networks. In practice, master equations describing complex reaction networks have remained unsolved for over 70 years. This practical challenge is a reason why master equations, for all their potential, have not inspired biological discovery. Herein, we present a closure scheme that solves the master probability equation of networks of chemical or biochemical reactions. We cast the master equation in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe the time evolution of probability distribution moments. We postulate that a finite number of moments capture all of the necessary information, and compute the probability distribution and higher-order moments by maximizing the information entropy of the system. An accurate order closure is selected, and the dynamic evolution of molecular populations is simulated. Comparison with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which merely sample the probability distribution, demonstrates this closure scheme is accurate for several small reaction networks. The importance of this result notwithstanding, a most striking finding is that the steady state of stochastic reaction networks can now be readily computed in a single-step calculation, without the need to simulate the evolution of the probability distribution in time. PMID:23940327

  5. A Quadratic Closure for Compressible Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A

    2008-09-16

    We have investigated a one-point closure model for compressible turbulence based on third- and higher order cumulant discard for systems undergoing rapid deformation, such as might occur downstream of a shock or other discontinuity. In so doing, we find the lowest order contributions of turbulence to the mean flow, which lead to criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Rapid distortion theory (RDT) as originally applied by Herring closes the turbulence hierarchy of moment equations by discarding third order and higher cumulants. This is similar to the fourth-order cumulant discard hypothesis of Millionshchikov, except that the Millionshchikov hypothesis was taken to apply to incompressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence generally, whereas RDT is applied only to fluids undergoing a distortion that is 'rapid' in the sense that the interaction of the mean flow with the turbulence overwhelms the interaction of the turbulence with itself. It is also similar to Gaussian closure, in which both second and fourth-order cumulants are retained. Motivated by RDT, we develop a quadratic one-point closure for rapidly distorting compressible turbulence, without regard to homogeneity or isotropy, and make contact with two equation turbulence models, especially the K-{var_epsilon} and K-L models, and with linear instability growth. In the end, we arrive at criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Finite Volume simulations.

  6. Closure of fluid equations in collisionless magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chust, T.; Belmont, G.

    2006-01-15

    The possibility of using fluid equations in collisionless plasmas is revisited, and the conditions of validity of several possible closure equations are investigated. A new derivation of the well-known 'double-adiabatic' Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) laws is first presented. These laws are shown to demand two different kinds of conditions for ensuring (1) particle gyrotropy and (2) adiabaticity. Both kinds of conditions are investigated in detail. The usual slow and large-scales conditions (hereafter 'sls'), which are shown to be necessary for gyrotropy, are provided in a rigorous form. The role of the fundamental symmetries of the system, especially in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, is also emphasized for determining any 'fluid-type' behavior of a collisionless magnetoplasma. More general closure equations are afterwards proposed, relaxing first the conditions for adiabaticity and then, more speculatively, the sls conditions for gyrotropy. The dependence of these new closure equations on the shape of the velocity distribution functions is discussed, the CGL case being singular since it is shown to be fully independent of this shape.

  7. Deriving statistical closure from dynamical optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkington, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Turbulence theorists have traditionally deduced statistical models by generating a hierarchy of moment equations and invoking some closure rules to truncate the hierarchy. In this talk a conceptually different approach to model reduction and statistical closure will be presented, and its implications for coarse-graining fluid turbulence will be indicated. The author has developed this method in the context of nonequilibrium statistical descriptions of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. With respect to a chosen parametric statistical model, the lack-of-fit of model paths to the full dynamics is minimized in a time-integrated, mean-squared sense. This optimal closure method is applied to coarse-grain spectrally-truncated inviscid dynamics, including the Burgers-Hopf equation and incompressible two-dimensional flow, using the means and/or variances of low modes as resolved variables. The derived reduced dynamics for these test cases contain (1) scale-dependent dissipation which is not a local eddy viscosity, (2) modified nonlinear interactions between resolved modes, and (3) coupling between the mean and variance of each resolved mode. These predictions are validated against direct numerical simulations of ensembles for the fully resolved dynamics.

  8. First report of Yucca phyllody associated with 16SrI-A phytoplasmas in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a newly emerging disease in yucca (Yucca treculeana) plants occurred sporadically in southwestern Texas. The affected yucca exhibited phyllody and abnormal bud proliferation on the inflorescence. The symptoms resembled those caused by phytoplasmal infection. Samples from four symptomatic...

  9. NPAR- products, applications and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Almost a decade ago the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) developed and implemented a comprehensive research program (NUREG-1144) widely known as NPAR or Nuclear Plant Aging Research. The NPAR program is a structured research program specifically oriented to understanding significant age-related degradation mechanisms and their long term effects on properties and performance of important components and systems and ways to mitigate detrimental effects of aging. It provided a road map and a phased approach to research that is applicable to any structure, system, or component of interest. This hardware-oriented engineering research program led the industry worldwide and communicated a need to understand and manage age-related degradation effects in selected but important structures and components. At the conclusion (1995) of the NPAR program, 22 electrical and mechanical components, 13 safety-related systems, and 10 special topics will have been studied and results summarized in 160 technical reports. This reference library of information listed and summarized in NUREG-1377, Rev. No. 4 provides a foundation upon which individual programs can be built for the specific needs of a utility, a regulator, or equipment manufacturers. During the life of the NPAR program, it has provided technical bases and support for license renewal, codes and standards, resolution of generic safety issues, information notices, regulatory guides and the standard Review Plan, as well as the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and The NRC Regions. All ongoing NPAR activities will either be completed or terminated by the end of 1995. No new initiative will be undertaken. This paper summarizes NPAR products and accomplishments, application of the research results, and its status and closure.

  10. Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria supplementation in broiler diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...

  11. VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, TOWARDS THE BNSF RAILROAD TRACKS. 124 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  13. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  14. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay. PMID:27011527

  15. The Pahrump Valley Museum Yucca Mountain History Exhibit - 12389

    SciTech Connect

    Voegele, Michael; McCracken, Robert; Herrera, Troy

    2012-07-01

    As part of its management of the Yucca Mountain project, the Department of Energy maintained several information centers to provide public access to information about the status of the Yucca Mountain project. Those information centers contained numerous displays, historical information, and served as the location for the Department's outreach activities. As the Department of Energy dealt with reduced budgets in 2009 following the Obama Administration's intent to terminate the program, it shut down its information centers. Nye County considered it important to maintain a public information center where people would be able to find information about what was happening with the Yucca Mountain project. Initially the Nye County assumed responsibility for the information center in Pahrump; eventually the County made a decision to move that information center into an expansion of the existing Pahrump Valley Museum. Nye County undertook an effort to update the information about the Yucca Mountain project and modernize the displays. A parallel effort to create a source of historical information where people could find out about the Yucca Mountain project was undertaken. To accompany the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, Nye County also sponsored a series of interviews to document, through oral histories, as much information about the Yucca Mountain project as could be found in these interviews. The paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, and the accompanying oral histories. An important conclusion that can be drawn from the interviews is that construction of a repository in Nevada should have been conceptualized as but the first step in transforming the economy of central Nevada by turning part of the Nevada National Security Site and adjoining area into a world-class energy production and energy research center. (authors)

  16. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, 1992--1994. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. Earlier information on this project can be found in the first bibliography DOE/TIC-3406, which covers 1977--1985, and its three supplements DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.1), DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.2), and DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.3), which cover information obtained during 1986--1987, 1988--1989, and 1990--1991, respectively. All entries in the bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. A closure relation to molecular theory of solvation for macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Kobryn, Alexander E; Gusarov, Sergey; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-10-12

    We propose a closure to the integral equations of molecular theory of solvation, particularly suitable for polar and charged macromolecules in electrolyte solution. This includes such systems as oligomeric polyelectrolytes at a finite concentration in aqueous and various non-aqueous solutions, as well as drug-like compounds in solution. The new closure by Kobryn, Gusarov, and Kovalenko (KGK closure) imposes the mean spherical approximation (MSA) almost everywhere in the solvation shell but levels out the density distribution function to zero (with the continuity at joint boundaries) inside the repulsive core and in the spatial regions of strong density depletion emerging due to molecular associative interactions. Similarly to MSA, the KGK closure reduces the problem to a linear equation for the direct correlation function which is predefined analytically on most of the solvation shells and has to be determined numerically on a relatively small (three-dimensional) domain of strong depletion, typically within the repulsive core. The KGK closure leads to the solvation free energy in the form of the Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functional. We first test the performance of the KGK closure coupled to the reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equations on the examples of Lennard-Jones liquids, polar and nonpolar molecular solvents, including water, and aqueous solutions of simple ions. The solvation structure, solvation chemical potential, and compressibility obtained from RISM with the KGK closure favorably compare to the results of the hypernetted chain (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) closures, including their combination with the GF solvation free energy. We then use the KGK closure coupled to RISM to obtain the solvation structure and thermodynamics of oligomeric polyelectrolytes and drug-like compounds at a finite concentration in electrolyte solution, for which no convergence is obtained with other closures. For comparison, we calculate their solvation

  18. Self-testing security sensor for monitoring closure of vault doors and the like

    DOEpatents

    Cawthorne, D.C.

    1997-05-27

    A self-testing device is provided for a monitoring system for monitoring whether a closure member such as a door or window is closed. The monitoring system includes a switch unit mounted on the frame of the closure member being monitored and including magnetically biased switches connected in one or more electrical monitoring circuits, and a door magnet unit mounted on the closure member being monitored. The door magnet includes one or more permanent magnets that produce a magnetic field which, when the closure member is closed, cause said switches to assume a first state. When the closure member is opened, the switches switch to a second, alarm state. The self-testing device is electrically controllable from a remote location and produces a canceling or diverting magnetic field which simulates the effect of movement of the closure member from the closed position thereof without any actual movement of the member. 5 figs.

  19. Self-testing security sensor for monitoring closure of vault doors and the like

    DOEpatents

    Cawthorne, Duane C.

    1997-05-27

    A self-testing device is provided for a monitoring system for monitoring whether a closure member such as a door or window is closed. The monitoring system includes a switch unit mounted on the frame of the closure member being monitored and including magnetically biased switches connected in one or more electrical monitoring circuits, and a door magnet unit mounted on the closure member being monitored. The door magnet includes one or more permanent magnets that produce a magnetic field which, when the closure member is closed, cause said switches to assume a first state. When the closure member is opened, the switches switch to a second, alarm state. The self-testing device is electrically controllable from a remote location and produces a canceling or diverting magnetic field which simulates the effect of movement of the closure member from the closed position thereof without any actual movement of the member.

  20. Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Larkin; J. Hartley; J. Scott

    2002-11-14

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public.

  1. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  2. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  3. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:23430199

  4. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  5. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; Gibson, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work.

  6. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  7. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  8. RCRA post-closure permits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires that hazardous waste management facilities operate in accordance with permits granted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a State authorized to carry out the RCRA Subtitle C program. Several categories of permits (including treatment, storage, and disposal permits; research, development, and demonstration permits; post-closure permits; emergency permits; permits-by-rule; and trial burn and land treatment demonstration permits) are issued under the RCRA Subtitle C program. This Information Brief focuses on post-closure permitting requirements under 40 CFR 270.1(c).

  9. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  10. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill-Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill-hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin such as alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  11. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-01-22

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  13. Preliminary description of quaternary and late pliocene surficial deposits at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain area, in the south-central part of the Great Basin, is in the drainage basin of the Amargosa River. The mountain consists of several fault blocks of volcanic rocks that are typical of the Basin and Range province. Yucca Mountain is dissected by steep-sided valleys of consequent drainage systems that are tributary on the east side to Fortymile Wash and on the west side to an unnamed wash that drains Crater Flat. Most of the major washes near Yucca Mountain are not integrated with the Amargosa River, but have distributary channels on the piedmont above the river. Landforms in the Yucca Mountain area include rock pediments, ballenas, alluvial pediments, alluvial fans, stream terraces, and playas. Early Holocene and older alluvial fan deposits have been smoothed by pedimentation. The semiconical shape of alluvial fans is apparent at the junction of tributaries with major washes and where washes cross fault and terrace scarps. Playas are present in the eastern and southern ends of the Amargosa Desert. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time (GWTT-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Ho, C.K.; McKenna, S.A.; Eaton, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    In 1983, high-level radioactive waste repository performance requirements related to groundwater travel time were defined by NRC subsystem regulation 10 CFR 60.113. Although DOE is not presently attempting to demonstrate compliance with that regulation, understanding of the prevalence of fast paths in the groundwater flow system remains a critical element of any safety analyses for a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Therefore, this analysis was performed to allow comparison of fast-path flow against the criteria set forth in the regulation. Models developed to describe the conditions for initiation, propagation, and sustainability of rapid groundwater movement in both the unsaturated and saturated zones will form part of the technical basis for total- system analyses to assess site viability and site licensability. One of the most significant findings is that the fastest travel times in both unsaturated and saturated zones are in the southern portion of the potential repository, so it is recommended that site characterization studies concentrate on this area. Results support the assumptions regarding the importance of an appropriate conceptual model of groundwater flow and the incorporation of heterogeneous material properties into the analyses. Groundwater travel times are sensitive to variation/uncertainty in hydrologic parameters and in infiltration flux at upper boundary of the problem domain. Simulated travel times are also sensitive to poorly constrained parameters of the interaction between flow in fractures and in the matrix.

  15. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  16. Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

    2005-05-17

    A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

  17. Preliminary numerical modeling for the G-Tunnel welded tuff mining experiment; Yucca Mountain site characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada, is to be considered as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. Located in Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, G-Tunnel has been the site of a series of experiments, part of whose purpose is to evaluate measurement techniques for rock mechanics before testing in the Exploratory Shaft. Rainier Mesa is composed of welded and nonwelded tuffs that have thermal and mechanical properties and stress states similar to those of tuffs expected to be encountered at Yucca Mountain. A series of finite element calculations were performed to aid in designing instrumentation for the experiments in G-Tunnel and later to correlate with measured data. In this report are presented the results of the preliminary finite element calculations performed in conjunction with experimental measurements of drift convergence, or closure, and rock mass relaxation zones made before, during, and after completing the welded tuff mining experiment in G-Tunnel. Tape extensometer measurements of drift convergences and measurements determined by multiple point borehole extensometers are compared with corresponding calculated values using linear elastic and jointed rock material models. 9 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    von Seggern, David; Smith, Ken

    2007-10-15

    This report describes the seismicity and earthquake monitoring activities within the Yucca Mountain region during fiscal year 2004 (FY2004 - October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004) based on operation of the Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN). Network practices and earthquake monitoring conducted at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) under DOE directives for prior fiscal years are covered in similar yearly reports (see references). Real-time systems, including regional data telemetry and data management at NSL, provide for the automatic determination of earthquake locations and magnitudes and notification of important earthquakes in the region to UNR staff and DOE management. All waveform and meta-data, including automatic locations, phase arrival information, and analyst reviewed information, are managed through a relational database system allowing quick and reliable evaluation and analysis of ongoing earthquake activity near Yucca Mountain. This network, which contains weak-motion and strong-motion instrumentation, addresses the seismic hazard of the Yucca Mountain area by providing accurate earthquake magnitudes for earthquake recurrence estimates, spatial hypocentral control to very low magnitudes for identifying and assessing active faults and verifying tectonic models, true ground motions over the complete range of expected earthquake amplitudes for developing predictive models, and earthquake source information for characterizing active faulting. The Nevada Seismological Laboratory operated a 30-station monitoring network within a ring of approximately 50 km radius around Yucca Mountain during FY2004. This year showed the second-lowest seismic moment rate in the NTS and Yucca Mountain region for any fiscal year reporting period since prior to the 1992 M 5.6 Little Skull Mountain (LSM) earthquake. A total of 2180 earthquakes were located for FY2004. The largest event during FY2004 was M 2.99 and there were only 12 earthquakes

  19. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  20. Prelimary methodology for design of stable drifts for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Hardy, M.P.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the Yucca Mountain Project which is investigating the feasibility of locating a high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The conceptual design of the repository is described. The design methodology is presented.