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1

A sample computation of kinematic properties from cloud motion vectors.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributions of relative vorticity and balanced height have been computed from the cloud velocities associated with the cloud structure of an extratropical cyclone over the continental United States during a three-day period in March 1970. Cloud motions are assigned either to a 'mid-level,' or to a 'high level.' Derived vorticity and balanced height are compared with concurrent National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses and also with similar kinematic quantities obtained from rawins at three constant-pressure levels. The computations of relative vorticity using mid-level cloud motion vectors show encouraging results. Patterns of computed cyclonic vorticity are related to the development, location, and movement of the surface cyclone. The analyses suggest that the 'mid-level' corresponds best to the 700-mb level. The vorticity analysis from the 'high-level' motion vectors presented difficulties.

Viezee, W.; Serebreny, S. M.; Mancuso, R. L.; Shenk, W. E.

1972-01-01

2

Upgrades to the NOAA/NESDIS automated Cloud-Motion Vector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest version of the automated cloud motion vector software has yielded significant improvements in the quality of the GOES cloud-drift winds produced operationally by NESDIS. Cloud motion vectors resulting from the automated system are now equal or superior in quality to those which had the benefit of manual quality control a few years ago. The single most important factor in this improvement has been the upgraded auto-editor. Improved tracer selection procedures eliminate targets in difficult regions and allow a higher target density and therefore enhanced coverage in areas of interest. The incorporation of the H2O-intercept height assignment method allows an adequate representation of the heights of semi-transparent clouds in the absence of a CO2-absorption channel. Finally, GOES-8 water-vapor motion winds resulting from the automated system are superior to any done previously by NESDIS and should now be considered as an operational product.

Nieman, Steve; Menzel, W. Paul; Hayden, Christopher M.; Wanzong, Steve; Velden, Christopher S.

1993-01-01

3

The effect of the arbitrary level assignment of satellite cloud motion wind vectors on wind analyses in the pre-thunderstorm environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of satellite-derived cloud motion vectors on SESAME rawinsonde wind fields was studied in two separate cases. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of the satellite data is assessed to coordinate surfaces in a severe storm environment marked by strong vertical wind shear. Objective analyses of SESAME rawinsonde winds and combined winds are produced and differences between these two analyzed fields are used to make an assessment of coordinate level choice. It is shown that the standard method of arbitrarily assigning wind vectors to a low level coordinate surface yields systematic differences between the rawinsonde and combined wind analyses. Arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to the 0.9 sigma surface produces smaller differences than assignment to the 825 mb pressure surface. Systematic differences occur near moisture discontinuities and in regions of horizontal and vertical wind shears. The differences between the combined and SESAME wind fields are made smallest by vertically interpolating cloud motions to either a pressure or sigma surface.

Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

1985-01-01

4

Study to determine cloud motion from meteorological satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing techniques were tested for deducing cloud motion vectors from overlapped portions of pairs of pictures made from meteorological satellites. This was accomplished by programming and testing techniques for estimating pattern motion by means of cross correlation analysis with emphasis placed upon identifying and reducing errors resulting from various factors. Techniques were then selected and incorporated into a cloud motion determination program which included a routine which would select and prepare sample array pairs from the preprocessed test data. The program was then subjected to limited testing with data samples selected from the Nimbus 4 THIR data provided by the 11.5 micron channel.

Clark, B. B.

1972-01-01

5

A Fourier approach to cloud motion estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fourier technique is described for estimating cloud motion from pairs of pictures using the phase of the cross spectral density. The method allows motion estimates to be made for individual spatial frequencies, which are related to cloud pattern dimensions. Results obtained are presented and compared with the results of a Fourier domain cross correlation scheme. Using both artificial and real cloud data show that the technique is relatively sensitive to the presence of mixtures of motions, changes in cloud shape, and edge effects.

Arking, A.; Lo, R. C.; Rosenfield, A.

1977-01-01

6

Atmospheric Motions from Sodium Cloud Drifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal motions from 25 sodium cloud experiments are examined in the alti- tude range from 70 to 190 km. The outstanding characteristics of the apparent motion are pro- nounced velocity oscillations in the 70- to 130-km layer; they reach a maximum near 105 km and attenuate at greater heights. A quiescent zone appears from 140 to 190 km, where, despite

Adam Kochanski

1964-01-01

7

A Fourier approach to cloud motion estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fourier phase-difference technique for cloud motion estimation from pairs of pictures is described, and results obtained using this technique are compared with the results of a Fourier-domain cross-correlation scheme. The phase-difference technique makes use of the phase of the cross-spectral density and allows motion estimates to be made for individual spatial frequencies, which are related to cloud pattern dimensions. When objects being tracked do not change their shape, size, and orientation to more than a limited degree, both techniques are effective. The phase difference technique is relatively sensitive to the presence of mixtures of motions, changes in cloud shape, and edge effects; in these circumstances, the cross-correlation scheme is preferable. It is suggested that the Fourier transform phase difference estimation methods can be applied in problems such as landmark matching.

Arking, A.; Lo, R. C.; Rosenfeld, A.

1978-01-01

8

Fourier transform techniques for the inference of cloud motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation are reported of phase shift techniques based on the Fourier transform for the estimation of cloud motion from geosynchronous meteorological satellite photographs. An alternative approach to cloud motion estimation, involving thresholding, was proposed and studied.

Lo, R. C.; Rosenfeld, A.

1974-01-01

9

Image segmentation via motion vector estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the visual world moving edges in the periphery represent vital pieces of information that directs the human foveation mechanism to selectively gather information around these specific locations. This computationally efficient approach of allocating resources at key locations has inspired computer visionists to develop new target detection and hacking algorithms based on motion detection in image sequences. In this study we implemented a recursive algorithm for estimating motion vector fields for each pixel in a sequence of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) images. Velocity information is used to segment the image and perform linear quadratic and acceleration-based frame interpolation to produce an apparent frame rate increase. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of low-rate digital fluoroscopy hence less exposure risks while preserving image quality. Furthermore the technique can be useful in the medical Picture Archival and Communication Systems (PACS) where image data can be compressed by storing and transmiting only the motion fields associated with the moving pixels. 1.

Abdel-Malek, Aiman A.; Hasekioglu, Orkun; Bloomer, John J.

1990-07-01

10

Cloud vector mapping using MODIS 09 Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) for the year 2010 and 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternate use for MODIS images was sought by mapping cloud movement directions and dissipation time during the 2010 and 2011 floods. MODIS Level-02 daily CMG (Climate Modelling Grid) land-cover images were downloaded and subsequently rectified and clipped to the study area. These images were then put together to observe the direction of cloud movement and vectorize the observed paths. Initial findings suggest that usually cloud does not have a prolonged coverage period over the northern humid region of the country and dissipates within less than 24-hours. Additionally, this led to the development of a robust methodology for cloud motion analysis using FOSS and market leading GIS utilities.

Jah, Asjad Asif; Farrukh, Yousaf Bin; Saeed Ali, Rao Muhammad

2013-12-01

11

Thunderstorm-associated cloud motions as computed from 5-minute SMS pictures. [Synchronous Meteorological Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five-minute rapid-scan imagery from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite is employed to study cloud motions associated with the Omaha tornado of May 6, 1975. Cloud-motion vectors derived from automated and man-machine interactive systems provide an account of the mesoscale phenomena. In addition to the geostationary satellite data, aerial photography obtained during a cloud-truth mission is used in the severe storm investigation. For tracking overland cumuli with short half-lives, a three-minute scan interval appears necessary for the satellite imagery.

Tecson, J. J.; Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.

1977-01-01

12

Respiratory motion compensation with relevance vector machines.  

PubMed

In modern robotic radiation therapy, tumor movements due to respiration can be compensated. The accuracy of these methods can be increased by time series prediction of external optical surrogates. An algorithm based on relevance vector machines (RVM) is introduced. We evaluate RVM with linear and nonlinear basis functions on a real patient data set containing 304 motion traces and compare it with a wavelet based least mean square algorithm (wLMS), the best algorithm for this data set so far. Linear RVM outperforms wLMS significantly and increases the prediction accuracy for 80.3% of the data. We show that real time prediction is possible in case of linear RVM and discuss how the predicted variance can be used to construct promising hybrid algorithms, which further reduce the prediction error. PMID:24579130

Dürichen, Robert; Wissel, Tobias; Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim

2013-01-01

13

Motion/imagery secure cloud enterprise architecture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud computing with storage virtualization and new service-oriented architectures brings a new perspective to the aspect of a distributed motion imagery and persistent surveillance enterprise. Our existing research is focused mainly on content management, distributed analytics, WAN distributed cloud networking performance issues of cloud based technologies. The potential of leveraging cloud based technologies for hosting motion imagery, imagery and analytics workflows for DOD and security applications is relatively unexplored. This paper will examine technologies for managing, storing, processing and disseminating motion imagery and imagery within a distributed network environment. Finally, we propose areas for future research in the area of distributed cloud content management enterprises.

DeLay, John L.

2012-06-01

14

Wind estimates from cloud motions: Preliminary results from phases 1, 2, and 3 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low level aircraft equipped with Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) were used to define the vertical extent and horizontal motion of a cloud and to measure the ambient wind field. A high level aircraft, also equipped with an INS, took photographs to describe the horizontal extent of the cloud field and to measure cloud motion. The aerial photographs were also used to make a positive identification in a satellite picture of the cloud observed by the low level aircraft. The experiment was conducted over the tropical oceans in the vicinity of Florida, Puerto Rico, Panama and in the Western Gulf of Mexico. Results for tropical cumulus clouds indicate excellent agreement between the cloud motion and the wind at the cloud base. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the cloud base wind is less than 1.3 m/sec for 67% of the cases with track lengths of 1 hour or longer. The cirrus cloud motions agreed best with the mean wind in the cloud layer with a vector difference of about 1.6 m/sec.

Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W. C.

1975-01-01

15

Particles in Motion; Kepler's Laws 14.1. Vector Functions  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 14 Particles in Motion; Kepler's Laws 14.1. Vector Functions Vector notation is well-axis; that is X¡ 0¢£ RI. At 205 #12;Chapter 14 Particles in Motion; Kepler's Laws 206 time t the particle has

McKay, Benjamin

16

Volcanic explosion clouds - Density, temperature, and particle content estimates from cloud motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographic records of 10 vulcanian eruption clouds produced during the 1978 eruption of Fuego Volcano in Guatemala have been analyzed to determine cloud velocity and acceleration at successive stages of expansion. Cloud motion is controlled by air drag (dominant during early, high-speed motion) and buoyancy (dominant during late motion when the cloud is convecting slowly). Cloud densities in the range 0.6 to 1.2 times that of the surrounding atmosphere were obtained by fitting equations of motion for two common cloud shapes (spheres and vertical cylinders) to the observed motions. Analysis of the heat budget of a cloud permits an estimate of cloud temperature and particle weight fraction to be made from the density. Model results suggest that clouds generally reached temperatures within 10 K of that of the surrounding air within 10 seconds of formation and that dense particle weight fractions were less than 2% by this time. The maximum sizes of dense particles supported by motion in the convecting clouds range from 140 to 1700 microns.

Wilson, L.; Self, S.

1980-01-01

17

Clouds on Neptune: Motions, Evolution, and Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aims of our original proposal were these: (1) improving measurements of Neptune's circulation, (2) understanding the spatial distribution of cloud features, (3) discovery of new cloud features and understanding their evolutionary process, (4) understanding the vertical structure of zonal cloud patterns, (5) defining the structure of discrete cloud features, and (6) defining the near IR albedo and light curve of Triton. Towards these aims we proposed analysis of existing 1996 groundbased NSFCAM/IRTF observations and nearly simultaneous WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We also proposed to acquire new observations from both HST and the IRTF.

Sromovsky, Larry A.; Morgan, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

18

Rapid ray motions in barium plasma clouds and auroras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On two evenings in 1968, anomalous field-aligned brightenings or emission enhancements of up to 3X were observed to move rapidly through three different Ba(+) clouds over Andoya, Norway. Similar effects were observed in Ba(+) clouds released from rockets launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 21, 1973 and on March 22, 1980. On these occasions, auroras on or near the Ba(+) L shell also exhibited active rapid ray motions, which prompts the assumption that the two phenomena are related and the expectation that an explanation of the rapid ray motions in the Ba(+) clouds would lead to a better understanding of the physics of auroral ray motions and the auroral atmosphere. Seven possible mechanisms to produce the observed moving emission enhancements are discussed. The observations provide strong evidence for the existence of transient electric fields of order 100 mV/m at altitudes as low as 200 km during active aurora with rapid ray motions.

Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Swift, D. W.; Wallis, D. D.

1993-01-01

19

Boat detection using vector accumulation of particle motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, target detection in sea environment such as boat detection has become a popular research topic which is significant for marine vessels monitoring system. Many target detection methods have been widely applied to practical applications such as frame difference, traditional optical flow and background subtraction method. However, the existing target detection methods are not suitable to deal with the complex conditions of sea surface, such as irregular movement of the waves and illumination changes. In this paper, we developed an approach based on vector accumulation of particle motion mainly aiming at eliminating the effects of irregular movement of waves. Our proposed method applies vector accumulation of particle motion to optical flow field to obtain more accurate detection results under complex conditions. Firstly, the traditional optical flow method is used to acquire motion vector of every particle. Furthermore, the vectors of each flow point are abstracted to represent the recording of a fluid element in the flow over a certain period, succeeding is the accumulation of particle vectors. Finally, we calculate the mean of the vector accumulation to eliminate the effects of irregular movement of waves based on the video. Experimental results show the proposed method can gain better performance than traditional optical flow method.

Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Na; Li, Youyi; Li, Xiaoli

2014-11-01

20

The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration  

PubMed Central

The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC) solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA), is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The HVA, however, provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the IOC direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the HVA. PMID:24155716

Johnston, Alan; Scarfe, Peter

2013-01-01

21

Digital video steganalysis using motion vector recovery-based features.  

PubMed

As a novel digital video steganography, the motion vector (MV)-based steganographic algorithm leverages the MVs as the information carriers to hide the secret messages. The existing steganalyzers based on the statistical characteristics of the spatial/frequency coefficients of the video frames cannot attack the MV-based steganography. In order to detect the presence of information hidden in the MVs of video streams, we design a novel MV recovery algorithm and propose the calibration distance histogram-based statistical features for steganalysis. The support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the proposed features and used as the steganalyzer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganalyzer can effectively detect the presence of hidden messages and outperform others by the significant improvements in detection accuracy even with low embedding rates. PMID:22781241

Deng, Yu; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Linna

2012-07-10

22

Vector subtraction using visual and extraretinal motion signals: A new look at efference copy and corollary  

E-print Network

Vector subtraction using visual and extraretinal motion signals: A new look at efference copy demonstrate that a form of vector subtraction can be implemented in a biologically plausible way using cosine of a cosine distribution is a motion signal that is equivalent to that produced by vector subtraction

Krauzlis, Richard J.

23

The role of magnetic fields in constraining the translational motion of giant cloud complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solution for the translational motion of a giant cloud complex in an oscillating external medium is obtained by assuming a simplified cloud-field geometry. The field strength in the cloud is represented by the virial theorem value. The results are applied to cloud motions in a spiral density wave, and the origin of the cloud-cloud velocity dispersion is examined. The motion of a dense cloud that is magnetically connected to a shocked external medium is calculated with an application to molecular clouds that encounter a shock in a spiral density wave. The magnetic field which connects the cloud to the ambient gas will stretch during this interaction causing the acceleration of the cloud and possibly triggering star formation.

Elmegreen, B. G.

1981-01-01

24

Wavelet based scalable video coding with spatially scalable motion vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper studies scalable video coding based on multiresolution video representations generated by multi-scale subband motion compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) and spatial wavelet transform. Since MCTF is performed subband by subband in the spatial wavelet domain, motion vectors are available for reconstructing video sequences of any possible reduced spatial resolution, restricted by the dyadic decomposition pattern and the maximal spatial decomposition level. The multiresolution representations naturally provide a framework with which both spatial scalability and temporal scalability can be very conveniently and efficiently supported by a video coder that utilizes such multiresolution video representations. Such video coders can be fully scalable by incorporating wavelet-domain bit-plane image coding techniques. This paper examines the performance, including scalability and coding efficiency, of a scalable video coder that utilizes such multi-scale video representations together with the EZBC image coder. A wavelet-domain variable block size motion estimation algorithm is introduced to enhance the performance of the subband MCTF. Experiments show that the proposed coder outperforms the state of the art fully scalable coder MC-EZBC in terms of the spatial scalability.

Zhang, Huipin; Bossen, Frank

2003-06-01

25

Cloud motions on Venus - Global structure and organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on cloud motions on Venus obtained over a period of 3.5 days from Mariner 10 television images are presented. The implied atmosphere flow is almost zonal everywhere on the visible disk, and is in the same retrograde sense as the solid planet. Objective analysis of motions suggests the presence of jet cores (-130 m/s) and organized atmospheric waves. The longitudinal mean meridional profile of the zonal component of motion of the ultraviolet features shows presence of a midlatitude jet stream (-110 m/s). The mean zonal component is -97 m/s at the equator. The mean meridional motion at most latitudes is directed toward the pole in either hemisphere and is at least an order of magnitude smaller so that the flow is nearly zonal. A tentative conclusion from the limited coverage available from Mariner 10 is that at the level of ultraviolet features mean meridional circulation is the dominant mode of poleward angular momentum transfer as opposed to the eddy circulation.

Limaye, S. S.; Suomi, V. E.

1981-01-01

26

Cloud tracking by scale space classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of cloud tracking within a sequence of geo-stationary satellite images has direct relevance to the analysis of cloud life cycles and to the detection of cloud motion vectors (CMVs). The proposed approach first identifies a homogeneous consistent cloud mass for tracking and then establishes motion correspondence within an image sequence. In contrast to the crosscorrelation based approach as

Dipti Prasad Mukherjee; Scott T. Acton

2002-01-01

27

Atmospheric Motion Vectors Derived via a New Nested Tracking Algorithm Developed for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV) nested tracking algorithm has been developed for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be flown on NOAA's future GOES-R satellite. The algorithm has been designed to capture the dominant motion in each target scene from a family of local motion vectors derived for each target scene. Capturing this dominant motion is achieved through use of a two-dimensional clustering algorithm that segregates local displacements into clusters. The dominant motion is taken to be the average of the local displacements of points belonging to the largest cluster. This approach prevents excessive averaging of motion that may be occurring at multiple levels or at different scales that can lead to a slow speed bias and a poor quality AMV. A representative height is assigned to the dominant motion vector through exclusive use of cloud heights from pixels belonging to the largest cluster. This algorithm has been demonstrated to significantly improve the slow speed bias typically observed in AMVs derived from satellite imagery. Meteosat SEVERI imagery is serving as an important GOES-R ABI proxy data source for the development, testing, and validation of the GOES-R AMV algorithms given its similarities (spectral coverage, pixel resolution, and scanning rate) and performance (spectral noise, navigation/registration) to the future GOES-R ABI. The new GOES-R AMV algorithm is also being applied to the instrumentation on the current operational GOES series of satellites and is expected to replace the heritage AMV algorithm being used in NESDIS operations today. Plans at NOAA/NESDIS also include using the new GOES-R AMV algorithm to generate AMVs from the future VIIRS instrument on the NPP satellite. Details of the GOES-R ABI AMV algorithm and the validation results will be presented and discussed.

Daniels, J.; Bresky, W.; Wanzong, S.; Velden, C.

2012-12-01

28

Proper Motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud: Re-Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kallivayalil et al. have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure proper motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using images in 21 and five fields, respectively, all centered on known quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). These results are more precise than previous measurements, but have surprising and important physical implications: for example, the LMC and SMC

Slawomir Piatek; Carlton Pryor; Edward W. Olszewski

2008-01-01

29

THE PROPER MOTION OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. NEW RESULTS FOR FIVE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

We present new results from a ground-based program to determine the proper motion of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) relative to background quasars (QSOs), being carried out with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The data were secured over a time base of seven years and with eight epochs of observation 'As measured' (field) proper motions were obtained for five QSO fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): QJ0033-7028, QJ0035-7201, QJ0047-7530, QJ0102-7546, and QJ0111-7249. Assuming that the SMC has a disklike central structure, but that it does not rotate, we determined a center-of-mass (CM) proper motion for the SMC from two of these fields, QJ0033-7028 and QJ0035-7201, located to the northwest and west of the main body of the SMC, respectively. Combining these latter proper motions with the CM proper motion presented by Costa et al. (hereafter CMP09) for the SMC (from the field QJ0036-7227, located to the west of the main body of the SMC), we obtain a weighted mean of {mu}{sub {alpha}} cos {delta} = +0.93 {+-} 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu}{sub {delta}} = -1.25 {+-} 0.11 mas yr{sup -1}. This CM proper motion is in good agreement with recent results by Piatek et al. and Vieira et al., and we are confident that it is a good representation of the 'bulk' transverse motion of the SMC. On the contrary, the results we obtain from the fields QJ0047-7530 and QJ0102-7546, located to the south of the main body of the SMC, and the field QJ0111-7249, located to the east of its main body, seem to be affected by streaming motions. For this reason, we have not used the latter to determine the SMC CM proper motion. These streaming motions could be evidence that the SMC was tidally disrupted in a close encounter with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Complementing the SMC CM proper motions given here and in CMP09, with the currently accepted radial velocity of its center, we have derived its galactocentric (gc) velocity components, obtaining a weighted mean of V{sub gc,t} = +289 {+-} 25 km s{sup -1} and V{sub gc,r} = +14 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1}. These velocities, together with the galactocentric velocity components given for the LMC in CMP09, imply a relative velocity between the LMC and SMC of 67 {+-} 42 km s{sup -1} for V{sub rot,LMC} = 50 km s{sup -1} and of 98 {+-} 48 km s{sup -1} for V{sub rot,LMC} = 120 km s{sup -1}. Despite our large errors, these values are consistent with the standard assumption that the MCs are gravitationally bound to each other.

Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.; Moyano, Maximiliano [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Pedreros, Mario H. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Gallart, Carme [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife 38200, Islas Canarias (Spain); Noel, Noelia, E-mail: costa@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: mmoyano@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: mmoyano@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: mpedrero@uta.cl, E-mail: carme@iac.es, E-mail: noelia@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-15

30

Atmospheric motion vector retrieval using improved tracer selection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracer selection is the fundamental step in the retrieval of atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs). In this study, a new technique for tracer selection based on extracting the corner points in an infrared (IR) image of a geostationary satellite for the retrieval of AMVs is developed. Corner points are frequently used in computer vision to identify the important features of an image. These points are usually characterized by high gradient values of the image intensity in all directions and lie at the junctions of different brightness regions in the image. Corner points find application in computer vision for motion tracking, stereo vision, mosaics, etc., but this is the first time that the information from corners is used for tracer selection in AMV retrieval. In the present study, a commonly used Harris corner (HC) detection algorithm is followed to extract corners from the image intensity of an IR image. The tracers selected using the HC method are then passed on to the other steps of the retrieval algorithm, viz., tracking, height assignment, and quality control procedures for the retrieval of AMVs. For the initial development of the HC, Meteosat-7 IR images are used to derive AMVs for July and December 2010. The AMVs retrieved using HC are validated against collocated radiosonde observations, and the results are compared with the local anomaly (LA) method as reference. LA is used for tracer selection in operational AMV retrieval algorithm from the Indian geostationary satellite Kalpana-1. AMVs retrieved using HC have shown considerable improvement in the AMV accuracy over the AMVs derived using LA.

Kaur, Inderpreet; Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.; Kumar, Raj

2015-01-01

31

Landsat 7 Reveals Large-scale Fractal Motion of Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Landsat 7 image of clouds off the Chilean coast near the Juan Fernandez Islands (also known as the Robinson Crusoe Islands) on September 15, 1999, shows a unique pattern called a 'von Karman vortex street.' This pattern has long been studied in the laboratory, where the vortices are created by oil flowing past a cylindrical obstacle, making a string of vortices only several tens of centimeters long. Study of this classic 'flow past a circular cylinder' has been very important in the understanding of laminar and turbulent fluid flow that controls a wide variety of phenomena, from the lift under an aircraft wing to Earth's weather. Here, the cylinder is replaced by Alejandro Selkirk Island (named after the true 'Robinson Crusoe,' who was stranded here for many months in the early 1700s). The island is about 1.5 km in diameter, and rises 1.6 km into a layer of marine stratocumulus clouds. This type of cloud is important for its strong cooling of the Earth's surface, partially counteracting the Greenhouse warming. An extended, steady equatorward wind creates vortices with clockwise flow off the eastern edge and counterclockwise flow off the western edge of the island. The vortices grow as they advect hundreds of kilometers downwind, making a street 10,000 times longer than those made in the laboratory. Observing the same phenomenon extended over such a wide range of sizes dramatizes the 'fractal' nature of atmospheric convection and clouds. Fractals are characteristic of fluid flow and other dynamic systems that exhibit 'chaotic' motions. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise vortices are generated by flow around the island. As the flow separates from the island's leeward (away from the source of the wind) side, the vortices 'swallow' some of the clear air over the island. (Much of the island air is cloudless due to a local 'land breeze' circulation set up by the larger heat capacity of the waters surrounding the island.) The 'swallowed' gulps of clear island air get carried along within the vortices, but these are soon mixed into the surrounding clouds. Landsat is unique in its ability to image both the small-scale eddies that mix clear and cloudy air, down to the 30 meter pixel size of Landsat, but also having a wide enough field-of-view, 180 km, to reveal the connection of the turbulence to large-scale flows such as the subtropical oceanic gyres. Landsat 7, with its new onboard digital recorder, has extended this capability away from the few Landsat ground stations to remote areas such as Alejandro Island, and thus is gradually providing a global dynamic picture of evolving human-scale phenomena. (For more details on von Karman vortices, refer to http://climate.gsfc.nasa.gov/cahalan) Image and caption courtesy Bob Cahalan, NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

32

Effect of GOES-R Image Navigation and Registration Errors on Atmospheric Motion Vectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temporal frequency imagery from geostationary satellites allows for the continuous monitoring of rapidly changing atmospheric constituents such as smoke, dust, water vapor and clouds. The image sequences are often used to quantify the displacement of image features such as water vapor and clouds to produce atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) which are used as diagnostic tools and also assimilated into numerical weather forecast models. The basic principle behind the determination of AMVs is the calculation of the physical displacement of features from one image (time) to the next. This process assumes that the features being tracked do not change as a function of time, usually requiring the use of short time interval imagery to minimize substantial change in size and shape of the features being tracked. High spatial resolution imagery also is required for reliable feature identification. While these image resolution and temporal sampling requirements often provide major drivers for space-based instrument design requirements, accurate image navigation and registration, INn (between a sequence of images), is also critical to the derivation of useful AMVs. In this paper and poster to be presented at the conference, the image navigation and registration (INR) accuracy expected for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the GOES-R series of satellites will be discussed in light of its impact on AMV accuracy. Significant satellite platform and modeling enhancements are planned which should significantly improve INn performance of the GOES-R instruments. Some of these improvements have been demonstrated for the GOES-13 satellite which was launched in summer of 2006. An analysis of GOES-13 INR data, from the special satellite check out period, will be used in the assessment.

Jedlovec, Gary

2008-01-01

33

Insitu aircraft verification of the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceanic regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A five year aircraft experiment to verify the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceans using in situ aircraft inertial navigation system wind measurements is presented. The final results show that satellite measured cumulus cloud motions are very good estimators of the cloud base wind for trade wind and subtropical high regions. The average magnitude of the vector differences between the cloud motion and the cloud base wind is given. For cumulus clouds near frontal regions, the cloud motion agreed best with the mean cloud layer wind. For a very limited sample, cirrus cloud motions also most closely followed the mean wind in the cloud layer.

Hasler, A. F.; Skillman, W. C.

1979-01-01

34

COMPARISON OF ATMOSPHERIC MOTION VECTORS AND DENSE VECTOR FIELDS CALCULATED FROM MSG IMAGES  

E-print Network

. Vectors calculated with both methods show in general similar directions, but the speed of dense vectors estimation method. 2. DATA In this case study, we used Meteosat-8 (MSG-1) images from 5-June-2004, around 12

Szantai André

35

University Navstar Consortium GPS Site Motion Vector/Crustal Velocity Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University Navstar Consortium (UNAVCO) Boulder facility has developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) Site Motion Vector Archive. Precise motions of points on the Earth, made with continuous or episodic GPS measurements, are being used to study tectonic processes including plate motions, plate boundary zone deformation, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. This archive of GPS velocities contains project information, maps, links, data, and metadata from both regional and global GPS analyses and showcases the work conducted by university and other research investigators. The archive also contains a global plate motion model velocity calculator and an interactive map tool. Velocity data are also accessible via a Distributed Ocean Data Sets (DODS) server.

2007-03-26

36

Non-stationary stochastic vector processes: seismic ground motion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectral-representation-based simulation algorithm is used in this paper to generate sample functions of a non-stationary, multi-variate stochastic process with evolutionary power, according to its prescribed non-stationary cross-spectral density matrix. If the components of the vector process correspond to different locations in space, then the process is also non-homogeneous in space (in addition to being non-stationary in time). The ensemble

George Deodatis

1996-01-01

37

Vector quantization (VQ)-based motion field refinement technique for image sequence coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce temporal redundancies appearing in video sequences block based motion estimation techniques have been successfully applied. However, due to the block-based model blocking artifacts appear in the resulting displaced frame difference reducing the global coding scheme efficiency. In this paper, a motion field refinement technique is proposed to overcome these artifacts. The method is based on segmentation and vector quantization (VQ). The motion field resulting from the block-based motion estimation is segmented using a set of patterns stored in a codebook. These patterns are derived by the LBG algorithm trained on natural edges. The VQ technique allows a low cost data transmission of the segmentation information. Finally, the segmentation is controlled by an entropy criterion, which performs an optimal bit allocation between motion, segmentation, and DFD information. Simulation results show that a significant improvement is achieved using the proposed method. In particular moving edges are much better motion compensated and the visual quality is greatly enhanced.

Moccagatta, Iole; Schuetz, Markus; Moscheni, Fabrice; Dufaux, Frederic

1995-02-01

38

Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 ?m) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min

2014-11-01

39

Zero-motion vector-biased cross-diamond search algorithm for rapid block matching motion estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High compression ratio and very low encoding computational complexity are the keys in designing successful encoder for energy constrained video conversational applications since coding efficiency, speed, and energy frugality are critical. Computation-intensive motion estimation (ME) process is an obstacle to overcome for these applications. To control and optimize encoding complexity behavior, we propose a zero-motion-vector-biased cross-diamond search (ZCDS) algorithm for rapid block matching based on the well-known cross-diamond search (CDS) algorithm. Unlike many conventional fast block-matching algorithms (BMAs), which use either fixed threshold or distortion function of temporally or spatially adjacent blocks for early search termination, ZCDS is based on a dynamic block distortion threshold, via a linear model utilizing already computed statistics and information of current block. A new fine granularity halfway-stop (FGHS) method is also proposed for early termination of the search process. Designed for various motion contents, ZCDS adaptively starts with a small or large cross search pattern, which is automatically determined via an initial block matching distortion. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves smoother motion vector fields and demands significantly less search points with marginal peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) loss when compared to those of full search and other conventional fast BMAs.

Yi, Xiaoquan; Ling, Nam

2005-03-01

40

MODELING CHANGES IN CLOUD STRUCTURE USING MOTION IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's GIS, imagery exploitation applications, and modelling and simulation tools could become more realistic by implementing algorithms capable of precise photogrammetric reconstruction of the 3D structure of obscurants, such as clouds or smoke. As examples, environmental engineers may require such information to determine how a plume of smoke from a factory spreads and moves over time and how that affects

H. Theiss; T. Johanesen

41

A Convective Vorticity Vector Associated With Tropical Convection: A 2D Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although dry/moist potential vorticity is a useful physical quantity for meteorological analysis, it cannot be applied to the analysis of 2D simulations. A convective vorticity vector (CVV) is introduced in this study to analyze 2D cloud-resolving simulation data associated with 2D tropical convection. The cloud model is forced by the vertical velocity, zonal wind, horizontal advection, and sea surface temperature obtained from the TOGA COARE, and is integrated for a selected 10-day period. The CVV has zonal and vertical components in the 2D x-z frame. Analysis of zonally-averaged and mass-integrated quantities shows that the correlation coefficient between the vertical component of the CVV and the sum of the cloud hydrometeor mixing ratios is 0.81, whereas the correlation coefficient between the zonal component and the sum of the mixing ratios is only 0.18. This indicates that the vertical component of the CVV is closely associated with tropical convection. The tendency equation for the vertical component of the CVV is derived and the zonally-averaged and mass-integrated tendency budgets are analyzed. The tendency of the vertical component of the CVV is determined by the interaction between the vorticity and the zonal gradient of cloud heating. The results demonstrate that the vertical component of the CVV is a cloud-linked parameter and can be used to study tropical convection.

Gao, Shou-Ting; Ping, Fan; Li, Xiao-Fan; Tao, Wei-Kuo

2004-01-01

42

Edge Block Detection and Motion Vector Information Based Fast VBSME Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with previous standards, H. 264/AVC adopts variable block size motion estimation (VBSME) and multiple reference frames (MRF) to improve the video quality. Full search motion estimation algorithm (FS), which calculates every search candidate in the search window for 7 block type with multiple reference frames, consumes massive computation power. Mathematical analysis reveals that the aliasing problem of subsampling algorithm comes from high frequency signal components. Moreover, high frequency signal components are also the main issues that make MRF algorithm essential. As we know, a picture being rich of texture must contain lots of high frequency signals. So based on these mathematical investigations, two fast VBSME algorithms are proposed in this paper, namely edge block detection based subsampling method and motion vector based MRF early termination algorithm. Experiments show that strong correlation exists among the motion vectors of those blocks belonging to the same macroblock. Through exploiting this feature, a dynamically adjustment of the search ranges of integer motion estimation is proposed in this paper. Combing our proposed algorithms with UMHS almost saves 96-98% Integer Motion Estimation (IME) time compared to the exhaustive search algorithm. The induced coding quality loss is less than 0.8% bitrate increase or 0.04dB PSNR decline on average.

Liu, Qin; Huang, Yiqing; Goto, Satoshi; Ikenaga, Takeshi

43

VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE3 Magellanic Clouds High proper motion stars (Poleski+, 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a search for High Proper Motion (HPM) stars, i.e., the ones with pm>100mas/yr, in the direction to the Magellanic Clouds. This sky area was not examined in detail as the high stellar density hampers efforts in performing high-quality astrometry. (4 data files).

Poleski, R.; Soszynski, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Ulaczyk, K.

2011-10-01

44

Earthquake slip vectors and estimates of present-day plate motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative models for present-day global plate motions are derived from subsets of the NUVEL-1 data in order to investigate the degree to which earthquake slip vectors affect the NUVEL-1 model and to provide estimates of present-day plate velocities that are independent of earthquake slip vectors. The data set used to derive the first model excludes subduction zone slip vectors. The primary purpose of this model is to demonstrate that the 240 subduction zone slip vectors in the NUVEL-1 data set do not greatly affect the plate velocities predicted by NUVEL-1. A data set that excludes all of the 724 earthquake slip vectors used to derive NUVEL-1 is used to derive the second model. This model is suitable as a reference model for kinematic studies that require plate velocity estimates unaffected by earthquake slip vectors. The slip-dependent slip vector bias along transform faults is investigated using the second model, and evidence is sought for biases in slip directions along spreading centers.

Demets, Charles

1993-01-01

45

Equation of motion of the magnetization vector in materials with fluctuating valence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In micromagnetics, it is common practice to describe the motion of the magnetization vector in terms of the Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert equations. In these, the strength of the dissipative torque is measured by a phenomenological parameter, and the form of the torque is chosen so as to lead to a reversion of the magnetic vector to a stable or metastable position. The microscopic origin of the parameter, as well as the correct form of the torque is not generally discussed. Retaining the mathematical description of all the degrees of freedom to which the magnetization vector is coupled, would give correct results. However, it is obviously desirable to formally eliminate these degrees of freedom, resulting in equations for the magnetization vector alone. In this article, the necessary procedure is carried out for the particular case in which the loss mechanism arises from valence fluctuations changing electron occupation numbers, and thereby the magnetic moments, of the various sites. Since the fluctuations are not instantaneous, the total magnetization vector develops time lags that manifest themselves as a loss mechanism. Apart from a numerical measure of this damping, we find that the structure of the torque term does not, in general, have one of the familiar forms. Furthermore, this results in certain changes in the switching characteristics of small magnetic particles. This particular origin of dissipation was discussed in the early 1950's by Clogston, Gate, and others in the context of domain wall motion and small-signal ferromagnetic resonance, but no attempt was made at that time to re-express the entire process in terms of an equation of motion of the magnetization vector alone.

Suhl, Harry

2001-06-01

46

Motion Vector Field Estimation Using Brightness Constancy Assumption and Epipolar Geometry Constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most Photogrammetry and computer vision tasks, finding the corresponding points among images is required. Among many, the Lucas-Kanade optical flow estimation has been employed for tracking interest points as well as motion vector field estimation. This paper uses the IMU measurements to reconstruct the epipolar geometry and it integrates the epipolar geometry constraint with the brightness constancy assumption in the Lucas-Kanade method. The proposed method has been tested using the KITTI dataset. The results show the improvement in motion vector field estimation in comparison to the Lucas-Kanade optical flow estimation. The same approach has been used in the KLT tracker and it has been shown that using epipolar geometry constraint can improve the KLT tracker. It is recommended that the epipolar geometry constraint is used in advanced variational optical flow estimation methods.

Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Yilmaz, A.

2014-11-01

47

The Systemic Proper Motions of the Magellanic Clouds and their Orbits around the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC & SMC) and the Milky Way (MW) is thought to have played an important role in the dynamical evolution of the MW's outer parts. The Clouds probe the potential of the MW dark halo in places where other kinematic tracers are unavailable and thus the MW-MC system has been a major subject of study. In particular, the global dynamics of both Clouds need to be well prescribed before other evolutionary features of the system can be understood. The radial velocities of the clouds are more readily determined than the transverse velocities, which can only be estimated using proper motions. We undertook a project using two epochs of HST/ACS data to determine the systemic proper motions of the Clouds. The Magellanic Cloud fields are centered on background QSOs that were discovered from their optical variability in the MACHO database (Geha et al. 2003). The final sample consists of 21 QSOs behind the LMC and 5 behind the SMC, distributed homogeneously behind the central few degrees of both Clouds. With a ˜2 year baseline and the use of the High Resolution Camera, we have determined the proper motion of the LMC to better than 5 \\ ? N = 0.44 ± 0.05 mas/yr (Kallivayalil et al. 2005). This is the most accurate proper motion measurement for any MW satellite thus far. We will present this measurement, as well as our results for the SMC, and the conclusions we can draw about the Clouds' orbits around the MW. Our study shows that ground-based work on finding QSOs can be combined with high resolution HST data to get good measurements in a relatively short amount of time. When combined with HI data from the Magellanic Stream our measurements should provide new constraints on both the mass distribution of the Galactic Halo and models of the Stream. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-09462 and GO-10130 from STScI. KHC's work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, NNSA, by the Univ. of California, LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Kallivayalil, N.; van der Marel, R. P.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Geha, M.

2005-12-01

48

Transverse motion of high-speed barium clouds in the ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation results, based on a field-line-integrated, two-dimensional, electrostatic model, are presented for the motion of a barium cloud injected transverse to the geomagnetic field in the ionosphere at high speeds. It is found that the gross evaluation of injected plasma clouds depends on the initial conditions, as well as the nature of the background coupling. For a massive (mass of about 10 kg), orbital (velocity of about 5 km/s) release in the F region (350-450 km), it is found that plasma clouds can drift tens of kilometers across the magnetic field in tens of seconds after ionization. This type of release is similar to those which are planned for the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite mission.

Mitchell, H. G., Jr.; Fedder, J. A.; Huba, J. D.; Zalesak, S. T.

1985-01-01

49

Noninvasive evaluation of contractile behavior of cardiomyocyte monolayers based on motion vector analysis.  

PubMed

A noninvasive method for the characterization of cardiomyocyte contractile behavior is presented. Light microscopic video images of cardiomyocytes were captured with a high-speed camera, and motion vectors (which have a velocity dimension) were calculated with a high spatiotemporal resolution using a block-matching algorithm. This method could extract contraction and relaxation motions of cardiomyocytes separately and evaluate characteristics such as the beating rate, orientation of contraction, beating cooperativity/homogeneity in the monolayer, and wave propagation of impulses. Simultaneous phase-contrast imaging and calcium (Ca2+) fluorescence measurements confirmed that the timing of the maximum shortening velocity of cardiomyocytes correlated well with intracellular Ca2+ transients. Based on our analysis, gap junction inhibitors, 1-heptanol (2?mM) or 18-?-glycyrrhetinic acid (30??M), resulted in clear changes in beating cooperativity and the propagation pattern of impulses in the cardiomyocyte monolayer. Additionally, the time dependence of the motion vector length indicated a prolonged relaxation process in the presence of potassium (K+) channel blockers, dl-sotalol (1??M), E-4031 (100?nM), or terfenadine (100?nM), reflecting the prolonged QT (Q wave and T wave) interval of cardiomyocytes. Effects of autonomic agents (acetylcholine or epinephrine [EPI]) or EPI and propranolol on cardiomyocytes were clearly detected by the alterations of beating rate and the motion vector length in contraction and relaxation processes. This method was noninvasive and could sensitively evaluate the contractile behavior of cardiomyocytes; therefore, it may be used to study and/or monitor cardiomyocyte tissue during prolonged culture periods and in screens for drugs that may alter the contraction of cardiomyocytes. PMID:21851323

Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Kunihiro, Takeshi; Dowaki, Suguru; Uno, Hatsume; Matsui, Eriko; Uchida, Masashi; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yasuda, Akio; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

50

Characterizing uncertainty in the motion, future location and ash concentrations of volcanic plumes and ash clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting the location and airborne concentrations of volcanic ash plumes and their dispersing clouds is complex and knowledge of the uncertainty in these forecasts is critical to assess and mitigate the hazards that could exist. We show the results from an interdisciplinary project that brings together scientists drawn from the atmospheric sciences, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and geology. The project provides a novel integration of computational and statistical modeling with a widely-used volcanic particle dispersion code, to provide quantitative measures of confidence in predictions of the motion of ash clouds caused by volcanic eruptions. We combine high performance computing and stochastic analysis, resulting in real time predictions of ash cloud motion that account for varying wind conditions and a range of model variables. We show how coupling a real-time model for ash dispersal, PUFF, with a volcanic eruption model, BENT, allows for the definition of the variability in the dispersal model inputs and hence classify the uncertainty that can then propagate for the ash cloud location and downwind concentrations. We additionally analyze the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction forecast data used by the dispersal model by using ensemble forecasts and assess how this affects the downwind concentrations. These are all coupled together and by combining polynomical chaos quadrature with stochastic integration techniques, we provide a quantitative measure of the reliability (i.e. error) of those predictions. We show comparisons of the downwind height calculations and mass loadings with observations of ash clouds available from satellite remote sensing data. The aim is to provide a probabilistic forecast of location and ash concentration that can be generated in real-time and used by those end users in the operational ash cloud hazard assessment environment.

Webley, P.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Pitman, E. B.; Dehn, J.; Singh, T.; Singla, P.; Stefanescu, E. R.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Morton, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.

2013-12-01

51

A comparison of cloud motion winds from ATS 6 images with coinciding SMS 1 winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is developed for accurate measurement of cloud motion winds from the geosynchronous ATS 6 image data. Attitude changes between consecutive images (as a function of scan-line number) are accounted for in wind computations through measurement of the earth-edge displacements between the successive infrared images. Also, an image matching procedure is used to remove obvious and distracting image distortions. The availability of SMS imagery coinciding with ATS 6 imagery makes SMS an excellent reference against which the quality of ATS 6 winds can be tested. The resulting winds inferred from cloud displacement measurements taken from a sequence of the corrected images are found to agree better than 2 m/sec rms with winds measured from coincident SMS 1 imagery.

Kuhlow, W. W.; Chatters, G. C.

1978-01-01

52

Cloud shadow speed sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system is presented that measures cloud shadow motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short-term solar irradiance forecasts. The cloud shadow speed sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and a high-speed data acquisition system to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud shadow motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground-measured irradiance (linear cloud edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego sky imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15° and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud shadow directions and speeds with average weighted root-mean-square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s-1 when compared to LCE results.

Fung, V.; Bosch, J. L.; Roberts, S. W.; Kleissl, J.

2014-06-01

53

Feature extraction and wall motion classification of 2D stress echocardiography with support vector machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress echocardiography is a common clinical procedure for diagnosing heart disease. Clinically, diagnosis of the heart wall motion depends mostly on visual assessment, which is highly subjective and operator-dependent. Introduction of automated methods for heart function assessment have the potential to minimise the variance in operator assessment. Automated wall motion analysis consists of two main steps: (i) segmentation of heart wall borders, and (ii) classification of heart function as either "normal" or "abnormal" based on the segmentation. This paper considers automated classification of rest and stress echocardiography. Most previous approaches to the classification of heart function have considered rest or stress data separately, and have only considered using features extracted from the two main frames (corresponding to the end-of-diastole and end-of-systole). One previous attempt [1] has been made to combine information from rest and stress sequences utilising a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which has proven to be the best performing approach to date. Here, we propose a novel alternative feature selection approach using combined information from rest and stress sequences for motion classification of stress echocardiography, utilising a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. We describe how the proposed SVM-based method overcomes difficulties that occur with HMM classification. Overall accuracy with the new method for global wall motion classification using datasets from 173 patients is 92.47%, and the accuracy of local wall motion classification is 87.20%, showing that the proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art HMM-based approach (for which global and local classification accuracy is 82.15% and 78.33%, respectively).

Chykeyuk, Kiryl; Clifton, David A.; Noble, J. Alison

2011-03-01

54

Variable Block Size Motion Vector Retrieval Schemes for H.264 Inter Frame Error Concealment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ubiquitous application of Internet and wireless networks, H.264 video communication becomes more and more common. However, due to the high-efficiently predictive coding and the variable length entropy coding, it is more sensitive to transmission errors. The current error concealment (EC) scheme, which utilizes the spatial and temporal correlations to conceal the corrupted region, produces unsatisfied boundary artifacts. In this paper, first we propose variable block size error concealment (VBSEC) scheme inspired by variable block size motion estimation (VBSME) in H.264. This scheme provides four EC modes and four sub-block partitions. The whole corrupted macro-block (MB) will be divided into variable block size adaptively according to the actual motion. More precise motion vectors (MV) will be predicted for each sub-block. Then MV refinement (MVR) scheme is proposed to refine the MV of the heterogeneous sub-block by utilizing three step search (TSS) algorithm adaptively. Both VBSEC and MVR are based on our directional spatio-temporal boundary matching algorithm (DSTBMA). By utilizing these schemes, we can reconstruct the corrupted MB in the inter frame more accurately. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme can obtain better objective and subjective EC quality, respectively compared with the boundary matching algorithm (BMA) adopted in the JM 11.0 reference software, spatio-temporal boundary matching algorithm (STBMA) and other comparable EC methods.

Wang, Lei; Wang, Jun; Goto, Satoshi; Ikenaga, Takeshi

55

Proper motions of molecular hydrogen outflows in the ? Ophiuchi molecular cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Proper motion measurements provide unique and powerful means to identify the driving sources of mass outflows, which are of particular importance in regions with complex star formation activity and deeply embedded protostars. They also provide the necessary kinematic information to study the dynamics of mass outflows, the interaction between outflows and the ambient medium, and the evolution of outflows with the age of the driving sources. Aims: We aim to take a census of molecular hydrogen emission line objects (MHOs) in the ? Ophiuchi molecular cloud and to make the first systematic proper motion measurements of these objects in this region. The driving sources are identified based on the measured proper motions, and the outflow properties are characterized. The relationship between outflow properties and the evolutionary stages of the driving sources are also investigated. Methods: Deep H2 near-infrared imaging is performed to search for molecular hydrogen emission line objects. Multi-epoch data are used to derive the proper motions of the features of these objects, and the lengths and opening angles of the molecular hydrogen outflows. Results: Our imaging covers an area of ~0.11 deg2 toward the L1688 core in the ? Ophiuchi molecular cloud. In total, six new MHOs are discovered, 32 previously known MHOs are detected, and the proper motions for 86 features of the MHOs are measured. The proper motions lie in the range of 14 to 247 mas/yr, corresponding to transversal velocities of 8 to 140 km s-1 with a median velocity of about 35 km s-1. Based on morphology and proper motion measurements, 27 MHOs are ascribed to 21 driving sources. The molecular hydrogen outflows have a median length of ~0.04 pc and random orientations. We find no obvious correlation between H2 jet length, jet opening angle, and the evolutionary stage of the driving sources as defined by their spectral indices. We find that the fraction of protostars (23%) that drive molecular hydrogen outflows is similar to the one for Class II sources (15%). For most molecular hydrogen outflows, no obvious velocity variation along the outflow has been found. Conclusions: In Ophiuchus the frequency of occurrence of molecular hydrogen outflows has no strong dependency on the evolutionary stage of the driving source during the evolution from the protostellar stage to the classical T Tauri stage. Based on observations made with ESO New Technology Telescope at La Silla under programme ID 079.C- 0717(B), and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Zhang, M.; Brandner, W.; Wang, H.; Gennaro, M.; Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Smith, M.; Stanke, Th.

2013-05-01

56

Motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates for torque-free dual-spin spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates for torque free, asymmetric dual spin spacecraft without and, for a special case, with energy dissipation on the main spacecraft is investigated. Without energy dissipation, two integrals can be obtained from the Euler equations of motion. Using the classical method of elimination of variable, the motion about the equilibrium points (six for the general case) are derived with these integrals. For small nutation angle, theta, the trajectories about the theta = 0 deg and theta = 180 deg points readily show the requirements for stable motion about these points. Also the conditions needed to eliminate stable motion about the theta = 180 deg point as well as the other undesireable equilibrium points follow directly from these equations. For the special case where the angular momentum vector moves about the principal axis which contains the momentum wheel, the notion of 'free variable' azimuth angle is used. Physically this angle must vary from 0 to 2 pi in a circular periodic fashion. Expressions are thus obtained for the nutation angle in terms of the free variable and other spacecraft parameters. Results show that in general there are two separate trajectory expressions that govern the motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates.

Fedor, J. V.

1981-01-01

57

Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clouds comprise a wonderful focus for classroom study. They're ubiquitous, ever-changing, scientifically interesting and, most importantly for teachers, they're cheap. The material presented here includes sections on cloud formation, cloud types, cloud pictures, other cloud-related phenomena, and a glossary.

Wozniak, Carl

58

Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was created by Larry Friesen and Anne Gillis for Butler Community College. It will help physics and calculus students differentiate between the uses of vectors in mathematics vs. physics. This website provides two PDF documents that give detailed lessons about vectors, including an overview of terminology, sample problems, and an HTML worksheet is also provided. For educators or students, this site offers well laid-out lessons and/or practice with vectors.

Friesen, Larry; Gillis, Anne

2008-04-18

59

vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

David Joiner

60

ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RECENT PROPER MOTION DATA FOR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

Recent observational studies using the Hubble Space Telescope have derived the center-of-mass proper motion (CMPM) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Although these studies carefully treated both rotation and perspective effects in deriving the proper motion (PM) for each of the sampled fields, they did not consider the effects of local random motion in the derivation. This means that the average PM of the fields (i.e., the observed CMPM) could significantly deviate from the true CMPM, because the effect of local random motion cannot be close to zero in making the average PM for the small number of fields ({approx}10). We discuss how significantly the observationally derived CMPM can deviate from the true CMPM by applying the same method as used in the observations for a dynamical model of the LMC with a known true CMPM. We find that the deviation can be as large as {approx}50 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.21 mas yr{sup -1}), if the LMC has a thick disk and a maximum circular velocity of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}. We also find that the deviation depends both on the total number of sampled fields and on the structure and kinematics of the LMC. We therefore suggest that there is a possibility that the observed CMPM of the LMC deviates from the true one to some extent. We also show that a simple mean of PM for a large number of LMC fields ({approx}1000) can be much closer to the true CMPM.

Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

2011-03-20

61

The Motions and Morphologies of cloud features on Neptune: continued monitoring with Keck Adaptive Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near infrared images taken in the H band (1.4-1.8 microns) using the newly commissioned NIRC2 at the W. M. Keck II telescope as part of a continuing program to monitor the atmospheric dynamics of Neptune using Adaptive Optics. These images with a resolution of .06 arcseconds reveal five infrared bright groups of features. Two groups of features (30-40 deg N and 20-50 deg S) are confined in latitude but span all longitudes creating bands around the planet. Small cloud morphology and relative motions in the wide Southern band (20-50 deg S) identify apparent cloud shearing events and differences in relative speeds within latitude bands. One localized group of features (30 deg N) shows interesting morphologies with marked departures from lines of latitude. Another localized group of South Polar features (70 deg S) show changes in morphology from a teardrop to a train of clouds to an arc of features during three years of observations. The final group of features is spatially diffuse and spans many latitude lines but is tightly confined in longitude. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

Martin, S. C.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B. A.; Roe, H. G.; Max, C. E.

2002-09-01

62

Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page introduces vectors as an extension of numbers having both magnitude and direction. The initial motivation is to describe velocity but the material includes a general discussion of vector algebra and an application to forces for the inclined plane. The page contains links to a related lesson plan and further opportunities to explore vectors. This is part of the extensive web site "From Stargazers to Starships", that uses space exploration and space science to introduce topics in physics and astronomy. Translations in Spanish and French are available.

Stern, David

2006-07-16

63

Impact of Kalpana-1 retrieved atmospheric motion vectors on mesoscale model forecast during summer monsoon 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) retrieved from multi-spectral geostationary satellites form a very crucial input to improve the initial conditions of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models at all operational agencies throughout the globe. With the recent update of operational AMV retrieval algorithm using infrared, water vapor, and visible channels of Indian geostationary meteorological satellite Kalpana-1, an attempt has been made to assess the impact of AMVs in the NWP models. In this study, the impact of Kalpana-1 AMVs is assessed by assimilating them in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using three-dimensional variational data assimilation method during the entire month of July 2011 over the Indian Ocean region. Apart from Kalpana-1 AMVs, the other AMVs available from Global Telecommunications System (GTS) are also assimilated to generate the WRF model analyses. After the initial verification of WRF model analyses, the 12-h wind forecasts from the WRF model are compared with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Data Assimilation System final analyses. The assimilation of Kalpana-1 AMVs shows positive impact in 12-h wind forecast over the tropical region in the upper troposphere. Similar results are obtained when other AMVs available through GTS are used for assimilation, though the magnitude of positive impact of Kalpana-1 AMVs is slightly higher over tropical region. The 24-h rainfall forecasts are also improved over the Western India and the Bay of Bengal region, when Kalpana-1 AMVs are used for assimilation against control experiments.

Kaur, Inderpreet; Kumar, Prashant; Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.; Kumar, Raj

2014-06-01

64

Support Vector Regression for Multi-View Gait Recognition based on Local Motion Feature Selection  

E-print Network

Gait is a well recognized biometric feature that is used to identify a human at a distance. However, in real environment, appearance changes of individuals due to viewing angle changes cause many difficulties for gait recognition. This paper re-formulates this problem as a regression problem. A novel solution is proposed to create a View Transformation Model (VTM) from the different point of view using Support Vector Regression (SVR). To facilitate the process of regression, a new method is proposed to seek local Region of Interest (ROI) under one viewing angle for predicting the corresponding motion information under another viewing angle. Thus, the well constructed VTM is able to transfer gait information under one viewing angle into another viewing angle. This proposal can achieve viewindependent gait recognition. It normalizes gait features under various viewing angles into a common viewing angle before similarity measurement is carried out. The extensive experimental results based on widely adopted benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve significantly better performance than the existing methods in literature. 1.

Worapan Kusakunniran; Qiang Wu; Jian Zhang; Hongdong Li

65

On the relative motions of dense cores and envelopes in star-forming molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation indicate that the motions of protostars through their natal molecular clouds may be crucial in determining the properties of stars through competitive accretion and dynamical interactions. Walsh, Myers & Burton recently investigated whether such motions might be observable in the earliest stages of star formation by measuring the relative shifts of line-centre velocities of low- and high-density tracers of low-mass star-forming cores. They found very small (~0.1kms-1) relative motions. In this paper, we analyse the hydrodynamical simulation of Bate, Bonnell & Bromm and find that it also gives small relative velocities between high-density cores and low-density envelopes, despite the fact that competitive accretion and dynamical interactions occur between protostars in the simulation. Thus, the simulation is consistent with the observations in this respect. However, we also find some differences between the simulation and the observations. Overall, we find that the high-density gas has a higher velocity dispersion than that observed by Walsh et al. We explore this by examining the dependence of the gas velocity dispersion on density and its evolution with time during the simulation. We find that early in the simulation the gas velocity dispersion decreases monotonically with increasing density, while later in the simulation, when the dense cores have formed multiple objects, the velocity dispersion of the high-density gas increases. Thus, the simulation is in best agreement with the observations early on, before many objects have formed in each dense core.

Ayliffe, Ben A.; Langdon, James C.; Cohl, Howard S.; Bate, Matthew R.

2007-02-01

66

Real-time prediction of respiratory motion using a cascade structure of an extended Kalman filter and support vector regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of thoracic and abdominal tumours induced by respiratory motion often exceeds 20 mm, and can significantly compromise dose conformality. Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver a conformal dose distribution to the tumour with minimal normal tissue exposure by compensating for the tumour motion. This adaptive radiotherapy, however, requires the prediction of the tumour movement that can occur over the system latency period. In general, motion prediction approaches can be classified into two groups: model-based and model-free. Model-based approaches utilize a motion model in predicting respiratory motion. These approaches are computationally efficient and responsive to irregular changes in respiratory motion. Model-free approaches do not assume an explicit model of motion dynamics, and predict future positions by learning from previous observations. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR) are examples of model-free approaches. In this article, we present a prediction algorithm that combines a model-based and a model-free approach in a cascade structure. The algorithm, which we call EKF-SVR, first employs a model-based algorithm (named LCM-EKF) to predict the respiratory motion, and then uses a model-free SVR algorithm to estimate and correct the error of the LCM-EKF prediction. Extensive numerical experiments based on a large database of 304 respiratory motion traces are performed. The experimental results demonstrate that the EKF-SVR algorithm successfully reduces the prediction error of the LCM-EKF, and outperforms the model-free ANN and SVR algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy across lookahead lengths of 192, 384, and 576 ms.

Hong, S.-M.; Bukhari, W.

2014-07-01

67

An improved self-alignment method for strapdown inertial navigation system based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and simulation results indicate that two problems should be solved when the self-alignment method based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector can be used for Strapdown Inertial Navigation System. The first one is how to identify the apparent motion from accelerometer measurement containing random noise and the second is how to avoid the collinear problem between two vectors used in alignment solution. In this paper, a parameter identification and reconstruction algorithm is proposed to solve the first problem and simulation results indicate that proposed algorithm can identify apparent motion from accelerometer measurements effectively; and reconstruction algorithm based on current identified parameters for dual-vector is designed in detail to solve the second problem which can make full use of newest identification and avoid collinear problem completely. Simulation and turntable results show that the proposed alignment method can fulfill self-alignment in a swinging condition and the alignment accuracy can reach the theoretical values determined by the sensor precision.

Liu, Xixiang; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xianjun; Yang, Yan; Song, Qing; Liu, Zhipeng

2014-12-01

68

An improved self-alignment method for strapdown inertial navigation system based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector.  

PubMed

Analysis and simulation results indicate that two problems should be solved when the self-alignment method based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector can be used for Strapdown Inertial Navigation System. The first one is how to identify the apparent motion from accelerometer measurement containing random noise and the second is how to avoid the collinear problem between two vectors used in alignment solution. In this paper, a parameter identification and reconstruction algorithm is proposed to solve the first problem and simulation results indicate that proposed algorithm can identify apparent motion from accelerometer measurements effectively; and reconstruction algorithm based on current identified parameters for dual-vector is designed in detail to solve the second problem which can make full use of newest identification and avoid collinear problem completely. Simulation and turntable results show that the proposed alignment method can fulfill self-alignment in a swinging condition and the alignment accuracy can reach the theoretical values determined by the sensor precision. PMID:25554327

Liu, Xixiang; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xianjun; Yang, Yan; Song, Qing; Liu, Zhipeng

2014-12-01

69

Deghosting based on in-loop selective filtering using motion vector information for low-bit-rate-video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a technique is presented to alleviate ghosting artifacts in the decoded video sequences for low-bit-rate video coding. Ghosting artifacts can be defined as the appearance of ghost like outlines of an object in a decoded video frame. Ghosting artifacts result from the use of a prediction loop in the video codec, which is typically used to increase the coding efficiency of the video sequence. They appear in the presence of significant frame-to-frame motion in the video sequence, and are typically visible for several frames until they eventually die out or an intra-frame refresh occurs. Ghosting artifacts are particularly annoying at low bit rates since the extreme loss of information tends to accentuate their appearance. To mitigate this effect, a procedure with selective in-loop filtering based on motion vector information is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the in-loop filter is applied only to the regions where there is motion. This is done so as not to affect the regions that are devoid of motion, since ghosting artifacts only occur in high-motion regions. It is shown that the proposed selective filtering method dramatically reduces ghosting artifacts in a wide variety of video sequences with pronounced frame-to-frame motion, without degrading the motionless regions.

Narvekar, Niranjan D.; Chien, Wei-Jung; Sadaka, Nabil G.; Abousleman, Glen P.; Karam, Lina J.

2009-05-01

70

A collaborative computing framework of cloud network and WBSN applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction.  

PubMed

As cloud computing and wireless body sensor network technologies become gradually developed, ubiquitous healthcare services prevent accidents instantly and effectively, as well as provides relevant information to reduce related processing time and cost. This study proposes a co-processing intermediary framework integrated cloud and wireless body sensor networks, which is mainly applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction. In this study, the main focuses includes distributed computing and resource allocation of processing sensing data over the computing architecture, network conditions and performance evaluation. Through this framework, the transmissions and computing time of sensing data are reduced to enhance overall performance for the services of fall events detection and 3-D motion reconstruction. PMID:24608051

Lai, Chin-Feng; Chen, Min; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Chao, Han-Chieh

2014-03-01

71

A proper motion study of the Lupus clouds using VO tools  

E-print Network

Aims: By using kinematical information, we test the membership of the new Lupus candidate members proposed by the Cores to Disks (c2d) Spitzer Legacy Program program and by a complementary optical survey. We also investigate the relationship between the proper motions (pm) and other properties, in order to get some clues about their formation and early evolution. Methods: We compiled a list of members and possible members of Lupus 1, 3, and 4, together with all information on their spectral types, disks, and physical parameters. Using VO-tools, we cross-matched this list with the astrometric catalogues to get pm. Our final sample contains sources with magnitudes I~0.1Msun. Results: According to the kinematic information, our sources can be divided into two main groups. The first one contains sources with higher pm in agreement with other Gould Belt populations and with spatial distribution, optical and near-infrared colours, and disk composition consistent with these objects belonging to the Lupus clouds. In ...

Martí, Belén López; Solano, Enrique

2011-01-01

72

Assessing geoaccuracy of structure from motion point clouds from long-range image collections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatically extracted and accurate scene structure generated from airborne platforms is a goal of many applications in the photogrammetry, remote sensing, and computer vision fields. This structure has traditionally been extracted automatically through the structure-from-motion (SfM) workflows. Although this process is very powerful, the analysis of error in accuracy can prove difficult. Our work presents a method of analyzing the georegistration error from SfM derived point clouds that have been transformed to a fixed Earth-based coordinate system. The error analysis is performed using synthetic airborne imagery which provides absolute truth for the ray-surface intersection of every pixel in every image. Three methods of georegistration are assessed; (1) using global positioning system (GPS) camera centers, (2) using pose information directly from on-board navigational instrumentation, and (3) using a recently developed method that utilizes the forward projection function and SfM-derived camera pose estimates. It was found that the georegistration derived from GPS camera centers and the direct use of pose information from on-board navigational instruments is very sensitive to noise from both the SfM process and instrumentation. The georegistration transform computed using the forward projection function and the derived pose estimates prove to be far more robust to these errors.

Nilosek, David; Walvoord, Derek J.; Salvaggio, Carl

2014-11-01

73

Fast Motions of Galaxies in the Coma I Cloud: A Case of Dark Attractor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We note that nearby galaxies having high negative peculiar velocities are distributed over the sky very inhomogeneously. A part of this anisotropy is caused by the "Local Velocity Anomaly," i.e., by the bulk motion of nearby galaxies away from the Local Void. However, half of the fast-flying objects reside within a small region [R.A.= 11{.\\!\\!^{ h}}5{--}13{.\\!\\!^{ h}}0, decl.= +20^{\\circ } {--}40^{\\circ }] known as the Coma I cloud. According to Makarov & Karachentsev, this complex contains 8 groups, 5 triplets, 10 pairs, and 83 single galaxies with a total mass of 4.7 × 1013 M ?. We use 122 galaxies in the Coma I region with known distances and radial velocities V LG < 3000 km s-1 to draw the Hubble relation for them. The Hubble diagram shows a Z-shaped effect of infall with an amplitude of +200 km s-1 on the nearby side and -700 km s-1 on the back side. This phenomenon can be understood as the galaxy infall toward a dark attractor with a mass of ~2 × 1014 M ? situated at a distance of 15 Mpc from us. The existence of a large void between the Coma and Virgo clusters also probably affects the Hubble flow around the Coma I.

Karachentsev, Igor D.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Courtois, Helene M.

2011-12-01

74

Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this scenario-based, problem-based learning (PBL) activity, students investigate cloud formation, cloud classification, and the role of clouds in heating and cooling the Earth; how to interpret TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) images and data; and the role clouds play in the Earth’s radiant budget and climate. Students assume the role of weather interns in a state climatology office and assist a frustrated student in a homework assignment. Learning is supported by a cloud in a bottle and an ice-albedo demonstration, a three-day cloud monitoring outdoor activity, and student journal assignments. The hands-on activities require two 2-liter soda bottles, an infrared heat lamp, and two thermometers. The resource includes a teacher's guide, questions and answer key, assessment rubric, glossary, and an appendix with information supporting PBL in the classroom.

75

Vector Control Of An AC Brushless Servomotor Using A Custom-Designed Motion Control Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, vector control of an AC brushless servomotor is performed using the current controlled, voltage source inverter and hysteresis PWM method. Using vector control, three phase variables are transformed on the synchronously rotating d and q axis, and control can be performed as in the DC motor. In order to generate PWM signals, an error value is calculated

Sibel ZORLU; Ibrahim SENOL; A. F. Bakan

2006-01-01

76

Influence of the cosmic repulsion on the MOND model of the Magellanic Cloud motion in the field of Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recently shown that the cosmic repulsion can have a highly significant influence on the motion of Magellanic Clouds (MC) in the gravitational field of Milky Way, treated in the framework of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halo model. However, there is an alternative to the CDM halo explanation of the rotation curves in the periphery of spiral galaxies, based on MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Therefore, we study the role of the cosmic repulsion in the framework of the MOND theory applied to determine the MC motion. Our results demonstrate that in the MOND framework the influence of the cosmic repulsion on the motion of both Small and Large MC is also highly significant, but it is of a different character than in the framework of the CDM halo model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the MC motion in the framework of the CDM halo and MOND models is subtantially different and can serve as a test of these fundamentally different approaches to the explanation of the phenomena related to galaxies and the motion of satellite galaxies.

Schee, J.; Stuchlík, Z.; Petrásek, M.

2013-12-01

77

THIRD-EPOCH MAGELLANIC CLOUD PROPER MOTIONS. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WFC3 DATA AND ORBIT IMPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present proper motions for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope data, spanning a {approx}7 yr baseline, and centered on fields with background QSOs. The first two epochs, the subject of past analyses, were obtained with ACS/HRC, and have been reanalyzed here. The new third epoch with WFC3/UVIS increases the time baseline and provides better control of systematics. The three-epoch data yield proper-motion random errors of only 1%-2% per field. For the LMC this is sufficient to constrain the internal proper-motion dynamics, as will be discussed in a separate paper. Here we focus on the implied center-of-mass proper motions: {mu} {sub W,LMC} = -1.910 {+-} 0.020 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,LMC} = 0.229 {+-} 0.047 mas yr{sup -1}, and {mu} {sub W,SMC} = -0.772 {+-} 0.063 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,SMC} = -1.117 {+-} 0.061 mas yr{sup -1}. We combine the results with a revised understanding of the solar motion in the Milky Way to derive Galactocentric velocities: v {sub tot,LMC} = 321 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1} and v {sub tot,SMC} = 217 {+-} 26 km s{sup -1}. Our proper-motion uncertainties are now dominated by limitations in our understanding of the internal kinematics and geometry of the Clouds, and our velocity uncertainties are dominated by distance errors. Orbit calculations for the Clouds around the Milky Way allow a range of orbital periods, depending on the uncertain masses of the Milky Way and LMC. Periods {approx}< 4 Gyr are ruled out, which poses a challenge for traditional Magellanic Stream models. First-infall orbits are preferred (as supported by other arguments as well) if one imposes the requirement that the LMC and SMC must have been a bound pair for at least several Gyr.

Kallivayalil, Nitya [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)] [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Besla, Gurtina [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 1027 Pupin Hall, MC 5247, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 1027 Pupin Hall, MC 5247, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Alcock, Charles, E-mail: nitya.kallivayalil@yale.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-02-20

78

A vector-valued ground motion intensity measure consisting of spectral acceleration and epsilon  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The 'strength' of an earthquake ground motion is often quantied by an Intensity Measure ( IM), such as peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration at a given period. This IM is used to predict the response of a structure. In this paper an intensity measure consisting of two parameters, spectral acceleration and epsilon, is considered. The IM is termed

Jack W. Baker; C. Allin Cornell

2004-01-01

79

Constants of motion for the planar orbit of a charged particle in a static and uniform magnetic field: the magnetic Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the motion of a planar charged particle subject to a static uniform magnetic field. It is well known that an electric charge under a uniform magnetic field has a planar motion if its initial velocity is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Although some constants of motion (CsM), as the energy and the angular momentum, have been widely discussed for this system, others have been neglected. We find that the angular momentum, the generator of the magnetic translations and the magnetic Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector are CsM for this particular system. We show also that these three quantities form an orthogonal basis of vectors. The present work addresses many aspects of the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field that should be useful for students and tutors of the classical mechanics courses at the senior undergraduate level.

Velasco-Martínez, D.; Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Kunold, A.; Cardoso, J. L.

2014-09-01

80

THE M31 VELOCITY VECTOR. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the first proper-motion (PM) measurements for the galaxy M31. We obtained new V-band imaging data with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and the WFC3/UVIS instruments of three fields: a spheroid field near the minor axis, an outer disk field along the major axis, and a field on the Giant Southern Stream. The data provide five to seven year time baselines with respect to pre-existing deep first-epoch observations of the same fields. We measure the positions of thousands of M31 stars and hundreds of compact background galaxies in each field. High accuracy and robustness is achieved by building and fitting a unique template for each individual object. The average PM for each field is obtained from the average motion of the M31 stars between the epochs with respect to the background galaxies. For the three fields, the observed PMs ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) are, in units of mas yr{sup -1}, (- 0.0458, -0.0376) {+-} (0.0165, 0.0154), (- 0.0533, -0.0104) {+-} (0.0246, 0.0244), and (- 0.0179, -0.0357) {+-} (0.0278, 0.0272), respectively. The ability to average over large numbers of objects and over the three fields yields a final displacement accuracy of a few thousandths of a pixel, corresponding to only 12 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. This is comparable to what has been achieved for other Local Group galaxies using Very Long Baseline Array observations of water masers. Potential systematic errors are controlled by an analysis strategy that corrects for detector charge transfer inefficiency, spatially and time-dependent geometric distortion, and point-spread function variations. The robustness of the PM measurements and uncertainties are supported by the fact that data from different instruments, taken at different times and with different telescope orientations, as well as measurements of different fields, all yield statistically consistent results. Papers II and III of this series explore the implications of the new measurements for our understanding of the history, future, and mass of the Local Group.

Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Anderson, Jay; Van der Marel, Roeland P., E-mail: tsohn@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-07-01

81

ULTRAVIOLET INDUCED MOTION OF A FLUORESCENT DUST CLOUD IN AN ARGON DIRECT CURRENT GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA  

SciTech Connect

Dusty plasmas consist of electrons, ions, neutrals and nm-?m sized particles commonly referred to as dust. In man-made plasmas this dust may represent impurities in a tokamak or plasma etching processing. In astrophysical plasmas this dust forms structures such as planetary rings and comet tails. To study dusty plasma dynamics an experiment was designed in which a 3:1 silica (<5 ?m diameter) and fl uorescent dust mixture was added to an argon DC glow discharge plasma and exposed to UV radiation. This fl uorescent lighting technique offers an advantage over laser scattering (which only allows two-dimensional slices of the cloud to be observed) and is simpler than scanning mirror techniques or particle image velocimetry. Under typical parameters (P=150 mTorr, V anode= 100 V, Vcathode= -400 V, Itotal < 2mA) when the cloud is exposed to the UV light (100W, ? = 365 nm) the mixture fl uoresces, moves ~2mm towards the light source and begins rotating in a clockwise manner (as seen from the cathode). By calibrating a UV lamp and adjusting the relative intensity of the UV with a variable transformer it was found that both translational and rotational velocities are a function of UV intensity. Additionally, it was determined that bulk cloud rotation is not seen when the dust tray is not grounded while bulk translation is. This ongoing experiment represents a novel way to control contamination in man-made plasmas and a path to a better understanding of UV-bathed plasma systems in space..

Hvasta, M.G.; and Zwicker, A.

2008-01-01

82

Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

83

Preliminary results of fluid dynamic model calculation of convective motion induced by solar heating at the Venus cloud top level.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thick cloud layer of Venus reflects solar radiation effectively, resulting in a Bond albedo of 76% (Moroz et al., 1985). Most of the incoming solar flux is absorbed in the upper cloud layer at 60-70 km altitude. An unknown UV absorber is a major sink of the solar energy at the cloud top level. It produces about 40-60% of the total solar heating near the cloud tops, depending on its vertical structure (Crisp et al., 1986; Lee et al., in preparation). UV images of Venus show a clear difference in morphology between laminar flow shaped clouds on the morning side and convective-like cells on the afternoon side of the planet in the equatorial region (Titov et al., 2012). This difference is probably related to strong solar heating at the cloud tops at the sub-solar point, rather than the influence from deeper level convection in the low and middle cloud layers (Imamura et al., 2014). Also, small difference in cloud top structures may trigger horizontal convection at this altitude, because various cloud top structures can significantly alter the solar heating and thermal cooling rates at the cloud tops (Lee et al., in preparation). Performing radiative forcing calculations for various cloud top structures using a radiative transfer model (SHDOM), we investigate the effect of solar heating at the cloud tops on atmospheric dynamics. We use CReSS (Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator), and consider the altitude range from 35 km to 90 km, covering a full cloud deck.

Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro

84

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)  

DOE Data Explorer

This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

85

Ladybug Motion 2D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about position, velocity and acceleration vectors. Move the ladybug by setting the position, velocity or acceleration, and see how the vectors change. Choose linear, circular or elliptical motion, and record and playback the motion to analyze the behavior.

Simulations, Phet I.; Podolefsky, Noah; Reid, Sam; Loeblein, Trish; Adams, Wendy

2009-04-01

86

Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research objectives in this proposal were part of a continuing program at UW-CIMSS to develop and refine an automated geostationary satellite winds processing system which can be utilized in both research and operational environments. The majority of the originally proposed tasks were successfully accomplished, and in some cases the progress exceeded the original goals. Much of the research and development supported by this grant resulted in upgrades and modifications to the existing automated satellite winds tracking algorithm. These modifications were put to the test through case study demonstrations and numerical model impact studies. After being successfully demonstrated, the modifications and upgrades were implemented into the NESDIS algorithms in Washington DC, and have become part of the operational support. A major focus of the research supported under this grant attended to the continued development of water vapor tracked winds from geostationary observations. The fully automated UW-CIMSS tracking algorithm has been tuned to provide complete upper-tropospheric coverage from this data source, with data set quality close to that of operational cloud motion winds. Multispectral water vapor observations were collected and processed from several different geostationary satellites. The tracking and quality control algorithms were tuned and refined based on ground-truth comparisons and case studies involving impact on numerical model analyses and forecasts. The results have shown the water vapor motion winds are of good quality, complement the cloud motion wind data, and can have a positive impact in NWP on many meteorological scales.

Velden, Christopher

1995-01-01

87

Investigating plasma motion of magnetic clouds at 1 AU through a velocity-modified cylindrical force-free flux rope model  

E-print Network

Magnetic clouds (MCs) are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and usually modeled by a flux rope. By assuming the quasi-steady evolution and self-similar expansion, we introduce three types of global motion into a cylindrical force-free flux rope model, and developed a new velocity-modified model for MCs. The three types of the global motion are the linear propagating motion away from the Sun, the expanding and the poloidal motion with respect to the axis of the MC. The model is applied to 72 MCs observed by Wind spacecraft to investigate the properties of the plasma motion of MCs. First, we find that some MCs had a significant propagation velocity perpendicular to the radial direction, suggesting the direct evidence of the CME's deflected propagation and/or rotation in interplanetary space. Second, we confirm the previous results that the expansion speed is correlated with the radial propagation speed and most MCs did not expand self-similarly at 1 AU. In our statistics, about 6...

Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Rui; Wang, S

2015-01-01

88

Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust of the proposed effort under this contract is aimed at improving techniques to track water vapor data in sequences of imagery from geostationary satellites. In regards to this task, significant testing, evaluation, and progress was accomplished during this period. Sets of winds derived from Meteosat data were routinely produced during Atlantic hurricane events in the 1993 season. These wind sets were delivered via Internet in real time to the Hurricane Research Division in Miami for their evaluation in a track forecast model. For eighteen cases in which 72-hour forecasts were produced, thirteen resulted in track forecast improvements (some quite significant). In addition, quality-controlled Meteosat water vapor winds produced by NESDIS were validated against rawinsondes, yielding an 8 m/s RMS. This figure is comparable to upper-level cloud drift wind accuracies. Given the complementary horizontal coverage in cloud-free areas, we believe that water vapor vectors can supplement cloud-drift wind information to provide good full-disk coverage of the upper tropospheric flow. The impact of these winds on numerical analysis and forecasts will be tested in the next reporting period.

Velden, Christopher S.

1994-01-01

89

Cloud Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

90

Reproductive ecology of distylous Palicourea Padifolia (Rubiaceae) in a tropical montane cloud forest. I. Hummingbirds' effectiveness as pollen vectors.  

PubMed

The adaptiveness of distyly has been typically investigated in terms of its female function, specifically pollen receipt. However, pollen loads on stigmas can only provide moderate support for Darwin's hypothesis of the promotion of legitimate crosses. To determine the effectiveness of hummingbirds as pollen vectors between floral morphs and the consequences in terms of male (pollen transfer) and female function (pollen receipt) in Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae), floral visitors, their foraging modes, and temporal patterns of floral visitation were observed and documented. Differences in pollen and stigma morphology, pollen flow, rates of pollen deposition, and/or stigmatic pollen loads were then evaluated for their contribution toward differences in reproductive output between floral morphs. A pollination experiment with stuffed hummingbirds that varied in bill size was done to evaluate the contribution of bill variation toward differences between floral morphs in pollen receipt and pollen transfer and female reproductive output. Anthers of long-styled flowers contained significantly more and smaller pollen grains than those of short-styled flowers, independently of corolla and anther lengths. The shape and orientation of the stigma lobes differed between morphs and were significantly longer among short-styled flowers. Hummingbird visitation rates did not differ significantly between floral morphs, and foraging movements from focal plants towards neighboring plants were independent of floral morph. Stigmatic pollen loads under field conditions and those after controlled hummingbird visitation, along with rates of pollen accumulation through the day indicated that stigmas of short-styled flowers receive proportionately more legitimate (intermorph) pollen grains than did those of long-styled flowers. However, the species of hummingbird was marginally significant in explaining variation in pollen deposition on stigmas. Lastly, intermorph pollinations of P. padifolia resulted in significant differences in fruit production between floral morphs, independent of pollination treatment and pollinator species; short-styled flowers proportionately developed almost twice the number of fruits developed by long-styled flowers. PMID:21653461

Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Jiménez, Leonor; González, Clementina; Hernández, Angélica

2004-07-01

91

Climatology of Vertical Air Motion During Rainfall in Niamey, Niger and Black Forest, Germany using an Innovative Cloud Radar Retrieval Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has deployed its ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to collect continuous measurements in several climatologically distinct locations, including a year-long stay in Niamey, Niger and eight months in Germany's Black Forest. The AMF includes a vertically pointing 95 GHz cloud radar, a tool of choice for profiling non-precipitating clouds at high spatial and temporal resolutions, but commonly considered poorly suited to the quantitative study of precipitation, due in large part to attenuation. However, an innovative technique first explored by Lhermitte in the late 1980s, and subsequently by others, sidesteps much of the quantitative uncertainty imposed by attenuation by exploiting non-Rayleigh resonance effects of scattering from raindrops at 95 GHz. Given a modest range of suitable drop sizes, non-Rayleigh resonances appear as distinct peaks and valleys in Doppler spectra, which once identified, can be directly mapped to known drop sizes by Mie theory. Although attenuation in rain at 95 GHz is substantial, key to the technique is that all non-Rayleigh peaks and valleys in a given Doppler spectrum are affected equally, preserving their relative positions and magnitudes (barring feature extinction). Vertical air motion is retrieved very accurately by taking the difference between the measured Doppler velocity of a resonance feature (usually the first valley) and the known terminal velocity of its associated drop size. We have achieved promising retrieval accuracies at spatial and temporal resolutions of 30 meters and 2 seconds. Here we present lessons learned when the retrieval technique is automated and applied to measurements taken in rain over the full durations of the Niamey and Black Forest AMF deployments, comparing vertical air velocity patterns of monsoonal precipitation over the African desert with those of the orographically influenced precipitation in Germany's mountains.

Luke, E. P.; Giangrande, S. E.; Kollias, P.

2008-12-01

92

Short-interval SMS wind vector determinations for a severe local storms area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short-interval SMS-2 visible digital image data are used to derive wind vectors from cloud tracking on time-lapsed sequences of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on May 6, 1975 hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. Cloud tracking is performed on the Goddard Space Flight Center Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. Lower tropospheric cumulus tracers are selected with the assistance of a cloud-top height algorithm. Divergence is derived from the cloud motions using a modified Cressman (1959) objective analysis technique which is designed to organize irregularly spaced wind vectors into uniformly gridded wind fields. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development. For this case, an area of convergence appeared ahead of the dry line and coincided with the developing area of severe weather. The magnitude of the maximum convergence varied between -10 to the -5th and -10 to the -14th per sec. The number of satellite-derived wind vectors which were required to describe conditions of the low-level atmosphere was adequate before numerous cumulonimbus cells formed. This technique is limited in areas of advanced convection.

Peslen, C. A.

1980-01-01

93

Closed Large Cell Clouds  

article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

2013-04-19

94

Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2013-12-01

95

MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning  

...  Resolution-corrected Cloud Fractions, Support Vector Machine (SVM) Scene Classifiers Beta:  SVM Cirrus Fraction ... Specification Rev N  (PDF). Implemented Support Vector Machine (SVM) Scene Classifiers and Cirrus Mask. New seasonal thresholds ...

2014-08-22

96

Horizontal structure of planetary-scale waves at the cloud top of Venus deduced from Galileo SSI images with an improved cloud-tracking technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved cloud tracking method for deriving wind velocities from successive planetary images was developed. The new method incorporates into the traditional cross-correlation method an algorithm that corrects for erroneous cloud motion vectors by re-determining the most plausible correlation peak among all of the local maxima on the correlation surface by comparing each vector with its neighboring vectors. The newly developed method was applied to the Venusian violet images obtained by the Solid State Imaging system (SSI) onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its Venus flyby. Although the results may be biased by the choice of spatial scale of atmospheric features, the cloud tracking is the most practical mean of estimating the wind velocities with extensive spatial and temporal coverage. The two-dimensional distribution of the horizontal wind vector field over 5 days was obtained. It was found from these wind maps that the solar-fixed component in 1990 was similar to that in 1982 obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter. The deviation of the instantaneous zonal wind field from the solar-fixed component shows a distinct wavenumber-1 structure in the equatorial region. On the assumption that this structure is a manifestation of an equatorial Kelvin wave, the phase relationship between the zonal wind and the cloud brightness suggests a short photochemical lifetime of the violet absorber. The momentum deposition by this Kelvin wave, which is subject to radiative damping, would induce a westward mean-wind acceleration of ?0.3 m s-1 per Earth day.

Kouyama, Toru; Imamura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masato; Satoh, Takehiko; Futaana, Yoshihumi

2012-01-01

97

Interactive Motion Segmentation Claudia Nieuwenhuis1  

E-print Network

-Nuremberg). motion vectors (Figure 1 shows a water vortex with motion vectors pointing in all directions alongInteractive Motion Segmentation Claudia Nieuwenhuis1 , Benjamin Berkels2 , Martin Rumpf2 , Daniel, Germany {berkels,rumpf}@ins.uni-bonn.de Abstract. Interactive motion segmentation is an important task

Rumpf, Martin

98

Motion Graph & Motion Retargeting motion capture  

E-print Network

display MoCap database motion 10 Motion Graph Motion Graph skeleton skin Motion Retargeting skeleton skeleton skin model skeleton project Motion Graph Motion Retargeting 2 Related Work MotionMotion Graph & Motion Retargeting R02944001 Abstract motion capture project Motion Graph

Ouhyoung, Ming

99

REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF DISTYLOUS PALICOUREA PADIFOLIA (RUBIACEAE) IN A TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FOREST .I. H UMMINGBIRDS' EFFECTIVENESS AS POLLEN VECTORS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptiveness of distyly has been typically investigated in terms of its female function, specifically pollen receipt. However, pollen loads on stigmas can only provide moderate support for Darwin's hypothesis of the promotion of legitimate crosses. To determine the effectiveness of hummingbirds as pollen vectors between floral morphs and the consequences in terms of male (pollen transfer) and female function

JUAN FRANCISCO ORNELAS; LEONOR JIMENEZ; CLEMENTINA GONZALEZ; ANGELICA HERNANDEZ

100

Molecular Cloud Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe the scenario of molecular cloud (MC) evolution that has emerged over the past decade or so. MCs can start out as cold atomic clouds formed by compressive motions in the warm neutral medium (WNM) of galaxies. Such motions can be driven by large-scale instabilities, or by local turbulence. The compressions induce a phase transition to the cold neutral medium (CNM) to form growing cold atomic clouds, which in their early stages may constitute thin CNM sheets. Several dynamical instabilities soon destabilize a cloud, rendering it turbulent. For solar neighborhood conditions, a cloud is coincidentally expected to become molecular, magnetically supercritical, and gravitationally dominated at roughly the same column density, N ˜ 1.5×1021 cm-2 ? 10 M?pc-2. At this point, the cloud begins to contract gravitationally. However, before its global collapse is completed (˜107 yr later), the nonlinear density fluctuations within the cloud, which have shorter local free-fall times, collapse first and begin forming stars, a few Myr after the global contraction started. Large-scale fluctuations of lower mean densities collapse later, so the formation of massive star-forming regions is expected to occur late in the evolution of a large cloud complex, while scattered low-mass regions are expected to form earlier. Eventually, the local star formation episodes are terminated by stellar feedback, which disperses the local dense gas. More work is necessary to clarify the details and characteristic scales of this process.

Vázquez-Semadeni, E.

2010-12-01

101

Hybrid VQ of video sequences using quadtree motion segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hybrid coding scheme for video sequences is presented. With the introduction of a fast quadtree motion segmentation algorithm, motion vectors are estimated with variable size block matching which produces better performance considering both overhead motion information and motion compensated prediction error. Small blocks containing high motion activities are intraframe vector quantized, whereas large blocks representing smooth motion areas are first decimated and then interframe vector quantized. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs very well.

Li, Wenhua; Salari, Ezzatollah

1994-09-01

102

A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Additional, secondary velocity components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume holding the gas that we identify with the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about - 7.2 km/s with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of an implosive shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B.

2015-01-01

103

Physclips: Circular Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a multimedia introduction to circular motion. It includes topics such as acceleration, velocity, vectors, the Earth's rotation, and nonuniform circular motion. Short video clips and diagrams are integrated with text to promote understanding of important concepts. This tutorial is part of the PhysClip collection of web-based resources on introductory mechanics, electricity, and magnetism.

Wolfe, Joe

2009-10-14

104

General Physics I Exam 1 -Chs. 1,2,3 -Units, Motion, Vectors Sep. 15, 2010 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time  

E-print Network

City to Manhattan, Kansas. Do not include the time for resting. 7. (3) T F A car with an eastward achieve? 3 #12;13. (14) A river 420 m wide flows at a uniform 2.5 m/s east. Amy can row her boat the river. a) (6) Make a sketch to the right, showing and labeling the vectors for the velocities of

Wysin, Gary

105

Vector reconstruction from firing rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of systems including wind detection in the cricket, visual motion perception and coding of arm movement direction in the monkey and place cell response to position in the rat hippocampus, firing rates in a population of tuned neurons are correlated with a vector quantity. We examine and compare several methods that allow the coded vector to be

Emilio Salinas; L. F. Abbott

1994-01-01

106

Static imaging of motion: motion texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how motion segmentation can be achieved by analyzing of a single static image that is created from a series of picture frames. The key idea is motion imaging; in other words, motion is expressed in static images by integrating, frame after frame, the spatiotemporal fluctuations of the gradient gray level at each local area. This tends to create blurred or attached line images (images with lines that show the path of movement of an object through space) on moving objects. We call this 'motion texture'. We computed motion texture images based on the animation of a natural scene and on a number of computer synthesized animations containing groups of moving objects (random dots). Moreover, we applied two different texture analyses to the motion textured images for segmentation: a texture analysis based on the local homogeneity of gray level gradation in similarly textured regions and another based on the structural feature of gray level gradation in motion texture. Experiments showed that subjective visual impressions of segmentation were quite different for these animations. The texture segmentation described here successfully grouped moving objects coincident to subjective impressions. In our random dot animations, the density of the basic motion vectors extracted from each pair of successive frames was set at a constant to compensate for the dot grouping effect based on the vector density. The dot appearance period (lifetime) is varied across the animations. In a long lifetime random dot animation, region boundaries can be more clearly perceived than in a short one. The different impressions may be explained by analyzing the motion texture elements, but can not always be represented successfully using the motion vectors between two successive frames whose density is set at a constant between the animations with the different lifetime.

Arimura, Koichi

1992-05-01

107

Cloud Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners complete a series of hands-on and investigative activities to explore cumulus clouds. Learners observe cumulus clouds outside, read a book about how cumulus clouds differ from other clouds, and create a list of words that describe cumulus clouds. Then, learners create their own cumulus cloud out of white paper and complete the Cloud Fun Student Activity sheet that includes a description of the cloud and what the weather was like on the day the cloud was observed. Learners will use their five senses to describe their clouds. Clouds can be displayed in the classroom or assembled into a class book. This lesson guide includes brief background information about cumulus clouds, adaptations for younger and older learners, and extension ideas.

Program, The G.

2006-01-01

108

On the accuracy of approximation of a small celestial body motion using intermediate perturbed orbits calculated from two position vectors and three observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine intermediate perturbed orbits proposed by the first author previously, defined from the two position vectors and three angular coordinates of a small celestial body. It is shown theoretically, that at a small reference time interval covering the measurements the approximation accuracy of real movements by these orbits corresponds approximately to the third order of osculation. The smaller reference interval of time, the better this correspondence. Laws of variation of the methodical errors in constructing intermediate orbits subject to the length of reference time interval are deduced. According to these laws, the convergence rate of the methods to the exact solution (upon reducing the reference interval of time) is higher by two orders of magnitude than in the case of conventional methods using the Keplerian unperturbed orbit. The considered orbits are among the most accurate in set of orbits of their class determined by the order of osculation. The theoretical results are validated by numerical examples.

Shefer, V. A.; Shefer, O. V.

2015-01-01

109

Cloud Spirals and Outflow in Tropical Storm Katrina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Tuesday, August 30, 2005, NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer retrieved cloud-top heights and cloud-tracked wind velocities for Tropical Storm Katrina, as the center of the storm was situated over the Tennessee valley. At this time Katrina was weakening and no longer classified as a hurricane, and would soon become an extratropical depression. Measurements such as these can help atmospheric scientists compare results of computer-generated hurricane simulations with observed conditions, ultimately allowing them to better represent and understand physical processes occurring in hurricanes.

Because air currents are influenced by the Coriolis force (caused by the rotation of the Earth), Northern Hemisphere hurricanes are characterized by an inward counterclockwise (cyclonic) rotation towards the center. It is less widely known that, at high altitudes, outward-spreading bands of cloud rotate in a clockwise (anticyclonic) direction. The image on the left shows the retrieved cloud-tracked winds as red arrows superimposed across the natural color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. Both the counter-clockwise motion for the lower-level storm clouds and the clockwise motion for the upper clouds are apparent in these images. The speeds for the clockwise upper level winds have typical values between 40 and 45 m/s (144-162 km/hr). The low level counterclockwise winds have typical values between 7 and 24 m/s (25-86 km/hr), weakening with distance from the storm center. The image on the right displays the cloud-top height retrievals. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. Both the wind velocity vectors and the cloud-top height field were produced by automated computer recognition of displacements in spatial features within successive MISR images acquired at different view angles and at slightly different times.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously, viewing the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude every nine days. This image covers an area of about 380 kilometers by 1970 kilometers. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 30324 and utilize data from blocks 55-68 within World Reference System-2 path 22.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology.

2005-01-01

110

Turbulence Decay and Cloud Core Relaxation in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

Gao, Yang; Xu, Haitao; Law, Chung K.

2015-02-01

111

Paper submitted to the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation, August 2000 VERTICAL MOTIONS OF DROPS OF DIFFERENT SIZES IN MARINE STRATUS  

E-print Network

MOTIONS OF DROPS OF DIFFERENT SIZES IN MARINE STRATUS Swarndeep S. Gill* and Gabor Vali Dept formation in warm marine stratus is an important current topic. A key element to understanding the process are clearly invalid in stratus. While the desired histories are unobtainable, some clues can be derived from

Vali, Gabor

112

Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

113

Vector Voyage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

Jeff White

2004-01-01

114

A Porn Video Detecting Method Based on Motion Features Using HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of identified reciprocating motion in pornographic video from other human action using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The motion vectors are obtained by decoding the compressed MPEG video. Then the feature vectors are extracted by calculating the direction and the magnitude of the motion vectors. The feature vectors are fed to Hidden Markov Model for training

Zhiyi Qu; Yanmin Liu; Ying Liu; Kang Jiu; Yong Chen

2009-01-01

115

Short-term forecasting of cloud images using local features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term forecasting of cloud distribution within a sequence of all-sky images is an important issue in meteorological area. In this work, a cloud image forecasting system is designed, which includes three steps---cloud detection, cloud matching and motion estimation. We treat cloud detection as a classification problem based on Linear Discriminant Analysis. During the matching, a set of Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) are extracted to represent the cloud, then clouds are matched by computing correspondences between SURF features. Finally, affine transform is applied to estimate the motion of cloud. This local features based method is capable of predicting the rotation and scaling of cloud, while the traditional method is only limited to translational motion. Objective evaluation results show higher accuracy of the proposed method compared with some other algorithms.

Jiang, Wenhui; Su, Fei; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

116

Robust vector sensor array processing and performance analysis  

E-print Network

Acoustic vector sensors, which measure scalar pressure along with particle motion (a vector quantity), feature many advantages over omnidirectional hydrophone sensors. A sizable literature exists on the theory of processing ...

Poulsen, Andrew Joseph

2009-01-01

117

Studies of radiative effects for polar stratospheric clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Antarctic Ozone Experiment of 1987 are used to model the radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds. Heating and cooling rates are examined, showing that the heating and/or cooling rates within a polar stratospheric cloud depend on particle size, composition, optical depth of the cloud, solar angle, and temperature profile. The rates for an optically thin Type I cloud are too small to drive vertical motions in the stratosphere, while optically thin Type II clouds cause a stratospheric cooling.

Kinne, S.; Toon, O. B.

1989-01-01

118

A method for reciprocating motion detection in porn video based on motion features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm for detecting the human's reciprocating motion in pornographic videos. First, the motion vector is extracted from mpeg video stream and pretreated so that the motion features are extracted by analyzing the motion rule of the objectionable videos. Then the whole videos are detected through setting a threshold. Experimental results demonstrate that the correct recognition

Qu Zhiyi; Liu Yanmin; Liu Ying; Jiu Kang; Chen Yong

2009-01-01

119

Graph Matching Motion Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graph Matching Motion Model shows the graph of position as a function of time, and the motion diagram, for a particular object that experiences one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. Using the sliders, try to match the motion of the red object to that of the blue object - this should also get the two position versus time graphs to match. Then, predict what the velocity and acceleration graphs look like, by sliding the end points of the red lines up or down to give correct straight-line graphs. The Graph Matching Motion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_graph_matching.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-05-02

120

Precise apparent places of stars by vector transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified algorithm in rectangular coordinates for the reduction of star places for proper motion, parallax, relativistic light deflection and aberration is derived from the corresponding vector relations. The reduction of the proper motions is also considered.

Caprioli, G.

121

Generalizing the Poynting Vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An examination of the Poynting theorem reveals that the Poynting vector E × H represents energy flow in an electromagnetic wave only when D is proportional to E and B to H. Thus the Poynting theorem does not apply to interactions for which the constitutive relations mix electric and magnetic variables, are nonlinear in the fields, involve derivatives of the fields (nonlocal or wavevector-dispersive interactions), or involve nonelectromagnetic fields such as an acoustic field needed for acoustooptic diffraction. To obtain an energy flow vector that includes all these possibilities it is necessary to treat the material medium as fundamentally as the electromagnetic field, i.e. with equations of motion for all of the longwavelength (continuum) modes of excitation of the medium -- acoustic, optic (ionic and, to a certain degree, electronic) and spin. We have used a Lagrangian theory of dielectric crystals to produce an energy conservation statement whose energy flow vector includes all of the above generalizations. We illustrate the power of the new energy flow vector by applying it to two linear optical interactions (optical activity and exciton-polariton propagation, both wavevector-dispersive interactions) for which the Poynting vector fails.

Nelson, D. F.

1996-05-01

122

Force and Motion: Position and Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides an understanding of how changes in position and motion can affect the way objects move, focusing on constant motion (where the direction and speed remain the same) and acceleration (a change in motion due to a change in an object's direction or speed). The position of an object must be described relative to some other object while the motion of an object can be described by its direction and speed. Velocity is a measure of both an object's speed and its direction (and can be described by vectors). Learning Outcomes:� Identify the position of one object relative to the position of another object by providing the approximate distance and angles between the objects, the angles being measured from some reference line.� Define the concepts of speed and velocity.� Determine the average speed of an object given necessary information.� Describe, draw, or otherwise detail the velocity of an object given magnitude and direction.� Define acceleration.� Recognize examples of acceleration and provide examples of acceleration.� Distinguish between constant and changing motion.� Distinguish increasing speed from increasing acceleration.� Recognize that the state of rest is a state of zero speed (rather than as something fundamentally different than motion).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

123

Synoptic and Mesoscale Cloud Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers in this section include: 1)'Wind Derivation from Geostationary Satellites'; 2) 'The Operational Processing of Wind Estimates from Cloud Motions: Past, Present, and Future'; 3) 'Intercomparision of SMS Wind Sets: A Study Using Rapid Scan Imagery'; 4) 'Mesoscale Wind Fields for a Severe Storm Situation Determined from SMS Cloud Observations'; 5) 'Moisture Convergence Using Satellite-Derived Wind Fields: A Severe Local Storm Case Study'

Wilson, G.

1982-01-01

124

Search Cloud  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... 64 of Top 110 zoloft Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

125

Cloud Computing  

SciTech Connect

Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

2009-12-04

126

1D Uniformly Accelerated Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts an object moving along a "track" marked in .5 meter intervals. As the object moves, displacement-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs record the motion in real time. The user may select various types of motion to be depicted, as well as edit a velocity-time graph and have the resulting motion depicted. As the object moves, color coded vectors display its displacement, velocity and acceleration.

127

One-Parameter Closed Dual Spherical Motions and Holditch's Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, for one-parameter closed dual spherical motions, we define the dual versions of the area vector of a given closed space curve, and the area projection of this curve in the direction of a given unit vector. The relationship between the above dual versions and the dual Steiner vector of the motion is used to give a generalization

Rashad A. Abdel-Baky

128

Multiscale Cloud System Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

2009-01-01

129

Interactive physically-based cloud simulation  

E-print Network

computational fluid solver. This allows us to simulate the complex air motion that contributes to cloud formation in our atmosphere. Among the natural processes that we simulate are buoyancy, relative humidity, and condensation. Because we have built...

Overby, Derek Robert

2002-01-01

130

Vector processing  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for adapting a scalar data processor having a cache memory connected between main memory and a central processing unit, for efficient vector processing including: means for defining separate scalar and vector data areas in the cache memory, vector mode selection means for selectively enabling access to either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, cache memory addressing means including separate vector and scalar addressing means responsive to the vector mode selection means and the central processing unit for accessing either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, wherein the central processing unit includes: a pair of operand registers, and a result register, coupling means for providing a data path from the operand registers to an ALU and a further data path from an ALU to the result register, second coupling means for providing a data path from the cache memory to one of the operand registers and to the result register; an output buffer; third coupling means providing a data path from either of the operand registers to the second coupling means and to the output buffer; fourth coupling means providing a data path from the second coupling means or the output buffer to the cache memory; and fifth coupling means providing a data path from the result register to either of the operand registers.

Drimak, E.G.

1986-06-10

131

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet displays the position, velocity, and acceleration vectors for an object moving in uniform circular motion. The vectors are shown on different graphs. The graphs can be set to display constant motion or they can be paused and moved through the motion step by step.

Sternin, Edward

2006-04-14

132

The Physics Classroom: Vectors - Fundamentals and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial provides comprehensive help and practice in understanding vector quantities. It is organized into six sections: vector direction, vector addition, resultants, components, vector resolution, and component addition. It closes with relative velocity and riverboat problems, plus a discussion of the interdependence of perpendicular components of motion. Each section explains a topic and provides exercises for learner self-assessment. Images, animations, and graphs are placed throughout to illustrate the concepts. Editor's Note: Fluency in vector operations requires practice, and this tutorial provides it. Additional guidance is offered by clicking "Student Extras" at the top of the tutorial page.

2004-12-14

133

Vector Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vector fields are vectors which change from point to point. A standard example is the velocity of moving air, in other words, wind. For instance, the current wind pattern in the San Francisco area can be found at . This site has a 2-dimensional representation; careful reading of the webpage will tell you at what elevation the wind is shown. How would you represent a vector field in 3 dimensions? What features are important? Some simple examples are shown. Each can be rotated by clicking and dragging with the mouse. Explore!

Ay, Tevian

2006-01-01

134

Cloning vector  

DOEpatents

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

1994-12-27

135

A new parameterization of polar motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rotational motion of the earth is decomposed into spin, polar motion and local motions. The rotation vector components are associated to phenomena such as precession, nutation, diurnal spin, polar motion and local motions. The above decomposition is accomplished without refering to an earth-fixed CIO pole or BIH zero meridian. The time-like variations of the coordinates of a surface point in a geocentric equatorial reference frame are presented as a function of the rotation vector components. In the rigid earth approximation three scalar parameters are necessary for evaluating point coordinate variations, namely spin rate of the earth, polar motion magnitude and spin rate of the polar motion vector. Two numerical examples are given as an illustration.

Papo, H. B.

1981-01-01

136

Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

1974-01-01

137

An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

Kagan, David

2011-01-01

138

Vector quantization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

Gray, Robert M.

1989-01-01

139

EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping elements of the puzzle, and those which combine them. Scales, assumptions and the conditions used in order to describe a particular single process of interest must be consistent with the conditions in clouds. The papers in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics collectively demonstrate (i) the variation in scientific approaches towards investigating cloud processes, (ii) the various stages of shaping elements of the puzzle, and (iii) some attempts to put the pieces together. These papers present just a small subset of loosely arranged elements in an initial stage of puzzle creation. Addressed by this issue is one of the important problems in our understanding of cloud processes—the interaction between cloud particles and turbulence. There is currently a gap between the cloud physics community and scientists working in wind tunnels, on turbulence theory and particle interactions. This collection is intended to narrow this gap by bringing together work by theoreticians, modelers, laboratory experimentalists and those who measure and observe actual processes in clouds. It forms a collage of contributions showing various approaches to cloud processes including: • theoretical works with possible applications to clouds (Bistagnino and Boffetta, Gustavsson et al), • an attempt to construct a phenomenological description of clouds and rain (Lovejoy and Schertzer), • simplified models designed to parameterize turbulence micro- and macro-effects (Celani et al, Derevyanko et al), • focused theoretical research aimed at particular cloud processes (Ayala et al, parts I and II, Wang et al), • laboratory and modeling studies of complex cloud processes (Malinowski et al). This collage is far from being complete but, hopefully, should give the reader a representative impression of the current state of knowledge in the field. We hope it will be useful to all scientists whose work is inspired by cloud processes. Focus on Cloud Physics Contents The development of ice in a cumulus cloud over southwest England Yahui Huang, Alan M Blyth, Philip R A Brown, Tom W Choularton,

Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

2008-07-01

140

Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

2008-09-07

141

Venus: cloud level circulation during 1982 as determined from Pioneer cloud photopolarimeter images. I. Time and zonally averaged circulation  

SciTech Connect

Significant mean cloud level circulation changes since 1974, noted in 1982 Venus cloud motion observations, have been validated by independent measurements of cloud motions in nearly-identical sets of images; agreement is obtained not only for the average zonal and meridional components, but for the eddy circulation's meridional transport of momentum. In contrast to 1979 observations, the time latitudinal profile and the longitudinally-averaged zonal component of the cloud motions for 1982 exhibit jets near 45 deg latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres. 30 references.

Limaye, S.S.; Grassotti, C.; Kuetemeyer, M.J.

1988-02-01

142

Operational implications of a cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud would grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. Results are discussed with operational weather forecasters in mind. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents, and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. An empirical forecast technique for Shuttle cloud rise is presented and differences between natural atmospheric convection and exhaust clouds are discussed.

Zak, J. A.

1989-01-01

143

ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization  

SciTech Connect

The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

Xu, Kuan-Man

2006-10-02

144

A cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud could grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. In moist, unstable atmospheres simulated clouds rose to about 3.5 km in the first 4 to 8 minutes then decayed. Liquid water contents ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 g kg-1 mixing ratios and vertical motions were from 2 to 10 ms-1. An inversion served both to reduce entrainment (and erosion) at the top and to prevent continued cloud rise. Even in the most unstable atmospheres, the ground cloud did not rise beyond 4 km and in stable atmospheres with strong low level inversions the cloud could be trapped below 500 m. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. One case of a simulated TITAN rocket explosion is also discussed.

Chen, C.; Zak, J. A.

1989-01-01

145

The influence of transverse motion within an atomic gravimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limits on the long-term stability and accuracy of a second generation cold atom gravimeter are investigated. We demonstrate a measurement protocol based on four interleaved measurement configurations, which allows rejection of most of the systematic effects, but not those related to Coriolis acceleration and wave-front distortions. Both are related to the transverse motion of the atomic cloud. Carrying out measurements with opposite orientations with respect to the Earth's rotation vector direction allows us to separate the effects and correct for the Coriolis shift. Finally, measurements at different atomic temperatures are presented and analyzed. In particular, we show the difficulty of extrapolating these measurements to zero temperature, which is required in order to correct for the bias due to wave-front distortions.

Louchet-Chauvet, Anne; Farah, Tristan; Bodart, Quentin; Clairon, André; Landragin, Arnaud; Merlet, Sébastien; Pereira Dos Santos, Franck

2011-06-01

146

Beyond pixels : exploring new representations and applications for motion analysis  

E-print Network

The focus of motion analysis has been on estimating a flow vector for every pixel by matching intensities. In my thesis, I will explore motion representations beyond the pixel level and new applications to which these ...

Liu, Ce, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

147

Constrained water cloud generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast generation of large cloudy volumes with imposed cloud cover fractions and ambient vertical profiles is very important for the realistic simulation of atmospheric scenes. The model proposed here is the second step of a two-step model composed on the one hand of a volume generator based on a Fourier filtering method and on the other hand of a physical generator filling the volume with physical parameters. After a description of the general generation scheme, this paper focuses on the simulation of vertical profiles of water content (liquid, vapour) coupled with other state parameters (temperature, pressure, vertical velocity) via thermodynamic and hydrodynamic equations by local forcing of ambient conditions. The method for solving these equations is explained and applied to practical cases. First, by assuming that the actual temperature at the cloud base is equal to the dew temperature and by imposing a moist pseudo-adiabatic temperature gradient between the cloud top and bottom, the temperature profile in the cloud is found. When conditional instability occurs, the initial temperature profile between the ground and the cloud base is iteratively shifted to lower values until absolute stability is reached. Then the liquid water content is calculated by integrating the equation of water conservation, and the water vapour content by assuming that the cloud is everywhere saturated. Eventually, the vertical velocity is estimated by integration of the momentum equation. This method gives results in good agreement with published measurements, analytical and numerical models. Eventually, further developments of the column model, including the effects of phase transitions, turbulence, horizontal motions and mixing with the surrounding medium, are proposed in the concluding section.

Berton, Roland P. H.

2008-07-01

148

Motion Commotion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn why and how motion occurs and what governs changes in motion, as described by Newton's three laws of motion. They gain hands-on experience with the concepts of forces, changes in motion, and action and reaction. In an associated literacy activity, students design a behavioral survey and learn basic protocol for primary research, survey design and report writing.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

149

Seeing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore your own straight-line motion using a motion sensor to generate distance versus time graphs of your own motion. Learn how changes in speed and direction affect the graph, and gain an understanding of how motion can be represented on a graph.

2012-07-19

150

Hierarchical motion search for H.264 variable-block-size motion compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to conventional video standards, the main features of H.264 standard are its high coding efficiency and its network friendliness. In spite of these outstanding merits, it is not easy to implement H.264 codec as a real-time system, due to its requirements of large memory bandwidth and intensive computation. Although the variable-block-size motion compensation using multiple reference frames is one of the key coding tools to bring about its main performance gain, its optimal use demands substantial computation for the rate-distortion calculation of all possible combinations of coding modes and estimation of the best motion vector. Many existing fast motion estimation algorithms are not suitable for H.264, which employs variable motion block sizes. We propose an adaptive motion search scheme utilizing the hierarchical block structure based on the deviation of subblock motion vectors. The proposed fast scheme adjusts the search center and search pattern according to the subblock motion-vector distribution.

Choi, Woong Il; Jeon, Byeungwoo

2006-01-01

151

Cloud Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

2011-01-01

152

Cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with any new trend in the IT world, enterprises must figure out the benefits and risks of cloud computing and the best way to use this technology. The buzz around cloud computing has reached a fever pitch. Some believe it is a disruptive trend representing the next stage in the evolution of the internet. Others believe it is hype,

Prashant Pandey; Sandeep Singh; Suraj Singh

2010-01-01

153

Cloud Cover  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2012-01-01

154

Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics #12;Cloud Computing: what is it? · Cloud Computing Computing abstracts infrastructure from application. · Cloud Computing should save you time the way software & deploy your application Cloud Computing #12;Advantages: ­ Reliability: Decoupling applications from

Ferrara, Katherine W.

155

Pipeline vectorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents pipeline vectorization, amethod for synthesizing hardware pipelines based on softwarevectorizing compilers. The method improves eciencyand ease of development of hardware designs, particularlyfor users with little electronics design experience. We proposeseveral loop transformations to customize pipelinesto meet hardware resource constraints, while maximizingavailable parallelism. For run-time recongurable systems,we apply hardware specialization to increase...

Markus Weinhardt; Wayne Luk

2001-01-01

156

Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

1993-01-01

157

Block Motion Model for Optical Flow with Smoothness Prior Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit constraint is introduced into the Lucas-Kanade gradient based block motion model. This constraint helps the estimation process to consider surrounding motion vectors during its calculation. Consequently a better motion field can be produced than that by the original block motion model. Further, a discontinuity adaptive function is introduced into the Lucas-Kanade equation, which helps to preserve the discontinuities

Stephanus Surijadarma Tandjung; Seah Hock Soon; Qian Kemao

2006-01-01

158

OPTIMUM UPDATE STEP FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED LIFTED WAVELET CODING  

E-print Network

methods have been compared to compute backward motion fields for the update step [5], and some authors (eOPTIMUM UPDATE STEP FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED LIFTED WAVELET CODING (Invited Paper) Bernd Girod, the update step typically reverses the motion vectors from the prediction step. Where motion compensation

Girod, Bernd

159

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

160

Diurnal polar motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.

Mcclure, P.

1973-01-01

161

Study on Retail Customer Classification Based on Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose application of data mining method of support vector machine to large scale retail enterprises and establish a consumer behavior model SVMCC based on support vector machine. The model adopts the mapping mechanism and uncertain reasoning of cloud processing to distinctly express the relations among multi-attributes which affect the result of classification. This model can

Yangfeng Qian; Chunhua Ju

2009-01-01

162

Cloud Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these two matching games from the Web Weather for Kids site to pair cloud images with their names/types! Developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, this site requires Java.

Programs, University C.

2010-01-01

163

Characteristic nature of vertical motions observed in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the Arctic Ocean, little is known on cloud-generated buoyant overturning vertical motions within mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds. Characteristics of such motions are important for understanding the diabatic processes associated with the vertical motions, the lifetime of the cloud layer and its micro- and macrophysical characteristics. In this study, we exploit a suite of surface-based remote sensors over the high-Arctic sea ice during a weeklong period of persistent stratocumulus in August 2008 to derive the in-cloud vertical motion characteristics. In-cloud vertical velocity skewness and variance profiles are found to be strikingly different from observations within lower-latitude stratocumulus, suggesting these Arctic mixed-phase clouds interact differently with the atmospheric thermodynamics (cloud tops extending above a stable temperature inversion base) and with a different coupling state between surface and cloud. We find evidence of cloud-generated vertical mixing below cloud base, regardless of surface-cloud coupling state, although a decoupled surface-cloud state occurred most frequently. Detailed case studies are examined, focusing on three levels within the cloud layer, where wavelet and power spectral analyses are applied to characterize the dominant temporal and horizontal scales associated with cloud-generated vertical motions. In general, we find a positively correlated vertical motion signal amongst vertical levels within the cloud and across the full cloud layer depth. The coherency is dependent upon other non-cloud controlled factors, such as larger, mesoscale weather passages and radiative shielding of low-level stratocumulus by one or more cloud layers above. Despite the coherency in vertical velocity across the cloud, the velocity variances were always weaker near cloud top, relative to cloud middle and base. Taken in combination with the skewness, variance and thermodynamic profile characteristics, we observe vertical motions near cloud top that behave differently than those from lower within the cloud layer. Spectral analysis indicates peak cloud-generated w variance timescales slowed only modestly during decoupled cases relative to coupled; horizontal wavelengths only slightly increased when transitioning from coupling to decoupling. The similarities in scales suggests that perhaps the dominant forcing for all cases is generated from the cloud layer, and it is not the surface forcing that characterizes the time- and space scales of in-cloud vertical velocity variance. This points toward the resilient nature of Arctic mixed-phase clouds to persist when characterized by thermodynamic regimes unique to the Arctic.

Sedlar, J.; Shupe, M. D.

2014-04-01

164

CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI MEASUREMENTS WITHIN CLOUDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within and near the boundaries of clouds are presented. Some of the in-cloud measurements excluded the nuclei within cloud droplets (interstitial CCN) while others included all nuclei inside the cloud (total CCN). The...

165

Lidar cloud studies for FIRE and ECLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical remote sensing measurements of cirrus cloud properties were collected by one airborne and four ground-based lidar systems over a 32 h period during this case study from the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observation (IFO) program. The lidar systems were variously equipped to collect linear depolarization, intrinsically calibrated backscatter, and Doppler velocity information. Data presented describe the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cirrus clouds over an area encompassing southern and central Wisconsin. The cirrus cloud types include: dissipating subvisual and thin fibrous cirrus cloud bands, an isolated mesoscale uncinus complex (MUC), a large-scale deep cloud that developed into an organized cirrus structure within the lidar array, and a series of intensifying mesoscale cirrus cloud masses. Although the cirrus frequently developed in the vertical from particle fall-streaks emanating from generating regions at or near cloud tops, glaciating supercooled (-30 to -35 C) altocumulus clouds contributed to the production of ice mass at the base of the deep cirrus cloud, apparently even through riming, and other mechanisms involving evaporation, wave motions, and radiative effects are indicated. The generating regions ranged in scale from approximately 1.0 km cirrus uncinus cells, to organized MUC structures up to approximately 120 km across.

Sassen, Kenneth; Grund, Christian J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Hardesty, Michael; Alvarez, James

1990-01-01

166

Plate motion  

SciTech Connect

The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

Gordon, R.G. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

167

Characteristic nature of vertical motions observed in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the Arctic Ocean, little is known, observationally, on cloud-generated buoyant overturning vertical motions within mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds. Characteristics of such motions are important for understanding the diabatic processes associated with the vertical motions, the lifetime of the cloud layer and its micro- and macrophysical characteristics. In this study, we exploit a suite of surface-based remote sensors over the high Arctic sea ice during a week-long period of persistent stratocumulus in August 2008 to derive the in-cloud vertical motion characteristics. In-cloud vertical velocity skewness and variance profiles are found to be strikingly different from observations within lower-latiatude stratocumulus, suggesting these Arctic mixed-phase clouds interact differently with the atmospheric thermodynamics (cloud tops extending above a stable temperature inversion base) and with a different coupling state between surface and cloud. We find evidence of cloud-generated vertical mixing below cloud base, regardless of surface-cloud coupling state, although a decoupled surface-cloud state occurred most frequently. Detailed case studies are examined focusing on 3 levels within the cloud layer, where wavelet and power spectral analyses are applied to characterize the dominant temporal and horizontal scales associated with cloud-generated vertical motions. In general, we find a positively-correlated vertical motion signal across the full cloud layer depth. The coherency is dependent upon other non-cloud controlled factors, such as larger, mesoscale weather passages and radiative shielding of low-level stratocumulus by multiple cloud layers above. Despite the coherency in vertical velocity across the cloud, the velocity variances were always weaker near cloud top, relative to cloud mid and base. Taken in combination with the skewness, variance and thermodynamic profile characteristics, we observe vertical motions near cloud-top that behave differently than those from lower within the cloud layer. Spectral analysis indicates peak cloud-generated w variance timescales slowed only modestly during decoupled cases relative to coupled; horizontal wavelengths only slightly increased when transitioning from coupling to decoupling. The similarities in scales suggests that perhaps the dominant forcing for all cases is generated from the cloud layer, and it is not the surface forcing that characterizes the time and space scales of in-cloud vertical velocity variance. This points toward the resilient nature of Arctic mixed-phase clouds to persist when characterized by thermodynamic regimes unique to the Arctic.

Sedlar, J.; Shupe, M. D.

2013-11-01

168

Interaction of a neutral cloud moving through a magnetized plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current collection by outgassing probes in motion relative to a magnetized plasma may be significantly affected by plasma processes that cause electron heating and cross field transport. Simulations of a neutral gas cloud moving across a static magnetic field are discussed. The authors treat a low-Beta plasma and use a 2-1/2 D electrostatic code linked with the authors' Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (PANIC). This study emphasizes the understanding of the interface between the neutral gas cloud and the surrounding plasma where electrons are heated and can diffuse across field lines. When ionization or charge exchange collisions occur a sheath-like structure is formed at the surface of the neutral gas. In that region the crossfield component of the electric field causes the electron to E times B drift with a velocity of the order of the neutral gas velocity times the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. In addition a diamagnetic drift of the electron occurs due to the number density and temperature inhomogeneity in the front. These drift currents excite the lower-hybrid waves with the wave k-vectors almost perpendicular to the neutral flow and magnetic field again resulting in electron heating. The thermal electron current is significantly enhanced due to this heating.

Goertz, C. K.; Lu, G.

1990-01-01

169

Walter Fendt Physics Applets: Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet demonstrates projectile motion. Set the initial speed, height, and mass of the projectile, the initial angle of the velocity, and the gravitational constant -- and view the resulting motion. Display options available include force vectors and potential/kinetic energies. This resource is part of a large collection of physics applets available in a wide range of languages.

Fendt, Walter

2007-02-05

170

Intermediate Mechanics Tutorials: Simple Harmonic Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of tutorial materials covers the topic of simple harmonic motion. Students examine qualitatively and quantitatively the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, as exemplified by a mass attached to an ideal spring. There are two tutorials, one using motion graphs and one using vectors, to describe the motion. Students analyze and solve the differential equations of motion to develop an understanding of the physical parameters in the problem. This material also includes a pretest, example homework, and test questions. This is part of a large collection of similar tutorial materials in intermediate classical mechanics.

Wittmann, Michael C.; Ambrose, Bradley S.

2009-03-31

171

Cloud Computing Fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types\\u000a of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud\\u000a computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key\\u000a cloud computing platforms, their

Borko Furht

2010-01-01

172

Neptune's clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

1999-01-01

173

Development of a radiative cloud parameterization scheme of stratocumulus and stratus clouds which includes the impact of CCN on cloud albedo  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme that is able to dispose or predict changes in stratocumulus cloud cover, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) stability, liquid water paths (LWPs), and cloud albedo due to changes in sea-surface temperatures, large scale vertical motion and wind shear, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The motivation for developing such a parameterization scheme is that it is hypothesized that anthropogenic sources of CCN can result in increased concentrations of cloud droplets. The higher concentrations of CCN result in higher concentrations of cloud droplets, thereby enhancing cloud albedo which in the absence of other effects will induce a climate forcing opposed to that associated with ``Greenhouse`` warming. As a result of the complicated interactions between cloud microstructure, cloud macrostructure, and cloud radiative transfer, only a limited range of clouds are susceptible to changes in CCN concentrations causing changes in cloud albedo. It is the intent of this research to determine the range of cloud types that are susceptible to albedo changes by anthropogenic CCN and incorporate that information into a cloud parameterization scheme.

Cotton, W.R.

1994-01-18

174

Efficient motion estimation algorithm for video transcoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multimedia applications, it is often needed to adapt the bit-rate of the coded video bit streams to the available bandwidth of various communication channels. Because different networks may have different bandwidths, a gateway can include a transcoder to adapt the video bit-rates in order to provide video services to users on different networks. In transcoding, motion estimation is usually not performed in the transcoder because of its heavy computation complexity. To speed up the operation, a video transcoder usually reuses the decoded motion vectors from the incoming bit stream. Previously, the bilinear interpolation and forward with dominant vector selection (FDVS) methods were proposed to reuse motion vectors. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called activity dominant vector selection (ADVS) which utilizes the quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of residual blocks for composing a motion vector from the incoming ones. In addition, a new motion vector refinement algorithm called variable step-size search (VSS) is presented. The performance can be improved and maintaining low computation complexity.

Chen, Mei-Juan; Chu, Ming-Chung; Pan, Chih-Wei

2000-04-01

175

Magical Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students watch video clips from the October Sky and Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone movies to see examples of projectile motion. Then they explore the relationships between displacement, velocity and acceleration, and calculate simple projectile motion. The objective of this activity is to articulate concepts related to force and motion through direct immersive interaction based on "The Science Behind Harry Potter" theme. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

2014-09-18

176

Interstellar Gas Flow Vector and Temperature Determination over 5 Years of IBEX Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow trajectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through early April, when the Earth's orbital motion is into the oncoming flow. These observations have defined a narrow region of possible, but very tightly coupled interstellar neutral flow parameters, with inflow speed, latitude, and temperature as well-defined functions of inflow longitude. The best- fit flow vector is different by ? 3° and lower by ? 3 km/s than obtained previously with Ulysses GAS, but the temperature is comparable. The possible coupled parameter space reaches to the previous flow vector, but only for a substantially higher temperature (by ? 2000 K). Along with recent pickup ion observations and including historical observations of the interstellar gas, these findings have led to a discussion, whether the interstellar gas flow into the solar system has been stable or variable over time. These intriguing possibilities call for more detailed analysis and a longer database. IBEX has accumulated observations over six interstellar flow seasons. We review key observations and refinements in the analysis, in particular, towards narrowing the uncertainties in the temperature determination. We also address ongoing attempts to optimize the flow vector determination through varying the IBEX spacecraft pointing and discuss related implications for the local interstellar cloud and its interaction with the heliosphere.

Möbius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokó?, J. M.; Wurz, P.

2015-01-01

177

A global survey of cloud overlap based on CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR (radar-lidar) cloud classification and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR radiation products from CloudSat over 4 years, this study evaluates the co-occurrence frequencies of different cloud types, analyzes their along-track horizontal scales and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and utilizes the vertical distributions of cloud types to evaluate cloud-overlap assumptions. The statistical results show that high clouds, altostratus (As), altocumulus (Ac) and cumulus (Cu) tend to coexist with other cloud types. However, stratus (St) (or stratocumulus, Sc), nimbostratus (Ns) and convective clouds are much more likely to exhibit individual features than other cloud types. On average, altostratus-over-stratus/stratocumulus cloud systems have a maximum horizontal scale of 17.4 km, with a standard deviation of 23.5 km. Altocumulus-over-cumulus cloud types have a minimum scale of 2.8 km, with a standard deviation of 3.1 km. By considering the weight of each multilayered cloud type, we find that the global mean instantaneous net CREs of multilayered cloud systems during the daytime are approximately -41.3 and -50.2 W m-2, which account for 40.1 and 42.3% of the global mean total net CREs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface, respectively. The radiative contributions of high-over-altocumulus and high-over-stratus/stratocumulus (or cumulus) in the all multilayered cloud systems are dominant due to their frequency. Considering the overlap of cloud types, the cloud fraction based on the random overlap assumption is underestimated over vast oceans, except in the west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool. Obvious overestimations mainly occur over tropical and subtropical land masses. In view of a lower degree of overlap than that predicted by the random overlap assumption to occur over the vast ocean, particularly poleward of 40° S, the study therefore suggests that a linear combination of minimum and random overlap assumptions may further improve the predictions of actual cloud fractions for multilayered cloud types (e.g., As + St/Sc and Ac + St/Sc) over the Southern Ocean. The establishment of a statistical relationship between multilayered cloud types and the environmental conditions (e.g., atmospheric vertical motion, convective stability and wind shear) would be useful for parameterization design of cloud overlap in numerical models.

Li, J.; Huang, J.; Stamnes, K.; Wang, T.; Lv, Q.; Jin, H.

2015-01-01

178

Stellar Encounters with the Oort Cloud Based on Hipparcos Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have combined Hipparcos proper motion and parallax data for nearby stars with ground-based radial velocity measurements to find stars which may have passed (or will pass) close enough to the Sun to perturb the Oort cloud.

Garcia-Sanchez, J.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Weissman, P. R.; Lestrade, J. F.; Latham, D. W.; Stefanik, R. P.

1998-01-01

179

Particle Cloud Flames in Acoustic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a study of flames supported by clouds of particles suspended in air, at pressures about 100 times lower than normal. In the experiment, an acoustic driver (4-in speaker) placed at one end of a closed tube, 0.75-m long and 0.05 m in diameter, disperses a cloud of lycopodium particles during a 0.5-sec powerful acoustic burst. Properties of the particle cloud and the flame were recorded by high-speed motion pictures and optical transmission detectors. Novel flame structures were observed, which owe their features to partial confinement, which encourages flame-acoustic interactions, segregation of particle clouds into laminae, and penetration of the flame's radiative flux density into the unburned particle-cloud regimes. Results of these experiments imply that, for particles in confined spaces, uncontrolled fire and explosion may be a threat even if the Phi(0) values are below some apparent lean limit.

Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

1990-01-01

180

Cloud computing.  

PubMed

In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education. PMID:22157990

Wink, Diane M

2012-01-01

181

Kepler Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the National Taiwan Normal University, provides a demonstration of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The site offers a description of all three laws and a brief history of Johann Kepler and his discoveries. The applet can be adjusted to display several different variables of planetary motion to simulate each law effectively.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-10-28

182

COMPRESSED DOMAIN GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION USING THE HELMHOLTZ TRADEOFF ESTIMATOR  

E-print Network

COMPRESSED DOMAIN GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION USING THE HELMHOLTZ TRADEOFF ESTIMATOR Michael Tok the generic Helmholtz principle. To this aim, we use motion vector fields as provided by MPEG data streams comparable to more complex al- gorithms. Index Terms-- Global Motion Estimation, Helmholtz Tradeoff Estimator

Wichmann, Felix

183

Gaussian process regression flow for analysis of motion trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of motions and activities of objects in videos requires effective representations for analysis and matching of motion trajectories. In this paper, we introduce a new representation specifically aimed at matching motion trajectories. We model a trajectory as a continuous dense flow field from a sparse set of vector sequences using Gaussian Process Regression. Furthermore, we introduce a random sampling

Kihwan Kim; Dongryeol Lee; Irfan Essa

2011-01-01

184

Cloud Computing: Rain-Clouds System  

E-print Network

Abstract — Cloud Computing is the on demand service can be provided to the users at any time. It delivers the software, data access, computing as a service rather than the product. The Cloud application simplifies the computing technology by providing pay-per-use customer relationship. It is the theory that familiar to cheaper devices with low processing power, lower storage capacities, great flexibility and many more things. The security of cloud computing is a major factor as users store sensitive and confidential information with cloud storage providers. The range of these providers may be un trusted and harmful. The purpose of adopting cloud computing in an organization is to decide between a „public cloud ? and „private cloud ? by means of privacy. Public clouds often known as provider clouds are administrated by third parties and services are offered on pay-per-use basis. Private clouds or internal clouds are owned by the single firm but it has some metrics such as lacking of availability of services (such as memory, server) and network resources which leads it to down. Due to this, technology moves toward the concept of “Multi clouds ” or “Rain Clouds”. This paper displays the use of multi-clouds or rain clouds due to its ability to handle the huge amount of data traffic that affect the cloud computing user.

Harinder Kaur

185

Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2008-09-07

186

The use of the Q-vector in operational meteorology  

E-print Network

. Sco (Head of Department) May 19BB ABSTRACT The Use of the Q-vector in Operational Kfeteorology. (ofay 1988) Charles Arthur LeMay, B. S. , Baptist College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dusan Djuric Evaluation of atmospheric vertical motion... is now possible on widely available and inexpensive micro ? computers. Using the Q-vector l'orm of the omega equation, formulated by Hoskins et al. (1978) allows a meteorologist to evaluate vertical motion throughout the atmosphere. Case studies...

LeMay, Charles Arthur

2012-06-07

187

Diagnosing Pressure in Molecular Clouds through Observations and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure plays a key role in the dynamics of molecular clouds, the birthplaces of stars. Internally, pressure acts against gravity, resisting global collapse and helping explain the overall low star formation efficiencies observed. Externally, the pressure of the ambient lower-density interstellar medium (ISM), in which molecular clouds form, may help to promote cloud stability over timescales long enough for star formation to occur. This basic picture is complicated by several factors. For one, the internal structure of molecular clouds is extremely complex. Turbulent motions, which are supersonic on all but the smallest scales within clouds, promote support globally, but can also create shocks, leading to intricate substructure in a cloud’s density and velocity fields. Furthermore, the boundary of a cloud (on which external pressure presumably acts) is difficult to concretely define, as there is in reality a relatively smooth transition from the more diffuse, warm, atomic ISM to the dense, cold, molecule-dominated cloud itself. Observational diagnostics of pressure are scarce, as they require simultaneous measurement of both gas motions and density. Moreover, assessing the role of pressure in detail within clouds is contingent on knowledge of the cloud’s internal hierarchy. We present a new diagnostic probe of pressure as a function of scale within molecular clouds. We employ 13CO molecular line data from the COMPLETE survey to decompose a molecular cloud into its hierarchical substructure through the use of dendrogram analysis. We take the “kinetic pressure” in the gas to be P=??v2, where ? is the volume density derived from molecular line intensity and simple geometric assumptions, and ?v is the velocity dispersion computed from spectral linewidths. Specifically, we calculate the kinetic pressure within and at the interface between each nested structure in the dendrogram. We compare observational results on the Perseus molecular cloud with analysis of radiative transfer-processed turbulent simulations to assess the ability of our diagnostic to measure the true pressure within star-forming gas.

Faesi, Christopher; Offner, S.; Goodman, A. A.; Bisbas, T.

2014-01-01

188

Cloud Computing Adam Barker  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing 1 Adam Barker #12;Overview · Introduction to Cloud computing · Enabling / Constraints 2 #12;Cloud Computing · Cloud computing provides resizable computing capacity that enables users to build and host applications in a data centre · Cloud computing characteristics · Computing as a utility

St Andrews, University of

189

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

190

Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page asks you to consider a projectile thrown at some angle as having the motion of two similar projectiles, one that travels upward with a constant downward acceleration and one that travels horizontally at constant velocity.

Wolfgang Christian

191

Wave Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Carl Nave at Georgia State University presents a discussion of wave motion. The site explains the velocity of idealized ocean waves and details the measurement of large waves aboard the USS Ramapo.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

192

A new method for MODIS cloud classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique called the local region of influence (LROI) scheme for supervised cloud classification of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is proposed. The classification of each observation is performed within the LROI, where the center of each class is calculated as a weighted average of its training class members with respect to each new observation. The probability of each class is assigned to each observation. The proposed LROI scheme is applied to the MODIS radiances observed from the scenes of clear skies, ice clouds, or water clouds. The classification results are compared with those from the maximum likelihood (ML) classification method, the multicategory support vector machine (MSVM) and the operational MODIS cloud mask algorithm. The lowest misclassification error rates show the advantage of the LROI scheme.

Huang, Bormin; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. P.

2005-08-01

193

Motion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to effectively combine a sampling-based method primarily designed for multiple query motion planning (Probabilistic Roadmap Method - PRM) with sampling-based tree methods primarily designed for single query motion planning (Expansive Space Trees, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees, and others) in a novel planning framework that can be efficiently parallelized. Our planner not only achiev es a smooth spectrum

Lydia E. Kavraki; Steven M. Lavalle

2008-01-01

194

Active remote sensing of cloud microphysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss recent progress in analyses of retrieved cloud properties by active sensors. We have developed several types of algorithms that can be applied to data obtained by cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar to retrieve cloud macroscale and microphysical properties. The retrieved properties include cloud occurrence, cloud particle phase, orientation and microphysics. Combined use of CPR and lidar has been recognized to be a powerful tool for the retrieval of cloud microphysics. Single scattering property of ice particles is one of the key elements in the analyses. It has been necessary to develop appropriate scattering theories and inversion methods that can take into account the particle shape and its orientation for the analyses of CPR and lidar data. We have been analyzing the data obtained by the ground based, ship-borne and space-borne active sensors. Space-borne active sensors CloudSat and CALIPSO successfully started global observations of cloud and aerosols in June 2006. The theoretical basis of the analysis of these active sensors is given. Global analysis of cloud macro-scale and microphysical properties has been performed. After these space missions, JAXA and ESA are planning a new space mission, EarthCARE which will carry four sensors including 95 GHz Doppler radar and high spectral resolution lidar. It will be launched in 2015 and is expected to provide information of cloud microphysics as well as vertical air motion. The retrieval algorithms for EarthCARE have been developed by using the existing radar and lidar data including CloudSat and CALIPSO.

Okamoto, Hajime

2013-05-01

195

Motion trajectories and object properties influence perceived direction of motion.  

PubMed

Judging the motion of objects is a fundamental task that the visual system executes in everyday life in order for us to navigate and interact safely with our surroundings. A number of strategies have been suggested to explain how the visual system uses motion information from different points of an object to compute veridical directions of motion. These include combining ambiguous signals from object contours via a vector summation (VS) or intersection of constraints (IOC) calculation, pooling information using a maximum likelihood or tracking object features. We measured the perceived direction of motion for a range of cross-shaped stimuli (composed of two superimposed lines) to test how accurately humans perceive their motion and compared data to predictions from these strategies. Crosses of different shapes (defined by the angle between the component lines) translated along 16 directions of motion with constant speed. The crosses either moved along one of their symmetry axes (balanced conditions with line components equidistant to the direction of motion) or had their symmetry axis tilted relative to the motion (unbalanced conditions) Data show reproducible differences between observers, including occasional bimodal behaviour, and exhibit the following common patterns. There is a general dependence on direction of motion: For all conditions, when motion is along cardinal axes (horizontal and vertical), perception is largely veridical. For non-cardinal directions, biases are typically small (<10 deg) when crosses are balanced but large biases occur (?30 deg) when crosses are tilted relative to their direction of motion. Factors influencing the pattern of biases are the shape and tilt of the cross as well as the proximity of its direction of motion to cardinal axes. The dependence of the biases on the direction of motion is inconsistent with any isotropic mechanisms including VS, IOC, maximum likelihood or feature tracking. Instead, perception is biased by a number of intrinsic properties of the cross and external references. The strength of these cues depends on the type, with elongation producing the strongest weight, and their proximity to the direction of motion. This suggests that the visual system may rely on a number of static cues to improve the known low precision for non-cardinal directions of motion, a process which can, however, result in large perceptual biases in certain circumstances. PMID:23911768

Magnussen, Camilla M; Orbach, Harry S; Loffler, Gunter

2013-10-18

196

Integrals of motion for the classical two-body problem with drag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrals of motion for the two-body problem with drag are obtained by operating on the second-order vector differential equation describing the motion. The force field consists of an inverse-square gravitational attraction and a drag force proportional to the velocity vector and inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the attracting center. The developed integrals are the analogs of the Keplerian scalar energy, the vector angular momentum, and the Laplace vector.

Jezewski, D. J.; Mittleman, D.

1983-01-01

197

Characterization of free breathing patterns with 5D lung motion model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the quiet respiration breathing motion model parameters for lung cancer and nonlung cancer patients. Methods: 49 free breathing patient 4DCT image datasets (25 scans, cine mode) were collected with simultaneous quantitative spirometry. A cross-correlation registration technique was employed to track the lung tissue motion between scans. The registration results were applied to a lung motion model: X-vector=X-vector{sub 0}+{alpha}-vector{beta}-vector f, where X-vector is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position X-vector{sub 0} during a reference breathing phase (zero tidal volume v, zero airflow f). {alpha}-vector is a parameter that characterizes the motion due to air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume v) and {beta}-vector is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation that causes lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow f). The parameters {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector distributions were examined for each patient to determine overall general patterns and interpatient pattern variations. Results: For 44 patients, the greatest values of |{alpha}-vector| were observed in the inferior and posterior lungs. For the rest of the patients, |{alpha}-vector| reached its maximum in the anterior lung in three patients and the lateral lung in two patients. The hysteresis motion {beta}-vector had greater variability, but for the majority of patients, |{beta}-vector| was largest in the lateral lungs. Conclusions: This is the first report of the three-dimensional breathing motion model parameters for a large cohort of patients. The model has the potential for noninvasively predicting lung motion. The majority of patients exhibited similar |{alpha}-vector| maps and the |{beta}-vector| maps showed greater interpatient variability. The motion parameter interpatient variability will inform our need for custom radiation therapy motion models. The utility of this model depends on the parameter stability over time, which is still under investigation.

Zhao Tianyu; Lu Wei; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Noel, Camille E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2009-11-15

198

Ad hoc cloud computing   

E-print Network

Commercial and private cloud providers offer virtualized resources via a set of co-located and dedicated hosts that are exclusively reserved for the purpose of offering a cloud service. While both cloud models appeal to ...

McGilvary, Gary Andrew

2014-11-27

199

Cloud Computing og availability  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing og availability Projekt i pålidelighed Henrik Lavdal - 20010210 Søren Bardino Kaa - 20011654 Gruppe 8 19-03-2010 #12;Cloud Computing og availability Side 2 af 28 Indholdsfortegnelse ...........................................................................................5 Cloud computing

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

200

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Analyzing Plate Motion Using EarthScope GPS Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: EarthScope GPS Data. TOOLS: Spreadsheet, Google Maps. SUMMARY: Learn how GPS monuments make precise measurements of Earth's surface. Graph motion data and map velocity vectors to explore tectonic motion and surface deformation in the Pacific Northwest.

201

Dust cloud manipulation in microgravity experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency’s scientific program Interactions in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle Systems (ICAPS) [1] attributed for the International Space Station is aimed at increasing our knowledge about dust agglomeration in astrophysical processes mostly related to proto-planetary matter formation. These processes are simulated experimentally in clouds initially composed of about micrometre-sized solid particles. Relatively low gas pressure provides intensive enough particle Brownian motion but considerably reduces the experimentation time at normal gravity. Microgravity removes this problem but long duration experiments result in cloud depletion due to grain diffusion to the chamber walls and particle number density decrease due to agglomeration. The main problem comes from the fact that residual forces quickly sweep away the cloud from the observation volume thus drastically reducing the experiment duration. We developed different cloud manipulation systems that solve these problems and provide additional research opportunities in investigation of dust clouds. Particularly, they counterbalance external perturbations and solve the most challenging task of the increase of particle number concentration (cloud squeezing). There are several driving forces that may be used separately or in combination. Thermophoresis and gas flows induced by thermal creep are most favourable for cloud manipulation because they are nearly independent from particle properties. Electrostatic force allows detect charged particles, while photophoresis is sensitive to particle dimensions. The system provides two main regimes - 1) cloud positioning or displacement and 2) dynamic trapping. In absence of repulsive forces between particles the latter regime leads to cloud squeezing and intensive forced particle agglomeration. The cloud manipulation system additionally provides temperature stabilization or, on the contrary, high temperature variation in the observation volume; formation of controlled temperature gradients, intensive three-dimensional periodic shear flow or three-dimensional gas density pulsations of the contraction-expansion type. In short duration microgravity conditions of the Bremen drop tower we observed controlled cloud displacement, trapping, rapid growth of extended agglomerates, formation of complex three-dimensional cloud patterns, and motion of charged particles. The results may be applied in other projects dealing with dust clouds in microgravity. ESA PRODEX program and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office are greatly acknowledged. [1] Blum, J. et al. (2008). Europhysicsnews, 39/3, 27-29.

Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

202

Bad Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information is designed to belie the misconception that the capacity of air to hold water vapor is temperature dependent and that air can become saturated with water vapor. The temperature of a cloud droplet or ice crystal will be nearly the same as that of the air, so people imagine that somehow the air was to blame. But, if the other gases of the air were removed, leaving everything else the same, condensation and evaporation would proceed as before and the air was irrelevant to the behavior of the water molecules. It is therefore not correct to assign the behavior of water to an invented holding capacity of the air.

Alistair Fraser

203

Uncloud the Cloud of Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

Abstract- Cloud Computing has become a scalable service consumption and delivery platform in the modern IT infrastructure. Cloud Computing is a style of computing which must cater to the following computing needs:

Sarojadevi K; Jeevitha R

204

Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

205

Numerical simulations of collapsing, isothermal, magnetic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical method of Gingold and Monaghan (1977) has been extended to include the effects of a magnetic field. The method allows for fully three dimensional motions of a self-graviting gas threaded by a magnetic field. An idealized picture of a magnetic gas cloud was used in which a nonrotating sphere of gas with uniform density is imbedded in a similar intercloud region. Both the cloud and the intercloud are threaded by a uniform magnetic field, and a pressure balance exists across their interface. The intercloud medium is considered to be a sphere enveloping the cloud with a radius twice that of the cloud and a density one tenth of it. The process of the calculated collapse is described.

Phillips, G. J.

206

Ice Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds scoot across the Martian sky in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

This clip accelerates the motion. The camera took these 10 frames over a 10-minute period from 2:52 p.m. to 3:02 p.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 94 (Aug. 29), the 94th Martian day since landing.

Particles of water-ice make up these clouds, like ice-crystal cirrus clouds on Earth. Ice hazes have been common at the Phoenix site in recent days.

The camera took these images as part of a campaign by the Phoenix team to see clouds and track winds. The view is toward slightly west of due south, so the clouds are moving westward or west-northwestward.

The clouds are a dramatic visualization of the Martian water cycle. The water vapor comes off the north pole during the peak of summer. The northern-Mars summer has just passed its peak water-vapor abundance at the Phoenix site. The atmospheric water is available to form into clouds, fog and frost, such as the lander has been observing recently.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

207

Motion estimation on polarimetric IR data sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an algorithm to estimate motion vectors from Polarimetric IR data sequences. In the proposed algorithm, based on the I, P, and (psi) frames of a PIR sequence, motion estimation is formulated as a problem of obtaining the Maximum A Posteriori in the Markov Random Field (MAP-MRF). An optimization method based on the Mean Field Theory (MFT) is chosen to carry out the MAP search. The estimation of motion vectors is modeled by two MRF's, namely, motion vector field and unpredictable field. A truncation function is employed to handle the discontinuity between motion vectors on neighboring sites. In this algorithm, a 'double threshold' step is first applied to partition the sites into three regions, whereby the ensuing MFT-based step for each MRF is performed on one or two of the three regions. With this algorithm, no significant difference exists between the block-based and pixel-based MAP searches any more. Consequently, a good compromise between precision and efficiency can be obtained with ease.

Wei, Jie; Gertner, Izidor; Sadjadi, Firooz A.

2000-08-01

208

Method and system for non-linear motion estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.

Lu, Ligang (Inventor)

2011-01-01

209

Brownian Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

Lavenda, Bernard H.

1985-01-01

210

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

211

XSEDE Cloud Survey Report  

E-print Network

XSEDE Cloud Survey Report David Lifka, Cornell Center for Advanced Computing Ian Foster, ANL. and described cloud benefits and limitations for their specific use cases. Educators, research administrators Data 22 Cloud Benefits Reported by Survey Participants 28 Cloud Challenges Reported by Survey

Walter, M.Todd

212

Fractal Quasar Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether a fractal cloud geometry can reproduce the emission-line spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The nature of the emitting clouds is unknown, but many current models invoke various types of magnetohydrodynamic confinement. Recent studies have argued that a fractal distribution of clouds, in which subsets of clouds occur in self-similar hierarchies, is a consequence of such

Mark Bottorff; Gary Ferland

2001-01-01

213

Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics EC2 and AMIs #12;Quick-starting an EC2 instance (let's get our feet wet!) Cloud Computing #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance Quick Start · On EC2 console, we can click on Launch Instance · This will let us get up and going quickly #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance

Ferrara, Katherine W.

214

Measurements of Cloud Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of warm stratocumulus cloud albedo to changes in droplet concentration, termed `cloud susceptibility,' is calculated using data from the UKMO Meteorological Research Flight. Stratocumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific, South Atlantic, subtropical regions of the North Atlantic, and around the British Isles are studied. The range of susceptibility measured is large and maritime clouds are shown to have

J. P. Taylor; A. McHaffie

1994-01-01

215

Malaria Vector Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sub-page of the extremely informative VectorBase. This is a worldwide listing of malaria vectors divided into 12 geographic regions following the 1957 classic The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria by MacDonald.

0002-11-30

216

CERES CLoud Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer-generated animation depicts the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in operation. CERES measures the energy at the top of the atmosphere and estimates energy levels in the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. Using information from very high resolution cloud-imaging instruments on the same spacecraft, CERES also will determine cloud properties, including cloud amount, altitude, thickness, and the size of the cloud particles.

1997-06-06

217

The Oort cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

1991-01-01

218

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first version of the NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (RA). This is a vendor neutral conceptual model that concentrates on the role and interactions of the identified actors in the cloud computing sphere. Five primary actors were identified - Cloud Service Consumer, Cloud Service Provider, Cloud Broker, Cloud Auditor and Cloud Carrier. Their roles and activities

Robert B. Bohn; John Messina; Fang Liu; Jin Tong; Jian Mao

2011-01-01

219

Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

1999-01-01

220

Vector Microprocessors Krste Asanovic  

E-print Network

Vector Microprocessors by Krste Asanovi´c B.A. (University of Cambridge) 1987 A dissertation 1998 #12;Vector Microprocessors Copyright 1998 by Krste Asanovi´c #12;1 Abstract Vector Microprocessors microprocessor imple- mentations targeting a much broader range of applications. I present the design

Asanoviæ, Krste

221

Nonintegrating Foamy Virus Vectors?  

PubMed Central

Foamy viruses (FVs), or spumaviruses, are integrating retroviruses that have been developed as vectors. Here we generated nonintegrating foamy virus (NIFV) vectors by introducing point mutations into the highly conserved DD35E catalytic core motif of the foamy virus integrase sequence. NIFV vectors produced high-titer stocks, transduced dividing cells, and did not integrate. Cells infected with NIFV vectors contained episomal vector genomes that consisted of linear, 1-long-terminal-repeat (1-LTR), and 2-LTR circular DNAs. These episomes expressed transgenes, were stable, and became progressively diluted in the dividing cell population. 1-LTR circles but not 2-LTR circles were found in all vector stocks prior to infection. Residual integration of NIFV vectors occurred at a frequency 4 logs lower than that of integrase-proficient FV vectors. Cre recombinase expressed from a NIFV vector mediated excision of both an integrated, floxed FV vector and a gene-targeted neo expression cassette, demonstrating the utility of these episomal vectors. The broad host range and large packaging capacity of NIFV vectors should make them useful for a variety of applications requiring transient gene expression. PMID:20592072

Deyle, David R.; Li, Yi; Olson, Erik M.; Russell, David W.

2010-01-01

222

Multivariate respiratory motion prediction.  

PubMed

In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs-normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)-and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation. PMID:25254327

Dürichen, R; Wissel, T; Ernst, F; Schlaefer, A; Schweikard, A

2014-10-21

223

Multivariate respiratory motion prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.

Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

2014-10-01

224

Polar Cloud Detection using Satellite Data with Analysis and Application of Kernel Learning Algorithms  

E-print Network

. The agreed pixels of the MISR ELCMC result and the MODIS operational cloud mask are used as training labels when the ELCMC results used as labels to train Quadratic Discriminate Analysis or Support Vector

Shi, Tao

225

Quantication and analysis of respiratory motion from 4D MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that respiratory motion affects image acquisition and also external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treatment planning and delivery. However often the existing approaches for respiratory motion management are based on a generic view of respiratory motion such as the general movement of organ, tissue or fiducials. This paper thus aims to present a more in depth analysis of respiratory motion based on 4D MRI for further integration into motion correction in image acquisition or image based EBRT. Internal and external motion was first analysed separately, on a per-organ basis for internal motion. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the internal and external motion vectors separately and the relationship between the two PCA spaces was analysed. The motion extracted from 4D MRI on general was found to be consistent with what has been reported in literature.

Aizzuddin Abd Rahni, Ashrani; Lewis, Emma; Wells, Kevin

2014-11-01

226

Taiwan UniCloud: A Cloud Testbed with Collaborative Cloud Services Wu-Chun Chung*  

E-print Network

}@cs.nthu.edu.tw Abstract--This paper introduces a prototype of Taiwan UniCloud, a community-driven hybrid cloud platform sotrage; portal I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is an emerging topic recently. The core concept of cloudTaiwan UniCloud: A Cloud Testbed with Collaborative Cloud Services Wu-Chun Chung* , Po-Chi Shih

Chung, Yeh-Ching

227

Particle Motion On A Curve Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Motion On A Curve model simulates the dynamics of a particle sliding on a curve y=f(x) with friction. The model displays normal, friction, and gravitational force vectors and the local radius of curvature. Units are chosen such that mass m=1 and acceleration of gravity g=1. The Particle Motion On A Curve model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_mech_newton_ParticleMotionOnCurve.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-06-08

228

Estimating Conical Motion From Magnetometer Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of digital processing of outputs of magnetometer mounted on scientific instrument or other assembly provides estimates of parameters of slow oscillatory motion of assembly at constant or nearly constant frequency, in which motion one axis of assembly describes elliptical cone about nominal fixed or nearly fixed axis. Conceived for use in estimating rotational-and-vibrational motion of small instrumented satellite and 20-km-long tether anchored at lower end to Space Shuttle. Applicable to almost any situation in which assembly moves conically about known axis while measuring known vector.

Polites, M. E.

1993-01-01

229

Design of precise multi-axis motion control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, to achieve the multi-axis cross-coupled control (CCC) to render contouring accuracy for arbitrary contour commands, the estimated contouring error vector which is constructed by the tracking error vector and the normalized tangential vector of the trajectory is proposed. Furthermore, this paper introduces the integrated motion systems which combine the feedback loops, the feedforward loops, and the multi-axis

Syh-Shiuh Yeh; Pau-Lo Hsu

2000-01-01

230

Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

2008-01-01

231

Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.

Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven

1994-01-01

232

Cloud CCN feedback  

SciTech Connect

Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result.

Hudson, J.G.

1992-12-31

233

Orion Outlying Clouds  

E-print Network

In this chapter we review the properties of the Orion outlying clouds at b Orion giant molecular cloud complex and are in most cases small cometary-shaped clouds, with their head pointing back towards the main Orion clouds. A wealth of data indicate that star formation is ongoing in many of these clouds. The star formation in these regions might have been triggered due to the strong impact of the massive stars in the Orion OB association. Some of the clouds discussed here may be part of the Orion-Eridanus bubble. An overview on each individual cloud is given. A synthesis of the Pre-Main Sequence stars discovered in these clouds is presented. We also discuss the millimeter and centimeter data and present a review of the outflows and Herbig-Haro objects so far discovered in these clouds.

Juan M. Alcalá; Elvira Covino; Silvio Leccia

2008-09-03

234

Limits to Cloud Susceptibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1-kilometer AVHRR observations of ship tracks in low-level clouds off the west coast of the U S. were used to determine limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases in anthropogenic aerosols. Hundreds of tracks were analyzed to determine whether the changes in droplet radii, visible optical depths, and cloud top altitudes that result from the influx of particles from underlying ships were consistent with expectations based on simple models for the indirect effect of aerosols. The models predict substantial increases in sunlight reflected by polluted clouds due to the increases in droplet numbers and cloud liquid water that result from the elevated particle concentrations. Contrary to the model predictions, the analysis of ship tracks revealed a 15-20% reduction in liquid water for the polluted clouds. Studies performed with a large-eddy cloud simulation model suggested that the shortfall in cloud liquid water found in the satellite observations might be attributed to the restriction that the 1-kilometer pixels be completely covered by either polluted or unpolluted cloud. The simulation model revealed that a substantial fraction of the indirect effect is caused by a horizontal redistribution of cloud water in the polluted clouds. Cloud-free gaps in polluted clouds fill in with cloud water while the cloud-free gaps in the surrounding unpolluted clouds remain cloud-free. By limiting the analysis to only overcast pixels, the current study failed to account for the gap-filling predicted by the simulation model. This finding and an analysis of the spatial variability of marine stratus suggest new ways to analyze ship tracks to determine the limit to which particle pollution will alter the amount of sunlight reflected by clouds.

Coakley, James A., Jr.

2002-01-01

235

Learning to track 3D human motion from silhouettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a sparse Bayesian regression method for recovering 3D human body motion directly from silhouettes extracted from monocular video sequences. No detailed body shape model is needed, and realism is ensured by training on real human motion capture data. The tracker estimates 3D body pose by using Relevance Vector Machine regression to combine a learned autoregressive dynamical model with

Ankur Agarwal; Bill Triggs

2004-01-01

236

A Real-Time Full Architecture for AVS Motion Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the advanced audio video coding standard (AVS), the motion estimation employs many new techniques such as variable block size, multiple reference frames, motion vector prediction, symmetric searching, etc, for high coding efficiency. However, these techniques are so complex for hardware implementation due to their high data dependence and high computation requirement. In this paper, we firstly improved the AVS

Lei Deng; Xiao Dong Xie; Wen Gao

2007-01-01

237

Rotating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these problems, two people ride on a merry-go-round (radius fixed at 10 m..it's big!). One rider tosses a ball toward the other. The period of motion can be varied as can the initial velocity of the ball, relative to rider. One of the problems is to select the initial velocity of the ball so that it passes through center of the merry-go-round. Another is for the rider who throws the ball to catch it him/herself after exactly half a rotation.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

238

Index Sets and Vectorization  

SciTech Connect

Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

Keasler, J A

2012-03-27

239

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in block-based hybrid video coding by a variable time delay permitting the use of more frames than the previously decoded one for motion compensated prediction. The long-term memory covers several seconds of decoded frames at the encoder and decoder. The use of multiple frames for motion compensation in most cases

Thomas Wiegand; Xiaozheng Zhang; Bernd Girod

1999-01-01

240

High Performance Mathematical Quarter-Pixel Motion Estimation with Novel Rate Distortion Metric for H.264\\/AVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional Motion Estimation (FME), which refines integer motion vectors found during Integer Motion Estimation, is one of\\u000a the most time and computation consuming parts of the H.264 encoder. Conventional FME performs the time and resource consuming\\u000a sub-pixel interpolation and subsequent secondary search, for each integer motion vector. In this paper using a novel rate\\u000a distortion cost metric for sub-pixel selection,

Somayeh Sardashti; Hamid Reza Ghasemi; Mehdi Semsarzadeh; Mahmoud Reza Hashemi

241

Cloud Computing for radiologists.  

PubMed

Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future. PMID:23599560

Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

2012-07-01

242

Cloud Computing for radiologists  

PubMed Central

Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future. PMID:23599560

Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

2012-01-01

243

RISK ASSESSMENT CLOUD COMPUTING  

E-print Network

SECURITY RESEARCH PRIVACY RISK ASSESSMENT AMC DATA FISMA CLOUD COMPUTING MOBILE DEVICES OPERATIONS application hosted in the cloud · Alaska DHHS fined $1.7M ­ Portable device stolen from vehicle · Mass Eye

Columbia University

244

High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

1993-01-01

245

CloudTransport: Using Cloud Storage for  

E-print Network

destinations even if the provider is compromised. 1 Introduction Internet censorship is typically practicedCloudTransport: Using Cloud Storage for Censorship-Resistant Networking Chad Brubaker1,2 , Amir Houmansadr2 , and Vitaly Shmatikov2 1 Google 2 The University of Texas at Austin Abstract. Censorship

Shmatikov, Vitaly

246

Computer animation of clouds  

SciTech Connect

Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

Max, N.

1994-01-28

247

Community Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an\\u000aunprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy,\\u000aefficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability,\\u000abecause of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and\\u000aMicrosoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud\\u000aconceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in

Alexandros Marinos; Gerard Briscoe

2009-01-01

248

"Electrostructural Phase Changes" In Charged Particulate Clouds: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is empirical evidence that freely-suspended triboelectrostatically charged particulate clouds of dielectric materials undergo rapid conversion from (nominally) monodispersed "aerosols" to a system of well-defined grain aggregates after grain motion or fluid turbulence ceases within the cloud. In United States Microgravity Laboratory Space Shuttle experiments USML-1 and USML-2, it was found that ballistically-energized grain dispersions would rapidly convert into populations of filamentary aggregates after natural fluid (air) damping of grain motion. Unless continuously disrupted mechanically, it was impossible to maintain a non-aggregated state for the grain clouds of sand-size materials. Similarly, ground- based experiments with very fine dust-size material produced the same results: rapid, impulsive "collapse" of the dispersed grains into well-defined filamentary structures. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the chains or filaments were created by long-range dipole electrostatic forces and dipole-induced dielectric interactions, not by monopole interactions. Maintenance of the structures was assisted by short-range static boundary adhesion forces and van der Waals interactions. When the aggregate containers in the USML experiments were disturbed after aggregate formation, the quiescently disposed filaments would rearrange themselves into fractal bundles and tighter clusters as a result of enforced encounters with one another. The long-range dipole interactions that bring the grains together into aggregates are a product of randomly-distributed monopole charges on the grain surfaces. In computer simulations, it has been shown that when the force vectors of all the random charges (of both sign) on a grain are resolved mathematically by assuming Coulombic interaction between them, the net result is a dipole moment on individual grains, even though the grains are electrically neutral insofar as there is no predominance, on their surface, of one charge sign over another. The random charges of both sign derive from natural grain-to-grain interactions that produce triboelectrification via charge exchange every time grain surfaces make contact with one another. The conversion from a random distribution of grains (upon which there are randomly distributed charges) into an organization of electrostatically-ordered aggregates, can be regarded (within the framework of granular-material science) as an "electrical or Coulombic phase change" of the particulate cloud. It is not totally dissimilar from the more normal phase-change concept in which, for example, a gas with long free-path-molecules suddenly becomes a solid as a result of structural ordering of the molecules (notably, also the result of electronic forces, albeit at a different scale). In both the gas-to-solid case, and the aerosol-to-aggregate case, the same materials and charges are present before and after the phase change, but their arrangement now has a higher degree of order and a lower-energy configuration. An input of energy into the system is required to reverse the situation. The aggregates in the USML experiments were observed to undergo at least two phase changes as noted above. The point about phase changes, and by implication, the "electrostructural" reorganizations in particulate clouds, is the following: (a) they can occur very rapidly, almost spontaneously, above a critical cloud density, (b) in going from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, they convert to a denser system, (c) energy must be required to reverse the situation, implying that energy is released during the high-to-low energy phase change. In applying this information to natural particulate clouds, some inferences can be made (it is stressed that reference is still to dielectric materials attracted by dipole forces). There are several natural settings to which the USML observations apply, and to which the phase-change implications likewise apply. Dense clouds of triboelectrically-charged, kinetically-energized grains are

Marshall, J. R.

1999-09-01

249

"Electrostructural Phase Changes" In Charged Particulate Clouds: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is empirical evidence that freely-suspended triboelectrostatically charged particulate clouds of dielectric materials undergo rapid conversion from (nominally) monodispersed "aerosols" to a system of well-defined grain aggregates after grain motion or fluid turbulence ceases within the cloud. In United States Microgravity Laboratory Space Shuttle experiments USML-1 and USML-2, it was found that ballistically-energized grain dispersions would rapidly convert into populations of filamentary aggregates after natural fluid (air) damping of grain motion. Unless continuously disrupted mechanically, it was impossible to maintain a non-aggregated state for the grain clouds of sand-size materials. Similarly, ground- based experiments with very fine dust-size material produced the same results: rapid, impulsive "collapse" of the dispersed grains into well-defined filamentary structures. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the chains or filaments were created by long-range dipole electrostatic forces and dipole-induced dielectric interactions, not by monopole interactions. Maintenance of the structures was assisted by short-range static boundary adhesion forces and van der Waals interactions. When the aggregate containers in the USML experiments were disturbed after aggregate formation, the quiescently disposed filaments would rearrange themselves into fractal bundles and tighter clusters as a result of enforced encounters with one another. The long-range dipole interactions that bring the grains together into aggregates are a product of randomly-distributed monopole charges on the grain surfaces. In computer simulations, it has been shown that when the force vectors of all the random charges (of both sign) on a grain are resolved mathematically by assuming Coulombic interaction between them, the net result is a dipole moment on individual grains, even though the grains are electrically neutral insofar as there is no predominance, on their surface, of one charge sign over another. The random charges of both sign derive from natural grain-to-grain interactions that produce triboelectrification via charge exchange every time grain surfaces make contact with one another. The conversion from a random distribution of grains (upon which there are randomly distributed charges) into an organization of electrostatically-ordered aggregates, can be regarded (within the framework of granular-material science) as an "electrical or Coulombic phase change" of the particulate cloud. It is not totally dissimilar from the more normal phase-change concept in which, for example, a gas with long free-path-molecules suddenly becomes a solid as a result of structural ordering of the molecules (notably, also the result of electronic forces, albeit at a different scale). In both the gas-to-solid case, and the aerosol-to-aggregate case, the same materials and charges are present before and after the phase change, but their arrangement now has a higher degree of order and a lower-energy configuration. An input of energy into the system is required to reverse the situation. The aggregates in the USML experiments were observed to undergo at least two phase changes as noted above. The point about phase changes, and by implication, the "electrostructural" reorganizations in particulate clouds, is the following: (a) they can occur very rapidly, almost spontaneously, above a critical cloud density, (b) in going from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, they convert to a denser system, (c) energy must be required to reverse the situation, implying that energy is released during the high-to-low energy phase change. In applying this information to natural particulate clouds, some inferences can be made (it is stressed that reference is still to dielectric materials attracted by dipole forces). There are several natural settings to which the USML observations apply, and to which the phase-change implications likewise apply. Dense clouds of triboelectrically-charged, kinetically-energized grains are

Marshall, J. R.

1999-01-01

250

Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

251

Security in the cloud.  

PubMed

As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in. PMID:21863719

Degaspari, John

2011-08-01

252

Library in the clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the issue of cloud computing and how it relates to digital library service provisioning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper adopts a viewpoint approach. Findings – The paper is exploratory, and looks at the pros and cons of cloud computing for digital libraries. Practical implications – The subject of cloud computing has been a hot

Robert Fox

2009-01-01

253

Toward Securing Sensor Clouds  

E-print Network

Computer Mini Computer External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Tower-mount Antenna Tower-mount Antenna Wireless Bridge Our model of a "sensor · Track military assets · People flow (amusement parks, campuses) · Health monitoring · Social computing

254

Hyperphysics: The Cloud Chamber  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hyperphysics webpage contains a short description of the Wilson cloud chamber and two photographs by Wilson himself of cloud chamber tracks. Links provides information about various methods of detecting radiation and also about the muon, an elementary particle that was first detected in a cloud chamber. The text on this page is written at a level of a student of introductory physics.

Nave, Carl R.

2008-11-26

255

Towards Trusted Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing infrastructures enable companies to cut costs by outsourcing computations on-demand. How- ever, clients of cloud computing services currently have no means of verifying the confidentiality and integrity of their data and computation. To address this problem we propose the design of a trusted cloud computing platform (TCCP). TCCP en- ables Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) providers such as

Nuno Santos; Krishna P. Gummadi; Rodrigo Rodrigues

256

Cloud Computing Explained  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

Metz, Rosalyn

2010-01-01

257

Research Cloud Computing Recommendations  

E-print Network

Research Cloud Computing Recommendations SRCPAC December 3, 2014 #12;Mandate and Membership SRCPAC convened this committee in Sept 2014 to investigate the role that cloud computing should play in our of research computing projects would be more cost effective to run on the cloud than on Yeti? · What

Qian, Ning

258

CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-based computing. As cloud computing

Tucker, Rod

259

PhET Teacher Activities: Vectors Simulations Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab was developed by a high school teacher specifically for use with the PhET simulation "Motion in 2D". It provides explicit direction for using the simulation to explore vector quantities, vector addition, and calculating resultants. In the last half of the activity, students demonstrate understanding by performing specific calculations, then using the simulation to check their work. The lesson includes printable student data tables. The associated simulation (which must be running to complete this activity) is available from PhET at: Motion in 2D.

Bires, Chris

2013-02-05

260

Variations of zonal wind speed at Venus cloud tops from Venus Monitoring Camera UV images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

7 years of continuous monitoring of Venus by ESA's Venus Express provided an opportunity to study dynamics of the atmosphere of Venus. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) [1] delivered the longest and the most complete so far set of UV images to study the cloud level circulation by tracking motion of the cloud features. We analyzed 130 orbits with manual cloud tracking and 600 orbits with digital correlation method. Here we present the latest update of our results. Total number of wind vectors derived in this work is approximately a half million. During Venus Express observations the mean zonal speed was in the range of 85-110 m/s. VMC observations indicated a long term trend for the zonal wind speed at low latitudes to increase. The origin of low frequency trend with a period about 3000 days is unclear. Fourier analysis [2-3] of revealed quasi-periodicities in the zonal circulation at low latitudes. Two groups of the periods were found. The first group is close to the period of superrotation at low latitudes (4.83±0.1 days) with the period 4.1-5.1 days and the amplitude ranging from ±4.2 to ±17.4 m/s. The amplitude and phase of oscillations demonstrates dependence from the latitude and also time variability with preserving stable parameters of oscillation during at least 70 days. Short term oscillations may be caused by wave processes in the mesosphere of Venus at the cloud top level. Wave number of the observed oscillations is 1. The second group is a long term periods caused by orbital motion of Venus (116 days, 224 days) and is related to the periodicity in VMC observations. Also VMC UV observations showed a clear diurnal pattern of the mean circulation. The zonal wind demonstrated semi-diurnal variations with minimum speed close to noon (11-14 h) and maxima in the morning (8-9 h) and in the evening (16-17 h). The meridional component clearly peaks in the early afternoon (13-15h) at latitudes near 50S. The minimum of the meridional wind is located at low latitudes in the morning (8-11h). References [1] Markiewicz W. J. et al.: Venus Monitoring Camera for Venus Express // Planet. Space Sci.. V.55(12). pp1701-1711. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.01.004, 2007. [2] Deeming T.J.: Fourier analysis with unequally-spaced data. Astroph. and Sp. Sci. V.36, pp137-158, 1975. [3] Terebizh, V.Yu. Time series analysis in astrophysics. Moscow: "Nauka," Glav. red. fiziko-matematicheskoi lit-ry, 1992. In Russian

Khatuntsev, Igor; Patsaeva, Marina; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Titov, Dmitri; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.

2013-04-01

261

SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities  

DOE Data Explorer

Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

Kalesse, Heike

262

SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities  

SciTech Connect

Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

Kalesse, Heike

2013-06-27

263

Olympic Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about motion and their body at two different levels: cellular and muscular. Students will examine human blood to identify its basic components and will conduct a test to determine their reflex reaction time. Students will also create a flow chart to show the role of cells in muscle contraction.

2010-01-01

264

Singular Vectors, Metrics, and Adaptive Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singular vectors of the linearized equations of motion have been used to study the instability properties of the atmosphere-ocean system and its related predictability. A third use of these singular vectors is proposed here: as part of a strategy to target adaptive observations to `sensitive' parts of the atmosphere. Such observations could be made using unmanned aircraft, though calculations in this paper are motivated by the upstream component of the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment. Oceanic applications are also discussed. In defining this strategy, it is shown that there is, in principle, no freedom in the choice of inner product or metric for the singular vector calculation. However, the correct metric is dependent on the purpose for making the targeted observations (to study precursor developments or to improve forecast initial conditions). It is argued that for predictability studies, where both the dynamical instability properties of the system and the specification of the operational observing network and associated data assimilation system are important, the appropriate metric will differ from that appropriate to a pure geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) problem. Based on two different sets of calculations, it is argued that for predictability studies (but not for GFD studies), a first-order approximation to the appropriate metric can be based on perturbation energy. The role of observations in data assimilation procedures (constraining large scales more than small scales) is fundamental in understanding reasons for the requirement for different metrics for the two classes of problems. An index-based tensor approach is used to make explicit the role of the metric.The strategy for using singular vectors to target adaptive observations is discussed in the context of other possible approaches, specifically, based on breeding vectors, potential vorticity diagnosis, and sensitivity vectors. The basic premises underlying the use of breeding and singular vectors are discussed. A comparison of the growth rates of breeding and singular vectors is made using a T21 quasigeostrophic model.Singular vectors and subjective potential vorticity (PV) diagnosis are compared for a particular case study. The areas of sensitivity indicated by the two methods only partially agree. Reasons for disagreement hinge around the fact that subjective PV diagnosis emphasizes Lagrangian advection, whereas singular vector analysis emphasizes wave propagation. For the latter, areas of sensitivity may be associated with regions of weak PV gradient, for example, mid to lower troposphere. Amplification of singular vectors propagating from regions of weak PV gradient to regions of strong PV gradient is discussed in terms of pseudomomentum conservation. Evidence is shown that analysis error may be as large in the lower midtroposphere as in the upper troposphere.

Palmer, T. N.; Gelaro, R.; Barkmeijer, J.; Buizza, R.

1998-02-01

265

Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels  

E-print Network

Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative 2011) ABSTRACT This study proposes a novel technique for computing cloud feedbacks using histograms integrated cloud feedbacks computed in this manner agree remarkably well with the adjusted change in cloud

Hartmann, Dennis

266

Cloud Arcs in the Western Pacific  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small cumulus clouds in this natural-color view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer have formed a distinctive series of quasi-circular arcs. Clues regarding the formation of these arcs can be found by noting that larger clouds exist in the interior of each arc.

The interior clouds are thicker and likely to be more convectively active than the other clouds, causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and continues to spread out as it begins to sink back to the surface. This pushes any existing small cumulus clouds away from the central region of convection.

As the air sinks, it also warms, preventing other small clouds from forming, so that the regions just inside the arcs are kept clear. At the arcs, the horizontal flow of sinking air is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly -- possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus clouds. Although examples of the continuity of air, in which every rising air motion must be compensated by a sinking motion elsewhere, are very common, the degree of organization exhibited here is relatively rare, as the wind field at different altitudes usually disrupts such patterns. The degree of self organization of this cloud image, whereby three or four such circular events form a quasi-periodic pattern, probably also requires a relatively uncommon combination of wind, temperature and humidity conditions for it to occur.

The image was acquired by MISR's nadir camera on March 11, 2002, and is centered west of the Marshall Islands. Enewetak Atoll is discernible through thin cloud as the turquoise band near the right-hand edge of the image.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 11863, and covers an area of about 380 kilometers x 345 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 80 to 82 within World Reference System-2 path 90.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

267

Mixed-phase cloud phase partitioning using millimeter wavelength cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and quantifying cloud liquid drop contributions to radar returns from mixed-phase clouds remains a challenge because the radar signal is frequently dominated by the returns from the ice particles within the radar sample volume. We present a technique that extracts the weak cloud liquid drop contributions from the total radar returns in profiling cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra. Individual spectra are first decomposed using a continuous wavelet transform, the resulting coefficients of which are used to identify the region in the spectra where cloud liquid drops contribute. By assuming that the liquid contribution to each Doppler spectrum is Gaussian shaped and centered on an appropriate peak in the wavelet coefficients, the cloud liquid drop contribution may be estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution centered on the velocity of this peak to the original Doppler spectrum. The cloud liquid drop contribution to reflectivity, the volume mean vertical air motion, subvolume vertical velocity variance, and ice particle mean fall speed can be estimated based on the separation of the liquid contribution to the radar Doppler spectrum. The algorithm is evaluated using synthetic spectra produced from output of a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model study of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. The retrievals of cloud liquid drop mode reflectivities were generally consistent with the original model values with errors less than a factor of 2. The retrieved volume mean vertical air velocities reproduced the updraft and downdraft structures, but with an overall bias of approximately -0.06 m s-1. Retrievals based on Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Zenith Radar observations from Barrow, Alaska, during October 2011 are also presented.

Yu, G.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Chen, Y.-S.

2014-06-01

268

Intergalactic HI Clouds  

E-print Network

Neutral intergalactic clouds are so greatly out numbered by galaxies that their integral HI content is negligible in comparison to that contained in optically luminous galaxies. In fact, no HI cloud that is not associated with a galaxy or grouping of galaxies has yet been identified. This points to a causal relationship that relies on gravitational potentials that bind galaxies also being responsible for confining HI clouds to sufficient density that they can become self-shielding to the ionizing background radiation. Unconfined clouds of low density become ionized, but confined clouds find themselves vulnerable to instability and collapse, leading to star formation.

F. H. Briggs

2005-02-16

269

Estimating Cloud Cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in pairs or small groups, students use construction paper to simulate cloud cover. They estimate the percentage of cloud cover represented by torn pieces of paper on a contrasting background and assign a cloud cover classification to the simulations created by their classmates. Students gain experience estimating cloud cover, evaluating the accuracy of estimates, and using fractions and percentages. This learning activity is from the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Cloud Cover Protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

270

A simple application of Artificial Neural Network to cloud classification  

E-print Network

, individually organized #12;What do we know · Liquid water path distributions for types a and d are distinct of these cloud types are also distinct. Types a and b both have a characteristic scale while c and d hardly show Recognition · Extract feature vectors from patterns · Train the ANN ­ Try different initial guesses

Maryland at College Park, University of

271

Complex Vector Formalism of Harmonic Oscillator in Geometric Algebra: Particle Mass, Spin and Dynamics in Complex Vector Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elementary particles are considered as local oscillators under the influence of zeropoint fields. Such oscillatory behavior of the particles leads to the deviations in their path of motion. The oscillations of the particle in general may be considered as complex rotations in complex vector space. The local particle harmonic oscillator is analyzed in the complex vector formalism considering the algebra of complex vectors. The particle spin is viewed as zeropoint angular momentum represented by a bivector. It has been shown that the particle spin plays an important role in the kinematical intrinsic or local motion of the particle. From the complex vector formalism of harmonic oscillator, for the first time, a relation between mass and bivector spin has been derived in the form . Where, is the angular velocity bivector of complex rotations, is the velocity of light. The unit vector acts as an operator on the idempotents and to give the eigen values The constant represents two fold nature of the equation corresponding to particle and antiparticle states. Further the above relation shows that the mass of the particle may be interpreted as a local spatial complex rotation in the rest frame. This gives an insight into the nature of fundamental particles. When a particle is observed from an arbitrary frame of reference, it has been shown that the spatial complex rotation dictates the relativistic particle motion. The mathematical structure of complex vectors in space and spacetime is developed.

Muralidhar, K.

2014-03-01

272

Support Vector Data Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data domain description concerns the characterization of a data set. A good description covers all target data but includes no superfluous space. The boundary of a dataset can be used to detect novel data or outliers. We will present the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) which is inspired by the Support Vector Classifier. It obtains a spherically shaped boundary around

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

2004-01-01

273

Community Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenge...

Marinos, Alexandros

2009-01-01

274

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

275

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

276

Two-Dimensional Axisymmetric Collapse of Thermally Unstable Primordial Clouds  

E-print Network

We have performed two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of isolated axisymmetric clouds condensing via radiative cooling in a primordial background gas. In order to study the development of the so-called ``shape-instability'', we have considered two types of axisymmetric clouds, oblate and prolate clouds of various sizes and with axial ratios of $0.5 \\leq {R_{\\rm c,R}} /{R_{\\rm c,z}} \\leq 2$. We find that the degree of oblateness or prolateness is enhanced during the initial cooling phase. But it can be reversed later, if the initial contrast in cooling times between the cloud gas and the background gas is much greater than one. In such cases an oblate cloud collapses to a structure composed of an outer thin disk and a central prolate component. A prolate cloud, on the other hand, becomes a thin cigar-shape structure with a central dense oblate component. The reversal of shape in the central part of the cooled clouds is due to supersonic motions either along the disk plane in the case of oblate clouds or along the symmetry axis in the case of prolate clouds. For a background gas of $T_h=1.7\\times 10^6$K and $n_h=0.1 \\cm3$ in a protogalactic halo environment, the mean density of the cloud gas that has cooled to $10^4$K increases to $100 n_h$ or so, in our simulations where nonequilibrium cooling is adopted and the background gas cools too. The spherical Jeans mass of such gas is estimated to be about $M_J \\sim 5\\times10^{7}\\Msun$. In order for cloud mass to exceed the Jeans mass and at the same time in order for the thermal instability to operate, the initial cloud size should be around $1 - 1.5 l_{\\rm cool}$ where $l_{\\rm cool}$ is the cooling length.

Chang Hyun Baek; Hyesung Kang; Dongsu Ryu

2002-11-08

277

Movie of High Clouds on Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's high-altitude clouds are seen in this brief movie made from seven frames taken by the narrow-angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft. This is the first time a movie sequence of Jupiter has been made that illustrates the motions of the high-altitude clouds on a global scale.

The images were taken at a wavelength that is absorbed by methane, one chemical in Jupiter's lower clouds. So, dark areas are relatively free of high clouds, and the camera sees through to the methane in a lower level. Bright areas are places with high, thick clouds that shield the methane below.

Jupiter's equator and Great Red Spot are covered with high-altitude, hazy clouds.

The movie covers the time period between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000, latitudes from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south, and a 100-degree sweep of longitude. Those factors were the same for a Cassini movie of cloud motions previously released (PIA02829), but that movie used frames taken through a blue filter, which showed deeper cloud levels and sharper detail. Features in this methane-filter movie appear more diffuse.

Among the nearly stationary features are the Red Spot and some bright ovals at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres. These are anticyclonic (counter-clockwise rotating) storms. They are bright in the methane band because of their high clouds associated with rising gas. They behave differently from terrestrial cyclones, which swirl in the opposite direction. The mechanism making the Red Spot and similar spots stable apparently has no similarity to the mechanism which feeds terrestrial cyclones.

Some small-scale features are fascinating because of their brightness fluctuations. Such fluctuations observed in the methane band are probably caused by strong vertical motions, which form clouds rapidly, as in Earth's thunderstorms. Near the upper left corner in this movie, a number of smaller clouds appear to circulate counterclockwise around a dark spot, and these clouds fluctuate in brightness, so they may be candidates for lightning storms.

A pattern of lighter areas between darker patches can be seen in the darkest band a little north of the bright equatorial region. This may be tied to a wave-like temperature variation across the planet. If confirmed, this would be the first time such large-scale stratospheric temperature waves have been visibly linked to variations in haze thickness.

Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

278

Properties of High-Redshift Lyman Alpha Clouds II. Statistical Properties of the Clouds  

E-print Network

Curve of growth analysis, applied to the Lyman series absorption ratios deduced in our previous paper, yields a measurement of the logarithmic slope of distribution of \\Lya\\ clouds in column density $N$. The observed exponential distribution of the clouds' equivalent widths $W$ is then shown to require a broad distribution of velocity parameters $b$, extending up to 80 km s$^{-1}$. We show how the exponential itself emerges in a natural way. An absolute normalization for the differential distribution of cloud numbers in $z$, $N$, and $b$ is obtained. By detailed analysis of absorption fluctuations along the line of sight we are able to put upper limits on the cloud-cloud correlation function $\\xi$ on several megaparsec length scales. We show that observed $b$ values, if thermal, are incompatible, in several different ways, with the hypothesis of equilibrium heating and ionization by a background UV flux. Either a significant component of $b$ is due to bulk motion (which we argue against on several grounds), or else the clouds are out of equilibrium, and hotter than is implied by their ionization state, a situation which could be indicative of recent adiabatic collapse.

William H. Press; George B. Rybicki

1993-03-29

279

Polarization evolution characteristics of focused hybridly polarized vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the focusing property and the polarization evolution characteristics of hybridly polarized vector fields in the focal region. Three types of hybridly polarized vector fields, namely azimuthal-variant hybridly polarized vector field, radial-variant hybridly polarized vector field, and spatial-variant hybridly polarized vector field, are experimentally generated. The intensity distributions and the polarization evolution of these hybridly polarized vector fields focused under low numerical aperture (NA) are experimentally studied and good agreements with the numerical simulations are obtained. The three-dimensional (3D) state of polarization and the field distribution within the focal volume of these hybridly polarized vector fields under high-NA focusing are studied numerically. The optical curl force on Rayleigh particles induced by tightly focused hybridly polarized vector fields, which results in the orbital motion of trapped particles, is analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate that polarization-only modulation provided by the hybridly polarized vector field allows one to control both the intensity distribution and 3D elliptical polarization in the focal region, which may find interesting applications in particle trapping, manipulation, and orientation analysis.

Gu, Bing; Pan, Yang; Rui, Guanghao; Xu, Danfeng; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping

2014-12-01

280

Impact of the ice phase on a mesoscale convective system: Implication of cloud parameterization and cloud radiative properties  

SciTech Connect

This study attempts to provide further understanding of the effect of the ice phase on cloud ensemble features which are useful for improving GCM cumulus parameterization. In addition, cloud model results are used to diagnose the radiative properties of anvils in order to assess cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate for the future work. The heat, moisture and mass budget analyses of a simulated squall line system indicate that, at least for this type of system, the inclusion of the ice phase in the microphysics does not considerably change the net cloud heating and drying effects and the feedback on the large-scale motion. Nonetheless, its impact on the radiative properties of clouds significantly influences not only the squall line system itself, but also the larger-scale circulation due to the favorable stratification for long-lasting anvil clouds. The water budget suggests a simple methodology to parameterize the microphysical effect without considering it as a model physics module. Further application of the water budget might also be used to parameterize the cloud transport of condensates in the anvil cloud region, which allows the GCM columns to interact with each other. The findings of this study suggest that the ice phase could be ignored in the cloud parameterization in order to save significant amounts of computational resources and to simplify the model physics. More scientific effort should, however, be focused on the effect of the ice phase to further explore cloud feedback on the large-scale climate through the radiative process. The cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate will be addressed in a companion study by coupling the radiative transfer model with the cloud model. 19 refs., 13 figs.

Chin, H.N.S.; Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.; Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.

1991-08-01

281

Isomeric motions of a perfect charged fluid  

SciTech Connect

Space-time with perfect charged fluids as sources, that admit groups G/sub r/ of isometric motions, are investigated. It is assumed that the velocity vector of the fluid is collinear to the timelike Killing vector /xi//sup i/ of group G/sub r/. It is shown that the macroscopic motion of a perfect charged fluid can occur only in the direction of such a Killing vector /xi//sup i/ that defines an operator in an invariant subgroup or, in particular, an operator of the center of the group. Parametric representations of the generalized equations of state of the pressure p, the energy density of the fluid, /rho/, and the electric charge density /sigma/ are established. All these quantities are functions of the norm of the Killing vector /xi//sup i/ and the projection of the 4-potential of the electromagnetic field onto this vector /xi//sup i/. In the approximation of the weak field in the coordinate system where /xi//sup i/ = /delta//sub 4//sup i/, these functional dependences imply that p, /rho/, and /sigma/ are functions of Newtonian and electrostatic potentials.

Daishev, R.A.

1988-04-01

282

Cloud Computing Security: From Single to Multi-clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cloud computing has increased rapidly in many organizations. Cloud computing provides many benefits in terms of low cost and accessibility of data. Ensuring the security of cloud computing is a major factor in the cloud computing environment, as users often store sensitive information with cloud storage providers but these providers may be untrusted. Dealing with \\

Mohammed A. AlZain; Eric Pardede; Ben Soh; James A. Thom

2012-01-01

283

Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure  

E-print Network

UROP 2012 Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure Cloud computing and live-migration of running VM. USI participates to the development of the first European Cloud computing for a motivated student that will have a chance to improve his/her knowledge on Cloud computing, Java and/or Ruby

Krause, Rolf

284

The Cloud Radar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

2003-01-01

285

Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

286

Frame concealment algorithm for stereoscopic video using motion vector sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereoscopic video is one of the simplest forms of multi view video, which can be easily adapted for communication applications. Much current research is based on colour and depth map stereoscopic video, due to its reduced bandwidth requirements and backward compatibility. Existing immersive media research is more focused on application processing than aspects related to transfer of immersive content over

Chaminda T. E. R. Hewage; Stewart Worrall; Safak Dogan; Ahmet M. Kondoz

2008-01-01

287

Quadratic exponential vectors  

SciTech Connect

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a quadratic exponential vector with test function in L{sup 2}(R{sup d}) intersection L{sup {infinity}}(R{sup d}). We prove the linear independence and totality, in the quadratic Fock space, of these vectors. Using a technique different from the one used by Accardi et al. [Quantum Probability and Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Vol. 25, p. 262, (2009)], we also extend, to a more general class of test functions, the explicit form of the scalar product between two such vectors.

Accardi, Luigi; Dhahri, Ameur [Volterra Center, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via Columbia 2, 00133 Roma (Italy)

2009-12-15

288

MAC^3: Vectors Worksheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a worksheet on the topic of vectors for beginning physics students. It was developed as a companion to the lecture presentations by the same authors (see Related Items on this page for a link.) A primary goal of the full instructional unit is to help physics and calculus students differentiate the uses of vectors for physics vs. mathematics, a difficulty known as the "vector calculus gap". This resource is part of a collection developed by the NSF-funded Mathematics Across the Community College Curriculum (MAC 3).

Friesen, Larry; Gillis, Anne

2008-12-22

289

Taxonomy of cloud computing services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic, and many big players of the software industry are entering the development of cloud services. Several companies want to explore the possibilities and benefits of cloud computing, but with the amount of cloud computing services increasing quickly, the need for a taxonomy framework rises. This paper describes the available cloud computing services, and

C. N. Hoefer; G. Karagiannis

2010-01-01

290

Security threats in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered from data centers located throughout the world. Cloud computing facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via internet. General example of cloud services is Google apps, provided by Google and Microsoft SharePoint. The rapid growth in field of “cloud computing” also increases severe security

Farhan Bashir Shaikh; Sajjad Haider

2011-01-01

291

An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

Buyya, Rajkumar

292

Realtime Cloud Simulation and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real-time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real-time applica- tions, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. In this paper, we show how to create dynamic clouds with multiple shape options. We will create cellu- lar automation that runs on the GPU using

Noah Brickman; David Olsen; Gillian Smith

293

Retroviral vectors for gene transfer.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONRetroviral vectors from the ?-retrovirus genus were the first retroviral vectors to be developed. They have been called oncoretroviral vectors or simple retroviral vectors because of their derivation from oncogenic retroviruses having a simple gag-pol-env genome structure. Later additions to the retroviral vector family include the lentiviral and foamy viral vectors derived from more complex retroviruses that contain multiple accessory genes in addition to the standard gag-pol-env genes. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of retroviral vectors for gene therapy. It also discusses the issues that must be considered in designing retroviral vectors and in choosing retroviral packaging cell lines. PMID:21356814

Cornetta, Kenneth; Pollok, Karen E; Miller, A Dusty

2008-01-01

294

Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at the ARM sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program upgraded its fixed and mobile facilities with the acquisition of state-of-the-art scanning, dual-wavelength, polarimetric, Doppler cloud radars. The scanning ARM cloud radars (SACR's) are the most expensive and significant radar systems at all ARM sites and eight SACR systems will be operational at ARM sites by the end of 2013. The SACR's are the primary instruments for the detection of 3D cloud properties (boundaries, volume cloud fractional coverage, liquid water content, dynamics, etc.) beyond the soda-straw (profiling) limited view. Having scanning capabilities with two frequencies and polarization allows more accurate probing of a variety of cloud systems (e.g., drizzle and shallow, warm rain), better correction for attenuation, use of attenuation for liquid water content retrievals, and polarimetric and dual-wavelength ratio characterization of non-spherical particles for improved ice crystal habit identification. Examples of SACR observations from four ARM sites are presented here: the fixed sites at Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and the mobile facility deployments at Graciosa Island, Azores and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The 3D cloud structure is investigated both at the macro-scale (20-50 km) and cloud-scale (100-500 m). Doppler velocity measurements are corrected for velocity folding and are used either to describe the in-cloud horizontal wind profile or the 3D vertical air motions.

Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Shupe, M.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Miller, M. A.; Verlinde, H.; Luke, E. P.; Johnson, K. L.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Lamer, K.

2012-12-01

295

Speed tuning of motion segmentation and discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motion transparency requires that the visual system distinguish different motion vectors and selectively integrate similar motion vectors over space into the perception of multiple surfaces moving through or over each other. Using large-field (7 degrees x 7 degrees) displays containing two populations of random-dots moving in the same (horizontal) direction but at different speeds, we examined speed-based segmentation by measuring the speed difference above which observers can perceive two moving surfaces. We systematically investigated this 'speed-segmentation' threshold as a function of speed and stimulus duration, and found that it increases sharply for speeds above approximately 8 degrees/s. In addition, speed-segmentation thresholds decrease with stimulus duration out to approximately 200 ms. In contrast, under matched conditions, speed-discrimination thresholds stay low at least out to 16 degrees/s and decrease with increasing stimulus duration at a faster rate than for speed segmentation. Thus, motion segmentation and motion discrimination exhibit different speed selectivity and different temporal integration characteristics. Results are discussed in terms of the speed preferences of different neuronal populations within the primate visual cortex.

Masson, G. S.; Mestre, D. R.; Stone, L. S.

1999-01-01

296

Cloud computing: from hype to reality: fast tracking cloud adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is one of the most talked about and to an extent hyped technologies in the recent years. As per Gartner, cloud computing is one of the top 10 technology initiatives for this year. Cloud computing is at the \\

Ramkumar Dargha

2012-01-01

297

Targeted adenoviral vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical implementation of gene therapy in the clinical setting mandates gene delivery vehicles, or vectors, capable of efficient gene delivery selectively to the target disease cells. The utility of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy is restricted by their dependence on the native adenoviral primary cellular receptor for cell entry. Therefore, a number of strategies have been developed to allow CAR-independent infection of specific cell types, including the use of bispecific conjugates and genetic modifications to the adenoviral capsid proteins, in particular the fibre protein. These targeted adenoviral vectors have demonstrated efficient gene transfer in vitro , correlating with a therapeutic benefit in preclinical animal models. Such vectors are predicted to possess enhanced efficacy in human clinical studies, although anatomical barriers to their use must be circumvented.

Douglas, Joanne T.

298

Light Vector Mesons  

E-print Network

This article reviews the current status of experimental results obtained in the measurement of light vector mesons produced in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at different energies. The review is focused on two phenomena related to the light vector mesons; the modification of the spectral shape in search of Chiral symmetry restoration and suppression of the meson production in heavy ion collisions. The experimental results show that the spectral shape of light vector mesons are modified compared to the parameters measured in vacuum. The nature and the magnitude of the modification depends on the energy density of the media in which they are produced. The suppression patterns of light vector mesons are different from the measurements of other mesons and baryons. The mechanisms responsible for the suppression of the mesons are not yet understood. Systematic comparison of existing experimental results points to the missing data which may help to resolve the problem.

Alexander Milov

2008-12-21

299

Baculovirus as vaccine vectors.  

PubMed

Application of viral vectors derived from human viruses to mediate immune response in animals and humans has been greatly hampered by the problems associated with pre-existing immunity and associated toxicities. Among few non-human viral vectors, baculovirus has now evolved as a novel tool for vaccine vector development. With broad tissue tropism and expanded bio-safety profile suitably supplemented with intrinsic immunostimulatory properties, baculovirus has now attained a niche position in the arena of vaccine development. Recombinant envelope-modified baculovirus equipped with novel shuttle promoters for in vivo transduction has shown promising results in several animal models. Baculovirus mediated induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses through intranasal or oral administration has now open an entirely new way for the development of new generation vaccines. Gaining additional insight into the baculovirus biology and its interaction with non-native hosts will certainly promote this human-friendly virus as a potential vector for clinical applications. PMID:20394572

Madhan, Selvaraj; Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

2010-06-01

300

Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

2007-01-01

301

Era of Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cloud Computing offers an entirely new way of looking at IT infrastructure. From a hardware point of view, cloud computing\\u000a offers seemingly never-ending computing resources available on demand, thereby eliminating the need to budget for hardware\\u000a that may only be used in high peak timeframes. Cloud computing eliminates an up-front commitment by users, thereby allowing\\u000a agencies to start small and

Pramod Kumar Joshi; Sadhana Rana

302

Generalizing the Poynting Vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very general energy conservation law derived from a Lagrangian theory of dielectric crystals is presented. It includes energy propagation from electromagnetic, spin, and acoustic waves. Both linear and nonlinear waves are included as well as various polaritonic combinations. Waves involving nonlocal (wave-vector-dispersive) interactions are also included. An example of the latter for which the Poynting vector is invalid, but which is correctly handled by this theory, is presented.

Nelson, D. F.

1996-06-01

303

Bloch vector projection noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

1994-01-01

304

Formation and Persistence of Summertime Arctic Stratus Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a numerical model which can explain the principle observed properties of the summertime stratus clouds occurring over the Arctic Basin. Warm, moist air from the surrounding land masses is modified as it passes over the melting pack ice. Motions are calculated on the basis of a fixed pressure field, but all other relevant fields (temperature, mixing, solar

Gerald Herman; Richard Goody

1976-01-01

305

Grid und Cloud Computing.  

E-print Network

??In dieser Arbeit werden die theoretischen Konzepte und mögliche praktische Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Grid- und Cloud-Computing dargestellt. Als erster Teil der Arbeit wird zuerst auf Grids… (more)

Shahi Barogh, Bahareh

2010-01-01

306

Processing of kinetically defined boundaries in the cortical motion area MT of the macaque monkey.  

PubMed

1. Electrophysiological recordings of 68 cells in the middle temporal area MT were made in paralyzed and anesthetized macaque monkeys. 2. Testing with our kinetic boundary stimuli always occurred under optimized conditions. To this end, the preferred direction, speed, stimulus position, and stimulus size of each cell were determined by quantitative tests. 3. The orientation selectivity to stationary luminance contrast edges served as a reference by which a response to kinetic boundaries could be compared. We found cells in area MT to be less selective to the orientation of luminance contrast stimuli than to the direction of motion. We confirmed the presence of neurons with preferred orientation aligned with their preferred direction. 4. The responses to kinetic edges defined by motion vectors moving in opposite directions, kinetic gratings with motion vectors in opposite directions, kinetic edges containing coherent motion and a stationary complementary field or coherent motion and a complementary field containing visual dynamic noise were compared. Kinetic boundaries were generated so that the motion vectors moved either parallel or orthogonal to the orientation of the discontinuity. For a cell to be considered as responding to the orientation of a kinetic boundary, it had to exhibit the same preferred orientation when the local motion vectors changed from parallel to orthogonal to the orientation of the kinetic boundary. 5. All cells in area MT changed their preferred orientation by 90 degrees when the coherent motion vectors changed from moving parallel to moving orthogonal to the boundary. This was the case independent of the types of kinetic boundary tested. We concluded that cells in area MT appear to respond to the motion vector over their classical receptive field (CRF) only and were unable to code the orientation of the kinetic boundary. 6. In those cells exhibiting an antagonistic surround, we examined the ability of the cell to code the position of a kinetic boundary. None of the cells tested signaled the position of a kinetic boundary. The side preference of the stimulus of the cells changed from left to right as the motion vectors in the stimulus reversed. This indicates that the cells were only selective for the motion vectors present over their CRF. 7. We found that the directional sensitivity of cells in area MT remained unaltered by the presence of additional motion vectors within the CRF. This suggests that cells in area MT extract a specific motion vector from a spatial configuration of vectors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7500149

Marcar, V L; Xiao, D K; Raiguel, S E; Maes, H; Orban, G A

1995-09-01

307

An efficient low-bit rate adaptive mesh-based motion compensation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a two-stage global motion estimation method using a novel quadtree block-based motion estimation technique and an active mesh model. In the first stage, motion parameters are estimated by fitting block-based motion vectors computed using a new efficient quadtree technique, that divides a frame into equilateral triangle blocks using the quad-tree structure. Arbitrary partition shapes are achieved by

Hanan A. Mahmoud; Magdy A. Bayoumi

2000-01-01

308

Efficient low-bit-rate adaptive mesh-based motion compensation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a two-stage global motion estimation method using a novel quadtree block-based motion estimation technique and an active mesh model. In the first stage, motion parameters are estimated by fitting block-based motion vectors computed using a new efficient quadtree technique, that divides a frame into equilateral triangle blocks using the quad-tree structure. Arbitrary partition shapes are achieved by

Hanan A. Mahmoud; Magdy A. Bayoumi

2001-01-01

309

Light vector mesons in the nuclear medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light vector mesons (?,?, and ?) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the ? meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to e+e-. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The ?-meson mass spectrum was extracted after the ? and ? signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the ? mass spectra from the heavy targets (A>2) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the ?-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body effects such as collisional broadening and Fermi motion.

Wood, M. H.; Nasseripour, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Djalali, C.; Tur, C.; Mosel, U.; Muehlich, P.; Adams, G.; Amaryan, M. J.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Blaszczyk, L.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Casey, L.; Chen, S.; Cheng, L.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Coltharp, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Crede, V.; Cummings, J. P.; Dashyan, N.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dickson, R.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Feldman, G.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Fradi, A.; Funsten, H.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gordon, C. I. O.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hanretty, C.; Hardie, J.; Hassall, N.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Kossov, M.; Krahn, Z.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McAleer, S.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Moriya, K.; Morrow, S. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Mueller, J.; Munevar, E.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sharov, D.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Todor, L.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Yegneswaran, A.; Zana, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

2008-07-01

310

Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations  

E-print Network

Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations Recommendationsof the National Institute of Standards Publication 800-146 Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations Recommendations of the National Institute and Director #12;CLOUD COMPUTING SYNOPSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ii Reports on Computer Systems Technology

311

Low-Level Cloud Response to the Gulf Stream1 Front in Winter using CALIPSO2  

E-print Network

_cloud_text_r1.docx #12;2 Abstract23 A sharp sea surface temperature front develops between the warm water of the Gulf24 Stream and cold continental shelf water in boreal winter. This front has a substantial25 impact through sea level pressure adjustment with ascending33 motion over the warm water and descending motion

Xie, Shang-Ping

312

Reduced entropy motion compensation using variable-sized blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a quad-tree based variable size block matching (VSBM) motion estimation algorithm which is as computationally efficient as fixed size block matching (FSBM) and yet provides a better quality prediction. The 'match and merge' scheme allows the dimensions of blocks to adapt to local activity within the image, and the total number of blocks in any frame can be varied while still representing true motion fairly accurately. This permits adaptive it allocation between the representation of displacement and residual data, and the variation of the overall bit allowance on a frame-by-frame basis. The cost of coding the motion information from the VSBM technique is compared with the 2D motion vector prediction adopted by H.263 and MPEG-4 using FSBM with 16 by 16 macroblocks. 1D and 2D VSBM motion vector prediction strategies are described. The techniques are evaluated using two complete MPEG-4 test sequences. For similar quality prediction (same mean square error), 16 percent fewer bits are required to ode the motion vectors from the 'Foreman' sequence using the VSBM technique and a 2D predictor. The saving increases to 68 percent for the 'Container Ship' sequence in which there is less disparate motion. The cost of including the quad- tree description is included in both cases.

Martin, Graham R.; Packwood, Roger A.; Steliaros, Michael K.

1997-01-01

313

Valles Marineris cloud trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinctive cloud trails are identified in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images over specific locations associated with Valles Marineris and Noctis Labyrinthus and at perihelion solar longitudes (LS = 230°-260°). High-contrast surface shadows are well defined, as cast from their eastern margins, supporting altitude and optical depth determinations. These relatively high altitude clouds (40-50 km) exhibit narrow latitudinal widths (25-75 km) in comparison to extended longitudinal dimensions (400-1000 km). MARCI multispectral imaging of cloud surface shadows in five wavelength channels (260, 320, 437, 546, and 653 nm) yields the wavelength dependence of cloud extinction optical depth, revealing a range of small cloud particle sizes (reff = 0.2-0.5 ?m) and moderate cloud optical depths (0.03-0.10 visible and 0.1-0.2 ultraviolet). Local time and temporal sampling characteristics of MARCI cloud images indicate that these clouds develop very rapidly in afternoon hours (1300-1500 LT), reach their full longitudinal extents within <2 h time scales, and often reoccur on successive afternoons. Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbital Camera imaging in previous Mars years indicates these clouds are annually repeating. These observed characteristics suggest a cloud formation mechanism that is specific to ˜50 km horizontal and vertical scales, transports water vapor and dust upward from lower levels, exists during the afternoon, and is likely associated with the mesoscale atmospheric circulations induced by the near-equatorial canyons of Mars. Cloud particles formed in such updrafts would then be rapidly transported westward in the strong retrograde zonal circulation of the subsolar middle atmosphere in this season.

Clancy, R. Todd; Wolff, Michael J.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Michaels, Timothy I.

2009-11-01

314

Lost in Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

2012-01-01

315

The Case for Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand clouds and cloud computing, we must first understand the two different types of clouds. The author distinguishes between clouds that provide on-demand computing instances and those that provide on-demand computing capacity. Cloud computing doesn't yet have a standard definition, but a good working description of it is to say that clouds, or clusters of distributed computers, provide on-demand

Robert L. Grossman

2009-01-01

316

A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

1981-01-01

317

Nonlinear motion analysis of flexible satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The article reviews research on pointing accuracies of flexible satellites with regard to derived equations of motion of individual elements and composite bodies. The solution of these equations may be achieved through the formulation of a set of singularly perturbed equations by eliminating the generalized position vector. These equations are generally solved by a method of asymptotic expansions if certain convergence criteria are satisfied. The analysis may be applied to dual-spin flexible satellites.

Huang, T. C.; Das, A.

1976-01-01

318

On noninferior performance index vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninferior vector index problem of optimal control theory is investigated in an effort to establish some basic properties of the noninferior index surface in the generalN-dimensional index problem. The vector performance index problem is first converted to a family of scalar index problems by forming an auxiliary scalar index as a function of the vector index and a vector

R. W. Reid; S. J. Citron

1971-01-01

319

Security Through Multiple Unrelated Clouds in Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

many organizations in this competitive world. As many organizations are using cloud computing, the major issue that has arised is security. In single cloud there are many security issues and the possibility of malicious insiders is also high. But in multi clouds the security issues has become less for the users and for the people in the research group. As the multi clouds provide the solutions rose in the security of a single cloud the movement towards multi clouds is increased. The multi cloud deals with the security issues like data integrity, data intrusion and service availability in the cloud. Eventhough we cannot assure complete security in the multi clouds. This is because if the hacker attacks the server which is related to the multi cloud environment he can easily hack our valuable information. This paper surveys about security in unrelated clouds and gives further more solutions to achieve more security level than in multi clouds. Cloud access security deals with the issues where the data is located and who is accessing it. In unrelated clouds, it is difficult to the attacker to find that from which cloud the user access his information. The clouds which are not related to each other can provide more security to the users. If the servers in a cloud environment are unrelated to each other then the security level will be increased. Keywords:

V. Akhila; Nikita Mahajan; B. V. Sriram; Dr. N. Srinivasu

320

Canopy In The Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Canopy In The Clouds is a free educational research focused on providing innovative and immersive earth and life science educational media from the perspective of a tropical montane clouds forest. All information on the website is peer-reviewed for accuracy and continually updated.

321

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted dur- ing April-July 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influ- ences the evolution

J. A. Curry; P. V. Hobbs; M. D. King; D. A. Randall; P. Minnis; G. A. Isaac; J. O. Pinto; T. Uttal; A. Bucholtz; D. G. Cripe; H. Gerber; C. W. Fairall; T. J. Garrett; J. Hudson; J. M. Intrieri; C. Jakob; T. Jensen; P. Lawson; D. Marcotte; L. Nguyen; P. Pilewskie; A. Rangno; D. C. Rogers; K. B. Strawbridge; F. P. J. Valero; A. G. Williams; D. Wylie

2000-01-01

322

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

323

Cloud Resolving Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2007-01-01

324

Cloud Computing for Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project evaluates previous Information and Communication Technology policy and practice relating to primary schools in Ireland with a view to suggesting a better way forward in light of advances in ICT, such as the availability of fast broadband services, including fibre broadband, browser-based applications and the advent of cloud computing. Cloud computing refers to the Internet as a source

Shane ODoherty

2010-01-01

325

On Cloud Nine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative…

McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

2011-01-01

326

Rendering Smoke & Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to give a short summary on the topics covered by a talk given during the course 'Game Design' at the Technical University of Munich. Among the topics is an overview about clouds in the real world, what they are and why we can see them as well as two different approaches on rendering and displaying clouds on

Jürgen Treml

327

Cloud Physics: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Oklahoma Weather Modification Program encourages students to initiate a debate on the controversy surrounding the issue of inducing or enhancing precipitation. The exercise describes the two basic tenets of cloud seeding: the Static Phase Hypothesis and the Dynamic Phase Hypothesis. Also provided are links to a weather and climate glossary and further information about clouds and precipitation.

Klatt, Michael L.

328

Mapping the Velocity Vector Onto the Spin Vector: Two-Dimensional Velocity-Selective Spin Excitation for MR Flow Imaging  

PubMed Central

This article presents a two-dimensional velocity-selective spin excitation (2D-VSP) method that enables quantitative imaging of motion in two directions in a single scan, without the need for image subtraction or combination. It is based on the idea of mapping a 2D velocity vector directly onto the transverse magnetization vector, such that the signal intensity reflects the speed of motion, while the signal phase represents the direction of motion. Experimental demonstration is presented in conjunction with an analysis of the accuracy of this method. VSP methods are often limited by inconsistent static signal suppression under variable shim and RF conditions. By using adiabatic RF pulses in a 2D-VSP composite that possesses time-reversal symmetry, consistent background suppression of 30-fold or higher was demonstrated over experimental conditions of ±200 Hz off-resonance and 30% RF field variation.† PMID:11590653

Wen, Han

2010-01-01

329

On the origin of the Orion and Monoceros molecular cloud complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed model for the origin of the Orion and Monoceros cloud complexes is presented, showing that a single high-velocity H I cloud-galaxy collision can explain their main observed features. The collision generates massive shocked layers, and self-gravity can then provide the conditions for the transformation of these layers into molecular clouds. The clouds formed by the collision maintain the motion of their parental shocked gas and reach positions located far away from the plane. According to this model, both the Orion and Monoceros complexes were formed some 60 million yr ago, when the original shocked layer was fragmented by Galactic tidal forces.

Franco, J.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Bodenheimer, P.; Rozyczka, M.; Mirabel, I. F.

1988-01-01

330

Novel true-motion estimation algorithm and its application to motion-compensated temporal frame interpolation.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new low-complexity true-motion estimation (TME) algorithm is proposed for video processing applications, such as motion-compensated temporal frame interpolation (MCTFI) or motion-compensated frame rate up-conversion (MCFRUC). Regular motion estimation, which is often used in video coding, aims to find the motion vectors (MVs) to reduce the temporal redundancy, whereas TME aims to track the projected object motion as closely as possible. TME is obtained by imposing implicit and/or explicit smoothness constraints on the block-matching algorithm. To produce better quality-interpolated frames, the dense motion field at interpolation time is obtained for both forward and backward MVs; then, bidirectional motion compensation using forward and backward MVs is applied by mixing both elegantly. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm for MCTFI is demonstrated against recently proposed methods and smoothness constraint optical flow employed by a professional video production suite. Experimental results show that the quality of the interpolated frames using the proposed method is better when compared with the MCFRUC techniques. PMID:23060328

Dikbas, Salih; Altunbasak, Yucel

2013-08-01

331

A new automated approach to cloud population  

E-print Network

This thesis presents vCloud Populator, a new approach to automating the cloud population process on VMware vCloud Director. Cloud population is the process during which a cloud instance is populated with entities to reflect ...

Tam, Hoki

2012-01-01

332

Cloud Model Bat Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

2014-01-01

333

Cloud computing security.  

SciTech Connect

Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

2010-10-01

334

Image to Point Cloud Method of 3D-MODELING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the method of constructing 3D models of objects (buildings, monuments) based on digital images and a point cloud obtained by terrestrial laser scanner. The first step is the automated determination of exterior orientation parameters of digital image. We have to find the corresponding points of the image and point cloud to provide this operation. Before the corresponding points searching quasi image of point cloud is generated. After that SIFT algorithm is applied to quasi image and real image. SIFT algorithm allows to find corresponding points. Exterior orientation parameters of image are calculated from corresponding points. The second step is construction of the vector object model. Vectorization is performed by operator of PC in an interactive mode using single image. Spatial coordinates of the model are calculated automatically by cloud points. In addition, there is automatic edge detection with interactive editing available. Edge detection is performed on point cloud and on image with subsequent identification of correct edges. Experimental studies of the method have demonstrated its efficiency in case of building facade modeling.

Chibunichev, A. G.; Galakhov, V. P.

2012-07-01

335

Modular Approach to Physics: Work and Energy in Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a simulation-based module on projectile motion without air resistance. Users can alter the initial trajectory of the ball, the force of gravity, and the mass of the ball. The path of the ball can be traced, showing parabolic motion. Through the vectors menu, the velocity, force of acceleration, and force of gravity vectors can be plotted. The help section provides full instructions for use plus supplementary student activities. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-15

336

Modular Approach to Physics: Projectile Motion: One Ball  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a simulation-based module on projectile motion with or without air resistance. By controlling the initial velocity, strength of gravity, and drag coefficient of air, the applet promotes understanding of the projectile motion. The Vectors panel allows display of drag force, gravitational force, velocity, and acceleration vectors. The simulation's Help provides detailed lessons with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-30

337

July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization  

E-print Network

July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization/26/2633 Recent: CloudRecent: Cloud The fast growth of cloud computing Cloud file storage/synchronization services Google entries about cloud computing: 184,000,000 #12;July 2012July 2012 44/26/2644 Our CloudOur Cloud 7

Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

338

Vector financial rogue waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

Yan, Zhenya

2011-11-01

339

Timelike and Spacelike Matter Inheritance Vectors in Specific Forms of Energy-Momentum Tensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the investigation of the consequences of timelike and spacelike matter inheritance vectors in specific forms of energy-momentum tensor, i.e. for string cosmology (string cloud and string fluid) and perfect fluid. Necessary and sufficient conditions are developed for a space-time with string cosmology and perfect fluid to admit a timelike matter inheritance vector, parallel to ua

M. Sharif; Umber Sheikh

2006-01-01

340

Cloud structure and crystal growth in nimbostratus clouds. Mengistu Wolde*  

E-print Network

1 Cloud structure and crystal growth in nimbostratus clouds. Mengistu Wolde* , Gabor Vali-mail: mengistu.wolde@nrc.ca. #12;2 Abstract Cloud structure and crystal growth in two nimbostratus were examined using in situ and airborne radar observations. In both cases, structure throughout the cloud depth

Vali, Gabor

341

Wireless Network Aware Cloud Scheduler for Scalable Cloud Mobile Gaming  

E-print Network

of California, San Diego shaoxuan@ece.ucsd.edu, yal019@ucsd.edu, dey@ece.ucsd.edu Abstract -- Cloud Mobile promising, the CMG approach may require significant cloud computing resources for the concurrent gamingWireless Network Aware Cloud Scheduler for Scalable Cloud Mobile Gaming Shaoxuan Wang, Yao Liu

California at San Diego, University of

342

Cloud scalability: building the Millennium Falcon 1. CLOUD SCALABILITY PROBLEM  

E-print Network

are at today in cloud computing; the pre-construction and initial phases are completed, much experience hasEDITORIAL Cloud scalability: building the Millennium Falcon 1. CLOUD SCALABILITY PROBLEM Warship been accumulated, but some inherent cloud features are still causing some trouble. And providers stress

Melbourne, University of

343

Cloud Storage as the Infrastructure of Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging technology and business paradigm, Cloud Computing has taken commercial computing by storm. Cloud computing platforms provide easy access to a company's high-performance computing and storage infrastructure through web services. With cloud computing, the aim is to hide the complexity of IT infrastructure management from its users. At the same time, cloud computing platforms provide massive scalability, 99.999%

Jiyi Wu; Lingdi Ping; Xiaoping Ge; Ya Wang; Jianqing Fu

2010-01-01

344

Two-Dimensional Axisymmetric Collapse of Thermally Unstable Primordial Clouds  

E-print Network

We have performed two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of isolated axisymmetric clouds condensing via radiative cooling in a primordial background gas. In order to study the development of the so-called ``shape-instability'', we have considered two types of axisymmetric clouds, oblate and prolate clouds of various sizes and with axial ratios of $0.5 \\leq {R_{\\rm c,R}} /{R_{\\rm c,z}} \\leq 2$. We find that the degree of oblateness or prolateness is enhanced during the initial cooling phase. But it can be reversed later, if the initial contrast in cooling times between the cloud gas and the background gas is much greater than one. In such cases an oblate cloud collapses to a structure composed of an outer thin disk and a central prolate component. A prolate cloud, on the other hand, becomes a thin cigar-shape structure with a central dense oblate component. The reversal of shape in the central part of the cooled clouds is due to supersonic motions either along the disk plane in the case of ob...

Baek, C H; Ryu, D; Baek, Chang Hyun; Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

2003-01-01

345

Bunyavirus-vector interactions.  

PubMed

The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

2014-11-01

346

The effective reference frame in perceptual judgments of motion direction.  

PubMed

The retinotopic projection of stimulus motion depends both on the motion of the stimulus and the movements of the observer. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contributions of endogenous (retinotopic) and exogenous (spatiotopic and motion-based) reference frames on judgments of motion direction. We used a variant of the induced motion paradigm and we created different experimental conditions in which the predictions of each reference frame were different. Finally, assuming additive contributions from different reference frames, we used a linear model to account for the data. Our results suggest that the effective reference frame for motion perception emerges from an amalgamation of motion-based, retinotopic and spatiotopic reference frames. In determining the percept, the influence of relative motion, defined by a motion-based reference frame, dominates those of retinotopic and spatiotopic motions within a finite region. We interpret these findings within the context of the Reference Frame Metric Field (RFMF) theory, which states that local motion vectors might have perceptual reference-frame fields associated with them, and interactions between these fields determine the selection of the effective reference frame. PMID:25536467

Agaoglu, Mehmet N; Herzog, Michael H; Ö?men, Haluk

2015-02-01

347

On the initial motion of artificial comets in the AMPTE releases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model describing the initial Ba(+) cloud noted in the AMPTE program is presented which stresses the diamagnetic aspects of the interaction. Based on the observed magnetic field profile, it is suggested that the Ba(+) gyroradius becomes shorter than the cloud radius, and that the Ba(+) ions are magnetized. Momentum coupling force between the Ba(+) cloud and the solar wind in their relative streaming direction will produce an acceleration drift in the direction identical to the observed motion of the cloud, and the observed acceleration force is used to compute the magnitude of the coupling force and to compare it with other models.

Papadopoulos, K.; Lui, A. T. Y.

1986-01-01

348

Method and architecture design for motion compensated frame interpolation in high-definition video processing  

E-print Network

grids classification, the MSEA engine separately searchesengine to exactly determine a motion vector for each divided search window from the proposed multi-grids classification,engine. In the implementation, nine-grids classification is used with a search

Lee, Yen-Lin

2009-01-01

349

Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

2011-01-01

350

Clouds in GEOS-5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

Bacmeister, Julio; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Norris, Peter

2007-01-01

351

Community Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

352

Motion Lab: Position - Time Graphs of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a position-time graph showing the motion of an object as it is moved by the user. The user can also move the object to match the motion represented on 8 different types of position-time graphs.

Clement, John M.

353

Isentropic Analysis of Convective Motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the convective mass transport by sorting air parcels in terms of their equivalent potential temperature to determine an isentropic streamfunction. By averaging the vertical mass flux at a constant value of the equivalent potential temperature, one can compute an isentropic mass transport that filters out reversible oscillatory motions such as gravity waves. This novel approach emphasizes the fact that the vertical energy and entropy transports by convection are due to the combination of ascending air parcels with high energy and entropy and subsiding air parcels with lower energy and entropy. Such conditional averaging can be extended to other dynamic and thermodynamic variables such as vertical velocity, temperature, or relative humidity to obtain a comprehensive description of convective motions. It is also shown how this approach can be used to determine the mean diabatic tendencies from the three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic fields. A two-stream approximation that partitions the isentropic circulation into a mean updraft and a mean downdraft is also introduced. This offers a straightforward way to identify the mean properties of rising and subsiding air parcels. The results from the two-stream approximation are compared with two other definitions of the cloud mass flux. It is argued that the isentropic analysis offers a robust definition of the convective mass transport that is not tainted by the need to arbitrarily distinguish between convection and its environment, and that separates the irreversible convective overturning fromoscillations associated with gravity waves.

Pauluis, Olivier M.; Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.

2013-01-01

354

Extended field observations of cirrus clouds using a ground-based cloud observing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

Ackerman, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

355

The Magnetic Field Structure of Musca Dark Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is the study of the magnetic field (MF) structure of a pre-collapse structure of the interstellar medium - the Musca Dark Cloud (MDC), a nearby (200-250 pc), large (0.25° × 3°) filamentary cloud. A description of the MF, together with knowledge on turbulence and gravitational forces, is key to understanding the evolution of interstellar clouds. We have obtained linear polarization measurements in the H band (1.65?m) with the Brazilian's 60 cm and 160 cm telescopes located at the OPD observatory. By combining these with our earlier optical observations (Pereyra & Magalhaes 2004), we were able to probe regions denser than what was possible in the optical. Our studies in the optical band showed that the cloud is surrounded by a MF which is well aligned with the projected small axis of the cloud. Our H-band data show in general the same tendency in the inner parts of the MDC. The comparison between the V and H bands allow us to conclude that the same type of grains are polarizing the light throughout the cloud at least up to Av ˜ 8-9, and that these are the same as those in the general ISM. Utilizing the dispersion of the polarization vectors, we estimated the MF intensity (0.02-0.16 mG) across the cloud. We compared the magnetic and gravitational energies and concluded that Musca is a subcritical cloud. From the structure function of the polarization at the H band, we obtain 0.21-0.29 pc for the range of correlation lengths of the MF in the cloud, comparable to the size of the optical condensations.

Ribeiro, N. L.; Magalhães, A. M.; Pereyra, A.; Cambresy, L.

2014-10-01

356

Cloud computing basics for librarians.  

PubMed

"Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. PMID:22289098

Hoy, Matthew B

2012-01-01

357

Cloud Computing Basics for Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing” is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article.

Matthew B. Hoy

2012-01-01

358

Lecture Ch. 8 Cloud Classification  

E-print Network

. Stratocumulus (Sc) 8. Stratus (St) 9. Cumulus (Cu) 10. Cumulonimbus (Cb) All high clouds Middle clouds Grayish lightning and thunder. A few spawn tornadoes. [http://www.fox8wghp.com/ spacious.htm] 10.2 Stratus Clouds Stratus Low lying layer of cloud (called fog if on the ground) with no structure. [http:// www.fox8wghp

Russell, Lynn

359

Cloud Study Final Art Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an art project completed at the end of a study of weather and clouds. Using home-made puffy paint, the students paint clouds on a piece of construction paper and write 2-3 facts about each cloud type on a note card that is glued on construction paper next to the appropriate cloud.

Toops, Kim

360

Nighttime Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An angry looking sky is captured in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

The clip accelerates the motion. The images were take around 3 a.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 95 (Aug. 30), the 95th Martian day since landing.

The swirling clouds may be moving generally in a westward direction over the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

361

Perceptual asynchrony for motion  

PubMed Central

Psychophysical experiments show that two different visual attributes, color and motion, processed in different areas of the visual brain, are perceived at different times relative to each other (Moutoussis and Zeki, 1997a). Here we demonstrate psychophysically that two variants of the same attribute, motion, which have the same temporal structure and are processed in the same visual areas, are also processed asynchronously. When subjects were asked to pair up–down motion of dots in one half of their hemifield with up-right motion in the other, they perceived the two directions of motion asynchronously, with the advantage in favor of up-right motion; when they were asked to pair the motion of white dots moving against a black background with that of red dots moving against an equiluminant green background, they perceived the luminant motion first, thus demonstrating a perceptual advantage of luminant over equiluminant motion. These results were not affected by motion speed or perceived motion “streaks.” We thus interpret these results to reflect the different processing times produced by luminant and equiluminant motion stimuli or by different degrees of motion direction change, thus adding to the evidence that processing time within the visual system is a major determinant of perceptual time. PMID:24624071

Lo, Yu Tung; Zeki, Semir

2014-01-01

362

Support vector machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

2004-01-01

363

Vectorizing Cartoon Animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for vectorizing 2D raster format cartoon animations. The output animations are visually flicker free, smaller in file size, and easy to edit. We identify decorative lines separately from colored regions. We use an accurate and semantically meaningful image decomposition algorithm, supporting an arbitrary color model for each region. To ensure temporal coherence in the output, we

Song-hai Zhang; Tao Chen; Yi-fei Zhang; Shi-min Hu; Ralph R. Martin

2009-01-01

364

Entrainment, Drizzle, and Cloud Albedo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased aerosol and hence droplet concentrations in polluted clouds are expected to inhibit precipitation and thereby increase cloud water, leading to more reflective clouds that partially offset global warming. Yet polluted clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Much of the uncertainty regarding the indirect aerosol effect stems from inadequate understanding of such changes in cloud water. Detailed simulations show that the relative humidity of air overlying stratocumulus is a leading factor determining whether cloud water increases or decreases when precipitation is suppressed. When the overlying air is dry, cloud water can decrease as droplet concentrations increase.

Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.

2004-01-01

365

Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

Winker, David M.

1998-01-01

366

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The relationship between clouds and dynamics in1  

E-print Network

. It is found that the relation-12 ship between cloud fraction, vertical motion and relative humidity changes13. It is therefore important to evaluate how well current climate models34 capture the "dynamics-cloud" relationships and are consistent with an overestima-41 tion of absorbed solar radiation in the region [Trenberth and Fasullo, 2

Jakob, Christian

367

Repetitive Motion Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Repetitive Motion Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Repetitive Stress Injuries, Overuse Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Repetitive Motion Disorders? Is there any ...

368

Investigations of Clouds and Aerosols on Mars, Venus and Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For Titan our interest during the past few years was to explain the observed asymmetry in the albedo. We suggested earlier, from one-dimensional modeling studies, that vertical transport rates were comparable to particle fall speeds. Since heating of the upper atmosphere, which drives dynamical motions, is largely due to the aerosols, a non- linear interaction between dynamics, radiative heating and particle microphysics is possible. We pursued this interaction in a two-dimensional model. We showed that the observed variations in the albedo between the two hemispheres and over an orbital cycle, could be due to dynamical motions suspending particles so that particle sizes and optical depths vary across the planet. In the Cassini time frame, future studies of this interaction between dynamics, radiation and microphysics may be worthwhile using the strong modeling base that others, and we have developed. In our recently approved proposal, however, we plan to extend our modeling to hydrocarbon clouds that lie at lower levels. We know very little about such clouds, and numerical models for their properties are non-existent. These clouds may be observed by the Huygen's Probe, and by the Cassini orbiter, so predictions of their properties should help in the analysis of Cassini data. We have also developed a sophisticated model for the lower, condensational, clouds on Venus. In this model we explored the water vapor budget on Venus, and the properties of the clouds such as particle size distribution. Most researchers have investigated the upper clouds on Venus, which are essentially a photochemical aerosol with a long lifetime. The lower clouds, however, are similar to stratus clouds on Earth. These clouds have short lifetimes, and are tightly coupled to the dynamics at the base of the Venus cloud deck. We believe that the holes in these clouds seen at near infrared wavelengths by Galileo are related to some interaction between dynamics and cloud physics. One goal of our recently approved proposed work is to better understand this interaction, and to better understand how these clouds may vary if the climate of Venus were to vary. During the past few years we have applied our model of the water ice clouds on Mars to new data sets from Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor. We have compared our predictions of cloud properties with those seen by Pathfinder, and found reasonable agreement. More recently we have improved our model by including a radiative transfer algorithm and a boundary layer transport scheme . The goal of this work is to understand the thermal inversions seen in Mars Global Surveyor data. We find that the inversions are created by clouds radiatively cooling the atmospheric layers in which the clouds form. We have also initiated laboratory work on the physics of carbon dioxide particle formation. In our recently approved work we propose to use these laboratory data, and to extend our modeling to carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere.

Toon, Owen B.

2000-01-01

369

A hillock and cloud model for faculae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hillock model is used here to explain facular contrasts, allowing faculae to emit more energy than the surrounding unmagnetized photosphere. For downflows, horizontal motions converge near the photosphere and many fibril flux tubes are drawn together to form a large dark area, the sunspot. For upflows, the motions diverge near the photosphere and fibril flux tubes are dispersed over a larger area associated with faculae. The upflows transport material and energy, resulting in hotter than normal temperatures, which in turn cause the gas to expand compared with its surroundings. Buoyancy thus causes a 'network' of patchy hillocks, clouds, or geysers to form which allows the sun to reradiate the energy deficit associated with sunspots by locally increasing the effective surface area of the sun beyond that of a sphere. The consequences of this model for the physical form of the facular manifestation, the appearance of faculae from earth, and the 'energy balance' in active regions are addressed.

Schatten, Kenneth H.; Mayr, Hans G.; Omidvar, Kazem; Maier, Eugene

1986-01-01

370

Helical Fields and Filamentary Molecular Clouds  

E-print Network

We study the equilibrium of pressure truncated, filamentary molecular clouds that are threaded by rather general helical magnetic fields. We first derive a new virial equation appropriate for magnetized filamentary clouds, which includes the effects of non-thermal motions and the turbulent pressure of the surrounding ISM. When compared with the data, we find that many filamentary clouds have a mass per unit length that is significantly reduced by the effects of external pressure, and that toroidal fields play a significant role in squeezing such clouds. We also develop exact numerical MHD models of filamentary molecular clouds with more general helical field configurations than have previously been considered. We also examine the effects of the equation of state by comparing ``isothermal'' filaments, with constant total (thermal plus turbulent) velocity dispersion, with equilibria constructed using a logatropic equation of state. We perform a Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space to determine which choices of parameters result in models that agree with the available observational constraints. We find that both equations of state result in equilibria that agree with the observational results. Moreover, we find that models with helical fields have more realistic density profiles than either unmagnetized models or those with purely poloidal fields; we find that most isothermal models have density distributions that fall off as r^{-1.8} to r^{-2}, while logatropes have density profiles that range from r^{-1} to r^{-1.8}. We find that purely poloidal fields produce filaments with steep density gradients that not allowed by the observations.

Jason D. Fiege; Ralph E. Pudritz

1999-02-09

371

Motion Toward and Away  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn to differentiate between graphs of forward and backward motion. Predict what graphs look like before using a motion sensor, and then compare your predictions with real data. Respond to questions about several other position-time graphs and also explore position-time graphs that do not start at the origin (0,0). Motion Toward and Away is the second of five SmartGraphs activities designed for a typical physical science unit of study on the motion of objects.

Consortium, The C.

2012-02-07

372

Compensation of Target Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ion beam therapy (IBT), organ motion requires special procedures. Of general concern is the impact on the dose distribution as a result of motion-related changes in the beam's range. In addition, interplay effects can arise for scanned beam application which cannot be addressed by the so-called margins to increase the treated volume. Dedicated motion mitigation techniques and/or 4D treatment planning are required. This chapter introduces the main concepts for management of respiratory motion in IBT.

Bert, Christoph; Rietzel, Eike

373

Force and Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore interactive sites and sites with information about putting objects into motion with different forces. 1. Read the top two sections about Motion and Force and then answer questions #1 and #2 on your worksheet. Force and Motion Information 2. Scroll down and read the section about inertia. Force and Motion Information Then click the box that says "law of inertia" and learn more about inertia on this page. Newton s Laws Now answer #3 ...

Carrie Benson

2013-01-31

374

Secure Cloud Computing With Brokered Trusted  

E-print Network

Secure Cloud Computing With Brokered Trusted Sensor Networks Profs. Steven Myers,Apu Kapadia, Xiao External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Tower

375

Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is getting popular and IT giants such as Google, Amazon, Microsoft, IBM have started their cloud computing infrastructure. However, current cloud implementations are often isolated from other cloud implementations. This paper gives an overview survey of current cloud computing architectures, discusses issues that current cloud computing implementations have and proposes a Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA) so that

Wei-Tek Tsai; Xin Sun; Janaka Balasooriya

2010-01-01

376

Electromagnetic scattering in clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques used to explain the nature of the optical effects of clouds on the light produced by lightning include a Monte Carlo simulation, an equivalent medium approach, and methods based on Boltzmann transport theory. A cuboidal cloud has been considered using transform methods and a diffusion approximation. Many simplifying assumptions have been used by authors to make this problem tractable. In this report, the cloud will have a spherical shape and its interior will consist of a uniform distribution of identical spherical water droplets. The source will be modeled as a Hertz dipole, electric or magnetic, inside or outside the cloud. An impulsive source is used. Superposition may be employed to obtain a sinusoid within an envelope which describes a lightning event. The problem is investigated by transforming to the frequency domain, obtaining Green's functions, and then using the Cagniard-DeHoop method to symbolically recover the time domain solution.

Solakiewicz, Richard

1992-01-01

377

Cloud Computing For Microfinances  

E-print Network

Evolution of Science and Engineering has led to the growth of several commercial applications. The wide spread implementation of commercial based applications has in turn directed the emergence of advanced technologies such as cloud computing. India has well proven itself as a potential hub for advanced technologies including cloud based industrial market. Microfinance system has emerged out as a panacea to Indian economy since the population encompasses of people who come under poverty and below poverty index. However, one of the key challenges in successful operation of microfinance system in India has given rise to integration of financial services using sophisticated cloud computing model. This paper, therefore propose a fundamental cloud-based microfinance model in order to reduce high transaction risks involved during microfinance operations in an inexpensive and efficient manner.

V, Suma; M, Vaidehi; Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

2012-01-01

378

NASA Cloud Albedo Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clouds greatly affect the Earth's solar energy balance. This animation shows how they deflect a portion of solar energy influx from reaching our planet's surface and how they insulate to prevent a total loss of thermal radiance out into space.

Nasa

379

Fractal vector measures and vector calculus on planar fractal domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define an abstract framework for self-similar vector-valued Borel measures on a compact space X based upon a formulation of Iterated Function Systems (IFS) on such measures. This IFS method permits the construction of tangent and normal vector measures to planar fractal curves. Line integrals of smooth vector fields over planar fractal curves may then be defined. These line integrals

F. Mendivil; E. R. Vrscay

2002-01-01

380

Satellite Cloud Classification and Rain-Rate Estimation Using Multispectral Radiances and Measures of Spatial Texture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve months of Southern Hemisphere (maritime) midlatitudes Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer local area coverage data at full radiometric and spatial resolution have been collocated with rain-rate data from three Doppler weather radars.Using an interactive computing environment, large independent samples of cloudy-altocumulus, cumulonimbus, cirrostratus, cumulus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, stratus-and cloud-free scenes have been identified (labeled) in the collocated data. Accurate labeling was ensured by providing a supervising-analyst access to appropriate diagnostics, including difference and ratio channels, 3.7-µm reflected and emissive components, spectral histograms, Coakley-Bretherton spatial coherence plots, mean, standard deviation, and gray-level difference (GLD) statistics. This analysis yielded 4323 cloud and no-cloud samples at a spatial resolution of 8 × 8 instantaneous fields of view (IFOV), from 257 NOAA-11 and NOAA-12 orbits.Bayesian cloud discriminant functions calculated from the labeled samples and utilizing feature vectors including radiometric and GLD spatial characteristics successfully classified scenes into one of the seven cloud and no-cloud classes with significant skill (Kuipers' performance index 0.63). Utilizing the posterior probability of the classified samples enabled some clouds that were classified erroneously to be identified (and discarded), improving the skill of the discriminant functions by an additional 10% or so. Removing the GLD statistics from the feature vector reduced the skill of the cloud discrimination by about 20% (relative to the nondiscarding discriminant function), while increasing the misclassification of midlevel clouds. However, some cloud classes can only be discriminated from their multispectral signatures. Day and night discriminant functions show similar skill.Within raining cloud classes, rain rate has been related to the spatial and radiometric characteristics of the cloud. The skill of the rain-rate estimates is dependent on the cloud type. For nimbostratus and altocumulus classes 20% 25% of the rain-rate variation can be explained by predictors that measure the temperature, spatial texture, and degree of isotropy in the sampled clouds. Raining and nonraining samples of altocumulus, cumulus, cirrostratus, and nimbostratus can be delineated with at least 60% accuracy.This approach, whereby cloud classes are identified then rain rates estimated as a function of cloud type, would seem to resolve some of the usual problems associated with rain-rate analyses from midlatitudes infrared and visible satellite data. It also extends rain-rate diagnosis to nonconvective (frontal) cloud systems.

Uddstrom, Michael J.; Gray, Warren R.

1996-06-01

381

Making Sense of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to introduce motion concepts to students through active, hands-on investigation, and to help activate their prior knowledge about motion. It can be developed into a culminating assessment for a unit on force and motion that uses higher-order thinking skills to make sense of the experience.

Kenneth King

2005-02-01

382

Integrable four vortex motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It follows from the Poisson brackets between constants of motion that the motion of four vortices of zero net vorticity is integrable if the total momentum vanishes. The phase space motion of this integrable case is analyzed. One stable and several unstable uniformly rotating configurations are identified.

Bruno Eckhardt

1988-01-01

383

Absorption in Extended Inhomogeneous Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch of several different sensors, including CloudSat, into the A-train constellation of satellites allows us for the first time to compute absorption that can occur in realistic vertically inhomogeneous clouds including multiple cloud decks. CloudSat data show that these situations are common. Therefore, understanding vertically inhomogeneous clouds is important from both climate and satellite atmospheric composition remote sensing perspectives. Satellite passive sensors that operate from the near IR to the UV often rely on radiative cloud pressures derived from absorption in oxygen bands (A, B, gamma, or O2-O2 bands) or from rotational-Raman scattering in order to retrieve information about atmospheric trace gases. The radiative cloud pressure is distinct from the physical cloud top derived from thermal infrared measurements. Therefore, the combination of information from different passive sensors yields some information about the cloud vertical profile. When either or both the clouds or atmospheric absorbers (trace gases and aerosols) are vertically inhomogeneous, the use of an effective cloud pressure derived from these approaches may lead to errors. Here, we focus on several scenarios (deep convective clouds and distinct two layer clouds) based on realistic cloud optical depth vertical profiles derived from the CloudSatfMODIS combination. We focus on implications for trace-gas column amount retrievals (specifically ozone and NO2) and derived surface UV irradiance from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Atrain Aura platform.

Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick

2008-01-01

384

Marine Cloud Brightening  

SciTech Connect

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

2012-09-07

385

Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.

Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.

2004-01-01

386

Mesospheric cloud formations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formation of mesospheric clouds as a result of deposition of large amounts of H2O by the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) of the solar power satellite system is discussed. The conditions which must be met in order to form and maintain clouds near the mesopause are described. The frequency and magnitude of H2O injections from the HLLV rocket exhaust are considered.

Forbes, J. M.

1980-01-01

387

On Cloud Computing Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Could computing is the latest development of the modern computing technology. It is the next stage of the Internet evolution.\\u000a Cloud computing provides the organizations with the infrastructure management, various software services and the datacenter\\u000a maintenance. The organizations can reduce their operational cost and concentrate on their strategic planning by using services\\u000a provided by cloud computing. Generally, the success of

Yun Bai; Sean Policarpio

388

A GALACTIC ORIGIN FOR HE 0437-5439, THE HYPERVELOCITY STAR NEAR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We use Hubble Space Telescope imaging to measure the absolute proper motion of the hypervelocity star (HVS) HE 0437-5439, a short-lived B star located in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We observe ({mu}{sub {alpha}} {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (+0.53 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.33(sys), + 0.09 {+-} 0.21(stat) {+-} 0.48(sys)) mas yr{sup -1}. The velocity vector points directly away from the center of the Milky Way; an origin from the center of the LMC is ruled out at the 3{sigma} level. The flight time of the HVS from the Milky Way exceeds its main-sequence lifetime, thus its stellar nature requires it to be a blue straggler. The large space velocity rules out a Galactic-disk ejection. Combining the HVS's observed trajectory, stellar nature, and required initial velocity, we conclude that HE 0437-5439 was most likely a compact binary ejected by the Milky Way's central black hole.

Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Jay; Bond, Howard E.; Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gnedin, Oleg Y., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: jayander@stsci.ed, E-mail: bond@stsci.ed, E-mail: mlivio@stsci.ed, E-mail: ognedin@umich.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2010-08-10

389

Biview Learning for Human Posture Segmentation from 3D Points Cloud  

PubMed Central

Posture segmentation plays an essential role in human motion analysis. The state-of-the-art method extracts sufficiently high-dimensional features from 3D depth images for each 3D point and learns an efficient body part classifier. However, high-dimensional features are memory-consuming and difficult to handle on large-scale training dataset. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage dimension reduction scheme, termed biview learning, to encode two independent views which are depth-difference features (DDF) and relative position features (RPF). Biview learning explores the complementary property of DDF and RPF, and uses two stages to learn a compact yet comprehensive low-dimensional feature space for posture segmentation. In the first stage, discriminative locality alignment (DLA) is applied to the high-dimensional DDF to learn a discriminative low-dimensional representation. In the second stage, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to explore the complementary property of RPF and the dimensionality reduced DDF. Finally, we train a support vector machine (SVM) over the output of CCA. We carefully validate the effectiveness of DLA and CCA utilized in the two-stage scheme on our 3D human points cloud dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed biview learning scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method for human posture segmentation. PMID:24465721

Qiao, Maoying; Cheng, Jun; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

2014-01-01

390

A comparative study of surface EMG classification by fuzzy relevance vector machine and fuzzy support vector machine.  

PubMed

We present a multiclass fuzzy relevance vector machine (FRVM) learning mechanism and evaluate its performance to classify multiple hand motions using surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals. The relevance vector machine (RVM) is a sparse Bayesian kernel method which avoids some limitations of the support vector machine (SVM). However, RVM still suffers the difficulty of possible unclassifiable regions in multiclass problems. We propose two fuzzy membership function-based FRVM algorithms to solve such problems, based on experiments conducted on seven healthy subjects and two amputees with six hand motions. Two feature sets, namely, AR model coefficients and room mean square value (AR-RMS), and wavelet transform (WT) features, are extracted from the recorded sEMG signals. Fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) analysis was also conducted for wide comparison in terms of accuracy, sparsity, training and testing time, as well as the effect of training sample sizes. FRVM yielded comparable classification accuracy with dramatically fewer support vectors in comparison with FSVM. Furthermore, the processing delay of FRVM was much less than that of FSVM, whilst training time of FSVM much faster than FRVM. The results indicate that FRVM classifier trained using sufficient samples can achieve comparable generalization capability as FSVM with significant sparsity in multi-channel sEMG classification, which is more suitable for sEMG-based real-time control applications. PMID:25571959

Xie, Hong-Bo; Huang, Hu; Wu, Jianhua; Liu, Lei

2015-02-01

391

Towards the correspondence between Q-clouds and sphalerons  

E-print Network

Non-linear classical equations of motion may admit degenerate solutions at fixed charges. While the solutions with lower energies are classically stable, the ones with larger energies are unstable and refereed as Q-clouds. We consider a theory in which the homogeneous charged condensate is classically stable and argue that Q-clouds correspond to sphalerons between the stable Q-balls and the condensate. For the model with analytic solution, we present Arrhenius formula for the quantum production of Q-balls from the condensate at large temperatures.

Nugaev, Emin

2015-01-01

392

Insect Vectors of Human Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four orders of insects (Hemiptera, Phthiraptera, Diptera, and Siphonaptera) are covered detailing vector species along with their pathogens of human importance. Links to pathogens as well as vectors are highlighted (some of these are CDC, and WHO).

0000-00-00

393

Probabilistic classification vector machines.  

PubMed

In this paper, a sparse learning algorithm, probabilistic classification vector machines (PCVMs), is proposed. We analyze relevance vector machines (RVMs) for classification problems and observe that adopting the same prior for different classes may lead to unstable solutions. In order to tackle this problem, a signed and truncated Gaussian prior is adopted over every weight in PCVMs, where the sign of prior is determined by the class label, i.e., +1 or -1. The truncated Gaussian prior not only restricts the sign of weights but also leads to a sparse estimation of weight vectors, and thus controls the complexity of the model. In PCVMs, the kernel parameters can be optimized simultaneously within the training algorithm. The performance of PCVMs is extensively evaluated on four synthetic data sets and 13 benchmark data sets using three performance metrics, error rate (ERR), area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUC), and root mean squared error (RMSE). We compare PCVMs with soft-margin support vector machines (SVM(Soft)), hard-margin support vector machines (SVM(Hard)), SVM with the kernel parameters optimized by PCVMs (SVM(PCVM)), relevance vector machines (RVMs), and some other baseline classifiers. Through five replications of twofold cross-validation F test, i.e., 5 x 2 cross-validation F test, over single data sets and Friedman test with the corresponding post-hoc test to compare these algorithms over multiple data sets, we notice that PCVMs outperform other algorithms, including SVM(Soft), SVM(Hard), RVM, and SVM(PCVM), on most of the data sets under the three metrics, especially under AUC. Our results also reveal that the performance of SVM(PCVM) is slightly better than SVM(Soft), implying that the parameter optimization algorithm in PCVMs is better than cross validation in terms of performance and computational complexity. In this paper, we also discuss the superiority of PCVMs' formulation using maximum a posteriori (MAP) analysis and margin analysis, which explain the empirical success of PCVMs. PMID:19398403

Chen, Huanhuan; Tino, Peter; Yao, Xin

2009-06-01

394

Reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by bandpass filtering magnetometer measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a unique scheme for reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by ground processing satellite magnetometer measurements. The measurements are modified based on ground knowledge of the earth's magnetic field and passed through bandpass filters tuned to the skiprope frequency. Skiprope motion is then deduced from the steady-state outputs of the filters. Simulation results are presented which verify the scheme and show it to be robust. The concept is not just limited to tethered satellites. Indeed, it can be applied whenever there is a need to reconstruct the coning motion of a body about a known axis, given measurements of a known vector in body-fixed axes.

Polites, M. E.

1992-01-01

395

Arctic Cloud-driven Mixed Layers and Surface Coupling State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic low-level clouds interact with the atmosphere and underlying surface via many inter-related processes. The balance of cloud radiative warming and cooling effects imparts a strong control on the net surface energy budget. Cloud-driven atmospheric circulations can impact surface turbulent heat fluxes and influence the vertical mixing of atmospheric state parameters and aerosols. Large-scale advection of heat and moisture provides the background context within which these local interactions unfold. Importantly, these radiative, dynamical, and advective processes also contribute to a complex web of self-sustaining cloud processes that can promote cloud maintenance over long periods of time. We examine many of these processes, with a specific focus on the dynamical linkages between Arctic clouds and the surface that influence low-level atmospheric structure and mixing. Comprehensive, ground-based observations from meteorological towers, remote-sensors, and radiosondes are used to simultaneously characterize surface fluxes, atmospheric structure, cloud properties, in-cloud motions, and the depth of the cloud-driven mixed layer in multiple Arctic environments. Relationships among these parameters are explored to elucidate the properties of the system that determine the degree of vertical atmospheric mixing and the coupling state between cloud and surface. The influence of temperature and moisture inversions on this system is also explored. Transitions in the coupling state are utilized to illustrate the relative roles of different processes. Cases from a coastal Arctic site at Barrow, Alaska and a station embedded in the Arctic sea-ice pack are used to contrast conditional influences related to season and surface type. It is found that over sea-ice, where surface turbulent fluxes are weak, the coupling of cloud-level processes to the surface layer is largely due to proximity of the cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface, which appears to be primarily influenced by the larger-scale, advective environment. In contrast, surface-forced turbulence can also play a significant role in vertical atmospheric mixing and cloud maintenance in the presence of open ocean or land processes.

Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.; de Boer, G.

2013-12-01

396

Investigations of Clouds and Aerosols on Mars, Venus and Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report was included as part of a new proposal. This new proposal was selected for funding on 9 Nov. 1999. For Titan our interest during the past few years was to explain the observed asymmetry in the albedo. We suggested earlier, from one-dimensional modeling studies, that vertical transport rates were comparable to particle fall speeds. Since heating of the upper atmosphere, which drives dynamical motions, is largely due to the aerosols, a nonlinear interaction between dynamics, radiative heating and particle microphysics is possible. We pursued this interaction in a two-dimensional model. We showed that the observed variations in the albedo between the two hemispheres and over an orbital cycle, could be due to dynamical motions suspending particles so that particle sizes and optical depths vary across the planet. In the Cassini time frame, future studies of this interaction between dynamics, radiation and microphysics may be worthwhile using, the strong modeling base that others, and we have developed. In our recently approved proposal, however, we plan to extend our modeling to hydrocarbon clouds that lie at lower levels. We know very little about such clouds, and numerical models for their properties are non-existent. These clouds may be observed by the Huygen's Probe, and by the Cassini orbiter, so predictions of their properties should help in the analysis of Cassini data. We have also developed a sophisticated model for the lower, condensational, clouds on Venus. In this model we explored the water vapor budget on Venus, and the properties of the clouds such as particle size distribution. During the past few years we have applied our model of the water ice clouds on Mars to new data sets from Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor. We have compared our predictions of cloud properties with those seen by Pathfinder, and found reasonable agreement.

Toon, Owen B.

1999-01-01

397

Lentiviral and Retroviral Vector Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses have been widely used as gene transfer vectors, and in fact represent the vector system used in the majority\\u000a of clinical gene therapy trials for cancer to date. In an ex vivo setting, conventional replication-defective oncoretrovirus\\u000a vectors can reliably and efficiently achieve permanent gene transfer which is selective for dividing cells; however, successful\\u000a application of these vectors in vivo

Renata Stripecke; Noriyuki Kasahara

398

Vectors from A to B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about vectors and velocity. It outlines the addition and subtraction of vectors, and introduces the application of trigonometry to describing vectors. The resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. Learners will complete worksheets consisting of problem sets that allow them to work with vector data in magnetic fields. This is activity 15 from Exploring Magnetism: Earth's Magnetic Personality.

399

Water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere: General circulation model experiments with a simple cloud scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first comprehensive general circulation model study of water ice condensation and cloud formation in the Martian atmosphere. We focus on the effects of condensation in limiting the vertical distribution and transport of water and on the importance of condensation for the generation of the observed Martian water cycle. We do not treat cloud ice radiative effects, ice sedimentation rates are prescribed, and we do not treat interactions between dust and cloud ice. The model generates cloud in a manner consistent with earlier one-dimensional (1-D) model results, typically evolving a uniform (constant mass mixing ratio) vertical distribution of vapor, which is capped by cloud at the level where the condensation point temperature is reached. Because of this vertical distribution of water, the Martian atmosphere is generally very far from fully saturated, in contrast to suggestions based upon interpretation of Viking data. This discrepancy results from inaccurate representation of the diurnal cycle of air temperatures in the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data. In fact, the model suggests that only the northern polar atmosphere in summer is consistently near its column-integrated holding capacity. In this case, the column amount is determined primarily by the temperature of the northern polar ice cap. Comparison of the water cycle generated by the model with and without atmospheric ice condensation and precipitation shows two major roles for water ice cloud. First, clouds are essential to the observed rapid return of atmospheric water to the surface in late northern summer, as ice sedimentation forces the water column to shrink in response to the downward motion of the condensation level, concentrating water near surface sinks. Second, ice sedimentation limits the amount of water that is transported between the hemispheres through the Hadley circulation. This latter effect is used to greatly improve the model simulation of the annual water cycle by increasing ice sedimentation rates. The model is thus shown to be able to reasonably reproduce the annual cycles of vapor and ice cloud as compared to Viking data. In addition, the model is shown able to reproduce near-instantaneous maps of water ice derived from Hubble Space Telescope images. The seasonal evolution of the geographic distribution of water ice compares reasonably well with Viking and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations, except in the prediction of a weak tropical cloud belt in southern summer. Finally, it is shown that the tropical cloud belt is generated in the model by the cooling of water vapor entrained in the upwelling branch of the Hadley cell. Decline of the tropical cloud belt in mid northern summer is shown to be related to an increase in air temperatures, rather than to decreases in water vapor supply or the vigor of Hadley cell ascent. By equinox, the cloud belt experiences a second major decline event, this time due to a reduction in vapor supply. The ability of the model to emulate many aspects of observed cloud behavior is encouraging, as is the ability of enhanced ice sedimentation to improve the overall quality of the water cycle simulation. However, significant work remains to be done before all observational constraints can be matched simultaneously. Specifically, in order for the generally good fit to all other data to be attained, cloud ice particle sizes about an order of magnitude too large must be used.

Richardson, Mark I.; Wilson, R. John; Rodin, Alexander V.

2002-09-01

400

Motion coherence affects human perception and pursuit similarly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pursuit and perception both require accurate information about the motion of objects. Recovering the motion of objects by integrating the motion of their components is a difficult visual task. Successful integration produces coherent global object motion, while a failure to integrate leaves the incoherent local motions of the components unlinked. We compared the ability of perception and pursuit to perform motion integration by measuring direction judgments and the concomitant eye-movement responses to line-figure parallelograms moving behind stationary rectangular apertures. The apertures were constructed such that only the line segments corresponding to the parallelogram's sides were visible; thus, recovering global motion required the integration of the local segment motion. We investigated several potential motion-integration rules by using stimuli with different object, vector-average, and line-segment terminator-motion directions. We used an oculometric decision rule to directly compare direction discrimination for pursuit and perception. For visible apertures, the percept was a coherent object, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the object-motion prediction. For invisible apertures, the percept was incoherently moving segments, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the terminator-motion prediction. Furthermore, both psychometric and oculometric direction thresholds were much higher for invisible apertures than for visible apertures. We constructed a model in which both perception and pursuit are driven by a shared motion-processing stage, with perception having an additional input from an independent static-processing stage. Model simulations were consistent with our perceptual and oculomotor data. Based on these results, we propose the use of pursuit as an objective and continuous measure of perceptual coherence. Our results support the view that pursuit and perception share a common motion-integration stage, perhaps within areas MT or MST.

Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

2000-01-01

401

B2 quasars and relativistic motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic-motion models of the small-scale radio structures of AGNs are evaluated on the basis of high-resolution VLA maps (Rogora et al., 1985) of radio quasars from the B2 sample (Fanti et al., 1979). The data are compiled in histograms, and no evidence is found for orientation-dependent relativistic effects such as those predicted by the 'unified scheme' of Orr and Browne (1982). Better predictions are obtained (without invoking Doppler shifts) using a simple probabilistic model which explains arm-length ratios in terms of an interaction between the radio source (material moving outward in a narrow cone) and randomly located external clouds.

de Ruiter, H. R.; Padrielli, L.; Rogora, A.

402

Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color.

The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring.

Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

403

HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color. The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring. Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites. Credits: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA.

2002-01-01

404

Kinematics of vector fields  

E-print Network

Different (not only by sign) affine connections are introduced for contravariant and covariant tensor fields over a differentiable manifold by means of a non-canonical contraction operator, defining the notion dual bases and commuting with the covariant and with the Lie-differential operator. Classification of the linear transports on the basis of the connections between the connections is given. Notion of relative velocity and relative acceleration for vector fields are determined. By means of these kinematic characteristics several other types of notions as shear velocity, shear acceleration, rotation velocity, rotation acceleration, expansion velocity and expansion acceleration are introduced and on their basis auto-parallel and non-isotropic (non-null) vector fields are classified.

S. Manoff

2000-03-02

405

Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a nonstationary vector autoregressive process which is integrated of order 1, and generated by i.i.d. Gaussian errors. We then derive the maximum likelihood estimator of the space of cointegration vectors and the likelihood ratio test of the hypothesis that it has a given number of dimensions. Further we test linear hypotheses about the cointegration vectors. The asymptotic distribution

Soren Johansen

1988-01-01

406

Hydrogen atom in relativistic motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lorentz contraction of bound states in field theory is often appealed to in qualitative descriptions of high energy particle collisions. Surprisingly, the contraction has not been demonstrated explicitly even in simple cases such as the hydrogen atom. It requires a calculation of wave functions evaluated at equal (ordinary) time for bound states in motion. Such wave functions are not obtained by kinematic boosts from the rest frame. Starting from the exact Bethe-Salpeter equation we derive the equal-time wave function of a fermion-antifermion bound state in QED, i.e., positronium or the hydrogen atom, in any frame to leading order in ?. We show explicitly that the bound state energy transforms as the fourth component of a vector and that the wave function of the fermion-antifermion Fock state contracts as expected. Transverse photon exchange contributes at leading order to the binding energy of the bound state in motion. We study the general features of the corresponding fermion-antifermion-photon Fock states, and show that they do not transform by simply contracting. We verify that the wave function reduces to the light-front one in the infinite momentum frame.

Järvinen, M.

2005-04-01

407

Hydrogen Atom in Relativistic Motion  

E-print Network

The Lorentz contraction of bound states in field theory is often appealed to in qualitative descriptions of high energy particle collisions. Surprisingly, the contraction has not been demonstrated explicitly even in simple cases such as the hydrogen atom. It requires a calculation of wave functions evaluated at equal (ordinary) time for bound states in motion. Such wave functions are not obtained by kinematic boosts from the rest frame. Starting from the exact Bethe-Salpeter equation we derive the equal-time wave function of a fermion-antifermion bound state in QED, i.e., positronium or the hydrogen atom, in any frame to leading order in alpha. We show explicitly that the bound state energy transforms as the fourth component of a vector and that the wave function of the fermion-antifermion Fock state contracts as expected. Transverse photon exchange contributes at leading order to the binding energy of the bound state in motion. We study the general features of the corresponding fermion-antifermion-photon Fock states, and show that they do not transform by simply contracting. We verify that the wave function reduces to the light-front one in the infinite momentum frame.

M. Jarvinen

2005-04-11

408

Hydrogen atom in relativistic motion  

SciTech Connect

The Lorentz contraction of bound states in field theory is often appealed to in qualitative descriptions of high energy particle collisions. Surprisingly, the contraction has not been demonstrated explicitly even in simple cases such as the hydrogen atom. It requires a calculation of wave functions evaluated at equal (ordinary) time for bound states in motion. Such wave functions are not obtained by kinematic boosts from the rest frame. Starting from the exact Bethe-Salpeter equation we derive the equal-time wave function of a fermion-antifermion bound state in QED, i.e., positronium or the hydrogen atom, in any frame to leading order in {alpha}. We show explicitly that the bound state energy transforms as the fourth component of a vector and that the wave function of the fermion-antifermion Fock state contracts as expected. Transverse photon exchange contributes at leading order to the binding energy of the bound state in motion. We study the general features of the corresponding fermion-antifermion-photon Fock states, and show that they do not transform by simply contracting. We verify that the wave function reduces to the light-front one in the infinite momentum frame.

Jaervinen, M. [Department of Physical Sciences and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)

2005-04-15

409

Vector Magnetograph Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers work performed during the period of November 1994 through March 1996 on the design of a Space-borne Solar Vector Magnetograph. This work has been performed as part of a design team under the supervision of Dr. Mona Hagyard and Dr. Alan Gary of the Space Science Laboratory. Many tasks were performed and this report documents the results from some of those tasks, each contained in the corresponding appendix. Appendices are organized in chronological order.

Chipman, Russell A.

1996-01-01

410

Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2010-01-01

411

Wall motion and rotational magnetization in thin permalloy films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and nearly static magnetization reversal mechanisms in thin permalloy films are investigated experimentally using pulse techniques and vector locus configurations. At least for the driving field strength used, easy-axis switching waveforms indicate that wall motion is predominant when no transverse field is applied. At a given transverse bias field, the simultaneous pick-up signals from aligned and crossed loops show

Y. Sakurai; T. Kusuda; S. Konishi; S. Sugatani

1966-01-01

412

Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

2006-01-01

413

Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

2004-01-01

414

H I Clouds in the Lower Halo. I. The Galactic All-Sky Survey Pilot Region  

SciTech Connect

We have detected over 400 H I clouds in the lower halo of the Galaxy within the pilot region of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS), a region of the fourth quadrant that spans 18 deg. in longitude, 40 deg. in latitude, and is centered on the Galactic equator. These clouds have a median peak brightness temperature of 0.6 K, a median velocity width of 12.8 km s{sup -1}, and angular sizes {approx}<1deg . The motion of these clouds is dominated by Galactic rotation with a random cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of 18 km s{sup -1}. A sample of clouds likely to be near tangent points was analyzed in detail. These clouds have radii on the order of 30 pc and a median H I mass of 630 M{sub sun}. The population has a vertical scale height of 400 pc and is concentrated in Galactocentric radius, peaking at R = 3.8 kpc. This confined structure suggests that the clouds are linked to spiral features, while morphological evidence that many clouds are aligned with loops and filaments is suggestive of a relationship with star formation. The clouds might result from supernovae and stellar winds in the form of fragmenting shells and gas that has been pushed into the halo rather than from a galactic fountain.

Ford, H. Alyson [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H39, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Calabretta, M. R. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Bailin, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kalberla, P. M. W. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Murphy, T. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: alyson@astro.swin.edu.au

2008-11-20

415

Internal Proper Motions in the Eskimo Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a "criss-cross" mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J.

2015-01-01

416

Error-Resilient Video Transmission Using Long-Term Memory Motion-Compensated Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term memory prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in hybrid video coding by a variable time delay, permitting the use of more than one reference frame for motion compensation. This extension leads to improved rate-distortion performance. However, motion compensation in combination with transmission errors leads to temporal error propagation that occurs when the reference frames at coder and decoder

Thomas Wiegand; Niko Färber; Klaus Stuhlmüller; Bernd Girod

2000-01-01

417

Hierarchical belief propagation to reduce search space using CUDA for stereo and motion estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a hierarchical belief propagation implementation in which a `rough' disparity map calculation or motion estimation in higher levels is used to limit the search space and enable the calculation of the desired disparity map\\/set of motion vectors using a smaller search space than traditional belief propagation. We implement our algorithm on the GPU using the CUDA architecture

Scott Grauer-Gray; Chandra Kambhamettu

2009-01-01

418

Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

1993-01-01

419

Stratocumulus cloud evolution  

SciTech Connect

The structure and evolution of the extra-tropical marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) depends largely on the variability of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The typical boundary-layer is capped by a temperature inversion that limits exchange with the free atmosphere. Cloud-top is usually coincident with the base of the inversion. Stratus clouds are generally associated with a well-mixed MABL, whereas daytime observations of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layers indicate that the cloud and subcloud layers are often decoupled due to shortwave radiative heating of the cloud layer. In this case the surface-based mixed layer is separated from the base of the stratocumulus (Sc) by a layer that is stable to dry turbulent mixing. This is sometimes referred to as the transition layer. Often cumulus clouds (Cu) develop in the transition layer. The cumulus tops may remain below the Sc base or they may penetrate into the Sc layer and occasionally through the capping temperature inversion. While this cloud structure is characteristic of the daytime MABL, it may persist at night also. The Cu play an important role in connecting the mixed layer to the Sc layer. If the Cu are active they transport water vapor from the sea surface that maintains the Sc against the dissipating effects of shortwave heating. The Cu, however, are very sensitive to small changes in the heat and moisture in the boundary-layer and are transient features. Here the authors discuss the effect of these small Cu on the turbulent structure of the MABL.

Yang, X.; Rogers, D.P.; Norris, P.M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Johnson, D.W.; Martin, G.M. [Defense Research Agency, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

420

A genetic approach to the history of the Magellanic Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the Magellanic Clouds is investigated using N-body hydrodynamic simulations where the initial conditions are set by a genetic algorithm. This technique allows us to identify possible orbits for the Magellanic Clouds around the Milky Way, by directly comparing the simulations with observational constraints. We explore the parameter space of the interaction between the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way, considering as free parameters the proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds, the virial mass and the concentration parameter (c) of the Galactic dark matter halo. The best orbital scenarios presented here are considered with two different sets of parameters for the Milky Way disc and bulge components. The total circular velocity at the Sun's position (R? = 8.5 kpc) is directly calculated from the rotation curve of the corresponding Galactic mass model. Our analysis suggests that the Magellanic Clouds have orbited inside the virial radius of the Milky Way for at least 3 Gyr, even for low-mass haloes. However, this is possible only with high values for the concentration parameter (c ? 20). In both orbital models presented here, the mutual interaction between the Magellanic Clouds is able to reproduce the observed features of the Magellanic System.

Guglielmo, Magda; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

2014-10-01

421

Vector representation of tourmaline compositions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vector method for representing mineral compositions of amphibole and mica groups is applied to the tourmaline group. Consideration is given to the methods for drawing the relevant vector diagrams, relating the exchange vectors to one another, and contouring the diagrams for constant values of Na, Ca, Li, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and OH. The method is used to depict a wide range of possible tourmaline end-member compositions and solid solutions, starting from a single point. In addition to vector depictions of multicomponent natural tourmalines, vectors are presented for simpler systems such as (Na,Al)-tourmalines, alkali-free tourmalines, and elbaites.

Burt, Donald M.

1989-01-01

422

Geomagnetic storm intensity forecast caused by magnetic clouds of solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method of short-term forecast intensity of geomagnetic storms, expected by effect Solar wind magnetic clouds in the Earth's magnetosphere is developed. The method is based calculation of the magnetic field clouds distribution, suitable to the Earth, the initial satellite measurements therein components of the interplanetary magnetic field in the solar ecliptic coordinate system. Conclusion about the magnetic storm intensity is expected on the basis of analysis of the dynamics of the reduced magnetic field Bz component clouds and established communication intensity of geomagnetic storms on Dst-index values and Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field vector.

Barkhatov, N. A.; Levitin, A. E.; Revunova, E. A.

2014-11-01

423

Cloud Detection Method Based on Feature Extraction in Remote Sensing Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In remote sensing images, the existence of the clouds has a great impact on the image quality and subsequent image processing, as the images covered with clouds contain little useful information. Therefore, the detection and recognition of clouds is one of the major problems in the application of remote sensing images. Present there are two categories of method to cloud detection. One is setting spectrum thresholds based on the characteristics of the clouds to distinguish them. However, the instability and uncertainty of the practical clouds makes this kind of method complexity and weak adaptability. The other method adopts the features in the images to identify the clouds. Since there will be significant overlaps in some features of the clouds and grounds, the detection result is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the features. This paper presented a cloud detection method based on feature extraction for remote sensing images. At first, find out effective features through training pattern, the features are selected from gray, frequency and texture domains. The different features in the three domains of the training samples are calculated. Through the result of statistical analysis of all the features, the useful features are picked up to form a feature set. In concrete, the set includes three feature vectors, respectively, the gray feature vector constituted of average gray, variance, first-order difference, entropy and histogram, the frequency feature vector constituted of DCT high frequency coefficient and wavelet high frequency coefficient, and the texture feature vector constituted of the hybrid entropy and difference of the gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix and the image fractal dimension. Secondly, a thumbnail will be obtained by down sampling the original image and its features of gray, frequency and texture are computed. Last but not least, the cloud region will be judged by the comparison between the actual feature values and the thresholds determined by the sample training process. Experimental results show that the clouds and ground objects can be separated efficiently, and our method can implement rapid clouds detection and cloudiness calculation.

Changhui, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Minjing, M.; Menglu, Z.

2013-05-01

424

Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives in performance-based earthquake engineering is to quantify the seismic reliability of a structure at a site. For that purpose, probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA) is used as a tool to estimate the mean annual frequency of exceeding a specified value of a structural demand parameter (e.g. interstorey drift). This paper compares and contrasts the use, in PSDA, of certain advanced scalar versus vector and conventional scalar ground motion intensity measures (IMs). One of the benefits of using a well-chosen IM is that more accurate evaluations of seismic performance are achieved without the need to perform detailed ground motion record selection for the nonlinear dynamic structural analyses involved in PSDA (e.g. record selection with respect to seismic parameters such as earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and ground motion epsilon). For structural demands that are dominated by a first mode of vibration, using inelastic spectral displacement (Sdi) can be advantageous relative to the conventionally used elastic spectral acceleration (Sa) and the vector IM consisting of Sa and epsilon (??). This paper demonstrates that this is true for ordinary and for near-source pulse-like earthquake records. The latter ground motions cannot be adequately characterized by either Sa alone or the vector of Sa and ??. For structural demands with significant higher-mode contributions (under either of the two types of ground motions), even Sdi (alone) is not sufficient, so an advanced scalar IM that additionally incorporates higher modes is used.

Tothong, P.; Luco, N.

2007-01-01

425

Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.  

PubMed

Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread. PMID:25564746

Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

2015-01-01

426

Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

Hegg, Dean A.

1994-01-01

427

Impacts of cloud condensation nuclei on deep stratus clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of a warm front associated with a deep, mixed-phase stratus cloud were performed with three different background cloud-nucleating aerosol profiles representative of clean, moderate, and polluted environments using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. While significant changes were seen in the cloud microphysical processes, the total precipitation reaching the surface only varied by 2% across the three simulations. This result arose from two buffering processes in the mixed-phase cloud. First, in the more polluted simulations, decreased riming of cloud water was compensated by increased vapor deposition onto ice leading to small changes in ice content and hence melting. Second, autoconversion of cloud droplets to rain was suppressed, but collection of cloud water by rain drops, which were primarily produced through melting, increased due to increased cloud water content in the more polluted simulations.

Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Naud, Catherine M.; Saleeby, Stephen M.; Posselt, Derek J.

2013-05-01

428

Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

2004-01-01

429

Generation of stable vector-producing cells for retroviral vectors.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONThis procedure describes the generation of clonal vector-producing cells that will provide an unlimited amount of unrearranged retroviral vector. The procedure involves transfection of one packaging cell line to generate a vector that is used to transduce a second packaging cell line. The resultant vector-producing clones generally contain a single integrated copy of the retroviral vector, and virus produced from this integrated vector is as genetically homogeneous as possible. Although the vector produced by a given packaging cell line can sometimes be used to transduce the same cell line, the transduction rate is typically low because of receptor blockage by the Env protein made by the target packaging cells. Indeed, this procedure will select for target cells that express low Env protein levels and thus are less resistant to transduction, but at the same time will ultimately produce less vector because of low Env production. Therefore, to obtain the highest vector titers, it is important to use pairs of packaging cells such that receptor blockage is not an issue. In this example, we use PE501 ecotropic packaging cells for transfection and broad-host-range PT67 packaging cells to make stable vector-producing cells. PMID:21356804

Cornetta, Kenneth; Pollok, Karen E; Miller, A Dusty

2008-01-01

430

Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

Brodt-Giles, D.

2014-05-15

431

David Maloney's Physics Examples: Kinematics Example 2-Adding Perpendicular Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an annotated homework problem in vector addition for introductory physics students. Given is the velocity of an aircraft traveling into a strong wind perpendicular to its motion. Explicit explanations are provided for finding the velocity of the aircraft relative to the ground. This resource is intended to supplement classroom instruction and traditional text materials. It is part of a larger collection of similar physics homework problems.

Maloney, David

2008-10-02

432

Walking Pattern Analysis of Humanoid Robot Using Support Vector Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work presents walking pattern analysis of a humanoid robot using support vector regression. The humanoid robot is highly\\u000a suitable to work in human environments but the dynamics involved are highly nonlinear and unstable. So we are establishing\\u000a empirical relationships based on the walking pattern analysis as dynamic stability of motion. Zero moment point is usually\\u000a used as a basic

Dongwon Kim; Gwi-tae Park

2006-01-01

433

New Geometry with All Killing Vectors Spanning the Poincaré Algebra  

E-print Network

The new 4D geometry whose Killing vectors span the Poincar\\'e algebra is presented and its structure is analyzed. The new geometry can be regarded as the Poincar\\'e-invariant solution of the degenerate extension of the vacuum Einstein field equations with a negative cosmological constant and provides a static cosmological space-time with a Lobachevsky space. The motion of free particles in the space-time is discussed.

Chao-Guang Huang; Yu Tian; Xiao-Ning Wu; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

2009-09-15

434

UCAC4: Stellar kinematics with vector spherical functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method of kinematic analysis of proper motions by vector spherical functions, and the results of its application to astrometric data. The sets of vector spherical functions which are orthonormal on a full sphere as well as on a latitude zone are constructed. Decomposition of the proper motions into a set of such functions allows model-independent study of stellar kinematics. If needed, the parameters of the standard (say, Ogorodnikov-Milne) model may be derived from the coefficients of the decomposition. In contrast to the commonly used least squares estimation of the model's parameters, vector spherical functions identify all systematic components of the velocity field (no matter, whether they are incorporated into the model or not) and give us a possibility to test whether the data are compatible with the model. In this paper, we apply this technique for the first time to the proper motions from the UCAC4 catalog for stars in the 11 to 16 magnitude range. We derive all-sky solutions and the solutions based on stars in the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres. The all-sky solution provide evidence for noticeable magnitude-dependent trends in the coordinates of the solar motion apex, Oort constants, angular speed of the local Galactic rotation, and the slope of the local rotation velocity curve as we go from bright to faint stars. Furthermore, our all-sky vector spherical function analysis identified strong and reliable extra-model harmonics, whereas the solutions for the northern and southern hemisphere indicate sign reversals for some of the Ogorodnikov-Milne parameters. We show that both effects appear simultaneously and can be explained by the slowdown of Galactic rotation with increasing distance from the main Galactic plane. We estimate the absolute value of the vertical gradient of the Galactic rotational velocity to be ˜ 40 {km} {s-1 kpc-1}.

Vityazev, V. V.; Tsvetkov, A. S.

2013-10-01

435

Fast Saliency-Based Motion Segmentation Algorithm for an Active Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a saliency-based approach for estimating and segmenting 3D motions of multiple moving objects represented\\u000a by 2D motion vector fields (MVF). In order to overcome typical problems in autonomous mobile robotic vision such as noise,\\u000a occlusions, and inhibition of the ego-motion defects of a moving camera head, a classification module has been implemented\\u000a to define the

M. Salah E.-N. Shafik; Baerbel Mertsching

2008-01-01

436

A novel cross-diamond search algorithm for fast block motion estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In block motion estimation, search patterns with different shapes or sizes and the center-biased characteristics of motion-vector distribution have a large impact on the searching speed and quality of performance. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm using a cross-search pattern as the initial step and large\\/small diamond search (DS) patterns as the subsequent steps for fast block motion

Chun-ho Cheung; Lai-man Po

2002-01-01

437

Comprehensive scheme for subpixel variable block-size motion estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast variable block-size motion estimation is a key issue for real-time applications of the H.264, whereas the subpixel refinement takes up much computational time as compared to integer-pixel motion estimation. We propose a new fast subpixel precision variable block-size motion-estimation scheme. This algorithm uses the statistical information, which comes from the motion activities of the macroblocks (MBs) in the previous frame, to predict the characteristics of MBs in the current frame. Additionally, the distortion values and motion vectors of MBs in the previous frame are also considered as prior knowledge, based on which we can make decisions on early mode selection and early termination, and on whether or not to skip some candidate modes and candidate checking points. The intermediate results of subpixel motion estimation are used together with the prior knowledge to reduce subpixel search time when searching for stationary blocks. Our new directional information strategy is used in both integer-pixel motion estimation and subpixel motion estimation to accelerate the search procedure. Moreover, our algorithm can eliminate the subpixel motion estimation of all the unselected subpartition modes. The computational resources can then be spent on the modes and locations that deserve to be searched more than others. Extensive experimental is been done, the results of which show that the speed of our approach is nearly five times that of the fast algorithms in H.264 JM, with a better peak signal-to-noise ratio and better bit performance.

Zhang, Ying; Siu, Wan-Chi; Shen, Tingzhi

2011-01-01

438

Effects of turbulence on the collision rate of cloud droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation concerns effects of air turbulence on the collision rate of atmospheric cloud droplets. This research was motivated by the speculation that air turbulence could enhance the collision rate thereby help transform cloud droplets to rain droplets in a short time as observed in nature. The air turbulence within clouds is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and its small-scale motion (1 mm to 10 cm scales) is computationally generated by direct numerical integration of the full Navier-Stokes equations. Typical droplet and turbulence parameters of convective warm clouds are used to determine the Stokes numbers (St) and the nondimensional terminal velocities (Sv) which characterize droplet relative inertia and gravitational settling, respectively. A novel and efficient methodology for conducting direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hydrodynamically-interacting droplets in the context of cloud microphysics has been developed. This numerical approach solves the turbulent flow by the pseudo-spectral method with a large-scale forcing, and utilizes an improved superposition method to embed analytically the local, small-scale (10 mum to 1 mm) disturbance flows induced by the droplets. This hybrid representation of background turbulent air motion and the induced disturbance flows is then used to study the combined effects of hydrodynamic interactions and airflow turbulence on the motion and collisions of cloud droplets. Hybrid DNS results show that turbulence can increase the geometric collision kernel relative to the gravitational geometric kernel by as much as 42% due to enhanced radial relative motion and preferential concentration of droplets. The exact level of enhancements depends on the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number, turbulent dissipation rate, and droplet pair size ratio. One important finding is that turbulence has a relatively dominant effect on the collision process between droplets close in size as the gravitational collision mechanism diminishes. A theory was developed to predict the radial relative velocity between droplets at contact. The theory agrees with our DNS results to within 5% for cloud droplets with strong settling. In addition, an empirical model is developed to quantify the radial distribution function. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ayala, Orlando

439

Self-motion perception in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Self-motion through space generates a visual pattern called optic flow. It can be used to determine one's direction of self-motion (heading). Previous studies have already shown that this perceptual ability, which is of critical importance during everyday life, changes with age. In most of these studies subjects were asked to judge whether they appeared to be heading to the left or right of a target. Thresholds were found to increase continuously with age. In our current study, we were interested in absolute rather than relative heading judgments and in the question about a potential neural correlate of an age-related deterioration of heading perception. Two groups, older test subjects and younger controls, were shown optic flow stimuli in a virtual-reality setup. Visual stimuli simulated self-motion through a 3-D cloud of dots and subjects had to indicate their perceived heading direction after each trial. In different subsets of experiments we varied individually relevant stimulus parameters: presentation time, number of dots in the display, stereoscopic vs. non-stereoscopic stimulation, and motion coherence. We found decrements in heading performance with age for each stimulus parameter. In a final step we aimed to determine a putative neural basis of this behavioral decline. To this end we modified a neural network model which previously has proven to be capable of reproduce and predict certain aspects of heading perception. We show that the observed data can be modeled by implementing an age related neuronal cell loss in this neural network. We conclude that a continuous decline of certain aspects of motion perception, among them heading, might be based on an age-related progressive loss of groups of neurons being activated by visual motion. PMID:25309379

Lich, Matthias; Bremmer, Frank

2014-01-01

440

Cloud Condensation Nuclei Retrievals at Cloud Base in North Dakota  

E-print Network

Cloud Condensation Nuclei Retrievals at Cloud Base in North Dakota · Mariusz Starzec #12;Motivation Compare University of Wyoming (UWyo) and Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) cloud condensation nuclei condensation nuclei concentration (CCNC) at any supersaturation (SS) #12;Background Aerosols act as nuclei

Delene, David J.

441

Cloud mouse: a new way to interact with the cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel input device and associated UI metaphors for Cloud computing. Cloud computing will give users access to huge amount of data in new forms as well as anywhere and anytime, with applications ranging from Web data mining to social networks. The motivation of this work is to provide users access to cloud computing by

Chunhui Zhang; Min Wang; Richard Harper

2010-01-01

442

Liquid content of the lower clouds of Venus as determined from Mariner 10 radio occultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

S- and X-band radio occulation data obtained during the Mariner 10 flyby of Venus are analyzed to determine the effects of signal attenuation due to the clouds of Venus. The signal-amplitude data are corrected for errors introduced by spacecraft motion and antenna steering during the occultation, absorption-coefficient profiles are computed, and the liquid content of the Venusian clouds is estimated.

A. J. Kliore; C. Elachi; I. R. Patel; J. B. Cimino

1979-01-01

443

THE REMARKABLE HIGH PRESSURE OF THE LOCAL LEO COLD CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the C I absorption toward two stars behind the Local Leo Cold Cloud (LLCC). At a distance ( Almost-Equal-To 20 pc) that places it well inside the Local Bubble, the LLCC is the nearest example of the coldest known (T Almost-Equal-To 20 K) diffuse interstellar clouds. The STIS measurements of the C I fine-structure excitation toward HD 85259 and HD 83023 indicate that the thermal gas pressure of the LLCC is much greater than that of the warm clouds in the Local Bubble. The mean LLCC pressure measured toward these two stars (60,000 cm{sup -3} K) implies an H I density of Almost-Equal-To 3000 cm{sup -3} and a cloud thickness of Almost-Equal-To 200 AU at the 20 K cloud temperature. Such a thin, cold, dense structure could arise at the collision interface between converging flows of warm gas. However, the measured LLCC pressure is appreciably higher than that expected in the colliding-cloud interpretation given the velocity and column density constraints on warm clouds in the HD 85259 and HD 83023 sightlines. Additional STIS measurements of the Zn II, Ni II, and Cr II column densities toward HD 85259 indicate that the LLCC has a modest 'warm cloud' dust depletion pattern consistent with its low dust-to-gas ratio determined from H I 21 cm and 100 {mu}m observations. In support of the inferred sheet-like geometry for the LLCC, a multi-epoch comparison of the Na I absorption toward a high-proper-motion background star reveals a 40% column density variation indicative of LLCC Na I structure on a scale of Almost-Equal-To 50 AU.

Meyer, David M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lauroesch, J. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Peek, J. E. G. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Heiles, Carl, E-mail: davemeyer@northwestern.edu, E-mail: jtlaur01@louisville.edu, E-mail: goldston@gmail.com, E-mail: heiles@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-06-20