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Sample records for cloud motion vector

  1. A sample computation of kinematic properties from cloud motion vectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Serebreny, S. M.; Mancuso, R. L.; Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Distributions of relative vorticity and balanced height have been computed from the cloud velocities associated with the cloud structure of an extratropical cyclone over the continental United States during a three-day period in March 1970. Cloud motions are assigned either to a 'mid-level,' or to a 'high level.' Derived vorticity and balanced height are compared with concurrent National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses and also with similar kinematic quantities obtained from rawins at three constant-pressure levels. The computations of relative vorticity using mid-level cloud motion vectors show encouraging results. Patterns of computed cyclonic vorticity are related to the development, location, and movement of the surface cyclone. The analyses suggest that the 'mid-level' corresponds best to the 700-mb level. The vorticity analysis from the 'high-level' motion vectors presented difficulties.

  2. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... TOA/Cloud Stereo  product for changes to the Level 2 data being summarized. Ver. # Production Start ... file format has been changed from netCDF 3 to netCDF 4, with compression. Stage 1 Validated  all parameters ...

  3. Cloud Motion Vectors from MISR using Sub-pixel Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger; Horvath, Akos; Moroney, Catherine; Zhang, Banglin; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2007-01-01

    The operational retrieval of height-resolved cloud motion vectors by the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on the Terra satellite has been significantly improved by using sub-pixel approaches to co-registration and disparity assessment, and by imposing stronger quality control based on the agreement between independent forward and aft triplet retrievals. Analysis of the fore-aft differences indicates that CMVs pass the basic operational quality control 67% of the time, with rms differences - in speed of 2.4 m/s, in direction of 17 deg, and in height assignment of 290 m. The use of enhanced quality control thresholds reduces these rms values to 1.5 m/s, 17 deg and 165 m, respectively, at the cost of reduced coverage to 45%. Use of the enhanced thresholds also eliminates a tendency for the rms differences to increase with height. Comparison of CMVs from an earlier operational version that had slightly weaker quality control, with 6-hour forecast winds from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office yielded very low bias values and an rms vector difference that ranged from 5 m/s for low clouds to 10 m/s for high clouds.

  4. Comparison of MISR and Meteosat-9 cloud-motion vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonitz, Katrin; HorváTh, ÁKos

    2011-12-01

    Stereo motion vectors (SMVs) from the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) were evaluated against Meteosat-9 cloud-motion vectors (CMVs) over a one-year period. In general, SMVs had weaker westerlies and southerlies than CMVs at all latitudes and levels. The E-W wind comparison showed small vertical variations with a mean difference of -0.4 m s-1, -1 m s-1, -0.7 m s-1 and corresponding rmsd of 2.4 m s-1, 3.8 m s-1, 3.5 m s-1for low-, mid-, and high-level clouds, respectively. The N-S wind discrepancies were larger and steadily increased with altitude, having a mean difference of -0.8 m s-1, -2.9 m s-1, -4.4 m s-1 and rmsd of 3.5 m s-1, 6.9 m s-1, 9.5 m s-1at low, mid, and high levels. The best overall agreement was found in marine stratocumulus off Namibia, while differences were larger in the Tropics and convective clouds. The SMVs were typically assigned to higher altitudes than CMVs. Attributing each observed height difference to MISR and/or Meteosat-9 retrieval biases will require further research; nevertheless, we already identified a few regions and cloud types where CMV height assignment seemed to be the one in error. In thin mid- and high-level clouds over Africa and Arabia as well as in broken marine boundary layer clouds the 10.8-μm brightness temperature-based heights were often biased low due to radiance contributions from the warm surface. Contrarily, low-level CMVs in the South Atlantic were frequently assigned to mid levels by the CO2-slicing method in multilayer situations. We also noticed an apparent cross-swath dependence in SMVs, whereby retrievals were less accurate on the eastern side of the MISR swath than on the western side. This artifact was traced back to sub-pixel MISR co-registration errors, which introduced cross-swath biases in E-W wind, N-S wind, and height of 0.6 m s-1, 2.6 m s-1, and 210 m.

  5. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  6. Upgrades to the NOAA/NESDIS automated Cloud-Motion Vector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieman, Steve; Menzel, W. Paul; Hayden, Christopher M.; Wanzong, Steve; Velden, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    The latest version of the automated cloud motion vector software has yielded significant improvements in the quality of the GOES cloud-drift winds produced operationally by NESDIS. Cloud motion vectors resulting from the automated system are now equal or superior in quality to those which had the benefit of manual quality control a few years ago. The single most important factor in this improvement has been the upgraded auto-editor. Improved tracer selection procedures eliminate targets in difficult regions and allow a higher target density and therefore enhanced coverage in areas of interest. The incorporation of the H2O-intercept height assignment method allows an adequate representation of the heights of semi-transparent clouds in the absence of a CO2-absorption channel. Finally, GOES-8 water-vapor motion winds resulting from the automated system are superior to any done previously by NESDIS and should now be considered as an operational product.

  7. A novel approach for the extraction of cloud motion vectors using airglow imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.; Narayana Rao, T.; Taori, A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper explores the possibility of implementing an advanced photogrammetric technique, generally employed for satellite measurements, on airglow imager, a ground-based remote sensing instrument primarily used for upper atmospheric studies, measurements of clouds for the extraction of cloud motion vectors (CMVs). The major steps involved in the algorithm remain the same, including image processing for better visualization of target elements and noise removal, identification of target cloud, setting a proper search window for target cloud tracking, estimation of cloud height, and employing 2-D cross-correlation to estimate the CMVs. Nevertheless, the implementation strategy at each step differs from that of satellite, mainly to suit airglow imager measurements. For instance, climatology of horizontal winds at the measured site has been used to fix the search window for target cloud tracking. The cloud height is estimated very accurately, as required by the algorithm, using simultaneous collocated lidar measurements. High-resolution, both in space and time (4 min), cloud imageries are employed to minimize the errors in retrieved CMVs. The derived winds are evaluated against MST radar-derived winds by considering it as a reference. A very good correspondence is seen between these two wind measurements, both showing similar wind variation. The agreement is also found to be good in both the zonal and meridional wind velocities with RMSEs < 2.4 m s-1. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the algorithm are discussed, with possible solutions, wherever required.

  8. A novel approach for the extraction of cloud motion vectors using airglow imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.; Narayana Rao, T.; Taori, A.

    2015-03-01

    The paper explores the possibility of implementing an advanced photogrammetric technique, generally employed for satellite measurements, on airglow imager, a ground-based remote sensing instrument primarily used for upper atmospheric studies, measurements of clouds for the extraction of cloud motion vectors (CMVs). The major steps involved in the algorithm remain the same, including image processing for better visualization of target elements and noise removal, identification of target cloud, setting a proper search window for target cloud tracking, estimation of cloud height, and employing 2-D cross-correlation to estimate the CMVs. Nevertheless, the implementation strategy at each step differs from that of satellite, mainly to suit airglow imager measurements. For instance, climatology of horizontal winds at the measured site has been used to fix the search window for target cloud tracking. The cloud height is estimated very accurately, as required by the algorithm, using simultaneous collocated Lidar measurements. High-resolution, both in space and time (4 min), cloud imageries are employed to minimize the errors in retrieved CMVs. The derived winds are evaluated against MST radar-derived winds by considering it as a reference. A very good correspondence is seen between these two wind measurements, both showing similar wind variation. The agreement is also found to be good in the both zonal and meridional wind velocities with RMSEs < 2.4 m s-1. At the end, the strengths and limitations of the algorithm are discussed, with possible solutions, wherever required.

  9. Recent Progress on the Second Generation CMORPH: LEO-IR Based Precipitation Estimates and Cloud Motion Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pingping; Joyce, Robert; Wu, Shaorong

    2015-04-01

    As reported at the EGU General Assembly of 2014, a prototype system was developed for the second generation CMORPH to produce global analyses of 30-min precipitation on a 0.05olat/lon grid over the entire globe from pole to pole through integration of information from satellite observations as well as numerical model simulations. The second generation CMORPH is built upon the Kalman Filter based CMORPH algorithm of Joyce and Xie (2011). Inputs to the system include rainfall and snowfall rate retrievals from passive microwave (PMW) measurements aboard all available low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, precipitation estimates derived from infrared (IR) observations of geostationary (GEO) as well as LEO platforms, and precipitation simulations from numerical global models. Key to the success of the 2nd generation CMORPH, among a couple of other elements, are the development of a LEO-IR based precipitation estimation to fill in the polar gaps and objectively analyzed cloud motion vectors to capture the cloud movements of various spatial scales over the entire globe. In this presentation, we report our recent work on the refinement for these two important algorithm components. The prototype algorithm for the LEO IR precipitation estimation is refined to achieve improved quantitative accuracy and consistency with PMW retrievals. AVHRR IR TBB data from all LEO satellites are first remapped to a 0.05olat/lon grid over the entire globe and in a 30-min interval. Temporally and spatially co-located data pairs of the LEO TBB and inter-calibrated combined satellite PMW retrievals (MWCOMB) are then collected to construct tables. Precipitation at a grid box is derived from the TBB through matching the PDF tables for the TBB and the MWCOMB. This procedure is implemented for different season, latitude band and underlying surface types to account for the variations in the cloud - precipitation relationship. At the meantime, a sub-system is developed to construct analyzed fields of cloud motion vectors from the GEO/LEO IR based precipitation estimates and the CFS Reanalysis (CFSR) precipitation fields. Motion vectors are first derived separately from the satellite IR based precipitation estimates and the CFSR precipitation fields. These individually derived motion vectors are then combined through a 2D-VAR technique to form an analyzed field of cloud motion vectors over the entire globe. Error function is experimented to best reflect the performance of the satellite IR based estimates and the CFSR in capturing the movements of precipitating cloud systems over different regions and for different seasons. Quantitative experiments are conducted to optimize the LEO IR based precipitation estimation technique and the 2D-VAR based motion vector analysis system. Detailed results will be reported at the EGU.

  10. The effect of the arbitrary level assignment of satellite cloud motion wind vectors on wind analyses in the pre-thunderstorm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The impact of satellite-derived cloud motion vectors on SESAME rawinsonde wind fields was studied in two separate cases. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of the satellite data is assessed to coordinate surfaces in a severe storm environment marked by strong vertical wind shear. Objective analyses of SESAME rawinsonde winds and combined winds are produced and differences between these two analyzed fields are used to make an assessment of coordinate level choice. It is shown that the standard method of arbitrarily assigning wind vectors to a low level coordinate surface yields systematic differences between the rawinsonde and combined wind analyses. Arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to the 0.9 sigma surface produces smaller differences than assignment to the 825 mb pressure surface. Systematic differences occur near moisture discontinuities and in regions of horizontal and vertical wind shears. The differences between the combined and SESAME wind fields are made smallest by vertically interpolating cloud motions to either a pressure or sigma surface.

  11. Impact of assimilation of INSAT cloud motion vector (CMV) wind for the prediction of a monsoon depression over Indian Ocean using a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, V. F.; Chandrasekar, A.; Singh, Devendra

    2006-12-01

    The present study utilized the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), to assimilate the INSAT-CMV (Indian National Satellite System-Cloud Motion Vector) wind observations using analysis nudging to improve the prediction of a monsoon depression which occurred over the Arabian Sea, India during 14 September 2005 to 17 September 2005. NCEP-FNL analysis has been utilized as the initial and lateral boundary conditions and two sets of numerical experiments were designed to reveal the impact of assimilation of satellite-derived winds. The model was integrated from 14 September 2005 00 UTC to 17 September 2005 00 UTC, with just the NCEP FNL analysis in the NOFDDA run. In the FDDA run, the NCEP FNL analysis fields were improved by assimilating the INSAT-CMV (wind speed and wind direction) as well as QuickSCAT sea surface winds during the 24 hour pre-forecast period (14 September 2005 00 UTC to 15 September 2005 00 UTC) using analysis nudging. The model was subsequently run in the free forecast mode from 15 September 2005 00 UTC to 17 September 2005 12 UTC. The simulated sea level pressure field from the NOFDDA run reveals a relatively stronger system as compared to the FDDA run. However, the sea level pressure fields corresponding to the FDDA run are closer to the analysis. The simulated lower tropospheric winds from both experiments reveal a well-developed cyclonic circulation as compared to the analysis.

  12. Wind estimates from cloud motions - Phase 1 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W.; Skillman, W.

    1976-01-01

    An initial experiment has been conducted to verify geostationary-satellite-derived cloud motion wind estimates with in situ aircraft wind velocity measurements. Case histories of 1/2 to 2 h were obtained for 3-10 km diameter cumulus cloud systems on 6 days. Also, one cirrus cloud case was obtained. In most cases the clouds were discrete enough that both the cloud motion and the ambient wind could be measured with the same aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS). Since the INS drift error is the same for both the cloud motion and wind measurements, the drift error drops out of the relative motion determinations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the ambient wind at the cloud base averaged 1.2 m/sec. The wind vector at higher levels in the cloud layer differed by about 3 to 5 m/sec from the cloud motion vector.

  13. Wind estimates from cloud motions: Phase 1 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W.

    1974-01-01

    An initial experiment was conducted to verify geostationary satellite derived cloud motion wind estimates with in situ aircraft wind velocity measurements. Case histories of one-half hour to two hours were obtained for 3-10km diameter cumulus cloud systems on 6 days. Also, one cirrus cloud case was obtained. In most cases the clouds were discrete enough that both the cloud motion and the ambient wind could be measured with the same aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS). Since the INS drift error is the same for both the cloud motion and wind measurements, the drift error subtracts out of the relative motion determinations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the ambient wind at the cloud base averaged 1.2 m/sec. The wind vector at higher levels in the cloud layer differed by about 3 m/sec to 5 m/sec from the cloud motion vector.

  14. Study to determine cloud motion from meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    Processing techniques were tested for deducing cloud motion vectors from overlapped portions of pairs of pictures made from meteorological satellites. This was accomplished by programming and testing techniques for estimating pattern motion by means of cross correlation analysis with emphasis placed upon identifying and reducing errors resulting from various factors. Techniques were then selected and incorporated into a cloud motion determination program which included a routine which would select and prepare sample array pairs from the preprocessed test data. The program was then subjected to limited testing with data samples selected from the Nimbus 4 THIR data provided by the 11.5 micron channel.

  15. A Fourier approach to cloud motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arking, A.; Lo, R. C.; Rosenfield, A.

    1977-01-01

    A Fourier technique is described for estimating cloud motion from pairs of pictures using the phase of the cross spectral density. The method allows motion estimates to be made for individual spatial frequencies, which are related to cloud pattern dimensions. Results obtained are presented and compared with the results of a Fourier domain cross correlation scheme. Using both artificial and real cloud data show that the technique is relatively sensitive to the presence of mixtures of motions, changes in cloud shape, and edge effects.

  16. Image segmentation via motion vector estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Malek, Aiman A.; Hasekioglu, Orkun; Bloomer, John J.

    1990-07-01

    In the visual world moving edges in the periphery represent vital pieces of information that directs the human foveation mechanism to selectively gather information around these specific locations. This computationally efficient approach of allocating resources at key locations has inspired computer visionists to develop new target detection and hacking algorithms based on motion detection in image sequences. In this study we implemented a recursive algorithm for estimating motion vector fields for each pixel in a sequence of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) images. Velocity information is used to segment the image and perform linear quadratic and acceleration-based frame interpolation to produce an apparent frame rate increase. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of low-rate digital fluoroscopy hence less exposure risks while preserving image quality. Furthermore the technique can be useful in the medical Picture Archival and Communication Systems (PACS) where image data can be compressed by storing and transmiting only the motion fields associated with the moving pixels. 1.

  17. Operational cloud-motion winds from Meteosat infrared images

    SciTech Connect

    Schmetz, J.; Holmlund, K.; Mason, B.; Gaertner, V.; Koch, A.; Van De Berg, L. ); Hoffman, J. ); Strauss, B. )

    1993-07-01

    The displacements of clouds in successive satellite images reflects the atmospheric circulation at various scales. The main application of the satellite-derived cloud-motion vectors is their use as winds in the data analysis for numerical weather prediction. At low latitudes in particular they constitute an indispensible data source for numerical weather prediction. This paper describes the operational method of deriving cloud-motion winds (CMW) from the IR images (10.5-12.5 [mu]m) of the European geostationary Meteosat satellites. The method is automatic, that is, the cloud tracking uses cross correlation and the height assignment is based on satellite observed brightness temperature and a forecast temperature profile. Semitransparent clouds undergo a height correction based on radiative forward calculations and simultaneous radiance observations in both the IR and water vapor (5.7-7.1 [mu]m) channel. Cloud-motion winds are subject to various quality checks that include manual quality controls as the last step. Typically about 3000 wind vectors are produced per day over four production cycles. This paper documents algorithm changes and improvements made to the operational CMWs over the last five years. The improvements are shown by long-term comparisons with both collocated radiosondes and the first guess of the forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. In particular, the height assignment of a wind vector and radiance filtering techniques preceding the cloud tracking have ameliorated the errors in Meteosat winds. The slow speed bias of high-level CMWs (<400 hPa) in comparison to radiosonde winds has been reduced from about 4 to 1.3 m s[sup [minus]1] for a mean wind speed of 24 m s[sup [minus]1]. Correspondingly, the rms vector error of Meteosat high-level CMWs decreased from about 7.8 to 5 m s[sup [minus]1]. Medium-and low-level CMWs were also significantly improved. 56 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Retrieval algorithms for cloud motion from ground-based images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalova, Kalinka

    We present the preliminary results of a project, focused on obtaining information about the velocity and direction of motion of air masses by means of ground-based measurements of visible cloud motion. This information can be used in short-term local weather forecast and is helpful in studies of the dynamics of the physical processes in clouds. We report the recent progress in the development of algorithms and tools for retrieving the three-dimensional field of vectors of velocity of cloud motion from time series of ground-based digital images. The visible motion of a cloud is the compound effect of the translational drift of the cloud as a whole with the velocity of the adjacent air masses, and of deformations due to the physical processes in the atmosphere. Because of the continuous changes of shape, extracting the translational component in the displacement of a cloud from a series of consecutive images is a highly non-trivial problem. Our approach consists in selecting a set of characteristic reference patterns of the cloud on the first image of the series, tracking them on the subsequent images, and evaluating this way the individual displacement of each reference pattern. Specific algorithms are being developed for the optimal choice of the reference patterns on the starting image and the recognition of these patterns on the subsequent images, depending on the type of the observed cloud. For clouds with low contrast or no edges, such as Stratus, Nimbostratus and Stratocumulus, implementations of the Optical Flow method are under development. For clouds with distinct contours, such as Cumulus and Altocumulus, the edges are decomposed into one-dimensional curvilinear patterns. To reduce the uncertainties, a multi-parametric model of the transformations of the cloud shape between images is defined next which, besides parallel transport, also involves dilatation, rotation, and possibly some local deformations. The parameters of the model are calculated from the individual displacements of the patterns by a least-square fit. What is obtained this way is a smooth approximation to the two-dimensional field of angular velocities of the cloud surface as seen from the observer's position. The three-dimensional vectors of velocity of the cloud are calculated by combining the results of multiple synchronous observations from distant sites. Prior to be put together, the data from different observers are corrected for optical distortion. We analyse the various sources of uncertainty of the calculated velocities of air masses, related to inaccuracy of the digital images, to identification errors in tracking the reference patterns on the series of images and to triangulation. We show that external telemetric information about the distance to the observed clouds may reduce the uncertainty of the results. We also discuss the optimal choice of the time interval between consecutive images as a compromise between the increasing requirements for computational power and the higher efficiency of the pattern recognition methods at shorter time intervals. The work is partially supported by the Bulgarian NFSR under contract NZ-1414/04.

  19. Motion/imagery secure cloud enterprise architecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLay, John L.

    2012-06-01

    Cloud computing with storage virtualization and new service-oriented architectures brings a new perspective to the aspect of a distributed motion imagery and persistent surveillance enterprise. Our existing research is focused mainly on content management, distributed analytics, WAN distributed cloud networking performance issues of cloud based technologies. The potential of leveraging cloud based technologies for hosting motion imagery, imagery and analytics workflows for DOD and security applications is relatively unexplored. This paper will examine technologies for managing, storing, processing and disseminating motion imagery and imagery within a distributed network environment. Finally, we propose areas for future research in the area of distributed cloud content management enterprises.

  20. Wind estimates from cloud motions: Preliminary results from phases 1, 2, and 3 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Low level aircraft equipped with Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) were used to define the vertical extent and horizontal motion of a cloud and to measure the ambient wind field. A high level aircraft, also equipped with an INS, took photographs to describe the horizontal extent of the cloud field and to measure cloud motion. The aerial photographs were also used to make a positive identification in a satellite picture of the cloud observed by the low level aircraft. The experiment was conducted over the tropical oceans in the vicinity of Florida, Puerto Rico, Panama and in the Western Gulf of Mexico. Results for tropical cumulus clouds indicate excellent agreement between the cloud motion and the wind at the cloud base. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the cloud base wind is less than 1.3 m/sec for 67% of the cases with track lengths of 1 hour or longer. The cirrus cloud motions agreed best with the mean wind in the cloud layer with a vector difference of about 1.6 m/sec.

  1. Traffic congestion classification using motion vector statistical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Amina; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the rapid increase in population, one of the major problems faced by the urban areas is traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a method for classifying highway traffic congestion using motion vector statistical properties. Motion vectors are estimated using pyramidal Kanada-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker algorithm. Then motion vector features are extracted and are used to classify the traffic patterns into three categories: light, medium and heavy. Classification using neural network, on publicly available dataset, shows an accuracy of 95.28%, with robustness to environmental conditions such as variable luminance. Our system provides a more accurate solution to the problem as compared to the systems previously proposed.

  2. Photogrammetry and photo interpretation applied to analyses of cloud cover, cloud type, and cloud motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    A determination was made of the areal extent of terrain obscured by clouds and cloud shadows on a portion of an Apollo 9 photograph at the instant of exposure. This photogrammetrically determined area was then compared to the cloud coverage reported by surface weather observers at approximately the same time and location, as a check on result quality. Stereograms prepared from Apollo 9 vertical photographs, illustrating various percentages of cloud coverage, are presented to help provide a quantitative appreciation of the degradation of terrain photography by clouds and their attendant shadows. A scheme, developed for the U.S. Navy, utilizing pattern recognition techniques for determining cloud motion from sequences of satellite photographs, is summarized. Clouds, turbulence, haze, and solar altitude, four elements of our natural environment which affect aerial photographic missions, are each discussed in terms of their effects on imagery obtained by aerial photography. Data of a type useful to aerial photographic mission planners, expressing photographic ground coverage in terms of flying height above terrain and camera focal length, for a standard aerial photograph format, are provided. Two oblique orbital photographs taken during the Apollo 9 flight are shown, and photo-interpretations, discussing the cloud types imaged and certain visible geographical features, are provided.

  3. Winds of Neptune - Voyager observations of cloud motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of cloud motions in the atmosphere of Neptune, using high temporal and spatial resolution images acquired from Voyager cameras. The results obtained on cloud motions reveal a wide range of atmospheric periods between 12 and 21 hours, consistent with previous observations. The new results expand the latitudinal coverage, improve the determination of streak motions (especially near 30 deg N), and add statistical weight to altitudes already covered by previous measurements.

  4. Vector Analysis of Human Limb Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laferriere, Joseph E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses vectors to illustrate movement of the human appendicular structures to help students visualize the interaction of the various muscles and understand how a small number of muscles can affect movement in a potentially infinite number of directions. (ZWH)

  5. Volcanic explosion clouds - Density, temperature, and particle content estimates from cloud motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.; Self, S.

    1980-01-01

    Photographic records of 10 vulcanian eruption clouds produced during the 1978 eruption of Fuego Volcano in Guatemala have been analyzed to determine cloud velocity and acceleration at successive stages of expansion. Cloud motion is controlled by air drag (dominant during early, high-speed motion) and buoyancy (dominant during late motion when the cloud is convecting slowly). Cloud densities in the range 0.6 to 1.2 times that of the surrounding atmosphere were obtained by fitting equations of motion for two common cloud shapes (spheres and vertical cylinders) to the observed motions. Analysis of the heat budget of a cloud permits an estimate of cloud temperature and particle weight fraction to be made from the density. Model results suggest that clouds generally reached temperatures within 10 K of that of the surrounding air within 10 seconds of formation and that dense particle weight fractions were less than 2% by this time. The maximum sizes of dense particles supported by motion in the convecting clouds range from 140 to 1700 microns.

  6. Cloud detection for MIPAS using singular vector decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J.; Dudhia, A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Clouds are increasingly recognised for their influence on the radiative balance of the Earth and the implications that they have on possible climate change, as well as in air pollution and acid-rain production. However, clouds remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. Satellite-borne high-resolution limb sounders, such as the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard ENVISAT, provide information on clouds, especially optically thin clouds, which have been difficult to observe in the past. The aim of this work is to develop, implement and test a reliable cloud detection method for infrared spectra measured by MIPAS. Current MIPAS cloud detection methods used operationally have been developed to detect thick cloud filling more than 30% of the measurement field-of-view (FOV). In order to resolve thin clouds, a new detection method using Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD) is formulated and tested. A rigorous comparison of the current operational and newly-developed detection methods for MIPAS is carried out - and the new SVD detection method has been proven to be much more reliable than the current operational method, and very sensitive even to thin clouds only marginally filling the MIPAS FOV.

  7. Clouds on Neptune: Motions, Evolution, and Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, Larry A.; Morgan, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aims of our original proposal were these: (1) improving measurements of Neptune's circulation, (2) understanding the spatial distribution of cloud features, (3) discovery of new cloud features and understanding their evolutionary process, (4) understanding the vertical structure of zonal cloud patterns, (5) defining the structure of discrete cloud features, and (6) defining the near IR albedo and light curve of Triton. Towards these aims we proposed analysis of existing 1996 groundbased NSFCAM/IRTF observations and nearly simultaneous WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We also proposed to acquire new observations from both HST and the IRTF.

  8. Boat detection using vector accumulation of particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Na; Li, Youyi; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Recently, target detection in sea environment such as boat detection has become a popular research topic which is significant for marine vessels monitoring system. Many target detection methods have been widely applied to practical applications such as frame difference, traditional optical flow and background subtraction method. However, the existing target detection methods are not suitable to deal with the complex conditions of sea surface, such as irregular movement of the waves and illumination changes. In this paper, we developed an approach based on vector accumulation of particle motion mainly aiming at eliminating the effects of irregular movement of waves. Our proposed method applies vector accumulation of particle motion to optical flow field to obtain more accurate detection results under complex conditions. Firstly, the traditional optical flow method is used to acquire motion vector of every particle. Furthermore, the vectors of each flow point are abstracted to represent the recording of a fluid element in the flow over a certain period, succeeding is the accumulation of particle vectors. Finally, we calculate the mean of the vector accumulation to eliminate the effects of irregular movement of waves based on the video. Experimental results show the proposed method can gain better performance than traditional optical flow method.

  9. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Alan; Scarfe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC) solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA), is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The HVA, however, provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the IOC direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the HVA. PMID:24155716

  10. Rapid ray motions in barium plasma clouds and auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Swift, D. W.; Wallis, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    On two evenings in 1968, anomalous field-aligned brightenings or emission enhancements of up to 3X were observed to move rapidly through three different Ba(+) clouds over Andoya, Norway. Similar effects were observed in Ba(+) clouds released from rockets launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 21, 1973 and on March 22, 1980. On these occasions, auroras on or near the Ba(+) L shell also exhibited active rapid ray motions, which prompts the assumption that the two phenomena are related and the expectation that an explanation of the rapid ray motions in the Ba(+) clouds would lead to a better understanding of the physics of auroral ray motions and the auroral atmosphere. Seven possible mechanisms to produce the observed moving emission enhancements are discussed. The observations provide strong evidence for the existence of transient electric fields of order 100 mV/m at altitudes as low as 200 km during active aurora with rapid ray motions.

  11. Noctilucent Clouds in Motion - Duration: 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Swedish photographer Peter Rosén took this close-up, time-lapse movieof Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) over Stockholm, Sweden on the evening ofJuly 16, 2012. "What looked like a serene view from a di...

  12. Proper Motion of the Magellanic Clouds using SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, K.; Girard, T.; van Altena, W.; Zacharias, N.; Casetti, D.; Korchagin, V.; Platais, I.; Monet, D.; Lpez, C.

    2014-06-01

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 square-degree area that includes the Magellanic Clouds, using photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program. Multiple, local relative proper motion measures were combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds: (?_{?}^{} cos ?, ?_{?}^{})_LMC=(+1.88, +0.37)(0.27, 0.27) mas yr^-1 and (?_{?}^{} cos ?, ?_{?}^{})_SMC=(+1.05, -1.03)(0.30, 0.29) mas yr^-1, based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog. A more precise determination was made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; (?_{{? cos ? }}^{}, ?_{?}^{})_{SMC-LMC}=(-0.91, -1.49)(0.16, 0.15) mas yr^-1. This differential value is used to estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within 54 km s^-1. The absolute proper motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit.

  13. Digital video steganalysis using motion vector recovery-based features.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Linna

    2012-07-10

    As a novel digital video steganography, the motion vector (MV)-based steganographic algorithm leverages the MVs as the information carriers to hide the secret messages. The existing steganalyzers based on the statistical characteristics of the spatial/frequency coefficients of the video frames cannot attack the MV-based steganography. In order to detect the presence of information hidden in the MVs of video streams, we design a novel MV recovery algorithm and propose the calibration distance histogram-based statistical features for steganalysis. The support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the proposed features and used as the steganalyzer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganalyzer can effectively detect the presence of hidden messages and outperform others by the significant improvements in detection accuracy even with low embedding rates. PMID:22781241

  14. GOCI Level-2 Processing Improvements and Cloud Motion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Biology Processing Group has been working with the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) to process geosynchronous ocean color data from the GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Instrument) aboard the COMS (Communications, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). The level-2 processing program, l2gen has GOCI processing as an option. Improvements made to that processing are discussed here as well as a discussion about cloud motion effects.

  15. Rapid ray motions in barium plasma clouds and auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Hallinan, T.J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Swift, D.W.; Wallis, D.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Barium plasma clouds released at high latitudes characteristically become striated with many field-aligned rays. The rays which often resemble auroral features usually drift as a whole with the E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift of the cloud and alter position only slowly (order or tens of seconds). On two evenings in 1968, in releases from Andoya, Norway, anomalous field-aligned brightenings or emission enhancements of up to 3X were observed to move rapidly (10-20 km/s) through three different Ba[sup +] clouds. Similar effects were observed in Ba[sup +] clouds released from rockets launched from Poker Flat, Alaska: On March 21, 1973, in two Ba thermite releases and on March 22, 1980, in the Ba-shaped charge experiment Miss Peggy.' On these occasions, auroras on or near the Ba[sup +] L shell, also exhibited active rapid ray motions. This leads to the assumption that the two phenomena are related and the expectation that an explanation of the rapid ray motions in the Ba[sup +] clouds would lead to a better understanding of the physics of auroral ray motions and the auroral ionosphere. Seven possible mechanisms to produce the observed moving emission enhancements are discussed. Direct motion of an isolated Ba[sup +] ray past the other rays by E [times] B/B[sup 2] motion seems very unlikely due to the observed variations in the enhancements and the large E field required (> 500 mV/m). Compressional waves do not seem to be of sufficient amplitude or velocity. Absorption or radiation of Doppler shifted Ba[sup +] emissions by ions gyrating or moving at a few kilometers per second seems to be the most promising mechanism for producing the enhancements. The observations provide compelling evidence for the existence of transient electric fields of order 100 mV/m at altitudes as low as 200 km during active aurora with rapid ray motions. The affected regions have dimensions of order a few kilometers across B and move eastward at 10-20 km/s. 36 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to a vertical coordinate system in two Sesame cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite-derived cloud motion 'wind' vectors (CMV) are increasingly used in mesoscale and in global analyses, and questions have been raised regarding the uncertainty of the level assignment for the CMV. One of two major problems in selecting a level for the CMV is related to uncertainties in assigning the motion vector to either the cloud top or base. The second problem is related to the inability to transfer the 'wind' derived from the CMV at individually specified heights to a standard coordinated surface. The present investigation has the objective to determine if the arbitrary level assignment represents a serious obstacle to the use of cloud motion wind vectors in the mesoscale analysis of a severe storm environment.

  17. Error Evaluation of Planetary Atmospheric Motion Vectors by Statistical Presumption Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MURACHI, T.; IMAMURA, T.; HIGUCHI, T.; NAKAMURA, M.

    2002-05-01

    In the Solar System there are the planets (e.g. Venus etc.) whose surface environment and general atmospheric circulation differs from Earth_fs one. If we can understand the meteorology of these planets, we get the information of meteorological mechanism which completely differs from the Earth_f one. By returning this information to the Earth's meteorology we more deeply understand the meteorological phenomenon of the Earth than now. Therefore, it is important to research the meteorology of these planets. In past meteorological researches of the atmospheric planets they had not reached to detailed understanding. This reason is that in many cases target physical phenomenon is covered with the error because of data shortage. For solving this problem we must obtain the many data. However, examining the past research, I notice that the possibility of overestimate of error. Concretely, it is like below. In past meteorological researches of the atmospheric planets except the Earth, in which the Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) are derived from their cloud images, the AMVs' accuracy is evaluated from the spatial and time adjustment. The AMVs which depart the permissible range are deleted, which is decided in view of the spatial and time scale of the target physical phenomenon and the possibility of miss-matching. The error of AMVs is defined as the standard deviation of neighboring AMVs. In this definition, however, the error of AMVs depends on the permissible range and is anticipated to be as large as the target physical phenomenon. In fact, there were some researches that they couldn't prove whether the target physical phenomenon existed because of the large error of itself. The proper error evaluation as well as the observation method is important for proving the existence of the target physical phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to establish the error evaluation of AMVs, which reflects influence of the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape upon AMVs. I think that the error of AMVs depends on the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape largely not on the spatial and time fluctuation of AMVs. By the change of cloud shape we can_ft track the cloud motion precisely. By the image spatial resolution the error of 1 pixel is attached to the AMVs. In this study, by statistical presumption technique I evaluate the error of AMVs, which reflects influence of the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape upon AMVs. In order to verify this method, I make test patterns, and calculate the AMVs and the error with error evaluation by statistical presumption technique using these patterns. This result is that the error of AMVs by this method is almost equivalent to the expected error of the change of cloud shape, and relies on the change rate of cloud shape. In addition, using Venus' cloud images I calculate the AMVs and the error with error evaluation by statistical presumption technique and the error with past error evaluation, which calculate the standard deviation of neighboring AMVs. The result is that the error by statistical presumption technique is smaller than the error of past. In this study, by statistical presumption technique the error evaluation of AMVs that reflects influence of the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape upon AMVs is established.

  18. Improvement of image deblurring for opto-electronic joint transform correlator under projective motion vector estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm to improve the performance of image deblurring based on opto-electronic joint transform correlator (JTC) that is capable of detecting the motion vector of a space camera. Firstly, the motion vector obtained from JTC is divided into many sub-motion vectors according to the projective motion path, which represents the degraded image as an integration of the clear scene under a sequence of planar projective transforms. Secondly, these sub-motion vectors are incorporated into the projective motion Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm to improve deblurred results. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm and the influence of noise on the algorithm performance is also statically analyzed.

  19. Self-powered thin-film motion vector sensor

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Qingshen; Xie, Yannan; Zhu, Guang; Han, Ray P. S.; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing random micromeso-scale ambient energy is not only clean and sustainable, but it also enables self-powered sensors and devices to be realized. Here we report a robust and self-powered kinematic vector sensor fabricated using highly pliable organic films that can be bent to spread over curved and uneven surfaces. The device derives its operational energy from a close-proximity triboelectrification of two surfaces: a polytetrafluoroethylene film coated with a two-column array of copper electrodes that constitutes the mover and a polyimide film with the top and bottom surfaces coated with a two-column aligned array of copper electrodes that comprises the stator. During relative reciprocations, the electrodes in the mover generate electric signals of ±5 V to attain a peak power density of ≥65 mW m−2 at a speed of 0.3 ms−1. From our 86,000 sliding motion tests of kinematic measurements, the sensor exhibits excellent stability, repeatability and strong signal durability. PMID:26271603

  20. Self-powered thin-film motion vector sensor.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qingshen; Xie, Yannan; Zhu, Guang; Han, Ray P S; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing random micromeso-scale ambient energy is not only clean and sustainable, but it also enables self-powered sensors and devices to be realized. Here we report a robust and self-powered kinematic vector sensor fabricated using highly pliable organic films that can be bent to spread over curved and uneven surfaces. The device derives its operational energy from a close-proximity triboelectrification of two surfaces: a polytetrafluoroethylene film coated with a two-column array of copper electrodes that constitutes the mover and a polyimide film with the top and bottom surfaces coated with a two-column aligned array of copper electrodes that comprises the stator. During relative reciprocations, the electrodes in the mover generate electric signals of ±5 V to attain a peak power density of ≥65 mW m(-2) at a speed of 0.3 ms(-1). From our 86,000 sliding motion tests of kinematic measurements, the sensor exhibits excellent stability, repeatability and strong signal durability. PMID:26271603

  1. An adaptive mode-driven spatiotemporal motion vector prediction for wavelet video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Liu, Guizhong; Qi, Yong

    2010-07-01

    The three-dimensional subband/wavelet codecs use 5/3 filters rather than Haar filters for the motion compensation temporal filtering (MCTF) to improve the coding gain. In order to curb the increased motion vector rate, an adaptive motion mode driven spatiotemporal motion vector prediction (AMDST-MVP) scheme is proposed. First, by making use of the direction histograms of four motion vector fields resulting from the initial spatial motion vector prediction (SMVP), the motion mode of the current GOP is determined according to whether the fast or complex motion exists in the current GOP. Then the GOP-level MVP scheme is thereby determined by either the S-MVP or the AMDST-MVP, namely, AMDST-MVP is the combination of S-MVP and temporal-MVP (T-MVP). If the latter is adopted, the motion vector difference (MVD) between the neighboring MV fields and the S-MVP resulting MV of the current block is employed to decide whether or not the MV of co-located block in the previous frame is used for prediction the current block. Experimental results show that AMDST-MVP not only can improve the coding efficiency but also reduce the number of computation complexity.

  2. Landsat 7 Reveals Large-scale Fractal Motion of Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Landsat 7 image of clouds off the Chilean coast near the Juan Fernandez Islands (also known as the Robinson Crusoe Islands) on September 15, 1999, shows a unique pattern called a 'von Karman vortex street.' This pattern has long been studied in the laboratory, where the vortices are created by oil flowing past a cylindrical obstacle, making a string of vortices only several tens of centimeters long. Study of this classic 'flow past a circular cylinder' has been very important in the understanding of laminar and turbulent fluid flow that controls a wide variety of phenomena, from the lift under an aircraft wing to Earth's weather. Here, the cylinder is replaced by Alejandro Selkirk Island (named after the true 'Robinson Crusoe,' who was stranded here for many months in the early 1700s). The island is about 1.5 km in diameter, and rises 1.6 km into a layer of marine stratocumulus clouds. This type of cloud is important for its strong cooling of the Earth's surface, partially counteracting the Greenhouse warming. An extended, steady equatorward wind creates vortices with clockwise flow off the eastern edge and counterclockwise flow off the western edge of the island. The vortices grow as they advect hundreds of kilometers downwind, making a street 10,000 times longer than those made in the laboratory. Observing the same phenomenon extended over such a wide range of sizes dramatizes the 'fractal' nature of atmospheric convection and clouds. Fractals are characteristic of fluid flow and other dynamic systems that exhibit 'chaotic' motions. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise vortices are generated by flow around the island. As the flow separates from the island's leeward (away from the source of the wind) side, the vortices 'swallow' some of the clear air over the island. (Much of the island air is cloudless due to a local 'land breeze' circulation set up by the larger heat capacity of the waters surrounding the island.) The 'swallowed' gulps of clear island air get carried along within the vortices, but these are soon mixed into the surrounding clouds. Landsat is unique in its ability to image both the small-scale eddies that mix clear and cloudy air, down to the 30 meter pixel size of Landsat, but also having a wide enough field-of-view, 180 km, to reveal the connection of the turbulence to large-scale flows such as the subtropical oceanic gyres. Landsat 7, with its new onboard digital recorder, has extended this capability away from the few Landsat ground stations to remote areas such as Alejandro Island, and thus is gradually providing a global dynamic picture of evolving human-scale phenomena. (For more details on von Karman vortices, refer to http://climate.gsfc.nasa.gov/cahalan) Image and caption courtesy Bob Cahalan, NASA GSFC

  3. Effect of GOES-R Image Navigation and Registration Errors on Atmospheric Motion Vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2008-01-01

    High temporal frequency imagery from geostationary satellites allows for the continuous monitoring of rapidly changing atmospheric constituents such as smoke, dust, water vapor and clouds. The image sequences are often used to quantify the displacement of image features such as water vapor and clouds to produce atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) which are used as diagnostic tools and also assimilated into numerical weather forecast models. The basic principle behind the determination of AMVs is the calculation of the physical displacement of features from one image (time) to the next. This process assumes that the features being tracked do not change as a function of time, usually requiring the use of short time interval imagery to minimize substantial change in size and shape of the features being tracked. High spatial resolution imagery also is required for reliable feature identification. While these image resolution and temporal sampling requirements often provide major drivers for space-based instrument design requirements, accurate image navigation and registration, INn (between a sequence of images), is also critical to the derivation of useful AMVs. In this paper and poster to be presented at the conference, the image navigation and registration (INR) accuracy expected for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the GOES-R series of satellites will be discussed in light of its impact on AMV accuracy. Significant satellite platform and modeling enhancements are planned which should significantly improve INn performance of the GOES-R instruments. Some of these improvements have been demonstrated for the GOES-13 satellite which was launched in summer of 2006. An analysis of GOES-13 INR data, from the special satellite check out period, will be used in the assessment.

  4. Cloud morphology and motions from Pioneer Venus images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Del Genio, A. D.; Limaye, S. S.; Travis, L. D.; Stone, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical cloud structures, atmospheric waves, and wind velocities at the cloud top level were determined by the Pioneer Venus photopolarimeter images in the UV from January through March 1979. The images indicate long-term evolution of cloud characteristics, the atmospheric dynamics, and rapid small changes in cloud morphology. The clouds show a globally coordinated oscillation relative to latitude circles; retrograde zonal winds of 100 m/s near the equator are determined from the tracking of small-scale cloud properties, but two hemispheres show important variations. The zonal wind velocity in the southern hemisphere is reduced toward the poles at a rate similar to solid body rotation; the midlatitude jet stream noted by Mariner 10 is not observed.

  5. Turbulent fluid motion 2: Scalars, vectors, and tensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    The author shows that the sum or difference of two vectors is a vector. Similarly the sum of any two tensors of the same order is a tensor of that order. No meaning is attached to the sum of tensors of different orders, say u(sub i) + u(sub ij); that is not a tensor. In general, an equation containing tensors has meaning only if all the terms in the equation are tensors of the same order, and if the same unrepeated subscripts appear in all the terms. These facts will be used in obtaining appropriate equations for fluid turbulence. With the foregoing background, the derivation of appropriate continuum equations for turbulence should be straightforward.

  6. Steady-State Pursuit Is Driven by Object Motion Rather Than the Vector Average of Local Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, B. R.; Lorenceau, J. D.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that humans can pursue the motion of objects whose trajectories can be recovered only by spatio-temporal integration of local motion signals. We now explore the integration rule used to derive the target-motion signal driving pursuit. We measured the pursuit response of 4 observers (2 naive) to the motion of a line-figure diamond viewed through two vertical bar apertures (0.2 cd/square m). The comers were always occluded so that only four line segments (93 cd/square m) were visible behind the occluding foreground (38 cd/square m). The diamond was flattened (40 & 140 degree vertex angles) such that vector averaging of the local normal motions and vertical integration (e.g. IOC) yield very I or different predictions, analogous to using a Type II plaid. The diamond moved along Lissajous-figure trajectories (Ax = Ay = 2 degrees; TFx = 0.8 Hz; TFy = 0.4 Hz). We presented only 1.25 cycles and used 6 different randomly interleaved initial relative phases to minimize the role of predictive strategies. Observers were instructed to track the diamond and reported that its motion was always coherent (unlike type II plaids). Saccade-free portions of the horizontal and vertical eye-position traces sampled at 240 Hz were fit by separate sinusoids. Pursuit gain with respect to the diamond averaged 0.7 across subjects and directions. The ratio of the mean vertical to horizontal amplitude of the pursuit response was 1.7 +/- 0.7 averaged across subjects (1SD). This is close to the prediction of 1.0 from vertical motion-integration rules, but far from 7.7 predicted by vector averaging and infinity predicted by segment- or terminator-tracking strategies. Because there is no retinal motion which directly corresponds to the diamond's motion, steady-state pursuit of our "virtual" diamond is not closed-loop in the traditional sense. Thus, accurate pursuit is unlikely to result simply from local retinal negative feedback. We conclude that the signal driving steady-state pursuit is not the vector average of local motion signals, but rather a more vertical estimate of object motion, derived in extrastriate cortical areas beyond V1, perhaps NIT or MST.

  7. ACARS wind measurements - An intercomparison with radiosonde, cloud motion and VAS thermally derived winds. [Communications, Addressing and Reporting System VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, R. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Pecht, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical comparisons between winds measured by ACARS and winds obtained from radiosondes, geostationary satellite image cloud motions, and VAS are presented. Observations from three separate comparisons reveal over 60 percent of wind vector magnitude differences are within 9 m/s, and 70 percent of the directional differences are within 15 deg. The comparisons indicate that the ACARS system provides an independent source of wind data that complements other sources of wind data for constructing composite wind field analyses.

  8. Object detection and tracking with active camera on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Shang, Lei; Hu, Eric

    2013-06-01

    A method based on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter has been proposed and developed for an active/moving camera for object detection and tracking purposes. The object is detected by histogram of motion vectors first, and then, on the basis of particle filter algorithm, the weighing factors are obtained via color information. In addition, re-sampling strategy and surf feature points are used to remedy the drawback of particle degeneration. Experimental results demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the new method and are presented in the paper.

  9. Object detection and tracking with active camera on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Shang, Lei; Hu, Eric

    2013-06-01

    A method based on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter has been proposed and developed for an active∕moving camera for object detection and tracking purposes. The object is detected by histogram of motion vectors first, and then, on the basis of particle filter algorithm, the weighing factors are obtained via color information. In addition, re-sampling strategy and surf feature points are used to remedy the drawback of particle degeneration. Experimental results demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the new method and are presented in the paper. PMID:23822380

  10. Upper cloud motions from the Venus Monitoring Camera imaging onboard Venus Express in period from 2006 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, Igor; Limaye, Sanjay; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander; Titov, Dmitrij

    Venus Monitoring Camera [1] onboard Venus Express made long-term UV observations (2006-2014) of upper cloud of Venus. The observations cover about 13 Venusian years. UV images enable a study the cloud level circulation by tracking motion of the cloud features (see detail description of our techniques in [2]). Here we presented the latest update of the results which published in [2]. Cloud features in UV images were tracked in 150 orbits by a manual technique and by a digital correlation method in 650 orbits. Total number of wind vectors derived in this work is about 50000 for the manual tracking and more 450000 for the digital correlation technique. The mean circulation was determined, including mean fields of motion and mean speed profiles, long-term and diurnal trends, orbit-to-orbit variations and short term periodicities. The VMC observations indicate a long term trend for the zonal component speed at low latitudes in the mission time interval. It has slow variation to increase from 85 m/s in middle of 2006 to 107 m/s at the end of 2013 with minimum (83 m/s) in the middle of 2007 and maximum (112 m/s) at the beginning of 2013. The VMC observations demonstrated clear diurnal solar related dependences. A maximum in the zonal speed was observed in the morning (8-9 h) and in the evening (16-17 h). The meridional component peaks in the early afternoon (13-15 h) at around 50ºS latitude. References [1] Markiewicz W.J. et al. Venus Monitoring Camera for Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci V55(12). P.1701-1711, 2007. [2] Khatuntsev I.V. et al.; Cloud level winds from the Venus Express Monitoring Camera imaging. Icarus, 226, pp.140-158, 2013.

  11. Insitu aircraft verification of the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceanic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Skillman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    A five year aircraft experiment to verify the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceans using in situ aircraft inertial navigation system wind measurements is presented. The final results show that satellite measured cumulus cloud motions are very good estimators of the cloud base wind for trade wind and subtropical high regions. The average magnitude of the vector differences between the cloud motion and the cloud base wind is given. For cumulus clouds near frontal regions, the cloud motion agreed best with the mean cloud layer wind. For a very limited sample, cirrus cloud motions also most closely followed the mean wind in the cloud layer.

  12. Arctic PBL Cloud Height and Motion Retrievals from MISR and MINX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2012-01-01

    How Arctic clouds respond and feedback to sea ice loss is key to understanding of the rapid climate change seen in the polar region. As more open water becomes available in the Arctic Ocean, cold air outbreaks (aka. off-ice flow from polar lows) produce a vast sheet of roll clouds in the planetary boundary layer (PBl). The cold air temperature and wind velocity are the critical parameters to determine and understand the PBl structure formed under these roll clouds. It has been challenging for nadir visible/IR sensors to detect Arctic clouds due to lack of contrast between clouds and snowy/icy surfaces. In addition) PBl temperature inversion creates a further problem for IR sensors to relate cloud top temperature to cloud top height. Here we explore a new method with the Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to measure cloud height and motion over the Arctic Ocean. Employing a stereoscopic-technique, MISR is able to measure cloud top height accurately and distinguish between clouds and snowy/icy surfaces with the measured height. We will use the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) to quantify roll cloud dynamics during cold-air outbreak events and characterize PBl structures over water and over sea ice.

  13. PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING SPM MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Katherine; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Korchagin, Vladimir I.; Herrera, David E-mail: terry.girard@yale.ed

    2010-12-15

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 deg{sup 2} area that encloses both Magellanic Clouds. The proper motions are based on photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program, which span a baseline of 40 years. Multiple, local relative proper-motion measures are combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected Galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog of 1.4 million objects is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub LMC} = (1.89, + 0.39) {+-} (0.27, 0.27) masyr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC} = (0.98, - 1.01) {+-} (0.30, 0.29) masyr{sup -1}. These mean motions are based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion (0.25 mas yr{sup -1}) of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog stars used to anchor the bright end of our proper motion measures. A more precise determination can be made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; ({mu}{sub {alpha}cos {delta}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC-LMC} = (-0.91, - 1.49) {+-} (0.16, 0.15) masyr{sup -1}. This differential value is combined with measurements of the proper motion of the LMC taken from the literature to produce new absolute proper-motion determinations for the SMC, as well as an estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within {+-}54 km s{sup -1}. The absolute proper-motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit. The inferred relative velocity between the Clouds places them near their binding energy limit and, thus, no definitive conclusion can be made as to whether or not the Clouds are bound to one another.

  14. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 ?m) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  15. Earthquake slip vectors and estimates of present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Two alternative models for present-day global plate motions are derived from subsets of the NUVEL-1 data in order to investigate the degree to which earthquake slip vectors affect the NUVEL-1 model and to provide estimates of present-day plate velocities that are independent of earthquake slip vectors. The data set used to derive the first model excludes subduction zone slip vectors. The primary purpose of this model is to demonstrate that the 240 subduction zone slip vectors in the NUVEL-1 data set do not greatly affect the plate velocities predicted by NUVEL-1. A data set that excludes all of the 724 earthquake slip vectors used to derive NUVEL-1 is used to derive the second model. This model is suitable as a reference model for kinematic studies that require plate velocity estimates unaffected by earthquake slip vectors. The slip-dependent slip vector bias along transform faults is investigated using the second model, and evidence is sought for biases in slip directions along spreading centers.

  16. Interactions between spacecraft motions and the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the effects of spacecraft motions on atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) experimentation, the motions of concern are those which will result in the movement of the fluid or cloud particles within the experiment chambers. Of the various vehicle motions and residual forces which can and will occur, three types appear most likely to damage the experimental results: non-steady rotations through a large angle, long-duration accelerations in a constant direction, and vibrations. During the ACPL ice crystal growth experiments, the crystals are suspended near the end of a long fiber (20 cm long by 200 micron diameter) of glass or similar material. Small vibrations of the supported end of the fiber could cause extensive motions of the ice crystal, if care is not taken to avoid this problem.

  17. A Convective Vorticity Vector Associated With Tropical Convection: A 2D Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Shou-Ting; Ping, Fan; Li, Xiao-Fan; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Although dry/moist potential vorticity is a useful physical quantity for meteorological analysis, it cannot be applied to the analysis of 2D simulations. A convective vorticity vector (CVV) is introduced in this study to analyze 2D cloud-resolving simulation data associated with 2D tropical convection. The cloud model is forced by the vertical velocity, zonal wind, horizontal advection, and sea surface temperature obtained from the TOGA COARE, and is integrated for a selected 10-day period. The CVV has zonal and vertical components in the 2D x-z frame. Analysis of zonally-averaged and mass-integrated quantities shows that the correlation coefficient between the vertical component of the CVV and the sum of the cloud hydrometeor mixing ratios is 0.81, whereas the correlation coefficient between the zonal component and the sum of the mixing ratios is only 0.18. This indicates that the vertical component of the CVV is closely associated with tropical convection. The tendency equation for the vertical component of the CVV is derived and the zonally-averaged and mass-integrated tendency budgets are analyzed. The tendency of the vertical component of the CVV is determined by the interaction between the vorticity and the zonal gradient of cloud heating. The results demonstrate that the vertical component of the CVV is a cloud-linked parameter and can be used to study tropical convection.

  18. Multiangle Remote Sensing of Optically Thin Cirrus Clouds From MISR Using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mazzoni, D.; Davies, R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2004-05-01

    Thin cirrus clouds, those with optical depths less than 1, can potentially have large radiative effects on the atmospheric and surface energy budgets in regions where they are prevalent. They also present an impediment to the retrieval of clear sky properties such as aerosol optical depth, temperature profiles, etc. Such clouds, however, are notoriously difficult to detect using standard satellite remote sensing techniques. The unique multiangle sensing capability of the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on NASA's Terra satellite, in particular the availability of cameras with view angles as large as 70.5 degrees, gives MISR the ability to detect thin cirrus clouds that are invisible to nadir-looking instruments. While MISR has been operational for over four years and many scenes containing thin cirrus have been examined on a per case basis, there remains a need to objectively and automatically identify just the cirrus clouds within any given scene. Based on our previous work applying machine learning technology to develop a more robust MISR cloud mask, we have developed a thin cirrus cloud detector for MISR, using Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and taking advantage of spectral, spatial and angular signature information from MISR's 45.6, 60 and 70.5-degree cameras. For a few representative cases, we will demonstrate the accuracy of the SVM cirrus retrieval, especially in comparison to a traditional nadir-looking retrieval, emphasizing the usefulness of the multiangle approach. We then show how this trained SVM can be used to generate a climatology of thin cirrus clouds.

  19. Motion Vector Field Estimation Using Brightness Constancy Assumption and Epipolar Geometry Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-11-01

    In most Photogrammetry and computer vision tasks, finding the corresponding points among images is required. Among many, the Lucas-Kanade optical flow estimation has been employed for tracking interest points as well as motion vector field estimation. This paper uses the IMU measurements to reconstruct the epipolar geometry and it integrates the epipolar geometry constraint with the brightness constancy assumption in the Lucas-Kanade method. The proposed method has been tested using the KITTI dataset. The results show the improvement in motion vector field estimation in comparison to the Lucas-Kanade optical flow estimation. The same approach has been used in the KLT tracker and it has been shown that using epipolar geometry constraint can improve the KLT tracker. It is recommended that the epipolar geometry constraint is used in advanced variational optical flow estimation methods.

  20. Observing Vertical Motion of Deep Convective Clouds by Stereo Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, R.; Romps, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Using stereo photography, the vertical velocities of convective clouds are measured over Biscayne Bay in Miami. When applied to deep convection, the stereo cameras observe typical ascent speeds in excess of 10 m/s. With a high frame rate, fine spatial resolution, and long range, the cameras are able to reconstruct the trajectories -- in three-dimensional space -- of individual convective plumes through their lifecycle deep into the upper troposphere. To ensure high accuracy when looking out over water, a novel algorithm has been designed to calibrate the orientation of the cameras in the absence of traditional landmarks. The accuracy is validated by comparing the cloud heights obtained from the stereo cameras to data from a colocated ceilometer, and by comparing the stereo-camera winds to data from nearby radiosondes. With the ability to capture full field-of-view data at a high frame rate (i.e., 0.1 to 10 Hz), stereo photography provides a unique and powerful complement to traditional radar technology.

  1. Characteristics of Vertical Air Motion in Convective Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; French, Jeffrey R.

    2016-02-01

    The vertical velocity and air mass flux in convective clouds are statistically analyzed using aircraft in-situ data collected from three field campaigns: High-Plains Cumulus (HiCu) conducted over the mid-latitude High Plains, COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) conducted in a mid-latitude coastal area, and Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T), conducted over a tropical ocean. This study yields the following results. (1) Small-scale updrafts and downdrafts (< 500 m in diameter) are frequently observed in the three field campaigns, and they make important contributions to the total air mass flux. (2) The probability density functions (PDFs) of the vertical velocity are exponentially distributed. For updrafts, the PDFs of the vertical velocity are broader in ICE-T and COPE than in HiCu; for downdrafts, the PDFs of the vertical velocity are broader in HiCu and COPE than in ICE-T. (3) Vertical velocity profiles show that updrafts are stronger in ICE-T and COPE than in HiCu, and downdrafts are stronger in HiCu and COPE than in ICE-T. (4) The PDFs of the air mass flux are exponentially distributed as well. The maximum air mass flux in updrafts is of the order 104 kg m-1 s-1. The air mass flux in the downdrafts is typically a few times smaller in magnitude than that in the updrafts.

  2. Cloud field classification based upon high spatial resolution textural features. II - Simplified vector approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. W.; Sengupta, S. K.; Welch, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the results of cloud-field classification derived from two simplified vector approaches, the Sum and Difference Histogram (SADH) and the Gray Level Difference Vector (GLDV), with the results produced by the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) approach described by Welch et al. (1988). It is shown that the SADH method produces accuracies equivalent to those obtained using the GLCM method, while the GLDV method fails to resolve error clusters. Compared to the GLCM method, the SADH method leads to a 31 percent saving in run time and a 50 percent saving in storage requirements, while the GLVD approach leads to a 40 percent saving in run time and an 87 percent saving in storage requirements.

  3. A proper motion study of the Lupus clouds using Virtual Observatory tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Martí, B.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Solano, E.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The Lupus dark cloud complex is a well-known, nearby low-mass star-forming region, probably associated with the Gould Belt. In recent years, the number of stellar and substellar Lupus candidate members has been remarkably increased thanks to the Cores to Disks (c2d) Spitzer Legacy Program and other studies. However, most of these newly discovered objects still lack confirmation that they belong to the dark clouds. Aims: By using available kinematical information, we test the membership of the new Lupus candidate members proposed by the c2d program and by a complementary optical survey. We also investigate the relationship between the proper motions and other properties of the objects, in order to get some clues about their formation and early evolution. Methods: We compiled a list of members and possible members of Lupus 1, 3, and 4, together with all available information on their spectral types, disks, and physical parameters. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched this list with the available astrometric catalogues to get proper motions for our objects. Our final sample contains sources with magnitudes I < 16 mag and estimated masses ≳ 0.1 M⊙. Results: According to the kinematic information, our sources can be divided into two main groups. The first one contains sources with higher proper motions in agreement with other Gould Belt populations and with spatial distribution, optical and near-infrared colours, and disk composition consistent with these objects belonging to the Lupus clouds. In the second group, sources have lower proper motions with random orientations, and they are mostly located outside the cloud cores, making their association with the Lupus complex more doubtful. We investigate the properties of the higher proper motion group, but cannot find any correlations with spatial location, binarity, the presence of a circumstellar disk, or with physical properties such as effective temperature, luminosity, mass, or age. Conclusions: We conclude that the lower proper motion group probably represents a background population or mixture of populations unrelated to the Lupus clouds. The higher proper motion group, on the other hand, has properties consistent with it being a genuine population of the Lupus star-forming region. More accurate proper motions and/or radial velocity information are required for a more detailed study of the kinematic properties of the Lupus stellar members. Tables 2-6 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Intraseasonal behavior of clouds, temperature, and motion in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry L.; Hendon, Harry H.

    1994-01-01

    The spectral character of tropical convection is investigated in an 11-yr record of outgoing longwave radiation from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify interaction with the tropical circulation. Along the equator in the eastern hemisphere, the space-time spectrum of convection possesses a broad peak at wavenumbers 1-3 and eastward periods of 35-95 days. Significantly broader than the dynamical signal of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), this quasi-discrete convective signal is associatd with a large-scale anomaly that propagates across and modulates time mean or 'climatological convection' over the equatorial Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Outside that region the convective signal is small, even though, under amplified conditions, coherence can be found east of the date line and in the subtropics. Having a zonal scale of approximately wavenumber 2, anomalous convection propagates eastward at some 5 m/s and suppresses as well as reinforces climatological in the eastern hemisphere. The convective signal amplifies to a seasonal maximum near vernal equinox and, to a weaker degree, again near autumnal equinox, when climatological convection and warm sea surface temperature (SST) cross the equator. Contemporaneous records of motion from European Center for medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses and tropospheric-mean temperature from Microwave Sounding Unit reveal an anomalous component of the tropical circulation that coexists with the convective signal and embodies many of the established properties of the MJO. In the eastern hemisphere, subtropical Rossby gyres and zonal Kelvin structure along the equator flank the convective anomaly as it tracks eastward, giving the anomalous circulation to form of a 'forced response.' In the western hemisphere, the dynamical signal is composed chiefly of wavenumber-1 Kelvin structure, which as the form of a 'propagating response' that is excited in and radiates away from anomalous convection at some 10 m/s. Kelvin structure comprising the propagating response appears in 850-mb and 200-mb zonal winds even when the convective signal is absent, albeit with much smaller amplitude. In contrast, the signal in 1000-mb convergence appears only when accompanied by anomalous convection, which suggests that convergence in the boundary layer is instrumental in achieving strong interaction with the convective pattern.

  5. Transverse motion of high-speed barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, H. G., Jr.; Fedder, J. A.; Huba, J. D.; Zalesak, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    Simulation results, based on a field-line-integrated, two-dimensional, electrostatic model, are presented for the motion of a barium cloud injected transverse to the geomagnetic field in the ionosphere at high speeds. It is found that the gross evaluation of injected plasma clouds depends on the initial conditions, as well as the nature of the background coupling. For a massive (mass of about 10 kg), orbital (velocity of about 5 km/s) release in the F region (350-450 km), it is found that plasma clouds can drift tens of kilometers across the magnetic field in tens of seconds after ionization. This type of release is similar to those which are planned for the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite mission.

  6. Characterizing uncertainty in the motion, future location and ash concentrations of volcanic plumes and ash clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webley, P.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Pitman, E. B.; Dehn, J.; Singh, T.; Singla, P.; Stefanescu, E. R.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Morton, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting the location and airborne concentrations of volcanic ash plumes and their dispersing clouds is complex and knowledge of the uncertainty in these forecasts is critical to assess and mitigate the hazards that could exist. We show the results from an interdisciplinary project that brings together scientists drawn from the atmospheric sciences, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and geology. The project provides a novel integration of computational and statistical modeling with a widely-used volcanic particle dispersion code, to provide quantitative measures of confidence in predictions of the motion of ash clouds caused by volcanic eruptions. We combine high performance computing and stochastic analysis, resulting in real time predictions of ash cloud motion that account for varying wind conditions and a range of model variables. We show how coupling a real-time model for ash dispersal, PUFF, with a volcanic eruption model, BENT, allows for the definition of the variability in the dispersal model inputs and hence classify the uncertainty that can then propagate for the ash cloud location and downwind concentrations. We additionally analyze the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction forecast data used by the dispersal model by using ensemble forecasts and assess how this affects the downwind concentrations. These are all coupled together and by combining polynomical chaos quadrature with stochastic integration techniques, we provide a quantitative measure of the reliability (i.e. error) of those predictions. We show comparisons of the downwind height calculations and mass loadings with observations of ash clouds available from satellite remote sensing data. The aim is to provide a probabilistic forecast of location and ash concentration that can be generated in real-time and used by those end users in the operational ash cloud hazard assessment environment.

  7. Pacific-North American plate motion from very long baseline interferometry compared with motion inferred from magnetic anomalies, transform faults, and earthquake slip vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Geodetic VLBI measurements were used to test whether the Pacific-North American plate velocity averaged over several years of direct observation (1984-1987) equals that averaged over millions of years. It was also tested whether this velocity parallels the San Andreas fault, transform faults and earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California, and earthquake slip vectors along the Queen Charlotte fault, along the Alaskan peninsula, and along the Kamchatkan peninsula. The VLBI data provide an estimate of the direction of plate motion that is independent of estimates from fault azimuths and earthquake slip vectors. The Euler vector determined from VLBI was found to be nearly identical to the Euler vector of plate motion model NUVEL-1, which is based on the trends of transform faults, earthquake slip vectors, and spreading rates from marine magnetic anomalies that average motion since 3 Ma. The velocity between the Pacific and North American plates averaged over the past several years equals or nearly equals its velocity averaged over the past several million years, the difference along their boundary nowhere exceeding 4 + or - 7 mm/yr.

  8. The primer vector in linear, relative-motion equations. [spacecraft trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Primer vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear, relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal, N-impulse trajectory. Since the state vector for these equations is defined in terms of a linear system of ordinary differential equations, all fundamental relations defining the solution of the state and costate equations, and the necessary conditions for optimality, can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of (1) fixed-end conditions, two-impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized rendezvous problem. A sequence of rendezvous problems is solved to illustrate the analysis and the computational procedure.

  9. Feature extraction and wall motion classification of 2D stress echocardiography with support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chykeyuk, Kiryl; Clifton, David A.; Noble, J. Alison

    2011-03-01

    Stress echocardiography is a common clinical procedure for diagnosing heart disease. Clinically, diagnosis of the heart wall motion depends mostly on visual assessment, which is highly subjective and operator-dependent. Introduction of automated methods for heart function assessment have the potential to minimise the variance in operator assessment. Automated wall motion analysis consists of two main steps: (i) segmentation of heart wall borders, and (ii) classification of heart function as either "normal" or "abnormal" based on the segmentation. This paper considers automated classification of rest and stress echocardiography. Most previous approaches to the classification of heart function have considered rest or stress data separately, and have only considered using features extracted from the two main frames (corresponding to the end-of-diastole and end-of-systole). One previous attempt [1] has been made to combine information from rest and stress sequences utilising a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which has proven to be the best performing approach to date. Here, we propose a novel alternative feature selection approach using combined information from rest and stress sequences for motion classification of stress echocardiography, utilising a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. We describe how the proposed SVM-based method overcomes difficulties that occur with HMM classification. Overall accuracy with the new method for global wall motion classification using datasets from 173 patients is 92.47%, and the accuracy of local wall motion classification is 87.20%, showing that the proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art HMM-based approach (for which global and local classification accuracy is 82.15% and 78.33%, respectively).

  10. A comparison of cloud motion and ship wind observations over the Indian Ocean for the year of FGGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Donald P.; Hinton, Barry B.

    1982-06-01

    Cloud motions over the Indian Ocean were compared to ship observations for the FGGE year. The statistics of this comparison show seasonal changes in the cloud-ship relationship as well as geographical and wind-pattern-dependent fetch history changes. Most of these changes follow simple boundary-layer relationships governed by friction and temperature advection. The most significant result is the improvement of the cloud-ship directional shear with wind speed. The mean veering angle between cloud and ship measurements decreased at higher wind speeds along with scatter of the shearing angle. This implies that the ability of cloud motion measurements to indicate the wind stress on the ocean improves for the important situations when the winds are strong.

  11. A comparison of cloud motion winds from ATS 6 images with coinciding SMS 1 winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlow, W. W.; Chatters, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology is developed for accurate measurement of cloud motion winds from the geosynchronous ATS 6 image data. Attitude changes between consecutive images (as a function of scan-line number) are accounted for in wind computations through measurement of the earth-edge displacements between the successive infrared images. Also, an image matching procedure is used to remove obvious and distracting image distortions. The availability of SMS imagery coinciding with ATS 6 imagery makes SMS an excellent reference against which the quality of ATS 6 winds can be tested. The resulting winds inferred from cloud displacement measurements taken from a sequence of the corrected images are found to agree better than 2 m/sec rms with winds measured from coincident SMS 1 imagery.

  12. In situ aircraft verification of the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceanic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Skillman, W. C.; Shenk, W. E.; Steranka, J.

    1979-01-01

    A 5-year aircraft experiment to verify the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceans using in situ aircraft Inertial Navigation System wind measurements is presented. Cloud motions measured by satellite and aircraft wind measurements that were coincident in time and space, and the results from the experiment are for undisturbed to moderately disturbed oceanic weather regimes. The results show that satellite measured cumulus cloud motions are good estimators of the cloud-base wind for trade wind and subtropical high regions. The average magnitude of the vector differences between the cloud motion and the cloud-base wind was determined; for cumulus clouds near frontal regions, the cloud motions agreed best with the mean cloud layer wind. For a very limited sample, cirrus cloud motions most closely followed the mean wind in the cloud layer.

  13. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.

  14. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  15. Motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates for torque-free dual-spin spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates for torque free, asymmetric dual spin spacecraft without and, for a special case, with energy dissipation on the main spacecraft is investigated. Without energy dissipation, two integrals can be obtained from the Euler equations of motion. Using the classical method of elimination of variable, the motion about the equilibrium points (six for the general case) are derived with these integrals. For small nutation angle, theta, the trajectories about the theta = 0 deg and theta = 180 deg points readily show the requirements for stable motion about these points. Also the conditions needed to eliminate stable motion about the theta = 180 deg point as well as the other undesireable equilibrium points follow directly from these equations. For the special case where the angular momentum vector moves about the principal axis which contains the momentum wheel, the notion of 'free variable' azimuth angle is used. Physically this angle must vary from 0 to 2 pi in a circular periodic fashion. Expressions are thus obtained for the nutation angle in terms of the free variable and other spacecraft parameters. Results show that in general there are two separate trajectory expressions that govern the motion of the angular momentum vector in body coordinates.

  16. Maxwell perturbations on Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes: Quasinormal modes, superradiant instabilities, and vector clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Scalar and gravitational perturbations on Kerr-anti-de Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black holes have been addressed in the literature and have been shown to exhibit a rich phenomenology. In this paper, we complete the analysis of bosonic fields on this background by studying Maxwell perturbations, focusing on superradiant instabilities and vector clouds. For this purpose, we solve the Teukolsky equations numerically, imposing the boundary conditions we have proposed in [1] for the radial Teukolsky equation. As found therein, two Robin boundary conditions can be imposed for Maxwell fields on Kerr-AdS black holes, one of which produces a new set of quasinormal modes even for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. Here, we show these different boundary conditions produce two different sets of superradiant modes. Interestingly, the "new modes" may be unstable in a larger parameter space. We then study stationary Maxwell clouds that exist at the threshold of the superradiant instability, with the two Robin boundary conditions. These clouds, obtained at the linear level, indicate the existence of a new family of black hole solutions at the nonlinear level, within the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS system, branching off from the Kerr-Newman-AdS family. As a comparison with the Maxwell clouds, scalar clouds on Kerr-AdS black holes are also studied, and it is shown there are Kerr-AdS black holes that are stable against scalar, but not vector, modes with the same "quantum numbers".

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lupus clouds proper motion study with VO (Lopez Marti+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Marti, B.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Solano, E.

    2011-08-01

    The Lupus dark cloud complex is a well-known, nearby low-mass star-forming region, probably associated with the Gould Belt. In recent years, the number of stellar and substellar Lupus candidate members has been remarkably increased thanks to the Cores to Disks (c2d) Spitzer Legacy Program and other studies. However, most of these newly discovered objects still lack confirmation that they belong to the dark clouds. By using available kinematical information, we test the membership of the new Lupus candidate members proposed by the c2d program and by a complementary optical survey. We also investigate the relationship between the proper motions and other properties of the objects, in order to get some clues about their formation and early evolution. We compiled a list of members and possible members of Lupus 1, 3, and 4, together with all available information on their spectral types, disks, and physical parameters. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched this list with the available astrometric catalogues to get proper motions for our objects. Our final sample contains sources with magnitudes I<16mag and estimated masses >~0.1M⊙. (5 data files).

  18. Closed-form solutions for estimating a rigid motion from plane correspondences extracted from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion

  19. Cloud shadow speed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, V.; Bosch, J. L.; Roberts, S. W.; Kleissl, J.

    2014-06-01

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system is presented that measures cloud shadow motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short-term solar irradiance forecasts. The cloud shadow speed sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and a high-speed data acquisition system to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud shadow motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground-measured irradiance (linear cloud edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego sky imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15° and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud shadow directions and speeds with average weighted root-mean-square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s-1 when compared to LCE results.

  20. Cloud speed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, V.; Bosch, J. L.; Roberts, S. W.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-10-01

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s-1 when compared to LCE results.

  1. Impact of Kalpana-1 retrieved atmospheric motion vectors on mesoscale model forecast during summer monsoon 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Kumar, Prashant; Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.; Kumar, Raj

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) retrieved from multi-spectral geostationary satellites form a very crucial input to improve the initial conditions of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models at all operational agencies throughout the globe. With the recent update of operational AMV retrieval algorithm using infrared, water vapor, and visible channels of Indian geostationary meteorological satellite Kalpana-1, an attempt has been made to assess the impact of AMVs in the NWP models. In this study, the impact of Kalpana-1 AMVs is assessed by assimilating them in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using three-dimensional variational data assimilation method during the entire month of July 2011 over the Indian Ocean region. Apart from Kalpana-1 AMVs, the other AMVs available from Global Telecommunications System (GTS) are also assimilated to generate the WRF model analyses. After the initial verification of WRF model analyses, the 12-h wind forecasts from the WRF model are compared with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Data Assimilation System final analyses. The assimilation of Kalpana-1 AMVs shows positive impact in 12-h wind forecast over the tropical region in the upper troposphere. Similar results are obtained when other AMVs available through GTS are used for assimilation, though the magnitude of positive impact of Kalpana-1 AMVs is slightly higher over tropical region. The 24-h rainfall forecasts are also improved over the Western India and the Bay of Bengal region, when Kalpana-1 AMVs are used for assimilation against control experiments.

  2. Parallel algorithm for determining motion vectors in ice floe images by matching edge features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohar, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Strong, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    A parallel algorithm is described to determine motion vectors of ice floes using time sequences of images of the Arctic ocean obtained from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument flown on-board the SEASAT spacecraft. Researchers describe a parallel algorithm which is implemented on the MPP for locating corresponding objects based on their translationally and rotationally invariant features. The algorithm first approximates the edges in the images by polygons or sets of connected straight-line segments. Each such edge structure is then reduced to a seed point. Associated with each seed point are the descriptions (lengths, orientations and sequence numbers) of the lines constituting the corresponding edge structure. A parallel matching algorithm is used to match packed arrays of such descriptions to identify corresponding seed points in the two images. The matching algorithm is designed such that fragmentation and merging of ice floes are taken into account by accepting partial matches. The technique has been demonstrated to work on synthetic test patterns and real image pairs from SEASAT in times ranging from .5 to 0.7 seconds for 128 x 128 images.

  3. Video Waterscrambling: Towards a Video Protection Scheme Based on the Disturbance of Motion Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, Yann; Laurent, Nathalie; Laurent, Christophe; Dugelay, Jean-Luc

    2004-12-01

    With the popularity of high-bandwidth modems and peer-to-peer networks, the contents of videos must be highly protected from piracy. Traditionally, the models utilized to protect this kind of content are scrambling and watermarking. While the former protects the content against eavesdropping (a priori protection), the latter aims at providing a protection against illegal mass distribution (a posteriori protection). Today, researchers agree that both models must be used conjointly to reach a sufficient level of security. However, scrambling works generally by encryption resulting in an unintelligible content for the end-user. At the moment, some applications (such as e-commerce) may require a slight degradation of content so that the user has an idea of the content before buying it. In this paper, we propose a new video protection model, called waterscrambling, whose aim is to give such a quality degradation-based security model. This model works in the compressed domain and disturbs the motion vectors, degrading the video quality. It also allows embedding of a classical invisible watermark enabling protection against mass distribution. In fact, our model can be seen as an intermediary solution to scrambling and watermarking.

  4. ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RECENT PROPER MOTION DATA FOR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2011-03-20

    Recent observational studies using the Hubble Space Telescope have derived the center-of-mass proper motion (CMPM) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Although these studies carefully treated both rotation and perspective effects in deriving the proper motion (PM) for each of the sampled fields, they did not consider the effects of local random motion in the derivation. This means that the average PM of the fields (i.e., the observed CMPM) could significantly deviate from the true CMPM, because the effect of local random motion cannot be close to zero in making the average PM for the small number of fields ({approx}10). We discuss how significantly the observationally derived CMPM can deviate from the true CMPM by applying the same method as used in the observations for a dynamical model of the LMC with a known true CMPM. We find that the deviation can be as large as {approx}50 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.21 mas yr{sup -1}), if the LMC has a thick disk and a maximum circular velocity of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}. We also find that the deviation depends both on the total number of sampled fields and on the structure and kinematics of the LMC. We therefore suggest that there is a possibility that the observed CMPM of the LMC deviates from the true one to some extent. We also show that a simple mean of PM for a large number of LMC fields ({approx}1000) can be much closer to the true CMPM.

  5. The Impact of Satellite Atmospheric Motion Vectors in the GMAO GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, R. D.; Merkova, D.; Tai, King-Sheng; McCarty, W.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) on numerical weather forecasts is examined using the GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation system. Cycling data assimilation experiments, including twice-daily 5-day forecasts, are conducted for two 6-week periods during the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season and 2010-2011Northern Hemisphere winter season. Results from a control experiment that includes all AMVs and other data types assimilated operationally in GEOS-5 are compared with those from an experiment in which the GEOS-5 AMVs (only) are replaced by ones produced by the U. S. Navy?s NAVDAS-AR atmospheric data assimilation system. The Navy AMVs are assimilated in their entirety as well as in various subset combinations. The primary objective of these experiments is to determine whether aspects of the NAVDAS-AR data selection and quality control procedure, especially the use of carefully averaged ("super-ob?) wind vectors and large volume of AMVs, explain the typically larger beneficial impact of these data in the Navy system as compared with most other forecast systems. Adjoint-based observation impact calculations are assessed and compared with traditional metrics such as forecast geopotential height anomaly correlations and observation-minus-forecast departures. Results so far indicate that that the greater number of NRL AMVs is primarily responsible for their larger impact, although superobing also appears to be beneficial. Map views show that the impact obtained from assimilation of the NRL AMVs is more uniformly beneficial, perhaps due to the averaging of individual observations in creating the super-obs. While the NRL AMVs have a much larger impact in GEOS-5 than do the control AMVs, their impact is still smaller than in the Navy forecast system, suggesting that the mix of observations may play an important role in modulating the impact of any one data type. At the same time, reducing the number of satellite radiances assimilated in GEOS-5 does not significantly alter the impact of the AMVs

  6. Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Zhanxin; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-04-22

    We numerically simulated the air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber induced by femtosecond laser filaments for different chopping rates. A two dimensional model was employed, where the laser filaments were treated as a heat flux source. The simulated patterns of flow fields and maximum velocity of updraft compare well with the experimental results for the chopping rates of 1, 5, 15 and 150 Hz. A quantitative inconsistency appears between simulated and experimental maximum velocity of updraft for 1 kHz repetition rate although a similar pattern of flow field is obtained, and the possible reasons were analyzed. Based on the present simulated results, the experimental observation of more water condensation/snow at higher chopping rate can be explained. These results indicate that the specific way of laser filament heating plays a significant role in the laser-induced motion of air flow, and at the same time, our previous conclusion of air flow having an important effect on water condensation/snow is confirmed. PMID:23609636

  7. An improved self-alignment method for strapdown inertial navigation system based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xixiang; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xianjun; Yang, Yan; Song, Qing; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-12-01

    Analysis and simulation results indicate that two problems should be solved when the self-alignment method based on gravitational apparent motion and dual-vector can be used for Strapdown Inertial Navigation System. The first one is how to identify the apparent motion from accelerometer measurement containing random noise and the second is how to avoid the collinear problem between two vectors used in alignment solution. In this paper, a parameter identification and reconstruction algorithm is proposed to solve the first problem and simulation results indicate that proposed algorithm can identify apparent motion from accelerometer measurements effectively; and reconstruction algorithm based on current identified parameters for dual-vector is designed in detail to solve the second problem which can make full use of newest identification and avoid collinear problem completely. Simulation and turntable results show that the proposed alignment method can fulfill self-alignment in a swinging condition and the alignment accuracy can reach the theoretical values determined by the sensor precision. PMID:25554327

  8. A new classification algorithm based on multi-kernel Support Vector Machine on infrared cloud background image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiebing; Zhou, Yiyu; Xu, Shenda; Cheng, Chuxiong

    2015-11-01

    A new classification algorithm based on multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) was proposed for classification problems on infrared cloud background image. The experimental results show that the method integrates the advantages of polynomial kernel functions, Gaussian radial kernel functions and multilayer perception kernel functions. Compared with the traditional single-kernel SVM classification method, the proposed method has better performance both in local interpolation and global extrapolation, and is more suitable for SVM classification problems when the training sample size is small. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm..

  9. Roll tracking effects of G-vector tilt and various types of motion washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Magdaleno, R. E.; Junker, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    In a dogfight scenario, the task was to follow the target's roll angle while suppressing gust disturbances. All subjects adopted the same behavioral strategies in following the target while suppressing the gusts, and the MFP-fitted math model response was generally within one data symbol width. The results include the following: (1) comparisons of full roll motion (both with and without the spurious gravity tilt cue) with the static case. These motion cues help suppress disturbances with little net effect on the visual performance. Tilt cues were clearly used by the pilots but gave only small improvement in tracking errors. (2) The optimum washout (in terms of performance close to real world, similar behavioral parameters, significant motion attenuation (60 percent), and acceptable motion fidelity) was the combined attenuation and first-order washout. (3) Various trends in parameters across the motion conditions were apparent, and are discussed with respect to a comprehensive model for predicting adaptation to various roll motion cues.

  10. Cloud shadow Speed Sensor (CSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Victor

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud shadow motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short-term forecasting is presented. The Cloud shadow Speed Sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and a high-speed data acquisition system to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud shadow motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground-measured irradiance (linear cloud edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego sky imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15° and 6 % accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud shadow directions and speeds with average weighted root-mean-square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s -1 when compared to LCE results.

  11. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of nitroaniline isomers after cloud point extraction by using least-squares support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Ali; Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Yazdanipour, Ateesa

    2007-11-01

    Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline and later simultaneous spectrophotometric determination using polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) as surfactant. The resolution of a ternary mixture of the nitroaniline isomers (after extraction by cloud point) by the application of least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was performed. The chemical parameters affecting the separation phase and detection process were studied and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions (i.e. pH 7.0, Triton X-100 = 0.6%, equilibrium time 20 min and cloud point 75 C), calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.2-20.0, 0.1-15.0 and 0.1-17.0 ?g ml -1 with detection limits of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.06 ?g ml -1 for m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline, respectively. The experimental calibration matrix was designed with 21 mixtures of these chemicals. The concentrations were varied between calibration graphs concentrations of nitroaniline isomers. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline were 0.0146, 0.0308 and 0.0304, respectively. This procedure allows the simultaneous determination of nitroaniline isomers in synthetic and real matrix samples good reliability of the determination was proved.

  12. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of nitroaniline isomers after cloud point extraction by using least-squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Ali; Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Yazdanipour, Ateesa

    2007-11-01

    Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline and later simultaneous spectrophotometric determination using polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) as surfactant. The resolution of a ternary mixture of the nitroaniline isomers (after extraction by cloud point) by the application of least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was performed. The chemical parameters affecting the separation phase and detection process were studied and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions (i.e. pH 7.0, Triton X-100=0.6%, equilibrium time 20 min and cloud point 75 degrees C), calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.2-20.0, 0.1-15.0 and 0.1-17.0 microg ml(-1) with detection limits of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.06 microg ml(-1) for m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline, respectively. The experimental calibration matrix was designed with 21 mixtures of these chemicals. The concentrations were varied between calibration graphs concentrations of nitroaniline isomers. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline and p-nitroaniline were 0.0146, 0.0308 and 0.0304, respectively. This procedure allows the simultaneous determination of nitroaniline isomers in synthetic and real matrix samples good reliability of the determination was proved. PMID:17329152

  13. Primer vector theory applied to the linear relative-motion equations. [for N-impulse space trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D.

    1980-01-01

    Prime vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C/W) equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal N-impulse trajectory. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by: (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of: (1) fixed-end conditions, two impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized renezvous problem.

  14. Hurricane Debby - An illustration of the complementary nature of VAS soundings and cloud and water vapor motion winds. [Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Marshall, J. F.; Smith, W. L.; Callan, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) temperature and moisture soundings and cloud and water vapor motion winds in defining a storm and its surroundings at subsynoptic scales has been examined using a numerical analysis and prognosis system. It is shown that the VAS temperature and moisture data, which specify temperature and moisture well in cloud-free areas, are complemented by cloud and water vapor motion data generated in the cloudy areas. The cloud and water vapor 'winds' provide thermal gradient information for interpolating the soundings across cloudy regions. The loss of analysis integrity due to the reduction of VAS sounding density in the cloudy regions associated with synoptic activity is ameliorated by using cloud and water vapor motion winds. The improvement in numerical forecasts resulting from the addition of these data to the numerical analysis is recorded.

  15. Global rotational motion and displacement estimation of digital image stabilization based on the oblique vectors matching algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Yue-jin

    2009-08-01

    The image block matching algorithm based on motion vectors of correlative pixels in oblique direction is presented for digital image stabilization. The digital image stabilization is a new generation of image stabilization technique which can obtains the information of relative motion among frames of dynamic image sequences by the method of digital image processing. In this method the matching parameters are calculated from the vectors projected in the oblique direction. The matching parameters based on the vectors contain the information of vectors in transverse and vertical direction in the image blocks at the same time. So the better matching information can be obtained after making correlative operation in the oblique direction. And an iterative weighted least square method is used to eliminate the error of block matching. The weights are related with the pixels' rotational angle. The center of rotation and the global emotion estimation of the shaking image can be obtained by the weighted least square from the estimation of each block chosen evenly from the image. Then, the shaking image can be stabilized with the center of rotation and the global emotion estimation. Also, the algorithm can run at real time by the method of simulated annealing in searching method of block matching. An image processing system based on DSP was used to exam this algorithm. The core processor in the DSP system is TMS320C6416 of TI, and the CCD camera with definition of 720×576 pixels was chosen as the input video signal. Experimental results show that the algorithm can be performed at the real time processing system and have an accurate matching precision.

  16. Influence of broken cloud fields on reflectance retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Robert; Richtsmeier, Steven; Adler-Golden, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Surface solar radiation forecasting permits to predict photovoltaic plant production for a massive and safe integration of solar energy into the electric network. For short-term forecasts (intra-day), methods using images from meteorological geostationary satellites are more suitable than numerical weather prediction models. Forecast schemes consist in assessing cloud motion vectors and in extrapolating cloud patterns from a given satellite image in order to predict cloud cover state above a PV plant. Atmospheric motion vectors retrieval techniques have been studied for several decades in order to improve weather forecasts. However, solar energy forecasting requires the extraction of cloud motion vectors on a finer spatial- and time-resolution than those provided for weather forecast applications. Even if motion vector retrieval is a wide research field in image processing related topics, only block-matching techniques are operationally used for solar energy forecasts via satellite images. In this paper, we propose two motion vectors extraction methods originating from video compression techniques (correlation phase and optical flow methods). We implemented them on a 6-day dataset of Meteosat-10 satellite diurnal images. We proceeded to cloud pattern extrapolation and compared predicted cloud maps against actual ones at different time horizons from 15 minutes to 4 hours ahead. Forecast scores were compared to the state-of-the-art (block matching) method. Correlation phase methods do not outperform block-matching but their computation time is about 25 times shorter. Optical flow based method outperforms all the methods with a satisfactory time computing.

  17. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  18. Influence of the cosmic repulsion on the MOND model of the Magellanic Cloud motion in the field of Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Schee, J.; Stuchlík, Z.; Petrásek, M. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz

    2013-12-01

    It has been recently shown that the cosmic repulsion can have a highly significant influence on the motion of Magellanic Clouds (MC) in the gravitational field of Milky Way, treated in the framework of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halo model. However, there is an alternative to the CDM halo explanation of the rotation curves in the periphery of spiral galaxies, based on MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Therefore, we study the role of the cosmic repulsion in the framework of the MOND theory applied to determine the MC motion. Our results demonstrate that in the MOND framework the influence of the cosmic repulsion on the motion of both Small and Large MC is also highly significant, but it is of a different character than in the framework of the CDM halo model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the MC motion in the framework of the CDM halo and MOND models is subtantially different and can serve as a test of these fundamentally different approaches to the explanation of the phenomena related to galaxies and the motion of satellite galaxies.

  19. THIRD-EPOCH MAGELLANIC CLOUD PROPER MOTIONS. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WFC3 DATA AND ORBIT IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kallivayalil, Nitya; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay; Besla, Gurtina; Alcock, Charles

    2013-02-20

    We present proper motions for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope data, spanning a {approx}7 yr baseline, and centered on fields with background QSOs. The first two epochs, the subject of past analyses, were obtained with ACS/HRC, and have been reanalyzed here. The new third epoch with WFC3/UVIS increases the time baseline and provides better control of systematics. The three-epoch data yield proper-motion random errors of only 1%-2% per field. For the LMC this is sufficient to constrain the internal proper-motion dynamics, as will be discussed in a separate paper. Here we focus on the implied center-of-mass proper motions: {mu} {sub W,LMC} = -1.910 {+-} 0.020 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,LMC} = 0.229 {+-} 0.047 mas yr{sup -1}, and {mu} {sub W,SMC} = -0.772 {+-} 0.063 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,SMC} = -1.117 {+-} 0.061 mas yr{sup -1}. We combine the results with a revised understanding of the solar motion in the Milky Way to derive Galactocentric velocities: v {sub tot,LMC} = 321 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1} and v {sub tot,SMC} = 217 {+-} 26 km s{sup -1}. Our proper-motion uncertainties are now dominated by limitations in our understanding of the internal kinematics and geometry of the Clouds, and our velocity uncertainties are dominated by distance errors. Orbit calculations for the Clouds around the Milky Way allow a range of orbital periods, depending on the uncertain masses of the Milky Way and LMC. Periods {approx}< 4 Gyr are ruled out, which poses a challenge for traditional Magellanic Stream models. First-infall orbits are preferred (as supported by other arguments as well) if one imposes the requirement that the LMC and SMC must have been a bound pair for at least several Gyr.

  20. Large-scale environmental variables and transition to deep convection in cloud resolving model simulations: A vector representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, Samson; Leung, L. Ruby

    2012-04-01

    Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  1. Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-11-01

    Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  2. Constants of motion for the planar orbit of a charged particle in a static and uniform magnetic field: the magnetic Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Martnez, D.; Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Kunold, A.; Cardoso, J. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the motion of a planar charged particle subject to a static uniform magnetic field. It is well known that an electric charge under a uniform magnetic field has a planar motion if its initial velocity is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Although some constants of motion (CsM), as the energy and the angular momentum, have been widely discussed for this system, others have been neglected. We find that the angular momentum, the generator of the magnetic translations and the magnetic Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector are CsM for this particular system. We show also that these three quantities form an orthogonal basis of vectors. The present work addresses many aspects of the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field that should be useful for students and tutors of the classical mechanics courses at the senior undergraduate level.

  3. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass resolution and dynamic range limits calculated by computer modeling of ion cloud motion.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Marshall, Alan G; Heeren, Ron M A; Nikolaev, Eugene N

    2012-02-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) ion trajectory calculations provide the most realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) experiments by efficient and accurate calculation of the forces acting on each ion in an ensemble (cloud), including Coulomb interactions (space charge), the electric field of the ICR trap electrodes, image charges on the trap electrodes, the magnetic field, and collisions with neutral gas molecules. It has been shown recently that ion cloud collective behavior is required to generate an FT-ICR signal and that two main phenomena influence mass resolution and dynamic range. The first is formation of an ellipsoidal ion cloud (termed "condensation") at a critical ion number (density), which facilitates signal generation in an FT-ICR cell of arbitrary geometry because the condensed cloud behaves as a quasi-ion. The second phenomenon is peak coalescence. Ion resonances that are closely spaced in m/z coalesce into one resonance if the ion number (density) exceeds a threshold that depends on magnetic field strength, ion cyclotron radius, ion masses and mass difference, and ion initial spatial distribution. These two phenomena decrease dynamic range by rapid cloud dephasing at small ion density and by cloud coalescence at high ion density. Here, we use PIC simulations to quantitate the dependence of coalescence on each critical parameter. Transitions between independent and coalesced motion were observed in a series of the experiments that systematically varied ion number, magnetic field strength, ion radius, ion m/z, ion m/z difference, and ion initial spatial distribution (the present simulations begin from elliptically-shaped ion clouds with constant ion density distribution). Our simulations show that mass resolution is constant at a given magnetic field strength with increasing ion number until a critical value (N) is reached. N dependence on magnetic field strength, cyclotron radius, ion mass, and difference between ion masses was determined for two ion ensembles of different m/z, equal abundance, and equal cyclotron radius. We find that N and dynamic range depend quadratically on magnetic field strength in the range 1-21 Tesla. Dependences on cyclotron radius and ?m/z are linear. N depends on m/z as (m/z)(-2). Empirical expressions for mass resolution as a function of each of the experimental parameters are presented. Here, we provide the first exposition of the origin and extent of trade-off between FT-ICR MS dynamic range and mass resolution (defined not as line width, but as the separation between the most closely resolved masses). PMID:22033889

  4. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Resolution and Dynamic Range Limits Calculated by Computer Modeling of Ion Cloud Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Blakney, Greg T.; Marshall, Alan G.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.

    2012-02-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) ion trajectory calculations provide the most realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) experiments by efficient and accurate calculation of the forces acting on each ion in an ensemble (cloud), including Coulomb interactions (space charge), the electric field of the ICR trap electrodes, image charges on the trap electrodes, the magnetic field, and collisions with neutral gas molecules. It has been shown recently that ion cloud collective behavior is required to generate an FT-ICR signal and that two main phenomena influence mass resolution and dynamic range. The first is formation of an ellipsoidal ion cloud (termed "condensation") at a critical ion number (density), which facilitates signal generation in an FT-ICR cell of arbitrary geometry because the condensed cloud behaves as a quasi-ion. The second phenomenon is peak coalescence. Ion resonances that are closely spaced in m/z coalesce into one resonance if the ion number (density) exceeds a threshold that depends on magnetic field strength, ion cyclotron radius, ion masses and mass difference, and ion initial spatial distribution. These two phenomena decrease dynamic range by rapid cloud dephasing at small ion density and by cloud coalescence at high ion density. Here, we use PIC simulations to quantitate the dependence of coalescence on each critical parameter. Transitions between independent and coalesced motion were observed in a series of the experiments that systematically varied ion number, magnetic field strength, ion radius, ion m/z, ion m/z difference, and ion initial spatial distribution (the present simulations begin from elliptically-shaped ion clouds with constant ion density distribution). Our simulations show that mass resolution is constant at a given magnetic field strength with increasing ion number until a critical value (N) is reached. N dependence on magnetic field strength, cyclotron radius, ion mass, and difference between ion masses was determined for two ion ensembles of different m/z, equal abundance, and equal cyclotron radius. We find that N and dynamic range depend quadratically on magnetic field strength in the range 1-21 Tesla. Dependences on cyclotron radius and Δ m/z are linear. N depends on m/z as ( m/z)-2. Empirical expressions for mass resolution as a function of each of the experimental parameters are presented. Here, we provide the first exposition of the origin and extent of trade-off between FT-ICR MS dynamic range and mass resolution (defined not as line width, but as the separation between the most closely resolved masses).

  5. Vertical air motions over the Tropical Western Pacific for validating cloud resolving and regional models

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christopher R.

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this project was to estimate the vertical air motion using Doppler velocity spectra from two side-by-side vertically pointing radars. The retrieval technique was applied to two different sets of radars. This first set was 50- and 920-MHz vertically pointing radars near Darwin, Australia. The second set was 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz vertically pointing radars deployed at SGP for MC3E. The retrieval technique uses the longer wavelength radar (50 or 449 MHz) to observe both the vertical air motion and precipitation motion while the shorter wavelength radar (920 MHz or 2.8 GHz) observes just the precipitation motion. By analyzing their Doppler velocity spectra, the precipitation signal in the 920 MHz or 2.8 GHz radar is used to mask-out the precipitation signal in the 50 or 449 MHz radar spectra, leaving just the vertical air motion signal.

  6. On the orbital motion of cold clouds in broad-line regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2015-08-01

    We study the orbit of a pressure-confined cloud in the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei when the combined effects of the central gravity and anisotropic radiation pressure and the drag force are considered. The physical properties of the intercloud gas, such as its pressure and dynamic viscosity, are defined as power-law functions of the radial distance. For a drag force proportional to the relative velocity of a cloud and the background gas, a detailed analysis of the orbits is performed for different values of the input parameters. We also present analytical solutions for when the intercloud pressure is uniform and the viscosity is proportional to the inverse square of the radial distance. Our analytical and numerical solutions demonstrate decay of the orbits due to the drag force, so that a cloud will eventually fall on to the central region after the so-called time-of-flight. We found that the time-of-flight of a BLR cloud is proportional to the inverse of the dimensionless drag coefficient. If the time-of-flight becomes shorter than the lifetime of the whole system, then mechanisms for continually forming BLR clouds are needed.

  7. The VMC survey. XVII. Proper motions of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Bekki, Kenji; Girardi, Léo; de Grijs, Richard; Irwin, Mike J.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Marconi, Marcella; Oliveira, Joana M.; Piatti, Andrés E.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: In this study we use multi-epoch near-infrared observations from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Cloud system (VMC) to measure the proper motions of different stellar populations in a tile of 1.5 deg2 in size in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc. We obtain the proper motion of the cluster itself, of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and of the field Milky Way stars. Methods: Stars of the three main stellar components are selected according to their spatial distributions and their distributions in colour-magnitude diagrams. Their average coordinate displacement is computed from the difference between multiple Ks-band observations for stars as faint as Ks = 19 mag. Proper motions are derived from the slope of the best-fitting line among ten VMC epochs over a time baseline of ~1 yr. Background galaxies are used to calibrate the absolute astrometric reference frame. Results: The resulting absolute proper motion of 47 Tuc is (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+7.26 ± 0.03, -1.25 ± 0.03) mas yr-1. This measurement refers to about 35 000 sources distributed between 10' and 60' from the cluster centre. For the SMC we obtain (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+1.16 ± 0.07, -0.81 ± 0.07) mas yr-1 from about 5250 red clump and red giant branch stars. The absolute proper motion of the Milky Way population in the line of sight (l = 305.9, b = -44.9) of this VISTA tile is (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+10.22 ± 0.14, -1.27 ± 0.12) mas yr-1 and has been calculated from about 4000 sources. Systematic uncertainties associated with the astrometric reference system are 0.18 mas yr-1. Thanks to the proper motion we detect 47 Tuc stars beyond its tidal radius. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  8. THE M31 VELOCITY VECTOR. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Anderson, Jay; Van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2012-07-01

    We present the first proper-motion (PM) measurements for the galaxy M31. We obtained new V-band imaging data with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and the WFC3/UVIS instruments of three fields: a spheroid field near the minor axis, an outer disk field along the major axis, and a field on the Giant Southern Stream. The data provide five to seven year time baselines with respect to pre-existing deep first-epoch observations of the same fields. We measure the positions of thousands of M31 stars and hundreds of compact background galaxies in each field. High accuracy and robustness is achieved by building and fitting a unique template for each individual object. The average PM for each field is obtained from the average motion of the M31 stars between the epochs with respect to the background galaxies. For the three fields, the observed PMs ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) are, in units of mas yr{sup -1}, (- 0.0458, -0.0376) {+-} (0.0165, 0.0154), (- 0.0533, -0.0104) {+-} (0.0246, 0.0244), and (- 0.0179, -0.0357) {+-} (0.0278, 0.0272), respectively. The ability to average over large numbers of objects and over the three fields yields a final displacement accuracy of a few thousandths of a pixel, corresponding to only 12 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. This is comparable to what has been achieved for other Local Group galaxies using Very Long Baseline Array observations of water masers. Potential systematic errors are controlled by an analysis strategy that corrects for detector charge transfer inefficiency, spatially and time-dependent geometric distortion, and point-spread function variations. The robustness of the PM measurements and uncertainties are supported by the fact that data from different instruments, taken at different times and with different telescope orientations, as well as measurements of different fields, all yield statistically consistent results. Papers II and III of this series explore the implications of the new measurements for our understanding of the history, future, and mass of the Local Group.

  9. Third-epoch Magellanic Cloud proper motions. II. The large Magellanic Cloud rotation field in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detailed assessment of the large-scale rotation of any galaxy based on full three-dimensional velocity measurements. We do this for the LMC by combining our Hubble Space Telescope average proper motion (PM) measurements for stars in 22 fields, with existing line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements for 6790 individual stars. We interpret these data with a model of circular rotation in a flat disk. The PM and LOS data paint a consistent picture of the LMC rotation, and their combination yields several new insights. The PM data imply a stellar dynamical center that coincides with the H I dynamical center, and a rotation curve amplitude consistent with that inferred from LOS velocity studies. The implied disk viewing angles agree with the range of values found in the literature, but continue to indicate variations with stellar population and/or radius. Young (red supergiant) stars rotate faster than old (red and asymptotic giant branch) stars due to asymmetric drift. Outside the central region, the circular velocity is approximately flat at V {sub circ} = 91.7 ± 18.8 km s{sup –1}. This is consistent with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and implies an enclosed mass M(8.7 kpc) = (1.7 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. The virial mass is larger, depending on the full extent of the LMC's dark halo. The tidal radius is 22.3 ± 5.2 kpc (24.°0 ± 5.°6). Combination of the PM and LOS data yields kinematic distance estimates for the LMC, but these are not yet competitive with other methods.

  10. Jupiter cloud composition, stratification, convection, and wave motion: a view from new horizons.

    PubMed

    Reuter, D C; Simon-Miller, A A; Lunsford, A; Baines, K H; Cheng, A F; Jennings, D E; Olkin, C B; Spencer, J R; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Young, L A

    2007-10-12

    Several observations of Jupiter's atmosphere made by instruments on the New Horizons spacecraft have implications for the stability and dynamics of Jupiter's weather layer. Mesoscale waves, first seen by Voyager, have been observed at a spatial resolution of 11 to 45 kilometers. These waves have a 300-kilometer wavelength and phase velocities greater than the local zonal flow by 100 meters per second, much higher than predicted by models. Additionally, infrared spectral measurements over five successive Jupiter rotations at spatial resolutions of 200 to 140 kilometers have shown the development of transient ammonia ice clouds (lifetimes of 40 hours or less) in regions of strong atmospheric upwelling. Both of these phenomena serve as probes of atmospheric dynamics below the visible cloud tops. PMID:17932284

  11. Global Cloud Organization and Motions on Venus from the Venus Monitoring Camera on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S.; Krauss, R. J.; Santek, D.; Markiewich, W.

    2011-10-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera on Venus Express [1] has been collecting images of Venus from almost every orbit since operations began in June 2006. Five years of observations in four different filters reveal a dynamic global atmosphere but with the same basic vortex organization that changes on a time scale of days and months. Latitudinally averaged profiles of the large scale cloud features in the ultraviolet images show variations with time consistent with the changes seen in the vortex structure.

  12. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine

  13. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  14. Apsidal motions of 90 eccentric binary systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Chung-UK

    2016-04-01

    We examined light curves of 1138 stars brighter than 18.0 mag in the I band and less than a mean magnitude error of 0.1 mag in the V band from the OGLE-III eclipsing binary catalogue, and found 90 new binary systems exhibiting apsidal motion. In this study, the samples of apsidal motion stars in the SMC were increased by a factor of about 3.0 than previously known. In order to determine the period of the apsidal motion for the binaries, we analysed in detail both the light curves and eclipse timings using the MACHO and OGLE photometric database. For the eclipse timing diagrams of the systems, new times of minimum light were derived from the full light curve combined at intervals of one year from the survey data. The new 90 binaries have apsidal motion periods in the range of 12-897 years. An additional short-term oscillation was detected in four systems (OGLE-SMC-ECL-1634, 1947, 3035, and 4946), which most likely arises from the existence of a third body orbiting each eclipsing binary. Since the systems presented here are based on homogeneous data and have been analysed in the same way, they are suitable for further statistical analysis.

  15. Cloud pattern prediction from geostationary meteorological satellite images for solar energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, S.; Sébastien, N.; Liandrat, O.; Schmutz, N.

    2014-10-01

    Surface solar radiation forecasting permits to predict photovoltaic plant production for a massive and safe integration of solar energy into the electric network. For short-term forecasts (intra-day), methods using images from meteorological geostationary satellites are more suitable than numerical weather prediction models. Forecast schemes consist in assessing cloud motion vectors and in extrapolating cloud patterns from a given satellite image in order to predict cloud cover state above a PV plant. Atmospheric motion vectors retrieval techniques have been studied for several decades in order to improve weather forecasts. However, solar energy forecasting requires the extraction of cloud motion vectors on a finer spatial- and time-resolution than those provided for weather forecast applications. Even if motion vector retrieval is a wide research field in image processing related topics, only block-matching techniques are operationally used for solar energy forecasts via satellite images. In this paper, we propose two motion vectors extraction methods originating from video compression techniques (correlation phase and optical flow methods). We implemented them on a 6-day dataset of Meteosat-10 satellite diurnal images. We proceeded to cloud pattern extrapolation and compared predicted cloud maps against actual ones at different time horizons from 15 minutes to 4 hours ahead. Forecast scores were compared to the state-of-the-art (block matching) method. Correlation phase methods do not outperform block-matching but their computation time is about 25 times shorter. Optical flow based method outperforms all the methods with a satisfactory time computing.

  16. ULTRAVIOLET INDUCED MOTION OF A FLUORESCENT DUST CLOUD IN AN ARGON DIRECT CURRENT GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Hvasta, M.G.; and Zwicker, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of electrons, ions, neutrals and nm-μm sized particles commonly referred to as dust. In man-made plasmas this dust may represent impurities in a tokamak or plasma etching processing. In astrophysical plasmas this dust forms structures such as planetary rings and comet tails. To study dusty plasma dynamics an experiment was designed in which a 3:1 silica (<5 μm diameter) and fl uorescent dust mixture was added to an argon DC glow discharge plasma and exposed to UV radiation. This fl uorescent lighting technique offers an advantage over laser scattering (which only allows two-dimensional slices of the cloud to be observed) and is simpler than scanning mirror techniques or particle image velocimetry. Under typical parameters (P=150 mTorr, V anode= 100 V, Vcathode= -400 V, Itotal < 2mA) when the cloud is exposed to the UV light (100W, λ = 365 nm) the mixture fl uoresces, moves ~2mm towards the light source and begins rotating in a clockwise manner (as seen from the cathode). By calibrating a UV lamp and adjusting the relative intensity of the UV with a variable transformer it was found that both translational and rotational velocities are a function of UV intensity. Additionally, it was determined that bulk cloud rotation is not seen when the dust tray is not grounded while bulk translation is. This ongoing experiment represents a novel way to control contamination in man-made plasmas and a path to a better understanding of UV-bathed plasma systems in space..

  17. Investigation of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieman, Steve; Velden, Chris; Hayden, Kit; Menzel, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Work has been primarily focussed on three tasks: (1) comparison of wind fields produced at MSFC with the CO2 autowind/autoeditor system newly installed in NESDIS operations; (2) evaluation of techniques for improved tracer selection through use of cloud classification predictors; and (3) development of height assignment algorithm with water vapor channel radiances. The contract goal is to improve the CIMSS wind system by developing new techniques and assimilating better existing techniques. The work reported here was done in collaboration with the NESDIS scientists working on the operational winds software, so that NASA funded research can benefit NESDIS operational algorithms.

  18. The motion and distribution of the vibrationally excited H2 in the Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeau, D.; Neugebauer, G.; Geballe, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the v=1-0 S(1) and S(0), and v=2-1 S(1) emission lines of H2 in the Orion molecular cloud are presented, showing that the emission region has an approximately circular symmetry, which may be divided into a central and a peripheral region. The emission lines in the central region have a large range of velocities, and predominantly occur at the negative velocities of 0 to -100 km/sec, while those at the periphery are symmetric. The brightness of the peak emission is generally higher at positions in the periphery than in the central region. These results lead to a model of H2 line emission in which there is gas undergoing radial expansion at velocities of up to about 100 km/sec within a region of some 2.5 x 10 to the 17th cm in diameter around the cluster of IR sources. A substantial part of the H2 line emission comes from the outside boundary of this expansion region, where the flow collides with the gas in the molecular cloud.

  19. Preliminary results of fluid dynamic model calculation of convective motion induced by solar heating at the Venus cloud top level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro

    The thick cloud layer of Venus reflects solar radiation effectively, resulting in a Bond albedo of 76% (Moroz et al., 1985). Most of the incoming solar flux is absorbed in the upper cloud layer at 60-70 km altitude. An unknown UV absorber is a major sink of the solar energy at the cloud top level. It produces about 40-60% of the total solar heating near the cloud tops, depending on its vertical structure (Crisp et al., 1986; Lee et al., in preparation). UV images of Venus show a clear difference in morphology between laminar flow shaped clouds on the morning side and convective-like cells on the afternoon side of the planet in the equatorial region (Titov et al., 2012). This difference is probably related to strong solar heating at the cloud tops at the sub-solar point, rather than the influence from deeper level convection in the low and middle cloud layers (Imamura et al., 2014). Also, small difference in cloud top structures may trigger horizontal convection at this altitude, because various cloud top structures can significantly alter the solar heating and thermal cooling rates at the cloud tops (Lee et al., in preparation). Performing radiative forcing calculations for various cloud top structures using a radiative transfer model (SHDOM), we investigate the effect of solar heating at the cloud tops on atmospheric dynamics. We use CReSS (Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator), and consider the altitude range from 35 km to 90 km, covering a full cloud deck.

  20. Aerosol-cloud interactions in ship tracks using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Christensen, Matthew W.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds for different cloud types and environmental conditions. By taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of the cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were utilized. Under open cell cloud structure the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+38%), cloud top height (+13%), and cloud albedo (+49%) for open cell clouds, whereas for closed cell clouds, little change in cloud properties was observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed was used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from the identified plume segments to reduce random noise, we found evidence of cloud top divergence in the ship-polluted clouds, whereas the nearby unpolluted clouds showed cloud top convergence, providing observational evidence of a change in local mesoscale circulation associated with enhanced aerosols. Furthermore, open cell polluted clouds revealed stronger cloud top divergence as compared to closed cell clouds, consistent with different dynamical mechanisms driving their responses. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling studies to reduce uncertainties in calculations of aerosol indirect forcing.

  1. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  2. Influence of the cosmological constant on the motion of Magellanic Clouds in the gravitational field of Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.cz

    2011-09-01

    Using the pseudo-Newtonian (PN) potential reflecting properties of the Schwarz-schild-de Sitter spacetime, we estimate the influence of the repulsive cosmological constant Λ ∼ 1.3 × 10{sup −56}cm{sup −2} implied by recent cosmological tests onto the motion of both Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) in the gravitational field of the Milky Way. Considering detailed modelling of the gravitational field of the Galaxy disc, bulge and cold dark matter halo, the trajectories of SMC and LMC constructed for the PN potential with the cosmological constant are confronted to those given for Λ = 0. In the realistic model of the extended cold dark matter halo its edge and related total mass are taken at typical values reflecting recent diversity in the total Galaxy mass estimates. In all cases, strong influence of the cosmological constant, on 10% level or higher, has been found for motion of both SMC and LMC. Inside the halo, the Newtonian part of the PN potential is exact enough, while outside the halo the PN potential can give relevant relativistic corrections. The role of the cosmological constant is most conspicuous when binding mass is estimated for the satellite galaxies. We have found a strong influence of cosmic repulsion on the total binding mass for both galaxies. For SMC there is the binding mass M{sub SMC}{sup Λ=0} = 7.07 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⨀} and M{sub SMC}{sup Λ>0} = 8.61 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⨀}, while even much higher increase is found for LMC, where M{sub LMC}{sup Λ=0} = 1.50 × 10{sup 12}M{sub ⨀} and M{sub LMC}{sup Λ} {sup >0} = 2.21 × 10{sup 12}M{sub ⨀}, putting serious doubts on the possibility that the LMC is bounded by the Milky Way. However, the estimates of binding masses are strongly influenced by initial velocity of SMC and LMC; we took the values inferred for the IAU MW rotation velocity ∼ 220 km/s. Our results indicate very important role of the cosmic repulsion in the motion of interacting galaxies, clearly demonstrated in the case of the satellite SMC and LMC galaxies moving in the field of Milky Way. In some cases, the effect of the cosmic repulsion can be even comparable to the effects of the dynamical friction and the Andromeda Galaxy.

  3. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Ship Tracks Using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Christensen, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Nelson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds under different cloud types and environmental conditions. Taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations uniquely available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine the cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were applied. Under open cell cloud structure, the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+27%), cloud top height (+11%), and cloud albedo (+40%) for open cell clouds, whereas under closed cell clouds, little changes in cloud properties were observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed has been used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from many plume segments to reduce random noise, we have found that in ship-polluted clouds there is stronger cloud top divergence, and in nearby unpolluted clouds, convergence occurs and leads to downdrafts, providing observational evidence for cloud top entrainment feedback. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling studies to reduce uncertainties of aerosol indirect forcing. Reference: Chen, Y.-C. et al. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8223-8235, doi:10.5194/acp-12-8223-2012, 2012.

  4. Nowcasting of cloud cover with MSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirch, Tobias; Bugliaro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    In this poster, an algorithm is shown to detect water and ice clouds seperately and forecast their developement for the next timesteps. It is based on Meteosat SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) data from almost all channels with a timestep of 15 minutes. In order to derive cloud cover, optical depth and height of ice clouds the "Cirrus Optical properties derived from CALIOP and SEVIRI during day and night" (COCS) algorithm (Kox 2012) was used. For the determination of water clouds a cloud mask was developed. For a most accurate forecast the detected clouds are divided into two groups, convective and advective, and afterwards treated seperately. The forecast of advective clouds basically takes place with the pyramidal matcher ("optical flow" technique, Zinner et al. 2008) by determining a motion vector field from two consecutive images. The clouds are then classified as objects with similar properties (optical depth, temperature) and a forecast for each object separately is then performed. For the detection of convective clouds the tracking and nowcasting algorithm Cb-TRAM (CumulonimBus TRacking And Monitoring, Zinner et al. 2008) is used, which divides convection into three stages. The further development und thus the forecast of these clouds is dependent of the current stage. Appications to selected case studies will be shown.

  5. Investigating Plasma Motion of Magnetic Clouds at 1 AU through a Velocity-modified Cylindrical Force-free Flux Rope Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Due to the very low value of Can't connect to bucket.int.confex.com:4201 (Connection refused) LWP::Protocol::http::Socket: connect: Connection refused at /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/LWP/Protocol/http.pm line 51. in MCs, they are believed to be in a nearly force-free state and therefore are able to be modeled by a cylindrical force-free flux rope. However, the force-free state only describes the magnetic field topology but not the plasma motion of a MC. For a MC propagating in interplanetary space, the global plasma motion has three possible components: linear propagating motion of a MC away from the Sun, expanding motion and circular motion with respect to the axis of the MC. By assuming the quasi-steady evolution and self-similar expansion, we introduced the three-component motion into the cylindrical force-free flux rope model, and developed a velocity-modified model. Then we applied the model to 73 MCs observed by Wind spacecraft to investigate the properties of the plasma motion of MCs. It is found that (1) some MCs did not propagate along the Sun-Earth line, suggesting the direct evidence of the CME's deflected propagation and/or rotation in interplanetary space, (2) the expansion speed is correlated with the radial propagation speed and 62%/17% of MCs underwent a under/over-expansion at 1 AU, and (3) the circular motion does exists though it is only on the order of 10 km s-1. These findings advance our understanding of the MC's properties at 1 AU as well as the dynamic evolution of CMEs from the Sun to interplanetary space.

  6. Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The research objectives in this proposal were part of a continuing program at UW-CIMSS to develop and refine an automated geostationary satellite winds processing system which can be utilized in both research and operational environments. The majority of the originally proposed tasks were successfully accomplished, and in some cases the progress exceeded the original goals. Much of the research and development supported by this grant resulted in upgrades and modifications to the existing automated satellite winds tracking algorithm. These modifications were put to the test through case study demonstrations and numerical model impact studies. After being successfully demonstrated, the modifications and upgrades were implemented into the NESDIS algorithms in Washington DC, and have become part of the operational support. A major focus of the research supported under this grant attended to the continued development of water vapor tracked winds from geostationary observations. The fully automated UW-CIMSS tracking algorithm has been tuned to provide complete upper-tropospheric coverage from this data source, with data set quality close to that of operational cloud motion winds. Multispectral water vapor observations were collected and processed from several different geostationary satellites. The tracking and quality control algorithms were tuned and refined based on ground-truth comparisons and case studies involving impact on numerical model analyses and forecasts. The results have shown the water vapor motion winds are of good quality, complement the cloud motion wind data, and can have a positive impact in NWP on many meteorological scales.

  7. Automatic generation of time resolved motion vector fields of coronary arteries and 4D surface extraction using rotational x-ray angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandt, Uwe; Schfer, Dirk; Grass, Michael; Rasche, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Rotational coronary angiography provides a multitude of x-ray projections of the contrast agent enhanced coronary arteries along a given trajectory with parallel ECG recording. These data can be used to derive motion information of the coronary arteries including vessel displacement and pulsation. In this paper, a fully automated algorithm to generate 4D motion vector fields for coronary arteries from multi-phase 3D centerline data is presented. The algorithm computes similarity measures of centerline segments at different cardiac phases and defines corresponding centerline segments as those with highest similarity. In order to achieve an excellent matching accuracy, an increasing number of bifurcations is included as reference points in an iterative manner. Based on the motion data, time-dependent vessel surface extraction is performed on the projections without the need of prior reconstruction. The algorithm accuracy is evaluated quantitatively on phantom data. The magnitude of longitudinal errors (parallel to the centerline) reaches approx. 0.50 mm and is thus more than twice as large as the transversal 3D extraction errors of the underlying multi-phase 3D centerline data. It is shown that the algorithm can extract asymmetric stenoses accurately. The feasibility on clinical data is demonstrated on five different cases. The ability of the algorithm to extract time-dependent surface data, e.g. for quantification of pulsating stenosis is demonstrated.

  8. Developing a Standardized Testing Procedure for Cloud Tracking Wind Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Barbara, J. M.; Bourque, B.; Choi, D. S.; De Pater, I.; Del Genio, A. D.; Ewald, S.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Heavens, N. G.; Hueso, R.; Imamura, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Kouyama, T.; Liu, T.; Marcus, P. S.; Mitchell, J.; Ogohara, K.; Read, P. L.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Sussman, M.; Takagi, M.; Wong, M. H.; Young, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of our effort to develop a standardized benchmark test for cloud tracking wind measurement methods. Various algorithms have been developed over the years to measure wind speeds in planetary atmospheres through Earth- and space- based remote sensing. However, unlike satellite-based cloud-tracking measurements of Earth, these planetary measurements cannot easily be validated against in-situ data, which makes the interpretation difficult when different cloud-tracking schemes do not agree on their results. To address the issue of data validation, we run multiple automated cloud-tracking algorithms independently developed at multiple institutions on synthetic wind data generated using a General Circulation Model. Our simulations calculate the advection of tracer distributions to represent cloud motions as done by Sayanagi and Showman (2007, Icarus 187, p520-539). The motions of tracers are measured using cloud-tracking software to derive wind vector fields, which will be compared against the model "truth." In our synthetic wind/cloud fields, the tempo-spatial scales of the winds and clouds are separately controlled so that the robustness of cloud tracking tools can be assessed against various conditions. Our setup enables measuring the performance of cloud-tracking software using two metrics. The first metric is the ratio between characteristic length scale of cloud morphology Lcloud and the size of smallest eddies successfully resolved by a cloud-tracking method LLeddy, λ = Lcloud/L_{Leddy}. The second performance metric is the ratio between the temporal interval between image acquisitions Timaging and the characteristic lifetime of clouds Tcloud, τ = Timaging/T_cloud. These metrics are designed to compare the abilities of tracking algorithms to resolve cloud motions against the absolute theoretical limit; note that both metrics have the maximum value of 1.0 as cloud tracking methods cannot resolve features that change in less than the temporal and spatial scales of the clouds. Our study is supported by a grant from the NSF Planetary Astronomy program.

  9. Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    The thrust of the proposed effort under this contract is aimed at improving techniques to track water vapor data in sequences of imagery from geostationary satellites. In regards to this task, significant testing, evaluation, and progress was accomplished during this period. Sets of winds derived from Meteosat data were routinely produced during Atlantic hurricane events in the 1993 season. These wind sets were delivered via Internet in real time to the Hurricane Research Division in Miami for their evaluation in a track forecast model. For eighteen cases in which 72-hour forecasts were produced, thirteen resulted in track forecast improvements (some quite significant). In addition, quality-controlled Meteosat water vapor winds produced by NESDIS were validated against rawinsondes, yielding an 8 m/s RMS. This figure is comparable to upper-level cloud drift wind accuracies. Given the complementary horizontal coverage in cloud-free areas, we believe that water vapor vectors can supplement cloud-drift wind information to provide good full-disk coverage of the upper tropospheric flow. The impact of these winds on numerical analysis and forecasts will be tested in the next reporting period.

  10. Investigation of the observability of the initial conditions of the motion of artificial earth satellites according to the direction of the satellite-centric vectors in an inertial coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedova, T. K.

    The paper examines criteria of nonlinear-system observability in the case when the satellite motion is described by finite relationships of the two-body problem. The use of these criteria makes it possible to clarify the possibility of the complete or partial determination of the satellite motion parameters using different types of measurements under different flight conditions. In particular, attention is given to the feasibility of the partial determination of the initial conditions of satellite motion according to the directions of the satellite-centric vectors.

  11. Low Cloud Type over the Ocean from Surface Observations. Part III: Relationship to Vertical Motion and the Regional Surface Synoptic Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Composite large-scale dynamical fields contemporaneous with low cloud types observed at midlatitude Ocean Weather Station (OWS) C and eastern subtropical OWS N are used to establish representative relationships between low cloud type and the synoptic environment. The composites are constructed by averaging meteorological observations of surface wind and sea level pressure from volunteering observing ships (VOS) and analyses of sea level pressure, 1000-mb wind, and 700-mb pressure vertical velocity from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis project on those dates and times of day when a particular low cloud type was reported at the OWS.VOS and NCEP results for OWS C during summer show that bad-weather stratus occurs with strong convergence and ascent slightly ahead of a surface low center and trough. Cumulus-under-stratocumulus and moderate and large cumulus occur with divergence and subsidence in the cold sector of an extratropical cyclone. Both sky-obscuring fog and no-low-cloud typically occur with southwesterly flow from regions of warmer sea surface temperature and differ primarily according to slight surface convergence and stronger warm advection in the case of sky-obscuring fog or surface divergence and weaker warm advection in the case of no-low-cloud. Fair-weather stratus and ordinary stratocumulus are associated with a mixture of meteorological conditions, but differ with respect to vertical motion in the environment. Fair-weather stratus occurs most commonly in the presence of slight convergence and ascent, while stratocumulus often occurs in the presence of divergence and subsidence.Surface divergence and estimated subsidence at the top of the boundary layer are calculated from VOS observations. At both OWS C and OWS N during summer and winter these values are large for ordinary stratocumulus, less for cumulus-under-stratocumulus, and least (and sometimes slightly negative) for moderate and large cumulus. Subsidence interpolated from NCEP analyses to the top of the boundary layer does not exhibit such variation, but the discrepancy may be due to deficiencies in the analysis procedure or the boundary layer parameterization of the NCEP model. The VOS results suggest that decreasing divergence and subsidence in addition to increasing sea surface temperature may promote the transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus observed over low-latitude oceans.

  12. Impact of assimilation of INSAT-3D retrieved atmospheric motion vectors on short-range forecast of summer monsoon 2014 over the South Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Deb, Sanjib K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system are used in this study to assimilate the INSAT-3D, a recently launched Indian geostationary meteorological satellite derived from atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) over the South Asian region during peak Indian summer monsoon month (i.e., July 2014). A total of four experiments were performed daily with and without assimilation of INSAT-3D-derived AMVs and the other AMVs available through Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for the entire month of July 2014. Before assimilating these newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs in the numerical model, a preliminary evaluation of these AMVs is performed with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final model analyses. The preliminary validation results show that root-mean-square vector difference (RMSVD) for INSAT-3D AMVs is ˜3.95, 6.66, and 5.65 ms-1 at low, mid, and high levels, respectively, and slightly more RMSVDs are noticed in GTS AMVs (˜4.0, 8.01, and 6.43 ms-1 at low, mid, and high levels, respectively). The assimilation of AMVs has improved the WRF model of produced wind speed, temperature, and moisture analyses as well as subsequent model forecasts over the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Australia, and South Africa. Slightly more improvements are noticed in the experiment where only the INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated compared to the experiment where only GTS AMVs are assimilated. The results also show improvement in rainfall predictions over the Indian region after AMV assimilation. Overall, the assimilation of INSAT-3D AMVs improved the WRF model short-range predictions over the South Asian region as compared to control experiments.

  13. Cloud Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.

  14. On the accuracy of approximation of motion of a small celestial body by intermediate perturbed orbits calculated on the basis of three position vectors and three observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.; Shefer, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    Intermediate perturbed orbits, which were proposed earlier by the first author and are calculated based on three position vectors and three measurements of angular coordinates of a small celestial body, are examined. Provided that the reference time interval encompassing the measurements is short, these orbits are close in the accuracy of approximation of actual motion to an orbit with fourth-order tangency. The shorter the reference time interval is, the better is the approximation. The laws of variation of the errors of methods for constructing such intermediate orbits with the length of the reference time interval are formulated. According to these laws, the rate of convergence of the methods to an exact solution in the process of shortening of the reference time interval is, in general, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional methods relying on an unperturbed Keplerian orbit. The considered orbits are among the most accurate of their class that is defined by the order of tangency. The obtained theoretical results are verified by numerical experiments on determining the orbit of 99942 Apophis.

  15. Climatology of Vertical Air Motion During Rainfall in Niamey, Niger and Black Forest, Germany using an Innovative Cloud Radar Retrieval Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, E. P.; Giangrande, S. E.; Kollias, P.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has deployed its ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to collect continuous measurements in several climatologically distinct locations, including a year-long stay in Niamey, Niger and eight months in Germany's Black Forest. The AMF includes a vertically pointing 95 GHz cloud radar, a tool of choice for profiling non-precipitating clouds at high spatial and temporal resolutions, but commonly considered poorly suited to the quantitative study of precipitation, due in large part to attenuation. However, an innovative technique first explored by Lhermitte in the late 1980s, and subsequently by others, sidesteps much of the quantitative uncertainty imposed by attenuation by exploiting non-Rayleigh resonance effects of scattering from raindrops at 95 GHz. Given a modest range of suitable drop sizes, non-Rayleigh resonances appear as distinct peaks and valleys in Doppler spectra, which once identified, can be directly mapped to known drop sizes by Mie theory. Although attenuation in rain at 95 GHz is substantial, key to the technique is that all non-Rayleigh peaks and valleys in a given Doppler spectrum are affected equally, preserving their relative positions and magnitudes (barring feature extinction). Vertical air motion is retrieved very accurately by taking the difference between the measured Doppler velocity of a resonance feature (usually the first valley) and the known terminal velocity of its associated drop size. We have achieved promising retrieval accuracies at spatial and temporal resolutions of 30 meters and 2 seconds. Here we present lessons learned when the retrieval technique is automated and applied to measurements taken in rain over the full durations of the Niamey and Black Forest AMF deployments, comparing vertical air velocity patterns of monsoonal precipitation over the African desert with those of the orographically influenced precipitation in Germany's mountains.

  16. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  17. Automatic cloud tracking applied to GOES and Meteosat observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    An improved automatic processing method for the tracking of cloud motions as revealed by satellite imagery is presented and applications of the method to GOES observations of Hurricane Eloise and Meteosat water vapor and infrared data are presented. The method is shown to involve steps of picture smoothing, target selection and the calculation of cloud motion vectors by the matching of a group at a given time with its best likeness at a later time, or by a cross-correlation computation. Cloud motion computations can be made in as many as four separate layers simultaneously. For data of 4 and 8 km resolution in the eye of Hurricane Eloise, the automatic system is found to provide results comparable in accuracy and coverage to those obtained by NASA analysts using the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System, with results obtained by the pattern recognition and cross correlation computations differing by only fractions of a pixel. For Meteosat water vapor data from the tropics and midlatitudes, the automatic motion computations are found to be reliable only in areas where the water vapor fields contained small-scale structure, although excellent results are obtained using Meteosat IR data in the same regions. The automatic method thus appears to be competitive in accuracy and coverage with motion determination by human analysts.

  18. Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

  19. Mesoscale cloud phenomena observed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Examples of certain mesoscale cloud features - jet cirrus, eddies/vortices, cloud banding, and wave clouds - were collected from LANDSAT imagery and placed into Mason's four groups of causes of cloud formation based on the mechanism of vertical motion which produces condensation. These groups are as follows: (1) layer clouds formed by widespread regular ascent; (2) layer clouds caused by irregular stirring motions; (3) convective clouds; and (4) clouds formed by orographic disturbances. These mechanisms explain general cloud formation. Once formed, other forces may play a role in the deformation of a cloud or cloud mass into unusual and unique meso- and microscale patterns. Each example presented is followed by a brief discussion describing the synoptic situation, and some inference into the formation and occurrence of the more salient features. No major attempt was made to discuss in detail the meteorological and topographic interplay producing these mesoscale features.

  20. On the accuracy of approximation of a small celestial body motion using intermediate perturbed orbits calculated from two position vectors and three observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.; Shefer, O. V.

    2015-01-01

    We examine intermediate perturbed orbits proposed by the first author previously, defined from the two position vectors and three angular coordinates of a small celestial body. It is shown theoretically, that at a small reference time interval covering the measurements the approximation accuracy of real movements by these orbits corresponds approximately to the third order of osculation. The smaller reference interval of time, the better this correspondence. Laws of variation of the methodical errors in constructing intermediate orbits subject to the length of reference time interval are deduced. According to these laws, the convergence rate of the methods to the exact solution (upon reducing the reference interval of time) is higher by two orders of magnitude than in the case of conventional methods using the Keplerian unperturbed orbit. The considered orbits are among the most accurate in set of orbits of their class determined by the order of osculation. The theoretical results are validated by numerical examples.

  1. A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Additional, secondary velocity components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume holding the gas that we identify with the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about - 7.2 km/s with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of an implosive shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  2. Vector Addition and the Speeding Ticket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of vectors and the inadequate and inappropriate examples given in many textbooks. Suggests using the motion of a sailboat or the motion of a car moving on the Earth's surface as possible examples. Details a proper vector teaching example. (MVL)

  3. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled flexible bodies and point masses. [spacecraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of motion for a system of coupled flexible bodies, rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetric wheels were derived. The equations were cast into a partitioned matrix form in which certain partitions became nontrivial when the effects of flexibility were treated. The equations are shown to contract to the coupled rigid body equations or expand to the coupled flexible body equations all within the same basic framework. Furthermore, the coefficient matrix always has the computationally desirable property of symmetry. Making use of the derived equations, a comparison was made between the equations which described a flexible body model and those which described a rigid body model of the same elastic appendage attached to an arbitrary coupled body system. From the comparison, equivalence relations were developed which defined how the two modeling approaches described identical dynamic effects.

  4. Shape of fair weather clouds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2010-03-19

    We introduce a model which accounts for the shape of cumulus clouds exclusively in terms of thermal plumes or thermals. The plumes are explicitly represented by a simple potential flow generated by singularities (sources and sinks) and are thus laminar, but with their motion create a field which supports the cloud. We compare this model with actual clouds by means of various shape descriptors including the fractal dimension, and find agreement. PMID:20366506

  5. Crater Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06085 Crater Clouds

    The crater on the right side of this image is affecting the local wind regime. Note the bright line of clouds streaming off the north rim of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -78.8N, Longitude 320.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

  7. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  8. Optimal Exploitation of the Temporal and Spatial Resolution of SEVIRI for the Nowcasting of Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirch, Tobias; Bugliaro, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Optimal Exploitation of the Temporal and Spatial Resolution of SEVIRI for the Nowcasting of Clouds An algorithm was developed to forecast the development of water and ice clouds for the successive 5-120 minutes separately using satellite data from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to derive cloud cover, optical thickness and cloud top height of high ice clouds "The Cirrus Optical properties derived from CALIOP and SEVIRI during day and night" (COCS, Kox et al. [2014]) algorithm is applied. For the determination of the liquid water clouds the APICS ("Algorithm for the Physical Investigation of Clouds with SEVIRI", Bugliaro e al. [2011]) cloud algorithm is used, which provides cloud cover, optical thickness and effective radius. The forecast rests upon an optical flow method determining a motion vector field from two satellite images [Zinner et al., 2008.] With the aim of determining the ideal time separation of the satellite images that are used for the determination of the cloud motion vector field for every forecast horizon time the potential of the better temporal resolution of the Meteosat Rapid Scan Service (5 instead of 15 minutes repetition rate) has been investigated. Therefore for the period from March to June 2013 forecasts up to 4 hours in time steps of 5 min based on images separated by a time interval of 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min have been created. The results show that Rapid Scan data produces a small reduction of errors for a forecast horizon up to 30 minutes. For the following time steps forecasts generated with a time interval of 15 min should be used and for forecasts up to several hours computations with a time interval of 30 min provide the best results. For a better spatial resolution the HRV channel (High Resolution Visible, 1km instead of 3km maximum spatial resolution at the subsatellite point) has been integrated into the forecast. To detect clouds the difference of the measured albedo from SEVIRI and the clear-sky albedo provided by MODIS has been used and additionally the temporal development of this quantity. A pre-requisite for this work was an adjustment of the geolocation accuracy for MSG and MODIS by shifting the MODIS data and quantifying the correlation between both data sets.

  9. A Comparison of Several Techniques to Assign Heights to Cloud Tracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieman, Steven J.; Schmetz, Johannes; Menzel, W. Paul

    1993-09-01

    Satellite-derived cloud-motion vector (CMV) production has been troubled by inaccurate height assignment of cloud tracers, especially in thin semitransparent clouds. This paper presents the results of an intercomparison of current operational height assignment techniques. Currently, heights are assigned by one of three techniques when the appropriate spectral radiance measurements are available. The infrared window (IRW) technique compares measured brightness temperatures to forecast temperature profiles and thus infers opaque cloud levels. In semitransparent or small subpixel clouds, the carbon dioxide (CO2) technique uses the ratio of radiances from different layers of the atmosphere to infer the correct cloud height. In the water vapor (H2O) technique, radiances influenced by upper-tropospheric moisture and IRW radiances are measured for several pixels viewing different cloud amounts, and their linear relationship is used to extrapolate the correct cloud height. The results presented in this paper suggest that the H2O technique is a viable alternative to the CO2 technique for inferring the heights of semitransparent cloud elements. This is important since future National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) operations will have to rely on H20-derived cloud-height assignments in the wind field determinations with the next operational geostationary satellite. On a given day, the heights from the two approaches compare to within 60 110 hPa rms; drier atmospheric conditions tend to reduce the effectiveness of the H2O technique. By inference one can conclude that the present height algorithms used operationally at NESDIS (with the C02 technique) and at the European Satellite Operations Center (ESOC) (with their version of the H20 technique) are providing similar results. Sample wind fields produced with the ESOC and NESDIS algorithms using Meteosat-4 data show good agreement.

  10. Cloud Spirals and Outflow in Tropical Storm Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On Tuesday, August 30, 2005, NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer retrieved cloud-top heights and cloud-tracked wind velocities for Tropical Storm Katrina, as the center of the storm was situated over the Tennessee valley. At this time Katrina was weakening and no longer classified as a hurricane, and would soon become an extratropical depression. Measurements such as these can help atmospheric scientists compare results of computer-generated hurricane simulations with observed conditions, ultimately allowing them to better represent and understand physical processes occurring in hurricanes.

    Because air currents are influenced by the Coriolis force (caused by the rotation of the Earth), Northern Hemisphere hurricanes are characterized by an inward counterclockwise (cyclonic) rotation towards the center. It is less widely known that, at high altitudes, outward-spreading bands of cloud rotate in a clockwise (anticyclonic) direction. The image on the left shows the retrieved cloud-tracked winds as red arrows superimposed across the natural color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. Both the counter-clockwise motion for the lower-level storm clouds and the clockwise motion for the upper clouds are apparent in these images. The speeds for the clockwise upper level winds have typical values between 40 and 45 m/s (144-162 km/hr). The low level counterclockwise winds have typical values between 7 and 24 m/s (25-86 km/hr), weakening with distance from the storm center. The image on the right displays the cloud-top height retrievals. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. Both the wind velocity vectors and the cloud-top height field were produced by automated computer recognition of displacements in spatial features within successive MISR images acquired at different view angles and at slightly different times.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously, viewing the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude every nine days. This image covers an area of about 380 kilometers by 1970 kilometers. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 30324 and utilize data from blocks 55-68 within World Reference System-2 path 22.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology.

  11. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  12. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  13. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  14. Scanning Backscatter Lidar Observations for Characterizing 4-D Cloud and Aerosol Fields to Improve Radiative Transfer Parameterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.

    2005-01-01

    Clouds have a powerful influence on atmospheric radiative transfer and hence are crucial to understanding and interpreting the exchange of radiation between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and space. Because clouds are highly variable in space, time and physical makeup, it is important to be able to observe them in three dimensions (3-D) with sufficient resolution that the data can be used to generate and validate parameterizations of cloud fields at the resolution scale of global climate models (GCMs). Simulation of photon transport in three dimensionally inhomogeneous cloud fields show that spatial inhomogeneities tend to decrease cloud reflection and absorption and increase direct and diffuse transmission, Therefore it is an important task to characterize cloud spatial structures in three dimensions on the scale of GCM grid elements. In order to validate cloud parameterizations that represent the ensemble, or mean and variance of cloud properties within a GCM grid element, measurements of the parameters must be obtained on a much finer scale so that the statistics on those measurements are truly representative. High spatial sampling resolution is required, on the order of 1 km or less. Since the radiation fields respond almost instantaneously to changes in the cloud field, and clouds changes occur on scales of seconds and less when viewed on scales of approximately 100m, the temporal resolution of cloud properties should be measured and characterized on second time scales. GCM time steps are typically on the order of an hour, but in order to obtain sufficient statistical representations of cloud properties in the parameterizations that are used as model inputs, averaged values of cloud properties should be calculated on time scales on the order of 10-100 s. The Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) provides exceptional temporal (100 ms) and spatial (30 m) resolution measurements of aerosol and cloud backscatter in three dimensions. HARLIE was used in a ground-based configuration in several recent field campaigns. Principal data products include aerosol backscatter profiles, boundary layer heights, entrainment zone thickness, cloud fraction as a function of altitude and horizontal wind vector profiles based on correlating the motions of clouds and aerosol structures across portions of the scan. Comparisons will be made between various cloud detecting instruments to develop a baseline performance metric.

  15. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  16. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  17. Improved automatic estimation of winds at the cloud top of Venus using superposition of cross-correlation surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegawa, Shinichi; Horinouchi, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Accurate wind observation is a key to study atmospheric dynamics. A new automated cloud tracking method for the dayside of Venus is proposed and evaluated by using the ultraviolet images obtained by the Venus Monitoring Camera onboard the Venus Express orbiter. It uses multiple images obtained successively over a few hours. Cross-correlations are computed from the pair combinations of the images and are superposed to identify cloud advection. It is shown that the superposition improves the accuracy of velocity estimation and significantly reduces false pattern matches that cause large errors. Two methods to evaluate the accuracy of each of the obtained cloud motion vectors are proposed. One relies on the confidence bounds of cross-correlation with consideration of anisotropic cloud morphology. The other relies on the comparison of two independent estimations obtained by separating the successive images into two groups. The two evaluations can be combined to screen the results. It is shown that the accuracy of the screened vectors are very high to the equatorward of 30 degree, while it is relatively low at higher latitudes. Analysis of them supports the previously reported existence of day-to-day large-scale variability at the cloud deck of Venus, and it further suggests smaller-scale features. The product of this study is expected to advance the dynamics of venusian atmosphere.

  18. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  19. A new parameterization of polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papo, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    The rotational motion of the earth is decomposed into spin, polar motion and local motions. The rotation vector components are associated to phenomena such as precession, nutation, diurnal spin, polar motion and local motions. The above decomposition is accomplished without refering to an earth-fixed CIO pole or BIH zero meridian. The time-like variations of the coordinates of a surface point in a geocentric equatorial reference frame are presented as a function of the rotation vector components. In the rigid earth approximation three scalar parameters are necessary for evaluating point coordinate variations, namely spin rate of the earth, polar motion magnitude and spin rate of the polar motion vector. Two numerical examples are given as an illustration.

  20. Classifying Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  1. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  2. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... cloud formation is illuminated by the Sun and casts long shadows on the underlying cloud deck. The Multi-angle Imaging ... (Acro Service Corporation/Jet Propulsion Laboratory), David J. Diner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Other formats available at ...

  3. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

  4. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the

  5. Cloud Formation, Sea-Air-Land Interaction, Mozambique, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This rare depiction of the physical interactions of air land and sea in cloud formation was seen over Mozambique (12.0S, 40.5E). Moist low air, heated as it moves over land, rises and forms clouds. Even the coastal islands have enough heat to initiate the process. Once begun, the circulation is dynamic and the descending motion suppresses cloud formation on either side of the cloud stream. As clouds move inland, they rise to follow the land upslope.

  6. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  7. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  8. The Perseus Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.; Walawender, J.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Goodman, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Perseus molecular cloud and its surroundings contain several regions of active or recent star formation lying within about 300 pc of the Sun (see Figure ref{FinderChart}). Roughly a dozen OB and over a thousand lower mass stars younger than 6 Myr make up the 50 pc diameter Perseus OB 2 association. Recent supernovae in the Per OB2 association drive an expanding HI supershell into the surrounding interstellar medium. A run-away star from this association, ξ Persi, illuminates and ionizes a portion of this ring, producing the California Nebula (NGC 1499, Sh-2 220). The 10^4 M_{sun} Perseus molecular cloud is the closest such object actively forming large numbers of low to intermediate-mass stars. The eastern end of the cloud is associated with the 2 - 4 Myr old cluster IC 348 that contains several hundred young stars. However, the western portion of the Perseus cloud contains the most active sites of current star formation, including the 150 member NGC 1333 cluster, the small stellar aggregates associated with Barnard 1, L1448, L1455, and additional cloud cores which are producing smaller groups of young stars. Narrow-band visual wavelength surveys have led to the discovery of over a hundred individual Herbig-Haro objects. Studies of outflows in the Perseus molecular cloud have illuminated their contribution to the generation of turbulent motions in the surrounding gas, the disruption of cloud cores, and the self regulation of star formation. In this review, we cover the region of the sky from about l =3D 150°{} to 180°{} and b =3D -30°{} to 0°{}, and the young stars, clusters, and clouds which lie between 200 and 400 pc from the Sun with ages of less than about 15 Myr with an emphasis on the Perseus molecular cloud. This is the sphere of influence of the Per OB2 association. We discuss the 20°. diameter Per OB2 supershell, the OB association, its relationship to surrounding molecular gas, and on-going star formation within the Perseus molecular cloud.

  9. Microphysical modeling of clouds in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika L.

    2004-12-01

    Theoretical arguments point to and recent observations confirm the existence of clouds in Titan's atmosphere, yet we possess very little data on their size, composition, location and formation mechanism. A time- dependent microphysical model is used to study the evolution of ice clouds in Titan's atmosphere. The model simulates nucleation, condensational growth, evaporation, coagulation, and transport of particles in a column of atmosphere. Voyager temperature and density profiles are used to create Titan conditions. Additional data is provided through lab measurements, particularly the nucleation parameters for ethane, methane, and tholin combinations (where tholin refers a laboratory-created analog for Titan's haze particles). A variety of cloud compositions are studied, including pure ethane clouds, pure methane clouds, and mixed methane- ethane clouds (all with tholin cores). Model results are run through a radiative transfer model to determine the impact of the clouds on Titan's albedo. The abundance of methane cloud particles is limited by the number of ethane nuclei rather than the number of tholins. The condensation of methane onto these mixed cloud particles is sufficient to keep the methane close to saturation. Typical methane supersaturations are of order 0.06 on the average, however dynamically induced temperature changes can produce time varying supersaturations. Cloud production does not require a continuous surface source of methane. However, clouds produced by mean motions are not the visible methane clouds seen in recent HST and ground-based observations. Ethane clouds in the troposphere almost instantaneously nucleate methane to form mixed clouds. However, a thin ethane ‘haze’ remains just above the tropopause for some scenarios and the mixed clouds at the tropopause remain ≤50% ethane by mass. Also, evaporation of methane on the mixed cloud particles near the surface leaves a thicker layer of ethane cloud particles at ˜10 km. Short-lived optically thick clouds can be created sporadically by dynamically driven atmospheric cooling. Horizontal quasi-barotropic motions are more likely to drive the supersaturation creating these clouds than are vertical motions. We expect to find these optically thick, mostly methane clouds at the pole where they can be observed by the VIMS, ISS and CIRS instruments on the Cassini orbiter. Additional instruments on the Cassini orbiter, such as UVIS and the Cassini Radar, will provide useful constraints on the input parameters in our microphysics model.

  10. The influence of transverse motion within an atomic gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchet-Chauvet, Anne; Farah, Tristan; Bodart, Quentin; Clairon, André; Landragin, Arnaud; Merlet, Sébastien; Pereira Dos Santos, Franck

    2011-06-01

    Limits on the long-term stability and accuracy of a second generation cold atom gravimeter are investigated. We demonstrate a measurement protocol based on four interleaved measurement configurations, which allows rejection of most of the systematic effects, but not those related to Coriolis acceleration and wave-front distortions. Both are related to the transverse motion of the atomic cloud. Carrying out measurements with opposite orientations with respect to the Earth's rotation vector direction allows us to separate the effects and correct for the Coriolis shift. Finally, measurements at different atomic temperatures are presented and analyzed. In particular, we show the difficulty of extrapolating these measurements to zero temperature, which is required in order to correct for the bias due to wave-front distortions.

  11. Simulations of Midlatitude Frontal Clouds by Single-Column and Cloud-Resolving Models during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement March 2000 Cloud Intensive Operational Period

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua; Branson, Mark; Cederwall, Richard T.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Eitzen, Zachary A.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Johnson, Karen L.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Klein, Stephen A.; Krueger, Steven K.; Lin, Wuyin; Lohmann, Ulrike; Miller, Mark A.; Randall, David A.; Somerville, Richard C.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Walker, Gregory K.; Wolf, Audrey; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yio, J. John; Zhang, Guang J.; Zhang, Junhua

    2005-03-25

    This study quantitatively evaluates the overall performance of 9 single column models (SCMs) and 4 cloud resolving models (CRMs) in simulating a strong midlatitude frontal cloud system taken from the Spring 2000 Cloud Intensive Observational Period at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. The evaluation data are an analysis product of Constrained Variational Analysis of the ARM-Observations and the cloud data collected from the ARM ground active remote sensors (i.e., cloud radar, lidar, and laser ceilometers) and satellite retrievals. Both the selected SCMs and CRMs can typically capture the bulk characteristics of the frontal system and the frontal precipitation. However, there are significant differences in detailed structures of the frontal clouds. Both CRMs and SCMs overestimate high thin cirrus clouds before the main frontal passage. This is likely caused by the application of grid-scale upward motion in the upper troposphere when in reality only cloud streaks exist in narrow region s of upward sub-grid scale motion. During the passage of a front with strong upward motion, CRMs underestimate middle and low clouds while SCMs overestimate clouds at the levels above 765 hPa. The underestimation in the CRMs is presumably due to the lack of organized stratiform processes that are replaced by convections in the models under strong forcing. The overestimation in the SCMs is likely related to the uniform application of grid-averaged cooling and moistening associated with strong upward motion. All CRMs and some SCMs also underestimated the middle clouds after the frontal passage. This could be related to the lack of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind the moving cyclone. Some of the SCMs simulated more middle clouds after frontal passage due to the long lifetime of cloud ice or prognostic cloud amount in the models. There are also large differences in the model simulations of cloud condensates due to differences in parameterizations, however, the differences among inter-compared models are smaller in the CRMs than the SCMs. While the CRM-produced clouds are highly correlated to the simulated cloud liquid and ice water contents, the SCM-simulated clouds are closely associated with their relative humidity fields. The CRM-simulated cloud water and ice are comparable with observations, while most SCMs underestimated cloud water. SCMs show huge biases varying from large overestimates to equally large underestimates of cloud ice. The partitions between cloud water and cloud ice in the SCMs are also very different when they are compared with observations and CRM simulations. The results point out the need to find ways to improve both the treatment of subgrid scale dynamics and cloud microphysical parameterizations in cloud parameterizations for climate models.

  12. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T.; Koepke, M. E.

    2008-09-07

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  13. Diurnal polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, P.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.

  14. ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-10-02

    The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

  15. Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    2000-01-01

    Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

  16. Operational implications of a cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud would grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. Results are discussed with operational weather forecasters in mind. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents, and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. An empirical forecast technique for Shuttle cloud rise is presented and differences between natural atmospheric convection and exhaust clouds are discussed.

  17. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Your learning curriculum needs a new technological platform, but you don't have the expertise or IT equipment to pull it off in-house. The answer is a learning system that exists online, "in the cloud," where learners can access it anywhere, anytime. For trainers, cloud-based coursework often means greater ease of instruction resulting in greater

  18. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Your learning curriculum needs a new technological platform, but you don't have the expertise or IT equipment to pull it off in-house. The answer is a learning system that exists online, "in the cloud," where learners can access it anywhere, anytime. For trainers, cloud-based coursework often means greater ease of instruction resulting in greater…

  19. Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every

  20. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  1. Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  2. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all

  3. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  4. Rate determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.

    1993-01-01

    Vector observations are a common class of attitude data provided by a wide variety of attitude sensors. Attitude determination from vector observations is a well-understood process and numerous algorithms such as the TRIAD algorithm exist. These algorithms require measurement of the line of site (LOS) vector to reference objects and knowledge of the LOS directions in some predetermined reference frame. Once attitude is determined, it is a simple matter to synthesize vehicle rate using some form of lead-lag filter, and then, use it for vehicle stabilization. Many situations arise, however, in which rate knowledge is required but knowledge of the nominal LOS directions are not available. This paper presents two methods for determining spacecraft angular rates from vector observations without a priori knowledge of the vector directions. The first approach uses an extended Kalman filter with a spacecraft dynamic model and a kinematic model representing the motion of the observed LOS vectors. The second approach uses a 'differential' TRIAD algorithm to compute the incremental direction cosine matrix, from which vehicle rate is then derived.

  5. A cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.; Zak, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud could grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. In moist, unstable atmospheres simulated clouds rose to about 3.5 km in the first 4 to 8 minutes then decayed. Liquid water contents ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 g kg-1 mixing ratios and vertical motions were from 2 to 10 ms-1. An inversion served both to reduce entrainment (and erosion) at the top and to prevent continued cloud rise. Even in the most unstable atmospheres, the ground cloud did not rise beyond 4 km and in stable atmospheres with strong low level inversions the cloud could be trapped below 500 m. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. One case of a simulated TITAN rocket explosion is also discussed.

  6. Motion-based motion deblurring.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Moshe; Nayar, Shree K

    2004-06-01

    Motion blur due to camera motion can significantly degrade the quality of an image. Since the path of the camera motion can be arbitrary, deblurring of motion blurred images is a hard problem. Previous methods to deal with this problem have included blind restoration of motion blurred images, optical correction using stabilized lenses, and special cmos sensors that limit the exposure time in the presence of motion. In this paper, we exploit the fundamental trade off between spatial resolution and temporal resolution to construct a hybrid camera that can measure its own motion during image integration. The acquired motion information is used to compute a point spread function (psf) that represents the path of the camera during integration. This psf is then used to deblur the image. To verify the feasibility of hybrid imaging for motion deblurring, we have implemented a prototype hybrid camera. This prototype system was evaluated in different indoor and outdoor scenes using long exposures and complex camera motion paths. The results show that, with minimal resources, hybrid imaging outperforms previous approaches to the motion blur problem. We conclude with a brief discussion on how our ideas can be extended beyond the case of global camera motion to the case where individual objects in the scene move with different velocities. PMID:18579930

  7. The structure of molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitz, Leo

    The morphology and dynamics of Galactic molecular clouds are examined, summarizing the results of recent observations. Topics addressed include the overall properties of small (2-pc-diameter, 40-solar-mass) high-Galactic-latitude local clouds (HLCs); the IR features, kinematics, and internal motions of HLCs; the evidence against HLCs being bound by gravity, pressure, or magnetic fields; HLC internal structures; broad high-velocity CO-line wings in HLC spectra; and data suggesting that HLCs were formed by interstellar shocks less than about 1 Myr ago. The giant Rosette Molecular Cloud is then described on the basis of (C-13)O mapping. This cloud has a structure characterized by (1) large (gravity-bound) and small (unbound or pressure-bound) clumps with density proportional to radius and (2) pervasive interclump gas which is optically thick in CO.

  8. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  9. Simultaneous Observation of Bubble Clouds and Microhollows Produced by Bubble Cloud Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Jun; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Isono, Tomoaki; Kanai, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    Sonoporation, which forms small pores through the cell membrane, is a useful method in ultrasonic-wave-mediated drug delivery systems. However, if microbubbles aggregate by acoustic radiation force and form bubble clouds, the mechanism of sonoporation becomes complicated. In this paper, bubble cloud cavitation is evaluated by simultaneous observation of bubble cloud motion and microhollows, which are produced on a flow channel wall. To observe the bubble cloud motion, three optical methods are adopted. Three-dimensional position measurement of bubble clouds using two cameras with different focal lengths, which is newly developed in this study, shows the three-dimensional motion of bubble clouds during cavitation. Microhollows on the flow channel wall are evaluated by confocal laser microscopy. It is found that bubble cloud cavitation can be classified into three stages. Among them, the first and second stages, which are characterized by both bubble cloud movement in the vicinity of the wall and the formation of large bubble clouds, play important roles in microhollow production.

  10. Movement aftereffect of bi-vectorial transparent motion.

    PubMed

    Verstraten, F A; Fredericksen, R E; van de Grind, W A

    1994-02-01

    Two moving random-pixel arrays (RPAs) were presented simultaneously in the same target field. These RPAs are perceived as two superimposed transparent moving sheets. Although two directions are perceived simultaneously during stimulus presentation, the movement aftereffect (MAE) is unidirectional. The visual system averages both motion signals in the MAE. For motion vectors of equal magnitude and perpendicular direction the MAE direction is the inverse of the sum of both vectors. In the first experiment we measured perceived direction of the MAE of transparent motion for a range of speed combinations. Results indicate that vector summation only predicts the correct MAE direction for combinations of equal speeds. It is suggested that the direction of the MAE of transparent motion is a resultant of the weighted summation of the component inducing vectors. The question then arises what determines the weighting factors. Directional sensitivity and MAE duration of the individual vectors under transparent conditions were measured and used to weigh the vectors and predict the MAE direction of transparent motion. Statistical analyses showed that MAE duration is a better basis to determine the weighting factors predicting the direction of the MAE of transparent motion than component sensitivity. The direction of the MAE of transparent motion thus seems to be determined by the amount of adaptation to the component vectors as reflected by MAE duration. The results suggest that this gain control cannot be located in the individual motion detectors and must be situated at or after some subsequent cooperation stage of the human motion analysis system. PMID:8160370

  11. Project Physics Tests 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 1 are presented in this booklet, consisting of 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of motion are examined with respect to velocities, acceleration, forces, vectors, Newton's laws, and circular motion. Suggestions are made for time consumption in answering some items. Besides…

  12. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean     View Larger ... observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north ...

  13. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  14. Enhanced motion estimation algorithm with prefiltering in video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jinik; Lee, Hyuk; Hong, Sun-Min; Jeong, Jechang

    2012-03-01

    We present an enhanced motion estimation and compensation algorithm by prefiltering reference frames before motion estimation. The conventional block based motion estimation algorithm gives poor performance when abrupt motion change occurs. The proposed algorithm constructs prefilters based on motion vector distribution analysis and compensates temporal sampling artifacts, such as blur or deblur, between adjacent frames. Compared to H.264/AVC, the proposed algorithm achieves significant bit-rate reduction up to 14.59%.

  15. CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI MEASUREMENTS WITHIN CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within and near the boundaries of clouds are presented. Some of the in-cloud measurements excluded the nuclei within cloud droplets (interstitial CCN) while others included all nuclei inside the cloud (total CCN). The...

  16. Entrainment instability and vertical motion as causes of stratocumulus breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Entrainment instability is thought to be a cause of stratocumulus breakup. At the interface between the cloud and the overlying air, mixtures may form which are negatively buoyant because of cloud droplet evaporation. Quantities devised to predict breakup are obtained from aircraft observations and are tested against cloud observations from satellite. Often, the parameters indicate that breakup should occur but the clouds remain, sometimes for several days. One possible explanation for breakup is vertical motion from passing synoptic cyclones. Several cases suggest that breakup is associated with the downward vertical motion from the cold air advected behind an eastward moving cyclone.

  17. The mean-square error optimal linear discriminant function and its application to incomplete data vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    In many pattern recognition problems, data vectors are classified although one or more of the data vector elements are missing. This problem occurs in remote sensing when the ground is obscured by clouds. Optimal linear discrimination procedures for classifying imcomplete data vectors are discussed.

  18. Lidar cloud studies for FIRE and ECLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Grund, Christian J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Hardesty, Michael; Alvarez, James

    1990-01-01

    Optical remote sensing measurements of cirrus cloud properties were collected by one airborne and four ground-based lidar systems over a 32 h period during this case study from the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observation (IFO) program. The lidar systems were variously equipped to collect linear depolarization, intrinsically calibrated backscatter, and Doppler velocity information. Data presented describe the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cirrus clouds over an area encompassing southern and central Wisconsin. The cirrus cloud types include: dissipating subvisual and thin fibrous cirrus cloud bands, an isolated mesoscale uncinus complex (MUC), a large-scale deep cloud that developed into an organized cirrus structure within the lidar array, and a series of intensifying mesoscale cirrus cloud masses. Although the cirrus frequently developed in the vertical from particle fall-streaks emanating from generating regions at or near cloud tops, glaciating supercooled (-30 to -35 C) altocumulus clouds contributed to the production of ice mass at the base of the deep cirrus cloud, apparently even through riming, and other mechanisms involving evaporation, wave motions, and radiative effects are indicated. The generating regions ranged in scale from approximately 1.0 km cirrus uncinus cells, to organized MUC structures up to approximately 120 km across.

  19. Observing atmospheric clouds through stereo reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, Ruşen; Romps, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Observing cloud lifecycles and obtaining measurements on cloud features are significant problems in atmospheric cloud research. Scanning radars have been the most capable instruments to provide such measurements, but they have shortcomings when it comes to spatial and temporal resolution. High spatial and temporal resolution is particularly important to capture the variations in developing convections. Stereo photogrammetry can complement scanning radars with the potential to observe clouds as distant as tens of kilometers and to provide high temporal and spatial resolution, although it comes with the calibration challenges peculiar to various outdoor settings required to collect measurements on atmospheric clouds. This work explores the use of stereo photogrammetry in atmospheric cloud research, focusing on tracking vertical motion in developing convections. Calibration challenges and strategies to overcome these challenges are addressed within two different stereo settings in Miami, Florida and in the plains of Oklahoma. A feature extraction and matching algorithm is developed and implemented to identify cloud features of interest. A two-level resolution hierarchy is exploited in feature extraction and matching. 3D positions of cloud features are reconstructed from matched pixel pairs, and cloud tops of developing turrets in shallow to deep convection are tracked in time to estimate vertical accelerations. Results show that stereophotogrammetry provides a useful tool to observe cloud lifecycles and track the vertical acceleration of turrets exceeding 10 km height.

  20. CLOUD CHEMISTRY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2001-03-01

    Clouds present substantial concentrations of liquid-phase water, which can potentially serve as a medium for dissolution and reaction of atmospheric gases. The important precursors of acid deposition, SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides NO and NO{sub 2} are only sparingly soluble in clouds without further oxidation to sulfuric and nitric acids. In the case of SO{sub 2} aqueous-phase reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and to lesser extent ozone, are identified as important processes leading to this oxidation, and methods have been described by which to evaluate the rates of these reactions. The limited solubility of the nitrogen oxides precludes significant aqueous-phase reaction of these species, but gas-phase reactions in clouds can be important especially at night.

  1. Neptune's clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

  2. A Flexible Turbulent Vector Field Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, A.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis and generation of turbulent vector fields is a necessity in many areas, such as Atmospheric Science. A candidate model of vector field must be flexible enough to tune some features, such as the spacial distribution of vortices, sinks and sources, according to physical measures. To achieve that goal, we propose a model that depends upon a given matricial function called "topolet" and a law of random vectors family. This model has a hierarchical structure. Its spinal column is a tree: the encoding tree of the domain where the vector field lives. The sets of vortices, sinks and sources are driven by some Bernouilli subtrees, directly giving their fractal dimension. At each node of the tree is attached a rate of energy loose giving the spectral slope. All those quantities are independantly identifiable on the base of mathematical proofs. A primitive version of this model have been proposed for generating clouds.

  3. Motion detection with camera shake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazui, Masato; Itoh, Masaya; Yaemori, Hiroki; Takauji, Hidenori; Kaneko, Shun'ichi

    2009-05-01

    A method for detecting an object's motion in images that suffer from camera shake or images with camera egomotion is proposed. This approach is based on edge orientation codes and on the entropy calculated from a histogram of the edge orientation codes. Here, entropy is extended to spatio-temporal entropy. We consider that the spatio-temporal entropy calculated from time-series orientation codes can represent motion complexity, e.g., the motion of a pedestrian. Our method can reject false positives caused by camera shake or background motion. Before the motion filtering, object candidates are detected by a frame-subtraction-based method. After the filtering, over-detected candidates are evaluated using the spatio-temporal entropy, and false positives are then rejected by a threshold. This method could reject 79 to 96 [%] of all false positives in road roller and escalator scenes. The motion filtering decreased the detection rate somewhat because of motion coherency or small apparent motion of a target. In such cases, we need to introduce a tracking method such as Particle Filter or Mean Shift Tracker. The running speed of our method is 32 to 46 ms per frame with a 160×120 pixel image on an Intel Pentium 4 CPU at 2.8 GHz. We think that this is fast enough for real-time detection. In addition, our method can be used as pre-processing for classifiers based on support vector machines or Boosting.

  4. The relationship between mesoscale circulation and cloud morphology at the upper cloud level of Venus from VMC/Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsaeva, M. V.; Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaev, D. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Rodin, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) acquired a set of ultraviolet (UV) images during the Venus Express mission unprecedented in its duration from May 2006 to September 2013. Here we present the results of digital tracking of the cloud features in the upper cloud layer at latitudes 25-75°S using images from 257 orbits with the best spatial coverage. The method relies on analysis of correlations between pairs of UV images separated in time. The bulk of data processed allows us to clarify the reasons why the mid-latitude jet is not always present in latitudinal wind profiles. Comparing VMC images with wind velocity fields we found a relationship between cloud morphology at middle latitudes and the circulation. The vector field in middle latitudes depends on the presence of a contrast global streak in the cloud morphology tilted with respect to latitude circles. The angle of the flow deflection (the angle between the wind velocity and latitudinal circles) and the difference of the zonal velocity on the opposite sides of the streak are in direct relationship to the angle between the streak and latitude circles. During such orbits the jet bulge does not appear in the latitudinal profile of the zonal wind component. Otherwise a zonal flow with small changes of the meridional velocity dominates in middle latitudes and manifests itself as a jet bulge. The relationship between the cloud cover morphology and circulation peculiarities can be attributed to the motion of global cloud features, like the Y-feature. We prepared plots of zonal and meridional velocities averaged with respect to the entire observation period. The average zonal velocity has a diurnal maximum at 15:00 local solar time and at 40°S. The meridional velocity reaches its maximum between 13:00 and 16:00 and at 50°S. The velocities obtained by the digital method are in good agreement with results of the visual method in the middle latitudes published earlier by Khatuntsev et al. (2013).

  5. Cloud level winds from the Venus Express Monitoring Camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Turin, A. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Almeida, M.; Roatsch, Th.; Moissl, R.

    2013-09-01

    Six years of continuous monitoring of Venus by European Space Agency’s Venus Express orbiter provides an opportunity to study dynamics of the atmosphere our neighbor planet. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on-board the orbiter has acquired the longest and the most complete so far set of ultra violet images of Venus. These images enable a study the cloud level circulation by tracking motion of the cloud features. The highly elliptical polar orbit of Venus Express provides optimal conditions for observations of the Southern hemisphere at varying spatial resolution. Out of the 2300 orbits of Venus Express over which the images used in the study cover about 10 Venus years. Out of these, we tracked cloud features in images obtained in 127 orbits by a manual cloud tracking technique and by a digital correlation method in 576 orbits. Total number of wind vectors derived in this work is 45,600 for the manual tracking and 391,600 for the digital method. This allowed us to determine the mean circulation, its long-term and diurnal trends, orbit-to-orbit variations and periodicities. We also present the first results of tracking features in the VMC near-IR images. In low latitudes the mean zonal wind at cloud tops (67 ± 2 km following: Rossow, W.B., Del Genio, A.T., Eichler, T. [1990]. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2053-2084) is about 90 m/s with a maximum of about 100 m/s at 40-50°S. Poleward of 50°S the average zonal wind speed decreases with latitude. The corresponding atmospheric rotation period at cloud tops has a maximum of about 5 days at equator, decreases to approximately 3 days in middle latitudes and stays almost constant poleward from 50°S. The mean poleward meridional wind slowly increases from zero value at the equator to about 10 m/s at 50°S and then decreases to zero at the pole. The error of an individual measurement is 7.5-30 m/s. Wind speeds of 70-80 m/s were derived from near-IR images at low latitudes. The VMC observations indicate a long term trend for the zonal wind speed at low latitudes to increase from 85 m/s in the beginning of the mission to 110 m/s by the middle of 2012. VMC UV observations also showed significant short term variations of the mean flow. The velocity difference between consecutive orbits in the region of mid-latitude jet could reach 30 m/s that likely indicates vacillation of the mean flow between jet-like regime and quasi-solid body rotation at mid-latitudes. Fourier analysis revealed periodicities in the zonal circulation at low latitudes. Within the equatorial region, up to 35°S, the zonal wind show an oscillation with a period of 4.1-5 days (4.83 days on average) that is close to the super-rotation period at the equator. The wave amplitude is 4-17 m/s and decreases with latitude, a feature of the Kelvin wave. The VMC observations showed a clear diurnal signature. A minimum in the zonal speed was found close to the noon (11-14 h) and maxima in the morning (8-9 h) and in the evening (16-17 h). The meridional component peaks in the early afternoon (13-15 h) at around 50°S latitude. The minimum of the meridional component is located at low latitudes in the morning (8-11 h). The horizontal divergence of the mean cloud motions associated with the diurnal pattern suggests upwelling motions in the morning at low latitudes and downwelling flow in the afternoon in the cold collar region.

  6. Interstellar Gas Flow Vector and Temperature Determination over 5 Years of IBEX Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokół, J. M.; Wurz, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow trajectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through early April, when the Earth's orbital motion is into the oncoming flow. These observations have defined a narrow region of possible, but very tightly coupled interstellar neutral flow parameters, with inflow speed, latitude, and temperature as well-defined functions of inflow longitude. The best- fit flow vector is different by ≈ 3° and lower by ≈ 3 km/s than obtained previously with Ulysses GAS, but the temperature is comparable. The possible coupled parameter space reaches to the previous flow vector, but only for a substantially higher temperature (by ≈ 2000 K). Along with recent pickup ion observations and including historical observations of the interstellar gas, these findings have led to a discussion, whether the interstellar gas flow into the solar system has been stable or variable over time. These intriguing possibilities call for more detailed analysis and a longer database. IBEX has accumulated observations over six interstellar flow seasons. We review key observations and refinements in the analysis, in particular, towards narrowing the uncertainties in the temperature determination. We also address ongoing attempts to optimize the flow vector determination through varying the IBEX spacecraft pointing and discuss related implications for the local interstellar cloud and its interaction with the heliosphere.

  7. Circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn

    2000-07-01

    An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.

  8. Thin Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... of this montage is a natural-color view of the Caribbean Sea east of the Yucatan Peninsula as seen by MISR's most steeply ... - Thin, feathery clouds of ice crystals over the Caribbean Sea. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping elements of the puzzle, and those which combine them. Scales, assumptions and the conditions used in order to describe a particular single process of interest must be consistent with the conditions in clouds. The papers in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics collectively demonstrate (i) the variation in scientific approaches towards investigating cloud processes, (ii) the various stages of shaping elements of the puzzle, and (iii) some attempts to put the pieces together. These papers present just a small subset of loosely arranged elements in an initial stage of puzzle creation. Addressed by this issue is one of the important problems in our understanding of cloud processes—the interaction between cloud particles and turbulence. There is currently a gap between the cloud physics community and scientists working in wind tunnels, on turbulence theory and particle interactions. This collection is intended to narrow this gap by bringing together work by theoreticians, modelers, laboratory experimentalists and those who measure and observe actual processes in clouds. It forms a collage of contributions showing various approaches to cloud processes including: • theoretical works with possible applications to clouds (Bistagnino and Boffetta, Gustavsson et al), • an attempt to construct a phenomenological description of clouds and rain (Lovejoy and Schertzer), • simplified models designed to parameterize turbulence micro- and macro-effects (Celani et al, Derevyanko et al), • focused theoretical research aimed at particular cloud processes (Ayala et al, parts I and II, Wang et al), • laboratory and modeling studies of complex cloud processes (Malinowski et al). This collage is far from being complete but, hopefully, should give the reader a representative impression of the current state of knowledge in the field. We hope it will be useful to all scientists whose work is inspired by cloud processes. Focus on Cloud Physics Contents The development of ice in a cumulus cloud over southwest England Yahui Huang, Alan M Blyth, Philip R A Brown, Tom W Choularton, Paul Connolly, Alan M Gadian, Hazel Jones, John Latham, Zhiqiang Cui and Ken Carslaw The equivalent size of cloud condensation nuclei Antonio Celani, Andrea Mazzino and Marco Tizzi Laboratory and modeling studies of cloud clear air interfacial mixing: anisotropy of small-scale turbulence due to evaporative cooling Szymon P Malinowski, Miroslaw Andrejczuk, Wojciech W Grabowski, Piotr Korczyk, Tomasz A Kowalewski and Piotr K Smolarkiewicz Evolution of non-uniformly seeded warm clouds in idealized turbulent conditions Stanislav Derevyanko, Gregory Falkovich and Sergei Turitsyn Lagrangian statistics in two-dimensional free turbulent convection A Bistagnino and G Boffetta Turbulence, raindrops and the l1/2 number density law S Lovejoy and D Schertzer Effects of turbulence on the geometric collision rate of sedimenting droplets. Part 2. Theory and parameterization Orlando Ayala, Bogdan Rosa and Lian-Ping Wang Effects of turbulence on the geometric collision rate of sedimenting droplets. Part 1. Results from direct numerical simulation Orlando Ayala, Bogdan Rosa, Lian-Ping Wang and Wojciech W Grabowski Collisions of particles advected in random flows K Gustavsson, B Mehlig and M Wilkinson Turbulent collision efficiency of heavy particles relevant to cloud droplets Lian-Ping Wang, Orlando Ayala, Bogdan Rosa and Wojciech W Grabowski

  10. Cloud Thickness from Diffusion of Lidar Pulses in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Davis, A.; McGill, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of the distribution of reflected light from a laser beam incident on an aqueous suspension of particles or "cloud" with known thickness and particle size distribution are reported. The distribution is referred to as the "cloud radiative Green's function", G. In the diffusion domain, G is sensitive to cloud thickness, allowing that important quantity to be retrieved. The goal of the laboratory simulation is to provide preliminary estimates of sensitivity of G to cloud thickness,for use in the optimal design of an offbeam Lidar instrument for remote sensing of cloud thickness (THOR, Thickness from Offbeam Returns). These clouds of polystyrene microspheres suspended in water are analogous to real clouds of water droplets suspended in air. The microsphere size distribution is roughly lognormal, from 0.5 microns to 25 microns, similar to real clouds. Density of suspended spheres is adjusted so mean-free-path of visible photons is about 10 cm, approximately 1000 times smaller than in real clouds. The light source is a ND:YAG laser at 530 nm. Detectors are flux and photon-counting Photomultiplier Tube (PMTS), with a glass probe for precise positioning. A Labview 5 VI controls positioning, and data acquisition, via an NI Motion Control board connected to a stepper motor driving an Edmund linear slider, and a 16-channel 16-bit NI-DAQ board. The stepper motor is accurate to 10 microns, and step size is selectable from the VI software. Far from the incident beam, the rate of exponential increase as the direction of the incident beam is approached scales as expected from diffusion theory, linearly with the cloud thickness, and inversely as the square root of the reduced optical thickness, and is independent of particle size. Near the beam the signal begins to increase faster than exponential, due to single and low-order scattering near the backward direction, and here the distribution depends on particle size. Results are being used to verify 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, used to estimate signal-to-noise ratios for remotely sensed off beam returns, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds. Signal-to-noise estimates show that unfiltered observations are straight forward at night, while narrow band pass filters are being studied for day.

  11. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included. PMID:12510928

  12. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears

  13. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  14. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  15. Topographic Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J. T.; Courville, B. C.; Jensen, J.; Carbonneau, P.

    2011-12-01

    The production of high-resolution topographic datasets is of increasing concern and application throughout the geomorphic sciences, and river science is no exception. Consequently, a wide range of topographic measurement methods have evolved. Despite the range of available methods, the production of high resolution, high quality digital elevation models (DEMs) generally requires a significant investment in personnel time, hardware and/or software. However, image-based methods such as digital photogrammetry have steadily been decreasing in costs. Initially developed for the purpose of rapid, inexpensive and easy three dimensional surveys of buildings or small objects, the "structure from motion" photogrammetric approach (SfM) is a purely image based method which could deliver a step-change if transferred to river remote sensing, and requires very little training and is extremely inexpensive. Using the online SfM program Microsoft Photosynth, we have created high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) of rivers from ordinary photographs produced from a multi-step workflow that takes advantage of free and open source software. This process reconstructs real world scenes from SfM algorithms based on the derived positions of the photographs in three-dimensional space. One of the products of the SfM process is a three-dimensional point cloud of features present in the input photographs. This point cloud can be georeferenced from a small number of ground control points collected via GPS in the field. The georeferenced point cloud can then be used to create a variety of digital elevation model products. Among several study sites, we examine the applicability of SfM in the Pedernales River in Texas (USA), where several hundred images taken from a hand-held helikite are used to produce DEMs of the fluvial topographic environment. This test shows that SfM and low-altitude platforms can produce point clouds with point densities considerably better than airborne LiDAR, with horizontal and vertical precision in the centimeter range, and with very low capital and labor costs and low expertise levels. Advanced structure from motion software (such as Bundler and OpenSynther) are currently under development and should increase the density of topographic points rivaling those of terrestrial laser scanning when using images shot from low altitude platforms such as helikites, poles, remote-controlled aircraft and rotocraft, and low-flying manned aircraft. Clearly, the development of this set of inexpensive and low-required-expertise tools has the potential to fundamentally shift the production of digital fluvial topography from a capital-intensive enterprise of a low number of researchers to a low-cost exercise of many river researchers.

  16. Hidden symmetry of hyperbolic monopole motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Hyperbolic monopole motion is studied for well separated monopoles. It is shown that the motion of a hyperbolic monopole in the presence of one or more fixed monopoles is equivalent to geodesic motion on a particular submanifold of the full moduli space. The metric on this submanifold is found to be a generalisation of the multi-centre Taub-NUT metric introduced by LeBrun. The one centre case is analysed in detail as a special case of a class of systems admitting a conserved Runge-Lenz vector. The two centre problem is also considered. An integrable classical string motion is exhibited.

  17. Stellar Encounters with the Oort Cloud Based on Hipparcos Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, J.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Weissman, P. R.; Lestrade, J. F.; Latham, D. W.; Stefanik, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have combined Hipparcos proper motion and parallax data for nearby stars with ground-based radial velocity measurements to find stars which may have passed (or will pass) close enough to the Sun to perturb the Oort cloud.

  18. A global survey of cloud overlap based on CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Huang, J.; Stamnes, K.; Wang, T.; Lv, Q.; Jin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Using 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR (radar-lidar) cloud classification and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR radiation products from CloudSat over 4 years, this study evaluates the co-occurrence frequencies of different cloud types, analyzes their along-track horizontal scales and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and utilizes the vertical distributions of cloud types to evaluate cloud-overlap assumptions. The statistical results show that high clouds, altostratus (As), altocumulus (Ac) and cumulus (Cu) tend to coexist with other cloud types. However, stratus (St) (or stratocumulus, Sc), nimbostratus (Ns) and convective clouds are much more likely to exhibit individual features than other cloud types. On average, altostratus-over-stratus/stratocumulus cloud systems have a maximum horizontal scale of 17.4 km, with a standard deviation of 23.5 km. Altocumulus-over-cumulus cloud types have a minimum scale of 2.8 km, with a standard deviation of 3.1 km. By considering the weight of each multilayered cloud type, we find that the global mean instantaneous net CREs of multilayered cloud systems during the daytime are approximately -41.3 and -50.2 W m-2, which account for 40.1 and 42.3% of the global mean total net CREs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface, respectively. The radiative contributions of high-over-altocumulus and high-over-stratus/stratocumulus (or cumulus) in the all multilayered cloud systems are dominant due to their frequency. Considering the overlap of cloud types, the cloud fraction based on the random overlap assumption is underestimated over vast oceans, except in the west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool. Obvious overestimations mainly occur over tropical and subtropical land masses. In view of a lower degree of overlap than that predicted by the random overlap assumption to occur over the vast ocean, particularly poleward of 40° S, the study therefore suggests that a linear combination of minimum and random overlap assumptions may further improve the predictions of actual cloud fractions for multilayered cloud types (e.g., As + St/Sc and Ac + St/Sc) over the Southern Ocean. The establishment of a statistical relationship between multilayered cloud types and the environmental conditions (e.g., atmospheric vertical motion, convective stability and wind shear) would be useful for parameterization design of cloud overlap in numerical models.

  19. High power thrust vector actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittock, M. J.

    1993-06-01

    Modern missile programs are frequently favoring electro-mechanical (EM) thrust vector actuation (TVA) over hydraulic for a variety of reasons. However, actuation system performance requirements are not relaxed for EM systems. Thus the development of EM systems with greater power output is required. The configuration of EM actuator studied consists of a DC brushless motor driving a spur gear train, which drives a ballscrew that converts rotary motion to rectilinear motion. This design produces an actuator with high levels of performance in a compact mechanical package. Design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA) was part of the design process, resulting in an actuator that can be assembled easily and will operate reliably. This paper will discuss the mechanical details of the resultant actuator and report test results on a prototype derivative.

  20. Present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, J. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    A data set comprising 110 spreading rates, 78 transform fault azimuths and 142 earthquake slip vectors was inverted to yield a new instantaneous plate motion model, designated RM2. The mean averaging interval for the relative motion data was reduced to less than 3 My. A detailed comparison of RM2 with angular velocity vectors which best fit the data along individual plate boundaries indicates that RM2 performs close to optimally in most regions, with several notable exceptions. On the other hand, a previous estimate (RM1) failed to satisfy an extensive set of new data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that RM1 incorrectly predicts the plate kinematics in the South Atlantic because the presently available data are inconsistent with the plate geometry assumed in deriving RM1. It is demonstrated that this inconsistency can be remedied by postulating the existence of internal deformation with the Indian plate, although alternate explanations are possible.

  1. Integrals of motion for the classical two-body problem with drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.; Mittleman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Integrals of motion for the two-body problem with drag are obtained by operating on the second-order vector differential equation describing the motion. The force field consists of an inverse-square gravitational attraction and a drag force proportional to the velocity vector and inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the attracting center. The developed integrals are the analogs of the Keplerian scalar energy, the vector angular momentum, and the Laplace vector.

  2. Characterization of free breathing patterns with 5D lung motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tianyu; Lu Wei; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Noel, Camille E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the quiet respiration breathing motion model parameters for lung cancer and nonlung cancer patients. Methods: 49 free breathing patient 4DCT image datasets (25 scans, cine mode) were collected with simultaneous quantitative spirometry. A cross-correlation registration technique was employed to track the lung tissue motion between scans. The registration results were applied to a lung motion model: X-vector=X-vector{sub 0}+{alpha}-vector{beta}-vector f, where X-vector is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position X-vector{sub 0} during a reference breathing phase (zero tidal volume v, zero airflow f). {alpha}-vector is a parameter that characterizes the motion due to air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume v) and {beta}-vector is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation that causes lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow f). The parameters {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector distributions were examined for each patient to determine overall general patterns and interpatient pattern variations. Results: For 44 patients, the greatest values of |{alpha}-vector| were observed in the inferior and posterior lungs. For the rest of the patients, |{alpha}-vector| reached its maximum in the anterior lung in three patients and the lateral lung in two patients. The hysteresis motion {beta}-vector had greater variability, but for the majority of patients, |{beta}-vector| was largest in the lateral lungs. Conclusions: This is the first report of the three-dimensional breathing motion model parameters for a large cohort of patients. The model has the potential for noninvasively predicting lung motion. The majority of patients exhibited similar |{alpha}-vector| maps and the |{beta}-vector| maps showed greater interpatient variability. The motion parameter interpatient variability will inform our need for custom radiation therapy motion models. The utility of this model depends on the parameter stability over time, which is still under investigation.

  3. Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A.

    2008-09-07

    The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

  4. Vectorization of Monte Carlo particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, P.J.; Christon, M.; Schweitzer, R.; Lubeck, O.M.; Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Pryor, D.V. . Computer Center; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD )

    1989-01-01

    Fully vectorized versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory benchmark code Gamteb, a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm, were developed for the Cyber 205/ETA-10 and Cray X-MP/Y-MP architectures. Single-processor performance measurements of the vector and scalar implementations were modeled in a modified Amdahl's Law that accounts for additional data motion in the vector code. The performance and implementation strategy of the vector codes are related to architectural features of each machine. Speedups between fifteen and eighteen for Cyber 205/ETA-10 architectures, and about nine for CRAY X-MP/Y-MP architectures are observed. The best single processor execution time for the problem was 0.33 seconds on the ETA-10G, and 0.42 seconds on the CRAY Y-MP. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C.

    1993-03-01

    Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects.

  6. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  7. Seasonal variation and physical properties of the cloud system over southeastern China derived from CloudSat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-05-01

    Based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data and CloudSat products, the seasonal variations of the cloud properties, vertical occurrence frequency, and ice water content of clouds over southeastern China were investigated in this study. In the CloudSat data, a significant alternation in high or low cloud patterns was observed from winter to summer over southeastern China. It was found that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation and its transport of moisture leads to a conditional instability, which benefits the local upward motion in summer, and thereby results in an increased amount of high cloud. The deep convective cloud centers were found to coincide well with the northward march of the EASM, while cirrus lagged slightly behind the convection center and coincided well with the outflow and meridional wind divergence of the EASM. Analysis of the radiative heating rates revealed that both the plentiful summer moisture and higher clouds are effective in destabilizing the atmosphere. Moreover, clouds heat the mid-troposphere and the cloud radiative heating is balanced by adiabatic cooling through upward motion, which causes meridional wind by the Sverdrup balance. The cloud heating-forced circulation was observed to coincide well with the EASM circulation, serving as a positive effect on EASM circulation.

  8. Field-like interactions between motion-based reference frames.

    PubMed

    Agaoglu, Mehmet N; Herzog, Michael H; Öğmen, Haluk

    2015-08-01

    A reference frame is required to specify how motion is perceived. For example, the motion of part of an object is usually perceived relative to the motion of the object itself. Johansson (Psychological Research, 38, 379-393, 1976) proposed that the perceptual system carries out a vector decomposition, which rewsults in common and relative motion percepts. Because vector decomposition is an ill-posed problem, several studies have introduced constraints by means of which the number of solutions can be substantially reduced. Here, we have adopted an alternative approach and studied how, rather than why, a subset of solutions is selected by the visual system. We propose that each retinotopic motion vector creates a reference-frame field in the retinotopic space, and that the fields created by different motion vectors interact in order to determine a motion vector that will serve as the reference frame at a given point and time in space. To test this theory, we performed a set of psychophysical experiments. The field-like influence of motion-based reference frames was manifested by increased nonspatiotopic percepts of the backward motion of a target square with decreasing distance from a drifting grating. We then sought to determine whether these field-like effects of motion-based reference frames can also be extended to stationary landmarks. The results suggest that reference-field interactions occur only between motion-generated fields. Finally, we investigated whether and how different reference fields interact with each other, and found that different reference-field interactions are nonlinear and depend on how the motion vectors are grouped. These findings are discussed from the perspective of the reference-frame metric field (RFMF) theory, according to which perceptual grouping operations play a central and essential role in determining the prevailing reference frames. PMID:25893468

  9. Point Cloud Server (pcs) : Point Clouds In-Base Management and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cura, R.; Perret, J.; Paparoditis, N.

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the traditional Geographic Information System (GIS) data such as images and vectors, point cloud data has become more available. It is appreciated for its precision and true three-Dimensional (3D) nature. However, managing the point cloud can be difficult due to scaling problems and specificities of this data type. Several methods exist but are usually fairly specialised and solve only one aspect of the management problem. In this work, we propose a complete and efficient point cloud management system based on a database server that works on groups of points rather than individual points. This system is specifically designed to solve all the needs of point cloud users: fast loading, compressed storage, powerful filtering, easy data access and exporting, and integrated processing. Moreover, the system fully integrates metadata (like sensor position) and can conjointly use point clouds with images, vectors, and other point clouds. The system also offers in-base processing for easy prototyping and parallel processing and can scale well. Lastly, the system is built on open source technologies; therefore it can be easily extended and customised. We test the system will several billion points of point clouds from Lidar (aerial and terrestrial ) and stereo-vision. We demonstrate ~ 400 million pts/h loading speed, user-transparent greater than 2 to 4:1 compression ratio, filtering in the approximately 50 ms range, and output of about a million pts/s, along with classical processing, such as object detection.

  10. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  11. How Does the Global-Scale Atmosphere Circulation Produce Clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, William B.

    1999-01-01

    Although clouds are produced by "micro-scale" processes, these processes operate as a response to global-scale atmospheric motions to produce the complex geographic distribution of clouds on Earth. One way to attack this larger-scale problem is to combine global-scale satellite observations of cloud property variations with global-scale determinations of the atmospheric circulation. Such a global data analysis can be used to describe the mean characteristics of clouds and their variations for comparison with global circulation models, to identify systematic relations among observed cloud properties and atmospheric motions, or to estimate, directly, the derivative relations of the processes at work using statistical life-cycle-composites of cloud system evolution. Another approach is to find what characteristics of the global atmospheric circulation are revealed in observed global-scale cloud variations. For the first time this type of analysis is possible with the advent of global, satellite-based cloud (ISCCP), precipitation (microwave-based), and water vapor (merged infrared and microwave) datasets, together with global wind datasets (ECMWF and NCEP re-analyses), all of which resolve features at least down to the upper end of the mesoscale and cover more than a decade. We report on some preliminary attempts to identify quantitative relationships between atmospheric motions and cloud properties that are relevant to cloud processes. Three examples are given: (1) cloud variations at the smallest scales and what they reveal about the nature of small-scale turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, (2) cloud variations at "moderate" weather-scales and what they reveal about meteorological storm systems, and (3) cloud variations at the largest scales and what they indicate about interannual variations of climate.

  12. The Advancement of Intraplate Tectonic Motion Detection by the Use of Atmospherically Corrected InSAR Time-series and its Decomposition into a 3D Field Vector in South-East Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Stramondo, S.; Zucca, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study provides insights into the advancements gained by applying a tropospheric correction to a time-series InSAR small baseline network processed using the StaMPS software for the Hyblean Plateau in south-east Sicily, Italy. The contribution of the atmosphere is one of the major error sources in repeat-pass InSAR in general. For time-series analysis spatial and temporal "filtering" of the interferometric phase can be used to address atmospheric signals. This however might be at the cost of smoothing and removal of the "tectonic deformation". We applied a tropospheric correction to each interferogram based on estimates of the ERA-Interim weather model, provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). This approach is part of the InSAR Atmospheric Correction Toolbox (Bekaert et al, in prep) and converts the tropospheric water vapor content into the phase-delay of the radar line-of-sight. For the analysis we used 49 descending and 58 ascending Envisat SAR images, which cover the time period from 2003 until 2010. In addition, we have processed 30 SAR images of RADARSAT-2 for the period between 2010-2012. Furthermore, we used the different viewing geometries and the integration of GPS data to decompose the single line-of-sight velocities into a 3-dimensional field vector by applying the SISTEM approach (Guglielmino et al. 2011). First results reveal that the atmospherically corrected data retain the deformation signal along geological structures like the Scicli-Ragusa fault whilst the standard filtering approach is canceling out these very slow deformation patterns. Simultaneously, the variability of the signal in space is diminished and thus gives more confidence on the deformation patterns observed by the SAR. Consequently, the decomposition of the line-of-sight velocities and the integration with the GPS data allows us to retrieve a more realistic deformation field.

  13. A Whiff of Cloud on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, S.; Hunten, D. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Toon, O. B.

    1996-06-01

    We present 1-d models of tenuous water clouds in the Jovian atmosphere. We concentrate our efforts on the hot spot region where the Galileo probe descended. First probe results show that in this region the water abundance is reduced by a factor of 5--10 relative to solar and no significant water cloud has been detected. It has been suggested that this area is dominated by downdrafts which certainly would reduce water cloud formation and could even inhibit it. We will show that even with downdrafts and reduced water abundances, a small tenuous cloud can form in the 3-bar region. Cloud densities are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than found in prior condensation models. Our model does not simulate cumulus convection but instead emphasizes large scale motions. The physical processes in the cloud model include nucleation, growth/evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Jupiter's interior heat source supplies the energy for convection which is described by eddy diffusion. The cloud-free region in our model is a purely dry convective regime with an eddy diffusion coefficient of 2e8 cm(2) /sec derived from the convective heat flux of 3000 erg/cm(2) /sec. In the cloud itself the heat is supplied by latent heat release through condensation and the eddy diffusion coefficient is about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower. The sum of these two energies does not exceed the total convective flux which was taken to be a constant.

  14. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so

  15. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  16. Dry air entrainment into convective clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telford, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic approach to the study of atmospheric turbulent motion is discussed in terms of weather modification. The background of cloud physics, and the mixing process are described. A zero-g study is proposed to enable the basic experimental data to be collected so that theory may be developed to generalize results for practical applications.

  17. The high-velocity clouds and the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.

    2004-09-01

    From an analysis of the sky and velocity distributions of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) we show that the majority of the HVCs has a common origin. We conclude that the HVCs surround the Galaxy, forming a metacloud of 300 kpc in size and with a mass of 3 109 M?, and that they are the product of a powerful ``superwind'' (about 1058 ergs), which occurred in the Magellanic Clouds about 570 Myr ago as a consequence of the interaction of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The HVCs might be magnetic bubbles of semi-ionized gas, blown from the Magellanic Clouds around 570 Myr ago, that circulate largely through the halo of the Galaxy as a stream or flow of gas. On the basis of the connection found between the HVCs and the Magellanic Clouds, we have constructed a theoretical model with the purpose of computing the orbits of a sample of test particles representing the HVCs, under the gravitational action of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The orbits of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been traced backwards in time to estimate the position and velocity of the Clouds at the time of the collision between the two Clouds, and to infer the initial conditions of the HVCs. The model can reproduce the main features of position and velocity distributions of the HVCs, like the overall structure and kinematics of the Magellanic Stream. The initial velocities of the HVCs were the result of velocities of expansion that permitted the escape of the HVCs from the Magellanic Clouds plus the systemic velocity of the Magellanic Clouds at the time of the collision. With these initial conditions, the Galactic gravitational potential induced differential rotations or shearing motions that elongated the cloud of HVCs in the orbital direction, forming the rear and front parts of the Magellanic stream. The population of HVCs is centered around the Magellanic Clouds. The eccentric position of the Sun within the cloud of HVCs explains the asymmetries between the sky distributions of the HVCs of the northern Galactic hemisphere and those of the southern Galactic hemisphere. In the light of the model we analyze the effects that the passage of the HVC flow through the Galactic disk has produced on the interstellar medium. The effects of the HVC flow can account for many observational details such as the Galactic warp, HI shells and supershells in the gaseous layer of the outer parts of the Milky Way. The Galactic disk was target of numerous impacts of HVCs in the course of the last 400 Myr, accumulating mass at the average rate of approximately 0.6 M? per year. The events of this period may be regarded as landmarks in the evolutionary history of the Milky Way.

  18. Method and system for non-linear motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ligang (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.

  19. Multivariate respiratory motion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2014-10-01

    In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.

  20. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  1. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  2. Vector-borne Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans. PMID:21529382

  3. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  4. MATRIX AND VECTOR SERVICES

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-10-18

    PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.

  5. Solar angles revisited using a general vector approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, Robert E.

    2010-06-15

    Rather than follow the standard technique using direction cosines or major axes vectors to define the angles of the sun, we develop the necessary formulae from a 3-tuple vector based analysis. The direction of the sun with respect to a Cartesian coordinate system is defined as a unit vector, as is the orthogonal to a surface intended to accept solar radiation. The vector formulation is powerful and universal. More importantly, the diagrams used to describe the relative motion of the sun with respect to the Earth are quite simple, leading to less confusion when translating the geometry to algebra. An interesting result on the change in solar angle with time follows. (author)

  6. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the perturbations remain approximately linear (for example, for atmospheric models the interval for rescaling could be varied between a single time step and 1 day without affecting qualitatively the characteristics of the bred vectors. However, the finite-amplitude, finite-time, and lack of orthogonalization of the BVs introduces important differences with LVs: 1) In regions that undergo strong instabilities, the bred vectors tend to be locally domi- 1 nated by simple, low-dimensional structures. Patil et al (2001) showed that the BV-dim (appendix) gives a good estimate of the number of dominant directions (shapes) of the local k bred vectors. For example, if half of them are aligned in one direction, and half in a different direction, the BV-dim is about two. If the majority of the bred vectors are aligned predominantly in one direction and only a few are aligned in a second direction, then the BV-dim is between 1 and 2. Patil et al., (2001) showed that the regions with low dimensionality cover about 20% of the atmosphere. They also found that these low-dimensionality regions have a very well defined vertical structure, and a typical lifetime of 3-7 days. The low dimensionality identifies regions where the in- stability of the basic flow has manifested itself in a low number of preferred directions of perturbation growth. 2) Using a Quasi-Geostrophic simulation system of data assimilation developed by Morss (1999), Corazza et al (2001a, b) found that bred vectors have structures that closely resemble the background (short forecasts used as first guess) errors, which in turn dominate the local analysis errors. This is especially true in regions of low dimensionality, which is not surprising if these are unstable regions where errors grow in preferred shapes. 3) The number of bred vectors needed to represent the unstable subspace in the QG system is small (about 6-10). This was shown by computing the local BV-dim as a function of the number of independent bred vectors. Convergence in the local dimen- sion starts to occur at about 6 BVs, and is essentially complete when the number of vectors is about 10-15 (Corazza et al, 2001a). This should be contrasted with the re- sults of Snyder and Joly (1998) and Palmer et al (1998) who showed that hundreds of Lyapunov vectors with positive Lyapunov exponents are needed to represent the attractor of the system in quasi-geostrophic models. 4) Since only a few bred vectors are needed, and background errors project strongly in the subspace of bred vectors, Corazza et al (2001b) were able to develop cost-efficient methods to improve the 3D-Var data assimilation by adding to the background error covariance terms proportional to the outer product of the bred vectors, thus represent- ing the "errors of the day". This approach led to a reduction of analysis error variance of about 40% at very low cost. 5) The fact that BVs have finite amplitude provides a natural way to filter out instabil- ities present in the system that have fast growth, but saturate nonlinearly at such small amplitudes that they are irrelevant for ensemble perturbations. As shown by Lorenz (1996) Lyapunov vectors (and singular vectors) of models including these physical phenomena would be dominated by the fast but small amplitude instabilities, unless they are explicitly excluded from the linearized models. Bred vectors, on the other 2 hand, through the choice of an appropriate size for the perturbation, provide a natural filter based on nonlinear saturation of fast but irrelevant instabilities. 6) Every bred vector is qualitatively similar to the *leading* LV. LVs beyond the leading LV are obtained by orthogonalization after each time step with respect to the previous LVs subspace. The orthogonalization requires the introduction of a norm. With an enstrophy norm, the successive LVs have larger and larger horizontal scales, and a choice of a stream function norm would lead to successively smaller scales in the LVs. Beyond the first few LVs, there is little qualitative similarity between the background errors and the LVs. In summary, in a system like the atmosphere with enough physical space for several independent local instabilities, BVs and LVs share some properties but they also have significant differences. BV are finite-amplitude, finite-time, and because they are not globally orthogonalized, they have local properties in space. Bred vectors are akin to the leading LV, but bred vectors derived from different arbitrary initial perturba- tions remain distinct from each other, instead of collapsing into a single leading vec- tor, presumably because the nonlinear terms and physical parameterizations introduce sufficient stochastic forcing to avoid such convergence. As a result, there is no need for global orthogonalization, and the number of bred vectors required to describe the natural instabilities in an atmospheric system (from a local point of view) is much smaller than the number of Lyapunov vectors with positive Lyapunov exponents. The BVs are independent of the norm, whereas the LVs beyond the first one do depend on the choice of norm: for example, they become larger in scale with a vorticity norm, and smaller with a stream function norm. These properties of BVs result in significant advantages for data assimilation and en- semble forecasting for the atmosphere. Errors in the analysis have structures very similar to bred vectors, and it is found that they project very strongly on the subspace of a few bred vectors. This is not true for either Lyapunov vectors beyond the lead- ing LVs, or for singular vectors unless they are constructed with a norm based on the analysis error covariance matrix (or a bred vector covariance). The similarity between bred vectors and analysis errors leads to the ability to include "errors of the day" in the background error covariance and a significant improvement of the analysis beyond 3D-Var at a very low cost (Corazza, 2001b). References Alligood K. T., T. D. Sauer and J. A. Yorke, 1996: Chaos: an introduction to dynamical systems. Springer-Verlag, New York. Buizza R., J. Tribbia, F. Molteni and T. Palmer, 1993: Computation of optimal unstable 3 structures for numerical weather prediction models. Tellus, 45A, 388-407. Cai, M., E. Kalnay and Z. Toth, 2001: Potential impact of bred vectors on ensemble forecasting and data assimilation in the Zebiak-Cane model. Submitted to J of Climate. Corazza, M., E. Kalnay, D. J. Patil, R. Morss, M. Cai, I. Szunyogh, B. R. Hunt, E. Ott and J. Yorke, 2001: Use of the breeding technique to determine the structure of the "errors of the day". Submitted to Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics. Corazza, M., E. Kalnay, DJ Patil, E. Ott, J. Yorke, I Szunyogh and M. Cai, 2001: Use of the breeding technique in the estimation of the background error covariance matrix for a quasigeostrophic model. AMS Symposium on Observations, Data Assimilation and Predictability, Preprints volume, Orlando, FA, 14-17 January 2002. Farrell, B., 1988: Small error dynamics and the predictability of atmospheric flow, J. Atmos. Sciences, 45, 163-172. Kalnay, E 2002: Atmospheric modeling, data assimilation and predictability. Chapter 6. Cambridge University Press, UK. In press. Kalnay E and Z Toth 1994: Removing growing errors in the analysis. Preprints, Tenth Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, pp 212-215. Amer. Meteor. Soc., July 18-22, 1994. Lorenz, E.N., 1965: A study of the predictability of a 28-variable atmospheric model. Tellus, 21, 289-307. Lorenz, E.N., 1996: Predictability- A problem partly solved. Proceedings of the ECMWF Seminar on Predictability, Reading, England, Vol. 1 1-18. Molteni F. and TN Palmer, 1993: Predictability and finite-time instability of the north- ern winter circulation. Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 269-298. Morss, R.E.: 1999: Adaptive observations: Idealized sampling strategies for improving numerical weather prediction. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachussetts Institute of Technology, 225pp. Ott, E., 1993: Chaos in Dynamical Systems. Cambridge University Press. New York. Palmer, TN, R. Gelaro, J. Barkmeijer and R. Buizza, 1998: Singular vectors, metrics and adaptive observations. J. Atmos Sciences, 55, 633-653. Patil, DJ, BR Hunt, E Kalnay, J. Yorke, and E. Ott, 2001: Local low dimensionality of atmospheric dynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 5878. Patil, DJ, I. Szunyogh, BR Hunt, E Kalnay, E Ott, and J. Yorke, 2001: Using large 4 member ensembles to isolate local low dimensionality of atmospheric dynamics. AMS Symposium on Observations, Data Assimilation and Predictability, Preprints volume, Orlando, FA, 14-17 January 2002. Snyder, C. and A. Joly, 1998: Development of perturbations within growing baroclinic waves. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124, pp 1961. Szunyogh, I, E. Kalnay and Z. Toth, 1997: A comparison of Lyapunov and Singular vectors in a low resolution GCM. Tellus, 49A, 200-227. Toth, Z and E Kalnay 1993: Ensemble forecasting at NMC - the generation of pertur- bations. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 74, 2317-2330. Toth, Z and E Kalnay 1997: Ensemble forecasting at NCEP and the breeding method. Mon Wea Rev, 125, 3297-3319. * Corresponding author address: Eugenia Kalnay, Meteorology Depart- ment, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2425, USA; email: ekalnay@atmos.umd.edu Appendix: BV-dimension Patil et al., (2001) defined local bred vectors around a point in the 3-dimensional grid of the model by taking the 24 closest horizontal neighbors. If there are k bred vectors available, and N model variables for each grid point, the k local bred vectors form the columns of a 25Nxk matrix B. The kxk covariance matrix is C=B^T B. Its eigen- values are positive, and its eigenvectors v(i) are the singular vectors of the local bred vector subspace. The Bred Vector dimension (BV-dim) measures the local effective dimension: BV-dim[s,s,...,s(k)]={SUM[s(i)]}^2/SUM[s(i)]^2 where s(i) are the square roots of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. 5

  7. Teaching Universal Gravitation with Vector Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Matthew

    2008-12-01

    Like many high school and college physics teachers, I have found playing vector games to be a useful way of illustrating the concepts of inertia, velocity, and acceleration. Like many, I have also had difficulty in trying to get students to understand Newton's law of universal gravitation, specifically the inverse-square law and its application to motion. In this paper, I'll outline a way to address this problem through use of a vector game. The inspiration for this idea came from a January 1998 article in The Physics Teacher by Michael Vinson entitled "Space Race: A Game of Physics Adventure."

  8. Dust cloud manipulation in microgravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

    The European Space Agency’s scientific program Interactions in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle Systems (ICAPS) [1] attributed for the International Space Station is aimed at increasing our knowledge about dust agglomeration in astrophysical processes mostly related to proto-planetary matter formation. These processes are simulated experimentally in clouds initially composed of about micrometre-sized solid particles. Relatively low gas pressure provides intensive enough particle Brownian motion but considerably reduces the experimentation time at normal gravity. Microgravity removes this problem but long duration experiments result in cloud depletion due to grain diffusion to the chamber walls and particle number density decrease due to agglomeration. The main problem comes from the fact that residual forces quickly sweep away the cloud from the observation volume thus drastically reducing the experiment duration. We developed different cloud manipulation systems that solve these problems and provide additional research opportunities in investigation of dust clouds. Particularly, they counterbalance external perturbations and solve the most challenging task of the increase of particle number concentration (cloud squeezing). There are several driving forces that may be used separately or in combination. Thermophoresis and gas flows induced by thermal creep are most favourable for cloud manipulation because they are nearly independent from particle properties. Electrostatic force allows detect charged particles, while photophoresis is sensitive to particle dimensions. The system provides two main regimes - 1) cloud positioning or displacement and 2) dynamic trapping. In absence of repulsive forces between particles the latter regime leads to cloud squeezing and intensive forced particle agglomeration. The cloud manipulation system additionally provides temperature stabilization or, on the contrary, high temperature variation in the observation volume; formation of controlled temperature gradients, intensive three-dimensional periodic shear flow or three-dimensional gas density pulsations of the contraction-expansion type. In short duration microgravity conditions of the Bremen drop tower we observed controlled cloud displacement, trapping, rapid growth of extended agglomerates, formation of complex three-dimensional cloud patterns, and motion of charged particles. The results may be applied in other projects dealing with dust clouds in microgravity. ESA PRODEX program and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office are greatly acknowledged. [1] Blum, J. et al. (2008). Europhysicsnews, 39/3, 27-29.

  9. Venus: Cloud level circulation during 1982 as determined from Pioneer cloud photopolarimeter images. II - Solar longitude dependent circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1988-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter images obtained in 1982 indicate a marked solar-locked dependence of cloud level circulation in both averaged cloud motions and cloud layer UV reflectivity. An apparent relationship is noted between horizontal divergence and UV reflectivity: the highest reflectivities are associated with regions of convergence at high latitudes, while lower values are associated with equatorial latitude regions where the motions are divergent. In solar-locked coordinates, the rms deviation of normalized UV brightness is higher at 45-deg latitudes than in equatorial regions.

  10. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  11. Covariantized vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.

  12. Influence of aircraft vortices on spray cloud behavior.

    PubMed

    Mickle, R E

    1996-06-01

    For small droplet spraying, the spray cloud is initially entrained into the wingtip vortices so that the ultimate fate of the spray is controlled by the motion of these vortices. In close to 100 aerial sprays, the emitted spray cloud has been mapped using a scanning laser system that displays diffusion and transport of the spray cloud. Results detailing the concentrations within the spray cloud in space and time are given for sprays in parallel and crosswinds. Wind direction is seen to potentially alter the vortex motion and hence the fate of the spray cloud. In crosswind spraying, the vortex behavior associated with the 2 wings is found to differ, which leads to enhanced deposition from the upwind wing and enhanced drift from the downwind wing. PMID:8827623

  13. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics…

  14. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics

  15. Animation of orthogonal texture patterns for vector field visualization.

    PubMed

    Bachthaler, Sven; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces orthogonal vector field visualization on 2D manifolds: a representation by lines that are perpendicular to the input vector field. Line patterns are generated by line integral convolution (LIC). This visualization is combined with animation based on motion along the vector field. This decoupling of the line direction from the direction of animation allows us to choose the spatial frequencies along the direction of motion independently from the length scales along the LIC line patterns. Vision research indicates that local motion detectors are tuned to certain spatial frequencies of textures, and the above decoupling enables us to generate spatial frequencies optimized for motion perception. Furthermore, we introduce a combined visualization that employs orthogonal LIC patterns together with conventional, tangential streamline LIC patterns in order to benefit from the advantages of these two visualization approaches. In addition, a filtering process is described to achieve a consistent and temporally coherent animation of orthogonal vector field visualization. Different filter kernels and filter methods are compared and discussed in terms of visualization quality and speed. We present respective visualization algorithms for 2D planar vector fields and tangential vector fields on curved surfaces, and demonstrate that those algorithms lend themselves to efficient and interactive GPU implementations. PMID:18467751

  16. MotionExplorer: exploratory search in human motion capture data based on hierarchical aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Nils; Krüger, Björn; May, Thorsten; Schreck, Tobias; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2013-12-01

    We present MotionExplorer, an exploratory search and analysis system for sequences of human motion in large motion capture data collections. This special type of multivariate time series data is relevant in many research fields including medicine, sports and animation. Key tasks in working with motion data include analysis of motion states and transitions, and synthesis of motion vectors by interpolation and combination. In the practice of research and application of human motion data, challenges exist in providing visual summaries and drill-down functionality for handling large motion data collections. We find that this domain can benefit from appropriate visual retrieval and analysis support to handle these tasks in presence of large motion data. To address this need, we developed MotionExplorer together with domain experts as an exploratory search system based on interactive aggregation and visualization of motion states as a basis for data navigation, exploration, and search. Based on an overview-first type visualization, users are able to search for interesting sub-sequences of motion based on a query-by-example metaphor, and explore search results by details on demand. We developed MotionExplorer in close collaboration with the targeted users who are researchers working on human motion synthesis and analysis, including a summative field study. Additionally, we conducted a laboratory design study to substantially improve MotionExplorer towards an intuitive, usable and robust design. MotionExplorer enables the search in human motion capture data with only a few mouse clicks. The researchers unanimously confirm that the system can efficiently support their work. PMID:24051792

  17. Estimating Conical Motion From Magnetometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Method of digital processing of outputs of magnetometer mounted on scientific instrument or other assembly provides estimates of parameters of slow oscillatory motion of assembly at constant or nearly constant frequency, in which motion one axis of assembly describes elliptical cone about nominal fixed or nearly fixed axis. Conceived for use in estimating rotational-and-vibrational motion of small instrumented satellite and 20-km-long tether anchored at lower end to Space Shuttle. Applicable to almost any situation in which assembly moves conically about known axis while measuring known vector.

  18. The Minimum Mass of Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Hideyuki

    1996-08-01

    We have found a physical reason why there exists an intrinsic scale in star-forming regions as, for example, in the Taurus region. This intrinsic scale is found in Larson's Figure 1 through the angular correlation function of the companions' surface density on the sky. In this figure, there is a knee in the curve at 0.04 pc which may be related to binary formation inside the molecular cloud cores. The existence of a knee in the correlation function figure also indicates that a physical process other than self-gravity performs during the evolution of molecular cloud cores. On the other hand, the internal motion of gas in a molecular cloud is turbulent. If molecular cloud cores are embedded in a molecular cloud, the cores suffer fluid dynamical instability, especially Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. This instability is fundamental if relative motion between blobs and ambient molecular gas exists. Through KH instability we can determine the minimum mass and size of molecular cloud cores, about 10 Msolar and about 0.1 pc, respectively. The mass is comparable to the Jeans mass of cores, and the growth rate of the KH instability is also comparable to that of the Jeans instability. Thus, we can conclude that the intrinsic scale in a star-forming region is also determined by the typical evolution of molecular cloud cores in a two-phase gas mixture in which cores suffer fluid dynamical instability. It is known that star formation occurs after the formation of a molecular cloud core. Then, if a star comes into existence as a binary in the core, the intrinsic scale may be lower than the 0.1 pc scale.

  19. Quantication and analysis of respiratory motion from 4D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizzuddin Abd Rahni, Ashrani; Lewis, Emma; Wells, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that respiratory motion affects image acquisition and also external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treatment planning and delivery. However often the existing approaches for respiratory motion management are based on a generic view of respiratory motion such as the general movement of organ, tissue or fiducials. This paper thus aims to present a more in depth analysis of respiratory motion based on 4D MRI for further integration into motion correction in image acquisition or image based EBRT. Internal and external motion was first analysed separately, on a per-organ basis for internal motion. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the internal and external motion vectors separately and the relationship between the two PCA spaces was analysed. The motion extracted from 4D MRI on general was found to be consistent with what has been reported in literature.

  20. Optimum instantaneous impulsive orbital injection to attain a specified asymptotic velocity vector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    A nalysis of the necessary conditions of Battin for instantaneous orbital injection, with consideration of the uniqueness of his solution, and of the further problem which arises in the degenerate case when radius vector and asymptotic vector are separated by 180 deg. It is shown that when the angular separation between radius vector and asymptotic velocity vector satisfies theta not equal to 180 deg, there are precisely two insertion-velocity vectors which permit attainment of the target asymptotic velocity vector, one yielding posigrade, the other retrograde motion. When theta equals to 180 deg, there is a family of insertion-velocity vectors which permit attainment of a specified asymptotic velocity vector with a unique insertion-velocity vector for every arbitrary orientation of a target unit angular momentum vector.

  1. Venus Cloud Patterns (colorized and filtered)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This picture of Venus was taken by the Galileo spacecrafts Solid State Imaging System on February 14, 1990, at a range of almost 1.7 million miles from the planet. A highpass spatial filter has been applied in order to emphasize the smaller scale cloud features, and the rendition has been colorized to a bluish hue in order to emphasize the subtle contrasts in the cloud markings and to indicate that it was taken through a violet filter. The sulfuric acid clouds indicate considerable convective activity, in the equatorial regions of the planet to the left and downwind of the subsolar point (afternoon on Venus). They are analogous to 'fair weather clouds' on Earth. The filamentary dark features visible in the colorized image are here revealed to be composed of several dark nodules, like beads on a string, each about 60 miles across. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; its mission is to study Jupiter and its satellites and magnetosphere after multiple gravity assist flybys at Venus and Earth. These images of the Venus clouds were taken by Galileo's Solid State Imaging System February 13, 1990, at a range of about 1 million miles. The smallest detail visible is about 20 miles. The two right images show Venus in violet light, the top one at a time six hours later than the bottom one. They show the state of the clouds near the top of Venus's cloud deck. A right to left motion of the cloud features is evident and is consistent with westward winds of about 230 mph. The two left images show Venus in near infrared light, at the same times as the two right images. Sunlight penetrates through the clouds more deeply at the near infrared wavelengths, allowing a view near the bottom of the cloud deck. The westward motion of the clouds is slower (about 150 mph) at the lower altitude. The clouds are composed of sulfuric acid droplets and occupy a range of altitudes from 30 to 45 miles. The images have been spatially filtered to bring out small scale details and de-emphasize global shading. The filtering has introduced artifacts (wiggly lines running north/south) that are faintly visible in the infrared image. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; its mission is to study Jupiter and its satellites and magnetosphere after multiple gravity assist flybys at Venus and Earth.

  2. Bulldozing Your Way Through Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Presents two models and two demonstrations targeted at student understanding of projectile motion as the sum of two independent, perpendicular vectors. Describes materials required, construction, and procedures used. Includes a discussion of teaching points appropriate to each demonstration or model. (JM)

  3. Ice Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Clouds scoot across the Martian sky in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This clip accelerates the motion. The camera took these 10 frames over a 10-minute period from 2:52 p.m. to 3:02 p.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 94 (Aug. 29), the 94th Martian day since landing.

    Particles of water-ice make up these clouds, like ice-crystal cirrus clouds on Earth. Ice hazes have been common at the Phoenix site in recent days.

    The camera took these images as part of a campaign by the Phoenix team to see clouds and track winds. The view is toward slightly west of due south, so the clouds are moving westward or west-northwestward.

    The clouds are a dramatic visualization of the Martian water cycle. The water vapor comes off the north pole during the peak of summer. The northern-Mars summer has just passed its peak water-vapor abundance at the Phoenix site. The atmospheric water is available to form into clouds, fog and frost, such as the lander has been observing recently.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  5. A planar Runge-Lenz vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    Following Dahl's method an exact Runge-Lenz vector M with two components M1 and M2 is obtained as a constant of motion for a two particle system with charges e1 and e2 whose electromagnetic interaction is based on Chern-Simons electrodynamics. The Poisson bracket {M1,M2}≠Lz but is modified by the appearance of the product e1e2 as central charges.

  6. MGRA: Motion Gesture Recognition via Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; You, Shujuan; Wei, Meiyu; Zhang, Yongtuo; Guo, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely embedded in most current mobile devices, enabling easy and intuitive operations. This paper proposes a Motion Gesture Recognition system (MGRA) based on accelerometer data only, which is entirely implemented on mobile devices and can provide users with real-time interactions. A robust and unique feature set is enumerated through the time domain, the frequency domain and singular value decomposition analysis using our motion gesture set containing 11,110 traces. The best feature vector for classification is selected, taking both static and mobile scenarios into consideration. MGRA exploits support vector machine as the classifier with the best feature vector. Evaluations confirm that MGRA can accommodate a broad set of gesture variations within each class, including execution time, amplitude and non-gestural movement. Extensive evaluations confirm that MGRA achieves higher accuracy under both static and mobile scenarios and costs less computation time and energy on an LG Nexus 5 than previous methods. PMID:27089336

  7. MGRA: Motion Gesture Recognition via Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; You, Shujuan; Wei, Meiyu; Zhang, Yongtuo; Guo, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely embedded in most current mobile devices, enabling easy and intuitive operations. This paper proposes a Motion Gesture Recognition system (MGRA) based on accelerometer data only, which is entirely implemented on mobile devices and can provide users with real-time interactions. A robust and unique feature set is enumerated through the time domain, the frequency domain and singular value decomposition analysis using our motion gesture set containing 11,110 traces. The best feature vector for classification is selected, taking both static and mobile scenarios into consideration. MGRA exploits support vector machine as the classifier with the best feature vector. Evaluations confirm that MGRA can accommodate a broad set of gesture variations within each class, including execution time, amplitude and non-gestural movement. Extensive evaluations confirm that MGRA achieves higher accuracy under both static and mobile scenarios and costs less computation time and energy on an LG Nexus 5 than previous methods. PMID:27089336

  8. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  9. Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.

  10. A Modified Electric Field Mill and Measurements of Cloud Electric Field with it at a Tropical Coastal Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu, R.; Vishnu, R.; Muralidas, S.; Mohankumar, G.; Sampath, S.

    Electric field mills are kept away from a recording station in an open field. During times of deviation of data from a known diurnal pattern and at times of malfunctioning of an element of the measurement system, a necessity to instantly check the functioning of the field mill arises. A modification to a field deployable inverted field mill to do an evaluation of functioning of is presented and discussed. With the above field mill measurements of cloud electric field on the day of setting in of south west monsoon on the Indian peninsula and on a few days of break monsoon from Thiruvananthapuram, CityplaceKerala, country-regionIndia for the year 2009 is presented. The data along with cloud motion vector picture for three levels are also presented and discussed. Data from an automatic weather station operated at the location is also used for understanding the data from field mill. Cloud electric field measurements with the field mill from a mountain station where charged Cbs form during lightning season of the region are also presented and discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Three Sensor Types for Particle Motion Measurement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bruce; Zeddies, David G; Gaudet, Briand; Richard, Joel

    2016-01-01

    All fish sense acoustic particle motion; some species also sense pressure. Concern over the effects of anthropogenic sounds is increasing the need to monitor acoustic particle motion. Particle motion can be measured directly using vector sensors or calculated from pressure gradients. This article compares three devices that measure particle motion: a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis velocity sensor, and two 4-element hydrophone arrays. A series of sounds (constant-wave tones, white noise, and Ricker wavelets) were played from a fixed-position projector. The particle motion of sounds from imploding light bulbs was also measured. PMID:26611019

  12. SinoCor: motion correction in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Debasis; Eiland, Daniel; Abdallah, Mahmoud; Bouthcko, Rostyslav; Gullberg, Grant T.; Schechtmann, Norberto

    2012-02-01

    Motion is a serious artifact in Cardiac nuclear imaging because the scanning operation takes a long time. Since reconstruction algorithms assume consistent or stationary data the quality of resulting image is affected by motion, sometimes significantly. Even after adoption of the gold standard MoCo(R) algorithm from Cedars-Sinai by most vendors, heart motion remains a significant challenge. Also, any serious study in quantitative analysis necessitates correction for motion artifacts. It is generally recognized that human eye is a very sensitive tool for detecting motion. However, two reasons prevent such manual correction: (1) it is costly in terms of specialist's time, and (2) no such tool for manual correction is available currently. Previously, at SPIE-MIC'11, we presented a simple tool (SinoCor) that allows sinograms to be corrected manually or automatically. SinoCor performs correction of sinograms containing inter-frame patient or respiratory motions using rigid-body dynamics. The software is capable of detecting the patient motion and estimating the body-motion vector using scanning geometry parameters. SinoCor applies appropriate geometrical correction to all the frames subsequent to the frame when the movement has occurred in a manual or automated mode. For respiratory motion, it is capable of automatically smoothing small oscillatory (frame-wise local) movements. Lower order image moments are used to represent a frame and the required rigid body movement compensation is computed accordingly. Our current focus is on enhancement of SinoCor with the capability to automatically detect and compensate for intra-frame motion that causes motion blur on the respective frame. Intra-frame movements are expected in both patient and respiratory motions. For a controlled study we also have developed a motion simulator. A stable version of SinoCor is available under license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  13. Local Group Proper Motion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2015-04-01

    Our knowledge of the dynamics and masses of galaxies in the Local Group has long been limited by the fact that only line-of-sight velocities were observationally accessible. This introduces significant degeneracies in dynamical models, which can only be resolved by measuring also the velocity components perpendicular to the line of sight. However, beyond the solar neighborhood, the corresponding proper motions have generally been too small to measure. This has changed dramatically over the past decade, especially due to the angular resolution and stability available on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions can now be reliably measured throughout the Local Group, as illustrated by, e.g., the work of the HSTPROMO collaboration. In this review, I summarize the importance of proper motions for Local Group science, and I describe the current and future observational approaches and facilities available to measure proper motions. I highlight recent results on various Milky Way populations (globular clusters, the bulge, the metal-poor halo, hypervelocity stars, and tidal streams), dwarf satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda System.

  14. Motion Information Inferring Scheme for Multi-View Video Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Suh; Jeon, Yong-Joon; Jeon, Byeong-Moon

    This letter proposes a motion information inferring scheme for multi-view video coding motivated by the idea that the aspect of motion vector between the corresponding positions in the neighboring view pair is quite similar. The proposed method infers the motion information from the corresponding macroblock in the neighboring view after RD optimization with the existing prediction modes. This letter presents evaluation showing that the method significantly enhances the efficiency especially at high bit rates.

  15. Diffuse Reflection of Laser Light From Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Davis, A.; McGill, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser light reflected from an aqueous suspension of particles or "cloud" with known thickness and particle size distribution defines the "cloud radiative Green's function", G. G is sensitive to cloud thickness, allowing retrieval of that important quantity. We describe a laboratory simulation of G, useful in design of an offbeam Lidar instrument for remote sensing of cloud thickness. Clouds of polystyrene microspheres suspended in water are analogous to real clouds of water droplets suspended in air. The size distribution extends from 0.5 microns to 25 microns, roughly lognormal, similar to real clouds. Density of suspended spheres is adjusted so photon mean-free-path is about 10 cm, 1000 times smaller than in real clouds. The light source is a Nd:YAG laser at 530 nm. Detectors are flux and photon-counting PMTs, with a glass probe for precise positioning. A Labview 5 VI controls position and data acquisition, via an NI Motion Control board connected to a stepper motor driving an Edmund linear slider,and a 16-channel 16-bit NI-DAQ board. The stepper motor is accurate to 10 microns. Step size is selectable. Far from the beam, the rate of exponential increase in the beam direction scales as expected from diffusion theory, linearly with cloud thickness, and inversely as the square root of the reduced optical thickness, independent of particle size. Nearer the beam the signal increases faster than exponential and depends on particle size. Results verify 3D Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate detectability of remotely sensed offbeam returns, without filters at night, with narrow bandpass filter in day.

  16. Cloud CCN feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result.

  17. Inflation with a massive vector field nonminimally coupled to gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.; Bessa, V.; Páramos, J.

    2016-03-01

    We study the possibility that inflation is driven by a massive vector field with S O (3 ) global symmetry nonminimally coupled to gravity. From an E3-invariant Robertson-Walker metric we propose an Ansatz for the vector field, allowing us to study the evolution of the system. We study the behavior of the equations of motion using the methods of the theory of dynamical systems and find exponential inflationary regimes.

  18. The vector curvaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Andrs A.; Rodrguez, Yeinzon

    2013-07-01

    We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation ?. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of ? depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in ? . This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of the vector field increases with time during inflation, where it is possible to find a heavy field (M >> H) at the end of inflation, making the particle production be practically isotropic; thus, the longitudinal and transverse spectra are nearly the same order which in turn causes that the statistical anisotropy generated by the vector field is within the observational bounds.

  19. Intermediate vector bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smondyrev, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Physical discoveries underlying the theory of intermediate vector bosons are reviewed, with emphasis on the work of Fermi. The mass, generation, and decay of these particles are considered in the framework of Weinberg-Salam theory. Experiments aimed at the study of intermediate vector bosons are briefly discussed, with particular attention given to the LEP project.

  20. Selection vector filter framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  1. Vegetation forcing and convective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X.; Leach, M.J.; Raman, S.

    1995-04-01

    A large irrigated vegetation area in a semiarid or relatively dry location is a strong surface forcing of thermal circulations. Several observational studies have found that such thermally induced mesoscale circulation may contribute to the triggering and development of convective clouds. In the western United States, extensive areas of irrigated farmland are surrounded by hot, dry surfaces, such as a steppe. Substantial gradients of sensible heating in the horizontal direction lead to a {open_quotes}farm breeze{close_quotes} circulation from the cooler agricultural area to the warmer steppes found at Boardman, Oregon. These thermally forced circulations may trigger convection by the related convergence and updraft motion under favorable atmospheric conditions. The role of vegetative covering in convective motion is investigated using a mesoscale numerical model. Two- and three-dimensional simulations are described. The effects of atmospheric stability, moisture in the lower atmosphere, moisture in the upper atmosphere, and horizontal heating scale on thermally induced clouds are studied. The horizontal scale of inhomogeneity is also studied using the two-dimensional model. Finally, a realistic vegetation distribution similar to that of the Boardman Regional Flux Experiment is used in the three-dimensional simulations.

  2. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  3. Virus expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2014-05-01

    For many years now, virus expression vectors have been explored as a mechanism for gene delivery, cancer therapy and vaccine development. More recently, the next generation of virus vectors have been generated that possess greater attributes such as tissue specificity and improved expression levels, while at the same time lack many of the shortcomings of their predecessors, such as issues regarding immunogenicity and safety. This review article describes several of the recent patents that have been issued in the field of virus expression vector development. Innovations in both plant and animal virus expression vectors are covered. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects of virus expression vectors as tools in medical research. PMID:24998286

  4. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery. PMID:26611583

  5. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  6. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  7. Retroviral cell targeting vectors.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, C J; Stitz, J; Cichutek, K

    1999-10-01

    The availability of cell targeting vectors is an unalterable requirement for in vivo gene therapy trials. This review will describe the different strategies developed over the past few years in order to target retroviral vectors to preselected human cell types by genetic modification of the envelope (Env) proteins. Current targeting concepts include the substitution of the complete Env protein as well as the incorporation of new receptor binding domains into the Env protein. These approaches are aimed at altering the host range of vectors with a natural tropism for non-human cells to specific human cell types, or achieving tissue-specificity for vectors that would naturally infect a wide spectrum of human cell types. Targeting concepts and efficient targeting vectors with potential for clinical trials will be described, and their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. PMID:11249668

  8. Stability of Horndeski vector-tensor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Durrer, Ruth; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Thorsrud, Mikjel E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@astro.uio.no

    2013-10-01

    We study the Horndeski vector-tensor theory that leads to second order equations of motion and contains a non-minimally coupled abelian gauge vector field. This theory is remarkably simple and consists of only 2 terms for the vector field, namely: the standard Maxwell kinetic term and a coupling to the dual Riemann tensor. Furthermore, the vector sector respects the U(1) gauge symmetry and the theory contains only one free parameter, M{sup 2}, that controls the strength of the non-minimal coupling. We explore the theory in a de Sitter spacetime and study the presence of instabilities and show that it corresponds to an attractor solution in the presence of the vector field. We also investigate the cosmological evolution and stability of perturbations in a general FLRW spacetime. We find that a sufficient condition for the absence of ghosts is M{sup 2} > 0. Moreover, we study further constraints coming from imposing the absence of Laplacian instabilities. Finally, we study the stability of the theory in static and spherically symmetric backgrounds (in particular, Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter). We find that the theory, quite generally, do have ghosts or Laplacian instabilities in regions of spacetime where the non-minimal interaction dominates over the Maxwell term. We also calculate the propagation speed in these spacetimes and show that superluminality is a quite generic phenomenon in this theory.

  9. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  10. Visual motion integration is mediated by directional ambiguities in local motion signals.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Francesca; Ledgeway, Tim; Webb, Ben S

    2013-01-01

    The output of primary visual cortex (V1) is a piecemeal representation of the visual scene and the response of any one cell cannot unambiguously guide sensorimotor behavior. It remains unsolved how subsequent stages of cortical processing combine ("pool") these early visual signals into a coherent representation. We (Webb et al., 2007, 2011) have shown that responses of human observers on a pooling task employing broadband, random dot motion can be accurately predicted by decoding the maximum likelihood direction from a population of motion-sensitive neurons. Whereas Amano et al. (2009) found that the vector average velocity of arrays of narrowband, two-dimensional (2-d) plaids predicts perceived global motion. To reconcile these different results, we designed two experiments in which we used 2-d noise textures moving behind spatially distributed apertures and measured the point of subjective equality between pairs of global noise textures. Textures in the standard stimulus moved rigidly in the same direction, whereas their directions in the comparison stimulus were sampled from a set of probability distributions. Human observers judged which noise texture had a more clockwise (CW) global direction. In agreement with Amano and colleagues, observers' perceived global motion coincided with the vector average stimulus direction. To test if directional ambiguities in local motion signals governed perceived global direction, we manipulated the fidelity of the texture motion within each aperture. A proportion of the apertures contained texture that underwent rigid translation and the remainder contained dynamic (temporally uncorrelated) noise to create locally ambiguous motion. Perceived global motion matched the vector average when the majority of apertures contained rigid motion, but with increasing levels of dynamic noise shifted toward the maximum likelihood direction. A class of population decoders utilizing power-law non-linearities can accommodate this flexible pooling. PMID:24302910

  11. Tvashtar in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This five-frame sequence of New Horizons images captures the giant plume from Io's Tvashtar volcano. Snapped by the probe's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter earlier this year, this first-ever 'movie' of an Io plume clearly shows motion in the cloud of volcanic debris, which extends 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the moon's surface. Only the upper part of the plume is visible from this vantage point -- the plume's source is 130 kilometers (80 miles) below the edge of Io's disk, on the far side of the moon.

    The appearance and motion of the plume is remarkably similar to an ornamental fountain on Earth, replicated on a gigantic scale. The knots and filaments that allow us to track the plume's motion are still mysterious, but this movie is likely to help scientists understand their origin, as well as provide unique information on the plume dynamics.

    Io's hyperactive nature is emphasized by the fact that two other volcanic plumes are also visible off the edge of Io's disk: Masubi at the 7 o'clock position, and a very faint plume, possibly from the volcano Zal, at the 10 o'clock position. Jupiter illuminates the night side of Io, and the most prominent feature visible on the disk is the dark horseshoe shape of the volcano Loki, likely an enormous lava lake. Boosaule Mons, which at 18 kilometers (11 miles) is the highest mountain on Io and one of the highest mountains in the solar system, pokes above the edge of the disk on the right side.

    The five images were obtained over an 8-minute span, with two minutes between frames, from 23:50 to 23:58 Universal Time on March 1, 2007. Io was 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from New Horizons; the image is centered at Io coordinates 0 degrees north, 342 degrees west.

    The pictures were part of a sequence designed to look at Jupiter's rings, but planners included Io in the sequence because the moon was passing behind Jupiter's rings at the time.

  12. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  13. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  14. Descriptor for spatial distribution of motion activity for compressed video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Sun, Huifang

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we present a new descriptor for spatial distribution of motion activity in video sequences. We use the magnitude of the motion vectors as a measure of the intensity of motion cavity in a macro-block. We construct a matrix Cmv consisting of the magnitudes of the motion vector for each macro-block of a given P frame. We compute the average magnitude of the motion vector per macro-block Cavg, and then use Cavg as a threshold on the matrix C by setting the elements of C that are less than Cavg to zero. We classify the runs of zeros into three categories based on length, and count the number of runs of each category in the matrix C. Our activity descriptor for a frame thus consists of four parameters viz. the average magnitude of the motion vectors and the numbers of runs of short, medium and long length. Since the feature extraction is in the compressed domain and simple, it is extremely fast. We have tested it on the MPEG-7 test content set, which consists of approximately 14 hours of MPEG-1 encoded video content of different kinds. We find that our descriptor enables fast and accurate indexing of video. It is robust to noise and changes in encoding parameters such as frame size, frame rate, encoding bit rate, encoding format etc. It is a low-level non-semantic descriptor that gives semantic matches within the same program, and is thus very suitable for applications such as video program browsing. We also find that indirect and computationally simpler measures of the magnitude of the motion vectors such as bits taken to encode the motion vectors, though less effective, also can be used in our run-length framework.

  15. On the stability and causality of scalar-vector theories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleury, Pierre; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrán E-mail: juanpbeltran@uan.edu.co E-mail: uzan@iap.fr

    2014-11-01

    Various extensions of standard inflationary models have been proposed recently by adding vector fields. Because they are generally motivated by large-scale anomalies, and the possibility of statistical anisotropy of primordial fluctuations, such models require to introduce non-standard couplings between vector fields on the one hand, and either gravity or scalar fields on the other hand. In this article, we study models involving a vector field coupled to a scalar field. We derive restrictive necessary conditions for these models to be both stable (Hamiltonian bounded by below) and causal (hyperbolic equations of motion)

  16. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  17. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Small Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Closed cell clouds are formed under conditions of widespread sinking of the air above. ...

  18. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  19. 'Striated Delta' Clouds As Tracers Of Inertia-Gravity Wave Emission From Upper Jets And Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. L.; Reeder, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    'Striated Delta' cloud formations are frequently tracers of upper-tropospheric inertia-gravity wave disturbances near the jet stream, coincident with rapid extratropical cyclogenesis (Feren, 1995). The investigation of source mechanisms in this context is important for better understanding of how and where large-amplitude inertia-gravity waves are generated, which propagate energy throughout the atmosphere and transfer it to the mean flow through breaking or attenuation processes. A seasonal study of twenty-eight Striated Delta events in the Australia/New Zealand region during May to September 2009 is analysed in the high-resolution ECMWF YOTC dataset. Mean composite analyses show that Striated Deltas occur in an upper-tropospheric environment of strong horizontal divergence, strong parcel accelerations, strong vertical motion and geostrophic imbalance. Synoptically, the Striated Delta cases occur in the poleward jet exit region near the axis of inflexion between an upstream upper trough and a downstream upper ridge. This is consistent with findings of previous studies regarding the synoptic environment characteristic of gravity wave generation. A Q-vector partitioning analysis suggests that flow curvature and advection of shear are the two greatest components to synoptic scale vertical motion forcing. The Q-Vector analysis also explains the characteristic triangular shape of the Striated Delta cloud formation. It is hypothesised that strong parcel accelerations due to curvature of the flow, as well as air parcel deceleration in the jet streak exit region, are responsible for the generation of inertia-gravity waves evident in the banding of Striated Delta clouds. Furthermore, deep convection is favoured in the poleward jet exit region by the ageostrophic circulation and is also thought to play a role in the generation of waves and the modulation of wavelengths. A distinct and interesting Striated Delta and extratropical cyclogenesis event from September 2009 is simulated in high-resolution in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, and the wave source dynamics investigated further. Feren, G., 1995: The "Striated Delta" Cloud System - A satellite imagery precursor to major cyclogenesis in the Eastern Australian-Western Tasman Sea region. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 286-309.

  20. Proper motion measurements of HH 224

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Rivera, Erika F.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Barsony, Mary; Phelps, Randy L.; Romn-Zuga, Carlos; Tapia, Mauricio; Jos Downes, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We measured the proper motion of the components of Herbig-Haro object HH 224 embedded in the rho Ophiuchi cloud core using two epochs of [S II] imaging with a 17-year baseline. Our analysis finds the direction of HH 224N to be consistent with the other components of HH 224S suggesting HH 224S and HH 224N are part of the same flow. We discuss possible driving sources. We acknowledge partial support from PAPPIT-IN101813.

  1. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  2. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2011-05-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the calculations. What do our students see? Likely, most see no deeper than the operational understanding needed to use the kinematic equations. Described below is a device (shown in Fig. 1) that illustrates the physicist's view of projectile motion. It can be used as a classroom demonstration or as a project for your students, and it costs less than three dollars to make.

  3. High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

    1993-01-01

    Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

  4. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  5. Cloud Scaling Properties and Cloud Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Cloud liquid and cloud traction variability is studied as a function of horizontal scale in the ECMWF forecast model during several 10-day runs at the highest available model resolution, recently refined from approximately 60 km (T213) down to approximately 20 km (T639). At higher resolutions, model plane-parallel albedo biases are reduced, so that models may be tuned to have larger, more realistic, cloud liquid water amounts, However, the distribution of cloud liquid assumed -within- each gridbox, for radiative and thermodynamic computations, depends on ad hoc assumptions that are not necessarily consistent with observed scaling properties, or with scaling properties produced by the model at larger scales. To study the larger-scale cloud properties, ten locations on the Earth are chosen to coincide with locations having considerable surface data available for validation, and representing a variety of climatic regimes, scaling exponents are determined from a range or scales down to model resolution, and are re-computed every three hours, separately for low, medium and high clouds, as well as column-integrated cloudiness. Cloud variability fluctuates in time, due to diurnal, synoptic and other' processes, but scaling exponents are found to be relatively stable. various approaches are considered for applying computed cloud scaling to subgrid cloud distributions used for radiation, beyond simple random or maximal overlap now in common use. Considerably more work is needed to compare model cloud scaling with observations. This will be aided by increased availability of high-resolution surface, aircraft and satellite data, and by the increasing resolution of global models,

  6. Saharan Dust Cloud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... A huge dust cloud blown westward from the Algerian desert is now wafting over the southeastern United States. The cloud, about the ... date:  Jul 20, 2005 Images:  Sahara Dust Cloud location:  Africa thumbnail:  ...

  7. Cloud Computing Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses

  8. Cloud Computing Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  9. Some cloud population statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, J. William

    1985-01-01

    Photographs of cloud scenes taken from the orbiting space shuttle are being used to assess the overestimation in the amount of cloud cover sensed by satellites at angles other than nadir. Also these photographs and Landsat images indicate that the frequency distributions of clear and of cloudy intervals, at least in simple tropical cloud scenes, may be approximated by common distribution functions.

  10. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  11. Fast image interpolation for motion estimation using graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Francis; Kokaram, Anil

    2004-05-01

    Motion estimation and compensation is the key to high quality video coding. Block matching motion estimation is used in most video codecs, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.26L. Motion estimation is also a key component in the digital restoration of archived video and for post-production and special effects in the movie industry. Sub-pixel accurate motion vectors can improve the quality of the vector field and lead to more efficient video coding. However sub-pixel accuracy requires interpolation of the image data. Image interpolation is a key requirement of many image processing algorithms. Often interpolation can be a bottleneck in these applications, especially in motion estimation due to the large number pixels involved. In this paper we propose using commodity computer graphics hardware for fast image interpolation. We use the full search block matching algorithm to illustrate the problems and limitations of using graphics hardware in this way.

  12. LCD motion blur reduction: a signal processing approach.

    PubMed

    Har-Noy, Shay; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2008-02-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have shown great promise in the consumer market for their use as both computer and television displays. Despite their many advantages, the inherent sample-and-hold nature of LCD image formation results in a phenomenon known as motion blur. In this work, we develop a method for motion blur reduction using the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm in concert with motion vector information from the scene. We further refine our approach by introducing a perceptual significance metric that allows us to weight the amount of processing performed on different regions in the image. In addition, we analyze the role of motion vector errors in the quality of our resulting image. Perceptual tests indicate that our algorithm reduces the amount of perceivable motion blur in LCDs. PMID:18270104

  13. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  14. Dual-FOV Raman and Doppler lidar studies of aerosol-cloud interactions: Simultaneous profiling of aerosols, warm-cloud properties, and vertical wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Müller, Detlef; Malinka, Aleksey V.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, colocated dual-field of view (dual-FOV) Raman lidar and Doppler lidar observations (case studies) of aerosol and cloud optical and microphysical properties below and within thin layered liquid water clouds are presented together with an updraft and downdraft characterization at cloud base. The goal of this work is to investigate the relationship between aerosol load close to cloud base and cloud characteristics of warm (purely liquid) clouds and the study of the influence of vertical motions and turbulent mixing on this relationship. We further use this opportunity to illustrate the applicability of the novel dual-FOV Raman lidar in this field of research. The dual-FOV lidar combines the well-established multiwavelength Raman lidar technique for aerosol retrievals and the multiple-scattering Raman lidar technique for profiling of the single-scattering extinction coefficient, effective radius, number concentration of the cloud droplets, and liquid water content. Key findings of our 3 year observations are presented in several case studies of optically thin altocumulus layers occurring in the lower free troposphere between 2.5 and 4 km height over Leipzig, Germany, during clean and polluted situations. For the clouds that we observed, the most direct link between aerosol proxy (particle extinction coefficient) and cloud proxy (cloud droplet number concentration) was found at cloud base during updraft periods. Above cloud base, additional processes resulting from turbulent mixing and entrainment of dry air make it difficult to determine the direct impact of aerosols on cloud processes.

  15. Poxviruses as vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Pastoret, P-P; Vanderplasschen, A

    2003-10-01

    The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another poxvirus) and paradoxically, despite the eradication of smallpox, there has been an explosion of interest in vaccinia virus in the eighties. This interest has stemmed in part from the application of molecular genetics to clone and express foreign genes from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Vaccinia is also gaining renewed interest due to bioterrorism. These recombinant viruses have multiple applications in research and vaccinology and led to the development of vectored vaccines, such as the recombinant vaccinia rabies vaccine used to eliminate rabies in Western Europe and, more recently, in the United States. Secondly, alternative poxvirus vectors, such as avipox viruses, were proved to be even safer and efficacious non-replicating vectors (suiciole vectors) when used in non-avian species. PMID:12818621

  16. Understanding Vector Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  17. Poynting-vector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Cloud Collisions in Two Dimensions: The Fate of Clouds in a Multiphase Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco; Jones, T. W.; Ferrara, Andrea; Ryu, Dongsu

    1997-12-01

    We have studied head-on collisions between equal-mass, mildly supersonic H I clouds (Mach number 1.5 with respect to the background medium) through high-resolution numerical simulations in two dimensions. We explore the role of various factors, including the radiative cooling parameter, η = τrad/τcoll (τcoll = Rc/vc), evolutionary modifications on the cloud structure, and the symmetry of the problem. Self-gravity is not included. Radiative losses are taken into account explicitly and not approximated with an isothermal adiabatic index γ ~ 1, which, in fact, leads to very different results. We assume a standard two-phase interstellar medium (ISM) model where clouds are characterized by a temperature Tc = 74 K and number density nc = 22 cm-3 and are in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding warm intercloud medium (WIM), with a density contrast χ = ρc/ρi = 100. In particular, we study collisions for the adiabatic (η >> 1) and radiative (η = 0.38) cases that may correspond to small (Rc <= 0.4 pc for an assumed WIM) or large (Rc ~ 1.5 pc) clouds, respectively. In addition to a standard case of identical ``nonevolved'' clouds, we also consider the collision of identical clouds, ``evolved'' through independent motion within the intercloud gas, over one crushing time before collision. This turns out to be about the mean collision time for such clouds in the ISM. The presence of bow shocks and ram pressure from material in the cloud wake alters these interactions significantly with respect to the standard case. In some cases, we removed the mirror symmetry from the problem by colliding initially identical clouds ``evolved'' to different ages before impact. In those cases, the colliding clouds have different density and velocity structures, so that they provide a first insight on the behavior of more complex interactions. In our adiabatic collisions, the clouds are generally disrupted and convert their gas into the warm phase of the ISM. Although the details depend on the initial conditions, the two colliding clouds are converted into a few low-density contrast (χ ~ 5) clumps at the end of the simulations. By contrast, for symmetric radiative cases, we find that the two clouds coalesce, and there are good chances for a new massive cloud to be formed. Almost all the initial kinetic energy of the two clouds is radiated away during such collisions. On the other hand, for both adiabatic and radiative collisions, symmetry breaking leads to major differences. Most importantly, asymmetric collisions have a much greater tendency to disrupt the two clouds. Portions of individual clouds may be sheared away, and instabilities along the interfaces between the clouds and with the intercloud medium are enhanced. In addition, radiative cooling is less efficient in our asymmetric interactions, so that those parts of the clouds that initially seem to merge are more likely to reexpand and fade into the warm intercloud medium. Since the majority of real cloud collisions should be asymmetric for one reason or another, we conclude that most gasdynamical diffuse cloud collisions will be disruptive, at least in the absence of significant self-gravity or a significant magnetic field.

  19. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kalesse, Heike

    2013-06-27

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  20. Cloud microstructure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, H. H., Jr.; Fowler, M. G.; Chang, D. T.; Ryan, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Over two thousand individual cloud droplet size distributions were measured with an optical cloud particle spectrometer flown on the NASA Convair 990 aircraft. Representative droplet spectra and liquid water content, L (gm/cu m) were obtained for oceanic stratiform and cumuliform clouds. For non-precipitating clouds, values of L range from 0.1 gm/cu m to 0.5 gm/cu m; with precipitation, L is often greater than 1 gm/cu m. Measurements were also made in a newly formed contrail and in cirrus clouds.

  1. Turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Falgarone, Edith

    2012-11-01

    Stars form within molecular clouds but our understanding of this fundamental process remains hampered by the complexity of the physics that drives their evolution. We review our observational and theoretical knowledge of molecular clouds trying to confront the two approaches wherever possible. After a broad presentation of the cold interstellar medium and molecular clouds, we emphasize the dynamical processes with special focus to turbulence and its impact on cloud evolution. We then review our knowledge of the velocity, density and magnetic fields. We end by openings towards new chemistry models and the links between molecular cloud structure and star-formation rates.

  2. Speed tuning of motion segmentation and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. S.; Mestre, D. R.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    Motion transparency requires that the visual system distinguish different motion vectors and selectively integrate similar motion vectors over space into the perception of multiple surfaces moving through or over each other. Using large-field (7 degrees x 7 degrees) displays containing two populations of random-dots moving in the same (horizontal) direction but at different speeds, we examined speed-based segmentation by measuring the speed difference above which observers can perceive two moving surfaces. We systematically investigated this 'speed-segmentation' threshold as a function of speed and stimulus duration, and found that it increases sharply for speeds above approximately 8 degrees/s. In addition, speed-segmentation thresholds decrease with stimulus duration out to approximately 200 ms. In contrast, under matched conditions, speed-discrimination thresholds stay low at least out to 16 degrees/s and decrease with increasing stimulus duration at a faster rate than for speed segmentation. Thus, motion segmentation and motion discrimination exhibit different speed selectivity and different temporal integration characteristics. Results are discussed in terms of the speed preferences of different neuronal populations within the primate visual cortex.

  3. Diagnosing the severe thunderstorm environment by mesoscale cloud tracking - A new approach and new information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, J. F. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Stewart, J. K.; Leary, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new method for cloud tracking and observing storm development using satellite imagery in a cloud relative mode is presented. This method changes the analyst's function to one of monitoring cloud growth and changes over a finite time period and identifying portions of the cloud that are suitable for use as trackers. It is shown how many problems previously encountered by meteorologists in mesoscale cloud tracking can be overcome by using the cloud relative technique to determine mesoscale flow fields whose heights are determined using stereographic techniques. By separating growth and decay from cloud motion in a cumulus field using the method and accurately defining cloud heights, vertical wind shears within mesoscale domains may be defined. When this information is used to study the relative velocity of flows at different levels with respect to a developing or mature storm, improved insight into storm behavior can be achieved.

  4. Conference on Cloud Physics, Tucson, Ariz., October 21-24, 1974, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Condensation and ice nucleation processes are considered, taking into account measurements of cloud nuclei and aerosol size spectra in the semiarid Southwest, the formation of sulfates and the enhancement of cloud condensation nuclei in clouds, biogenic sources of atmospheric ice nuclei, and the experimental determination of the deposition coefficient of water vapor onto ice. Other topics discussed are related to precipitation growth processes, the role of ice in cloud systems, cloud modeling, measurements in Colorado hailstorms during the national hail research experiment, cloud measurements, and measurement techniques. Attention is also given to cloud electrification, zero-gravity experiments, and the control of cloud development by larger scale motions. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  5. Cloud Arcs in the Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Small cumulus clouds in this natural-color view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer have formed a distinctive series of quasi-circular arcs. Clues regarding the formation of these arcs can be found by noting that larger clouds exist in the interior of each arc.

    The interior clouds are thicker and likely to be more convectively active than the other clouds, causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and continues to spread out as it begins to sink back to the surface. This pushes any existing small cumulus clouds away from the central region of convection.

    As the air sinks, it also warms, preventing other small clouds from forming, so that the regions just inside the arcs are kept clear. At the arcs, the horizontal flow of sinking air is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly -- possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus clouds. Although examples of the continuity of air, in which every rising air motion must be compensated by a sinking motion elsewhere, are very common, the degree of organization exhibited here is relatively rare, as the wind field at different altitudes usually disrupts such patterns. The degree of self organization of this cloud image, whereby three or four such circular events form a quasi-periodic pattern, probably also requires a relatively uncommon combination of wind, temperature and humidity conditions for it to occur.

    The image was acquired by MISR's nadir camera on March 11, 2002, and is centered west of the Marshall Islands. Enewetak Atoll is discernible through thin cloud as the turquoise band near the right-hand edge of the image.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 11863, and covers an area of about 380 kilometers x 345 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 80 to 82 within World Reference System-2 path 90.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Four-dimensional non-rigid cardiac motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiulin; Cammin, Jochen; Srivastava, Somesh; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT reconstruction methods have been developed to reduce motion artifacts; however, projection data used in reconstruction are limited to those within gating time windows, resulting in large image noise. Motion compensated image reconstruction is capable of fully utilizing all projection data if a motion vector field is known. In this work, we propose a non-rigid four-dimensional image-based motion estimation method which uses a nested conjugated gradient method to minimize a cost function. The proposed method is implemented on GPU using CUDA, and its performance was verified with patient data.

  7. Automated motion estimation from M-mode echocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Robert A.; Whiting, James S.; Sklansky, Jack; Tamura, Shinichi

    1994-07-01

    New algorithms for motion estimation from sequential images are applied to M-mode echocardiograms. Motion is estimated by finding a transformation which relates an initial and final image. The transformation includes a 1D displacement field and modifications in image intensity. The displacements and intensity modifications are adjusted iteratively using the method of convex projections applied to linearized constraint equations. Preliminary results indicate that this method is effective in estimating motion from M-mode images. Computed velocity vectors are approximately tangent to the visible heart wall boundary trajectories. Motion computed from a single reference time appears to provide a means for tracking individual heart wall boundaries.

  8. Mixed-phase cloud phase partitioning using millimeter wavelength cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Chen, Y.-S.

    2014-06-01

    Retrieving and quantifying cloud liquid drop contributions to radar returns from mixed-phase clouds remains a challenge because the radar signal is frequently dominated by the returns from the ice particles within the radar sample volume. We present a technique that extracts the weak cloud liquid drop contributions from the total radar returns in profiling cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra. Individual spectra are first decomposed using a continuous wavelet transform, the resulting coefficients of which are used to identify the region in the spectra where cloud liquid drops contribute. By assuming that the liquid contribution to each Doppler spectrum is Gaussian shaped and centered on an appropriate peak in the wavelet coefficients, the cloud liquid drop contribution may be estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution centered on the velocity of this peak to the original Doppler spectrum. The cloud liquid drop contribution to reflectivity, the volume mean vertical air motion, subvolume vertical velocity variance, and ice particle mean fall speed can be estimated based on the separation of the liquid contribution to the radar Doppler spectrum. The algorithm is evaluated using synthetic spectra produced from output of a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model study of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. The retrievals of cloud liquid drop mode reflectivities were generally consistent with the original model values with errors less than a factor of 2. The retrieved volume mean vertical air velocities reproduced the updraft and downdraft structures, but with an overall bias of approximately -0.06 m s-1. Retrievals based on Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Zenith Radar observations from Barrow, Alaska, during October 2011 are also presented.

  9. Space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R; Dizio, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Motion sickness remains a persistent problem in spaceflight. The present review summarizes available knowledge concerning the incidence and onset of space motion sickness and aspects of the physiology of motion sickness. Proposed etiological factors in the elicitation of space motion sickness are evaluated including fluid shifts, head movements, visual orientation illusions, Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation, and otolith asymmetries. Current modes of treating space motion sickness are described. Theoretical models and proposed ground-based paradigms for understanding and studying space motion sickness are critically analyzed. Prediction tests and questionnaires for assessing susceptibility to space motion sickness and their limitations are discussed. We conclude that space motion sickness does represent a form of motion sickness and that it does not represent a unique diagnostic entity. Motion sickness arises when movements are made during exposure to unusual force backgrounds both higher and lower in magnitude than 1 g earth gravity. PMID:17021896

  10. Labyrinthine lesions and motion sickness susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) has a fast pathway, which mediates compensatory eye movements, and a slow (velocity storage) pathway, which determines its low frequency characteristics and orients eye velocity toward gravity. We have proposed that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, when its orientation vector, which lies close to the gravitational vertical, is misaligned with eye velocity during head motion. The duration of the misalignment, determined by the dominant time constant of velocity storage, causes the buildup of motion sickness. To test this hypothesis, we studied bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects with short vestibular time constants but normal aVOR gains for their motion sickness susceptibility. Time constants and gains were taken from rotational responses. Motion sickness was generated by rolling the head while rotating, and susceptibility was assessed by the number of head movements made before reaching intolerable levels of nausea. More head movements signified lower motion sickness susceptibility. Labyrinthine-defective subjects made more head movements on their first exposure to roll while rotating than normals (39.8 ± 7.2 vs 13.7 ± 5.5; P < 0.0001). Normals were tested eight times, which habituated their time constants and reduced their motion sickness susceptibility. Combining data from all subjects, there was a strong inverse relationship between time constants and number of head movements (r = 0.94), but none between motion sickness susceptibility and aVOR gains. This provides further evidence that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, not the direct pathway, and suggests that motion sickness susceptibility can be reduced by reducing the aVOR time constant. PMID:17256169

  11. Mab's orbital motion explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K.; de Pater, I.; Showalter, M. R.

    2015-07-01

    We explored the hypothesis that Mab's anomalous orbital motion, as deduced from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data (Showalter, M.R., Lissauer, J.J. [2006]. Science (New York, NY) 311, 973-977), is the result of gravitational interactions with a putative suite of large bodies in the μ-ring. We conducted simulations to compute the gravitational effect of Mab (a recently discovered Uranian moon) on a cloud of test particles. Subsequently, by employing the data extracted from the test particle simulations, we executed random walk simulations to compute the back-reaction of nearby perturbers on Mab. By generating simulated observation metrics, we compared our results to the data retrieved from the HST. Our results indicate that the longitude residual change noted in the HST data (Δλr,Mab ≈ 1 deg) is well matched by our simulations. The eccentricity variations (ΔeMab ≈10-3) are however typically two orders of magnitude too small. We present a variety of reasons that could account for this discrepancy. The nominal scenario that we investigated assumes a perturber ring mass (mring) of 1 mMab (Mab's mass) and a perturber ring number density (ρn,ring) of 10 perturbers per 3 RHill,Mab (Mab's Hill radius). This effectively translates to a few tens of perturbers with radii of approximately 2-3 km, depending on the albedo assumed. The results obtained also include an interesting litmus test: variations of Mab's inclination on the order of the eccentricity changes should be observable. Our work provides clues for further investigation into the tantalizing prospect that the Mab/μ-ring system is undergoing re-accretion after a recent catastrophic disruption.

  12. Stellar streams around the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey E.

    2016-02-01

    Using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars identified in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 data, we report the detection of an extended and lumpy stellar debris distribution around the Magellanic Clouds. At the heliocentric distance of the Clouds, overdensities of BHBs are seen to reach at least to ˜30°, and perhaps as far as ˜50° from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In 3D, the stellar halo is traceable to between 25 and 50 kpc from the LMC. We catalogue the most significant of the stellar substructures revealed, and announce the discovery of a number of narrow streams and diffuse debris clouds. Two narrow streams appear approximately aligned with the Magellanic Clouds' proper motion. Moreover, one of these overlaps with the gaseous Magellanic Stream on the sky. Curiously, two diffuse BHB agglomerations seem coincident with several of the recently discovered DES satellites. Given the enormous size and the conspicuous lumpiness of the LMC's stellar halo, we speculate that the dwarf could easily have been more massive than previously had been assumed.

  13. Movie of High Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's high-altitude clouds are seen in this brief movie made from seven frames taken by the narrow-angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft. This is the first time a movie sequence of Jupiter has been made that illustrates the motions of the high-altitude clouds on a global scale.

    The images were taken at a wavelength that is absorbed by methane, one chemical in Jupiter's lower clouds. So, dark areas are relatively free of high clouds, and the camera sees through to the methane in a lower level. Bright areas are places with high, thick clouds that shield the methane below.

    Jupiter's equator and Great Red Spot are covered with high-altitude, hazy clouds.

    The movie covers the time period between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000, latitudes from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south, and a 100-degree sweep of longitude. Those factors were the same for a Cassini movie of cloud motions previously released (PIA02829), but that movie used frames taken through a blue filter, which showed deeper cloud levels and sharper detail. Features in this methane-filter movie appear more diffuse.

    Among the nearly stationary features are the Red Spot and some bright ovals at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres. These are anticyclonic (counter-clockwise rotating) storms. They are bright in the methane band because of their high clouds associated with rising gas. They behave differently from terrestrial cyclones, which swirl in the opposite direction. The mechanism making the Red Spot and similar spots stable apparently has no similarity to the mechanism which feeds terrestrial cyclones.

    Some small-scale features are fascinating because of their brightness fluctuations. Such fluctuations observed in the methane band are probably caused by strong vertical motions, which form clouds rapidly, as in Earth's thunderstorms. Near the upper left corner in this movie, a number of smaller clouds appear to circulate counterclockwise around a dark spot, and these clouds fluctuate in brightness, so they may be candidates for lightning storms.

    A pattern of lighter areas between darker patches can be seen in the darkest band a little north of the bright equatorial region. This may be tied to a wave-like temperature variation across the planet. If confirmed, this would be the first time such large-scale stratospheric temperature waves have been visibly linked to variations in haze thickness.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  14. A Hierarchical Modeling Study of the Interactions Among Turbulence, Cloud Microphysics, and Radiative Transfer in the Evolution of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Judith; Khvorostyanov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    This project used a hierarchy of cloud resolving models to address the following science issues of relevance to CRYSTAL-FACE: What ice crystal nucleation mechanisms are active in the different types of cirrus clouds in the Florida area and how do these different nucleation processes influence the evolution of the cloud system and the upper tropospheric humidity? How does the feedback between supersaturation and nucleation impact the evolution of the cloud? What is the relative importance of the large-scale vertical motion and the turbulent motions in the evolution of the crystal size spectra? How does the size spectra impact the life-cycle of the cloud, stratospheric dehydration, and cloud radiative forcing? What is the nature of the turbulence and waves in the upper troposphere generated by precipitating deep convective cloud systems? How do cirrus microphysical and optical properties vary with the small-scale dynamics? How do turbulence and waves in the upper troposphere influence the cross-tropopause mixing and stratospheric and upper tropospheric humidity? The models used in this study were: 2-D hydrostatic model with explicit microphysics that can account for 30 size bins for both the droplet and crystal size spectra. Notably, a new ice crystal nucleation scheme has been incorporated into the model. Parcel model with explicit microphysics, for developing and evaluating microphysical parameterizations. Single column model for testing bulk microphysics parameterizations

  15. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  16. Electron Cloud Effect in the Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M

    2004-09-13

    Beam induced multipacting, driven by the electric field of successive positively charged bunches, may arise from a resonant motion of electrons, generated by secondary emission, bouncing back and forth between opposite walls of the vacuum chamber. The electron-cloud effect (ECE) has been observed or is expected at many storage rings [1]. In the beam pipe of the Damping Ring (DR) of a linear collider, an electron cloud is produced initially by ionization of the residual gas and photoelectrons from the synchrotron radiation. The cloud is then sustained by secondary electron emission. This electron cloud can reach equilibrium after the passage of only a few bunches. The electron-cloud effect may be responsible for collective effects as fast coupled-bunch and single-bunch instability, emittance blow-up or incoherent tune shift when the bunch current exceeds a certain threshold, accompanied by a large number of electrons in the vacuum chamber. The ECE was identified as one of the most important R&D topics in the International Linear Collider Report [2]. Systematic studies on the possible electron-cloud effect have been initiated at SLAC for the GLC/NLC and TESLA linear colliders, with particular attention to the effect in the positron main damping ring (MDR) and the positron Low Emittance Transport which includes the bunch compressor system (BCS), the main linac, and the beam delivery system (BDS). We present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud generation in both machine designs. Thus, single and coupled-bunch instability thresholds are estimated for the GLC/NLC design.

  17. The role of vector fields in modified gravity scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Koyama, Kazuya; Khosravi, Nima E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    Gravitational vector degrees of freedom typically arise in many examples of modified gravity models. We start to systematically explore their role in these scenarios, studying the effects of coupling gravitational vector and scalar degrees of freedom. We focus on set-ups that enjoy a Galilean symmetry in the scalar sector and an Abelian gauge symmetry in the vector sector. These symmetries, together with the requirement that the equations of motion contain at most two space-time derivatives, only allow for a small number of operators in the Lagrangian for the gravitational fields. We investigate the role of gravitational vector fields for two broad classes of phenomena that characterize modified gravity scenarios. The first is self-acceleration: we analyze in general terms the behavior of vector fluctuations around self-accelerating solutions, and show that vanishing kinetic terms of vector fluctuations lead to instabilities on cosmological backgrounds. The second phenomenon is the screening of long range fifth forces by means of Vainshtein mechanism. We show that if gravitational vector fields are appropriately coupled to a spherically symmetric source, they can play an important role for defining the features of the background solution and the scale of the Vainshtein radius. Our general results can be applied to any concrete model of modified gravity, whose low-energy vector and scalar degrees of freedom satisfy the symmetry requirements that we impose.

  18. Chemical cloud tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Larry B.; Gruber, Thomas C., Jr.; Marshall, Martin; Rowland, Brad

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the Chemical Cloud Tracking System (CCTS) which has been installed at Dugway Proving Ground. The CCTS allows mapping of chemical clouds in real time from a safe standoff distance. The instruments used are passive standoff chemical agent detectors (FTIRs). Each instrument individually can only measure the total of all the chemical in its line-of-site; the distance to the cloud is unknown. By merging data from multiple vantage points (either one instrument moving past the cloud or two or more instruments spaced so as to view the cloud from different directions) a map of the cloud locations can be generated using tomography. To improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the cloud map, chemical point sensors can be added to the sensor array being used. The equipment required for the CCTS is commercially available. Also, the data fusion techniques (tomography) have been demonstrated previously in the medical field. The Chemical Cloud Tracking System can monitor the movement of many chemical clouds of either military or industrial origin. Since the technique is standoff, the personnel are not exposed to toxic hazards while they follow the cloud. Also, the equipment works on-the-move which allows rapid response to emergency situations (plant explosions, tanker car accidents, chemical terrorism, etc.).

  19. New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1993-05-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

  20. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F. E-mail: mlombard@eso.or

    2009-09-20

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 +- 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A{sub K} > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} a few x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}.

  1. Correlation of the cloud top wind pattern with cloud morphology at the upper cloud level of Venus at 25°S-75°S from VMC/Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsaeva, M.; Khatuntsev, I.; Patsaev, D.; Titov, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Rodin, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) [3] obtained a set of UV images of the upper cloud level during the Venus Express mission. The images were processed by a digital tracking method [1] which analyses correlations between pairs of UV images separated in time. The method allows us to track displacements of cloud features and compute wind velocities. The comparison of VMC images with plots of wind speed fields shows a relationship between cloud features at the middle latitudes and parameters of the circulation. It can be attributed to the motion of global cloud features, like the Y-feature, due to the super-rotation of the atmosphere.

  2. Silicon photonics cloud (SiCloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jiang, Yunshan; Lynch, Michael; Miyatake, Taira; Carmona, Christopher; Chan, Andrew C.; Muniam, Kuhan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-02-01

    We present SiCloud (Silicon Photonics Cloud), the first free, instructional web-based research and education tool for silicon photonics. SiCloud's vision is to provide a host of instructional and research web-based tools. Such interactive learning tools enhance traditional teaching methods by extending access to a very large audience, resulting in very high impact. Interactive tools engage the brain in a way different from merely reading, and so enhance and reinforce the learning experience. Understanding silicon photonics is challenging as the topic involves a wide range of disciplines, including material science, semiconductor physics, electronics and waveguide optics. This web-based calculator is an interactive analysis tool for optical properties of silicon and related material (SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, etc.). It is designed to be a one stop resource for students, researchers and design engineers. The first and most basic aspect of Silicon Photonics is the Material Parameters, which provides the foundation for the Device, Sub-System and System levels. SiCloud includes the common dielectrics and semiconductors for waveguide core, cladding, and photodetection, as well as metals for electrical contacts. SiCloud is a work in progress and its capability is being expanded. SiCloud is being developed at UCLA with funding from the National Science Foundation's Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN) Engineering Research Center.

  3. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics classrooms, the direction of an angular velocity vector is taught by the right-hand rule, a mnemonic tool intended to aid memory. A setup constructed for instructional purposes may provide students with a more easily understood and concrete method to observe the direction of the angular velocity. This article attempts to demonstrate the angular velocity vector using the observable motion of a screw mounted to a remotely operated toy car.

  4. Vector WIMP miracle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  5. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  6. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  7. Impact of the ice phase on a mesoscale convective system: Implication of cloud parameterization and cloud radiative properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H.N.S.; Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.; Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.

    1991-08-01

    This study attempts to provide further understanding of the effect of the ice phase on cloud ensemble features which are useful for improving GCM cumulus parameterization. In addition, cloud model results are used to diagnose the radiative properties of anvils in order to assess cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate for the future work. The heat, moisture and mass budget analyses of a simulated squall line system indicate that, at least for this type of system, the inclusion of the ice phase in the microphysics does not considerably change the net cloud heating and drying effects and the feedback on the large-scale motion. Nonetheless, its impact on the radiative properties of clouds significantly influences not only the squall line system itself, but also the larger-scale circulation due to the favorable stratification for long-lasting anvil clouds. The water budget suggests a simple methodology to parameterize the microphysical effect without considering it as a model physics module. Further application of the water budget might also be used to parameterize the cloud transport of condensates in the anvil cloud region, which allows the GCM columns to interact with each other. The findings of this study suggest that the ice phase could be ignored in the cloud parameterization in order to save significant amounts of computational resources and to simplify the model physics. More scientific effort should, however, be focused on the effect of the ice phase to further explore cloud feedback on the large-scale climate through the radiative process. The cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate will be addressed in a companion study by coupling the radiative transfer model with the cloud model. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Stratus Cloud Supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S.; Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.

    2009-12-01

    Extensive aircraft measurements of cloud microphysics and complete CCN spectra from 15 flights in central California stratus clouds are presented. Cloud droplet and CCN concentrations varied over an order of magnitude in this July-August, 2008 POST project. Correlation coefficients (R) between CCN and average total cloud droplet concentrations within parcels with specific minimal liquid water contents (LWC) are shown in the table. For most LWC thresholds R is greatest for CCN concentrations at rather high supersaturations (S); i.e., 1%. The highest R for the 0.1 gm-3 are for the 300’ altitude CCN measurements but the number of cases is very small. The 0.5 g-3 R values are higher at lower S but the number of cases is also very small. The high cloud S implied by most R values goes against conventional wisdom that low stratus cloud updraft velocities limit cloud S to < 0.3%. On the other hand average droplet concentrations for most LWC thresholds match best the CCN concentrations at 0.2-0.3% S, which is more in keeping with conventional wisdom. However, these average droplet concentrations were probably reduced from adiabatic values by entrainment, which would suggest higher initial cloud S. Yum and Hudson (2002, Tellus) did report S > 1% in some maritime clouds. Further research is ongoing with this data set to substantiate stratus cloud S values. If stratus cloud S is determined to be higher than previous estimates this would imply that a much larger subset of particles (even smaller sizes) influence cloud microphysics and this would have important climate implications. As has recently been reported for small cumulus clouds (Hudson et al. 2009 JGR and Hudson and Noble 2009 GRL) negative R values were found for CCN with larger cloud droplets and drizzle drop concentrations. Correlation coefficients (R) between average droplet and CCN concentrations. 1st row (1 min)is for CCN measurements in ascents or descents closest to cloud base. 2nd row is for CCN averaged in 300 foot altitude legs, which is usually just below cloud base. 3rd row is for CCN averaged in 100 foot altitude legs. 4th row is for 300 ft. leg with a higher LWC cloud parcel threshold.

  9. Inhomogeneous cirrus clouds during the AIRTOSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Matthias; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The aircraft campaign AIRTOSS-ICE in May and September 2013 provided measurement data of cirrus clouds over North Sea and Baltic Sea in various meteorological situations. The measurements were carried out with a Learjet and a towed sensor shuttle below the aircraft [2]. This configuration allows us to obtain almost horizontally collocated measurements at different vertical levels (inside and outside clouds). Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, as ice water content, ice crystal number concentrations, diameter and shape of ice crystals were measured. In this study we concentrate on the comparison of in situ measurements with model simulations. For these case studies, the issue about the main formation mechanism (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous or both) will be addressed. In a first step the meteorological conditions leading to the cirrus formation are analyzed using meteorological analyses as obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF). The ECMWF wind fields are then used to calculate backward trajectories with the Lagrangian analysis tool LAGRANTO [4]. From these investigations the large-scale/mesoscale motions are derived and analyzed. Finally, the meteorological analyses and measurements (temperature, wind, humidity) are used as initial conditions for cirrus cloud simulations where the small scale motions are derived and analyzed. We used EULAG as LES model, including a state-of-the-art ice microphysics scheme [3] for 2D and 3D idealized and quasi-realistic simulations. In order to address the impact of dynamics vs. microphysics (i.e. heterogeneous nucleation [1]), we investigated different environmental conditions. The microphysical and macrophysical properties of the simulated cloud are finally compared to the measurements, in order to get some information about the most probable scenarios. References [1] D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, C. Hoose, E. J. Jensen, M. H. Diao, M. A. Zondlo, J. B. Smith, C. H. Twohy, and D. M. Murphy. Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation. Science, 340(6138):1320-1324, June 2013. [2] W. Frey, H. Eichler, M. de Reus, R. Maser, M. Wendisch, and S. Borrmann. A new airborne tandem platform for collocated measurements of microphysical cloud and radiation properties. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2(1):147-158, 2009. [3] P. Spichtinger and K. M. Gierens. Modelling of cirrus clouds part 1a: Model description and validation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(2):685-706, 2009. [4] H. Wernli and H. C. Davies. A lagrangian-based analysis of extratropical cyclones .1. the method and some applications. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 123(538):467-489, January 1997.

  10. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  11. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  12. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  13. Deuteration in infrared dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackington, Matias; Fuller, Gary A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Garay, Guido; Peretto, Nicolas; Traficante, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Much of the dense gas in molecular clouds has a filamentary structure but the detailed structure and evolution of this gas is poorly known. We have observed 54 cores in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using N2H+ (1-0) and (3-2) to determine the kinematics of the densest material, where stars will form. We also observed N2D+ (3-2) towards 29 of the brightest peaks to analyse the level of deuteration which is an excellent probe of the quiescent of the early stages of star formation. There were 13 detections of N2D+ (3-2). This is one of the largest samples of IRDCs yet observed in these species. The deuteration ratio in these sources ranges between 0.003 and 0.14. For most of the sources the material traced by N2D+ and N2H+ (3-2) still has significant turbulent motions, however three objects show subthermal N2D+ velocity dispersion. Surprisingly the presence or absence of an embedded 70μm source shows no correlation with the detection of N2D+ (3-2), nor does it correlate with any change in velocity dispersion or excitation temperature. Comparison with recent models of deuteration suggest evolutionary time-scales of these regions of several free-fall times or less.

  14. Microbiologists search the clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 22 May, a team of microbiologists used a prototype cloud-catcher mounted on a research plane to collect samples from low-lying cumulus clouds near Oxford, England. The researchers, from the University of East London (UEL), are investigating whether an active and self-sustaining ecosystem exists in clouds, and whether airborne microbes may play an active role in forming clouds and causing rainfall.While scientists have known that microorganisms, including bacteria, fungal spores, and algae, can survive and possibly reproduce in the atmosphere, the challenge, according to the UEL researchers, is to accurately detect, identify, and analyze microbial communities.

  15. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  16. Clouds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, Anthony

    Water and carbon dioxide clouds are known to exist in the current Martian atmosphere. These two types of clouds have strikingly different properties and climate effects. A time dependent, microphysical model of cloud formation is coupled to a turbulent boundary layer model, a surface/soil temperature model and a two stream radiative transfer model to explore the formation, properties and climate effects of these clouds. Model input parameters, such as atmospheric temperatures, dust distribution and water vapor abundance, are constrained with observations from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor observations. Laboratory observations are used to provide the necessary microphysical parameters, including the critical supersaturation and contact angle of carbon dioxide ice. Model results are compared to data from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), MGS Radio Occultation (MGS RO), the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Agreement is found between predicted diurnal variations of water cloud properties and IMP observations. The radiative effects of water ice clouds is modeled and found to explain observed temperature inversions in several of the data sets including Mars Pathfinder entry, MGS RO, and TES. Excellent agreement is found between a mountain wave model of carbon dioxide cloud formation and MOLA observations during the Martian polar night. The properties of carbon dioxide clouds are applied to models of thick CO2 atmospheres to assess their effects on early Martian climates. It is found that carbon dioxide clouds cool the surface due to absorption of solar flux and a warming of the middle and upper atmosphere.

  17. Statistical anisotropy from vector curvaton in D-brane inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Wills, Danielle; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of embedding the vector curvaton paradigm in D-brane models of inflation in type IIB string theory in a simple toy model. The vector curvaton is identified with the U(1) gauge field that lives on the world volume of a D3-brane, which may be stationary or undergoing general motion in the internal space. The dilaton is considered as a spectator field which modulates the evolution of the vector field. In this set-up, the vector curvaton is able to generate measurable statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation assuming that the dilaton evolves as e∝a2 where a(t) is the scale factor. Our work constitutes a first step towards exploring how such distinctive features may arise from the presence of several light fields that naturally appear in string theory models of cosmology.

  18. Redundancy, Self-Motion, and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Martin, V.; Scholz, J. P.; Schöner, G.

    2011-01-01

    Outside the laboratory, human movement typically involves redundant effector systems. How the nervous system selects among the task-equivalent solutions may provide insights into how movement is controlled. We propose a process model of movement generation that accounts for the kinematics of goal-directed pointing movements performed with a redundant arm. The key element is a neuronal dynamics that generates a virtual joint trajectory. This dynamics receives input from a neuronal timer that paces end-effector motion along its path. Within this dynamics, virtual joint velocity vectors that move the end effector are dynamically decoupled from velocity vectors that do not. Moreover, the sensed real joint configuration is coupled back into this neuronal dynamics, updating the virtual trajectory so that it yields to task-equivalent deviations from the dynamic movement plan. Experimental data from participants who perform in the same task setting as the model are compared in detail to the model predictions. We discover that joint velocities contain a substantial amount of self-motion that does not move the end effector. This is caused by the low impedance of muscle joint systems and by coupling among muscle joint systems due to multiarticulatory muscles. Back-coupling amplifies the induced control errors. We establish a link between the amount of self-motion and how curved the end-effector path is. We show that models in which an inverse dynamics cancels interaction torques predict too little self-motion and too straight end-effector paths. PMID:19718817

  19. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  20. Vector wind gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a vector wind gust model through statistical analysis is described. Wind perturbation statistics which include location, altitude, season, and wavelength range are used in the synthesis of detailed wing profiles. These profiles provide the basis for the establishment of improved discrete gust design criteria guidelines for ascending launch vehicles.

  1. Redshifts and Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2006-11-01

    Current approaches to physics stress the importance of conservation laws due to spacetime and internal symmetries. In special and general relativity the generators of these symmetries are known as Killing vectors. We use them for the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  2. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  3. LTR-vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Woude, G.F.; McClements, W.L.; Oskarsson, M.K.; Blair, D.G.

    1981-07-01

    The patent application describes the production of vectors composed of portions of retrovirus, particularly of Moloney sarcoma virus DNA including the 'LTR' sequence which can activate genes and additional viral sequences which can 'rescue' these genes into a replicating virus particle.

  4. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  5. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  6. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  7. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  8. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at the ARM sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Shupe, M.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Miller, M. A.; Verlinde, H.; Luke, E. P.; Johnson, K. L.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Lamer, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program upgraded its fixed and mobile facilities with the acquisition of state-of-the-art scanning, dual-wavelength, polarimetric, Doppler cloud radars. The scanning ARM cloud radars (SACR's) are the most expensive and significant radar systems at all ARM sites and eight SACR systems will be operational at ARM sites by the end of 2013. The SACR's are the primary instruments for the detection of 3D cloud properties (boundaries, volume cloud fractional coverage, liquid water content, dynamics, etc.) beyond the soda-straw (profiling) limited view. Having scanning capabilities with two frequencies and polarization allows more accurate probing of a variety of cloud systems (e.g., drizzle and shallow, warm rain), better correction for attenuation, use of attenuation for liquid water content retrievals, and polarimetric and dual-wavelength ratio characterization of non-spherical particles for improved ice crystal habit identification. Examples of SACR observations from four ARM sites are presented here: the fixed sites at Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and the mobile facility deployments at Graciosa Island, Azores and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The 3D cloud structure is investigated both at the macro-scale (20-50 km) and cloud-scale (100-500 m). Doppler velocity measurements are corrected for velocity folding and are used either to describe the in-cloud horizontal wind profile or the 3D vertical air motions.

  9. Qualification of Point Clouds Measured by SFM Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, K.; Hattori, S.; Saeki, H.; Takayama, T.; Honma, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a qualification method of a point cloud created by SfM (Structure-from-Motion) software. Recently, SfM software is popular for creating point clouds. Point clouds created by SfM Software seems to be correct, but in many cases, the result does not have correct scale, or does not have correct coordinates in reference coordinate system, and in these cases it is hard to evaluate the quality of the point clouds. To evaluate this correctness of the point clouds, we propose to use the difference between point clouds with different source of images. If the shape of the point clouds with different source of images is correct, two shapes of different source might be almost same. To compare the two or more shapes of point cloud, iterative-closest-point (ICP) is implemented. Transformation parameters (rotation and translation) are iteratively calculated so as to minimize sum of squares of distances. This paper describes the procedure of the evaluation and some test results.

  10. Motion sickness induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR)

    PubMed Central

    Sofroniou, Sofronis; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motion sickness is produced by an integration of the disparity between eye velocity and the yaw-axis orientation vector of velocity storage. Disparity was defined as the magnitude of the cross product between these two vectors. OVAR, which is known to produce motion sickness, generates horizontal eye velocity with a bias level related to velocity storage, as well as cyclic modulations due to re-orientation of the head re gravity. On average, the orientation vector is close to the spatial vertical. Thus, disparity can be related to the bias and tilt angle. Motion sickness sensitivity was defined as a ratio of maximum motion sickness score to the number of revolutions, allowing disparity and motion sickness sensitivity to be correlated. Nine subjects were rotated around axes tilted 10°–30° from the spatial vertical at 30°/s–120°/s. Motion sickness sensitivity increased monotonically with increases in the disparity due to changes in rotational velocity and tilt angle. Maximal motion sickness sensitivity and bias (6.8°/s) occurred when rotating at 60°/s about an axis tilted 30° Modulations in eye velocity during OVAR were unrelated to motion sickness sensitivity. The data were predicted by a model incorporating an estimate of head velocity from otolith activation, which activated velocity storage, followed by an orientation disparity comparator that activated a motion sickness integrator. These results suggest that the sensory-motor conflict that produces motion sickness involves coding of the spatial vertical by the otolith organs and body tilt receptors and processing of eye velocity through velocity storage. PMID:20535456

  11. Detection of mitoses in embryonic epithelia using motion field analysis.

    PubMed

    Siva, Parthipan; Wayne Brodland, G; Clausi, David

    2009-04-01

    Although computer simulations indicate that mitosis may be important to the mechanics of morphogenetic movements, algorithms to identify mitoses in bright field images of embryonic epithelia have not previously been available. Here, the authors present an algorithm that identifies mitoses and their orientations based on the motion field between successive images. Within this motion field, the algorithm seeks 'mitosis motion field prototypes' characterised by convergent motion in one direction and divergent motion in the orthogonal direction, the local motions produced by the division process. The algorithm uses image processing, vector field analyses and pattern recognition to identify occurrences of this prototype and to determine its orientation. When applied to time-lapse images of gastrulation and neurulation-stage amphibian (Ambystoma mexicanum) embryos, the algorithm achieves identification accuracies of 68 and 67%, respectively and angular accuracies of the order of 30 degrees , values sufficient to assess the role of mitosis in these developmental processes. PMID:19051076

  12. The barberplaid illusion: plaid motion is biased by elongated apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Mulligan, J. B.; Stone, L. S.

    1996-01-01

    The perceived direction of motion of plaids windowed by elongated spatial Gaussians is biased toward the window's long axis. The bias increases as the relative angle between the plaid motion and the long axis of the window increases, peaks at a relative angle of approximately 45 deg, and then decreases. The bias increases as the window is made narrower (at fixed height) and decreases as the component spatial frequency increases (at fixed aperture size). We examine several models of human motion processing (cross-correlation, motion-energy, intersection-of-constraints, and vector-sum), and show that none of these standard models can predict our data. We conclude that spatial integration of motion signals plays a crucial role in plaid motion perception and that current models must be explicitly expanded to include such spatial interactions.

  13. On the Kinematics of Undulator Girder Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; ,

    2011-08-18

    The theory of rigid body kinematics is used to derive equations that govern the control and measurement of the position and orientation of undulator girders. The equations form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system. The equations are linear for small motion and easily inverted as desired. For reference, some relevant girder geometrical data is also given. Equations 6-8 relate the linear potentiometer readings to the motion of the girder. Equations 9-11 relate the cam shaft angles to the motion of the girder. Both sets are easily inverted to either obtain the girder motion from the angles or readings, or, to find the angles and readings that would give a desired motion. The motion of any point on the girder can be calculated by applying either sets of equations to the two cam-planes and extrapolating in the z coordinate using equation 19. The formulation of the equations is quite general and easily coded via matrix and vector methods. They form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system.

  14. Impact of lattice rotation on dislocation motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, Brent; Vials, Jorge; Rickman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a phenomenological theory of dislocation motion appropriate for two-dimensional lattices. A coarse grained description is proposed that involves as primitive variables local lattice rotation and Burgers vector densities along distinguished slip systems of the lattice. We then use symmetry considerations to propose phenomenological equations for both defect energies and their dissipative motion. As a consequence, the model includes explicit dependencies on the local state of lattice orientation, and allows for differential defect mobilities along distinguished directions. Defect densities and lattice rotation need to be determined self-consistently and we show specific results for both square and hexagonal lattices. Within linear response, dissipative equations of motion for the defect densities are derived which contain defect mobilities that depend nonlocally on defect distribution.

  15. Lost in Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  16. Isentropic Analysis of Convective Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauluis, Olivier M.; Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective mass transport by sorting air parcels in terms of their equivalent potential temperature to determine an isentropic streamfunction. By averaging the vertical mass flux at a constant value of the equivalent potential temperature, one can compute an isentropic mass transport that filters out reversible oscillatory motions such as gravity waves. This novel approach emphasizes the fact that the vertical energy and entropy transports by convection are due to the combination of ascending air parcels with high energy and entropy and subsiding air parcels with lower energy and entropy. Such conditional averaging can be extended to other dynamic and thermodynamic variables such as vertical velocity, temperature, or relative humidity to obtain a comprehensive description of convective motions. It is also shown how this approach can be used to determine the mean diabatic tendencies from the three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic fields. A two-stream approximation that partitions the isentropic circulation into a mean updraft and a mean downdraft is also introduced. This offers a straightforward way to identify the mean properties of rising and subsiding air parcels. The results from the two-stream approximation are compared with two other definitions of the cloud mass flux. It is argued that the isentropic analysis offers a robust definition of the convective mass transport that is not tainted by the need to arbitrarily distinguish between convection and its environment, and that separates the irreversible convective overturning fromoscillations associated with gravity waves.

  17. Observed cloud level circulation on Venus - Temporal variations and solar longitude dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay Shridhar

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents data on the atmospheric circulation of Venus, obtained by the Mariner 10 (1974) and Pioneer (1979-1986) observations. The results yielded evidence of relatively stable zonal circulation at the cloud level. On the other hand, changes on a yearly time scale appear in both the zonal and the meridional components of motion. Solar thermal tides and large-scale planetary waves are also seen in averaged zonal and meridional cloud motions. The relationship between the large-scale circulation and global cloud structure is discussed.

  18. Entrainment and detrainment in a simple cumulus cloud model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.; Huffman, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    A cumulus cloud model, analogous to the mixed-layer models of the planetary boundary layer and the upper ocean, is developed using a single, unitary entrainment process in which the motion of the cloud boundary relative to the mean flow is permitted, produced, and controlled by turbulent processes. An alternate theory to the mixing-length theory of Asai and Kasahara (1967) is proposed which completely removes the strong scale-dependence of the Asai-Kasahara model. The model reintroduces scale-dependence by introducing including the pe5turbation pressure term of the equation of vertical motion. It is shown that the model predicts deeper clouds than the Asai-Kasahara model for a given sounding, due to the entrainment assumption and the effects of the perturbation pressure. Lateral entrainment dominates cloud-top entrainment, although finite-difference errors increase the cloud-top entrainment rate from zero to a positive value in actual situations. The fractional entrainment rate for updrafts is determined to vary only slightly with height and to decrease only slowly as the cloud radius increases, while the fractional detrainment rate for updrafts increases with height.

  19. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue

  20. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  1. Motion of a sphere in a gas: Numerical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyalka, S. K.

    1992-05-01

    An understanding of the motion (translation and rotation) of single particles in a gas is required in disciplines as diverse as environmental sciences, cloud physics, nanophase materials manufacturing, health and medical physics, astrophysics, and aeronautics. In this work an accurate description of a sphere's motion based on the linearized Boltzmann equation is provided.

  2. Effects on non-linearities on aircraft poststall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rohacs, J.; Thomasson, P.; Mosehilde, E.

    1994-12-31

    The poststall maneuverability controlled by thrust vectoring has become one of the important aspects of new fighter development projects. In simplified case, the motion of aircraft can be described by 6DOF nonlinear system. The lecture deals with the longitudinal motion of poststall maneuverable aircraft. The investigation made about the effects of non-linearities in aerodynamic coefficients having considerable non-linearities and hysteresisis an the poststall motions. There were used some different models of aerodynamic coefficients. The results of investigation have shown that the poststall domain of vectored aircraft can be divided into five different pHs in field of thrust - pitch vector angle, and the chaotic motions of aircraft can be found at the different frequencies of thrust deflection. There were defined an unstable right domain with an unstable oscillation and a field of overpulling at poststall motion. The certain frequency chaotic attractors were got at frequencies of Oxitation between the 0.15 and 0.65 rad/sec. The pitching moment derivatives had the big influence on the chaotic motions, while the lift coefficient derivatives bad the reasonable effects, only.

  3. Learning in the Clouds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  4. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  5. On Cloud Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative

  6. Learning in the Clouds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.

  7. On Cloud Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative…

  8. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in

  9. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  10. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    What are clouds? The answer to that question is both obvious and subtle. In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice crystals suspended in the air. In the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn's moon Titan, Uranus, Neptune, and possibly Pluto, they are composed of several other substances including sulfuric acid, ammonia, hydroge...

  11. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-07-21

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

  12. Cloud Model Bat Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  13. Io's Sodium Cloud.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, B A; Garneau, G W; Lavoie, S K

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 10(5) kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct "east-west orbital asymmetry," a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere. PMID:17821495

  14. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  15. SMILES ice cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MilláN, L.; Read, W.; Kasai, Y.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N.; Mendrok, J.; Sagawa, H.; Sano, T.; Shiotani, M.; Wu, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor and clouds play an important role in Earth's climate, but knowledge of them, in particular diurnal variation in deep convective clouds, is limited. An essential variable to understand them is cloud ice water content. The Japanese Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on board the International Space Station (ISS) samples the atmosphere at different local times allowing the study of diurnal variability of atmospheric parameters. We describe a new ice cloud data set consisting of partial Ice Water Path and Ice Water Content. Preliminary comparisons with EOS-MLS, CloudSat-CPR and CALIOP-CALIPSO are presented. Then, the diurnal variation over land and over open ocean for partial ice water path is reported. Over land, a pronounced diurnal variation peaking strongly in the afternoon/early evening was found. Over the open ocean, little temporal dependence was encountered. This data set is publicly available for download in HDF5 format.

  16. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  17. Preloadable vector sensitive latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, William R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A preloadable vector-sensitive latch which automatically releases when the force vector from a latch memebr reaches a specified release angle is presented. In addition, it contains means to remove clearance between the latched members and to preload the latch to prevent separation at angles less than the specified release angle. The latch comprises a triangular main link, a free link connected between a first corner of the main link and a yoke member, a housing, and an actuator connected between the yoke member and the housing. A return spring bias means connects the main link to a portion of the housing. A second corner of the main link is slidably and pivotally connected to the housing via a slot in a web portion of the housing. The latch housing has a rigid docking ring alignable with a mating locking ring which is engageable by a locking roller journalled on the third corner of the triangular main link.

  18. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE cirrus case study - Meteorology and clouds. [First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed case study is conducted of cirrus clouds that were observed intensely over a 36-h period from 1200 UTC October 27 to 0000 UTC October 29, 1986. The clouds varied in density and structure as synoptic and mesoscale features passed through the region. The study seeks to provide a meteorological overview including a synoptic and regional perspective; to document the rawinsonde-resolved atmospheric structure and large-scale forcing associated with the observed cloud systems; and to provide understanding of the relationship between atmospheric structure and the character of the corresponding cloud fields. Regional analyses of the static stability structure and vertical motion are presented and interpreted with respect to the characteristics of the corresponding cloud fields as deduced from satellite and lidar observations. It is suggested that mesoscale organization must be taken into account in parametric treatments of cirrus for large-scale atmospheric models. It is shown that cloud generation typically occurred at multiple levels.

  19. Vector Magnetograph Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Russell A.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed during the period of November 1994 through March 1996 on the design of a Space-borne Solar Vector Magnetograph. This work has been performed as part of a design team under the supervision of Dr. Mona Hagyard and Dr. Alan Gary of the Space Science Laboratory. Many tasks were performed and this report documents the results from some of those tasks, each contained in the corresponding appendix. Appendices are organized in chronological order.

  20. Particle migration in suspensions by thermocapillary or electrophoretic motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acrivos, A.; Jeffrey, D. J.; Saville, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems of similar mathematical structure are presented: the thermocapillary motion of bubbles and the electrophoresis of colloidal particles. For both problems, it is shown that in a cloud of n particles surrounded by an infinite expanse of fluid, the velocity of each sphere under creeping flow conditions is equal to the velocity of an isolated particle, unchanged by interactions between the particles. However, when the cloud fills a container, conservation of mass shows that this result cannot continue to hold, and the average translational velocity must be calculated subject to a constraint on the mass flux. It is concluded that the average thermocapillary or electrophoretic translational velocity of a particle in the cloud is related to the effective conductivity of the cloud over the whole range of particle volume fractions, provided that the particles are identical, non-conducting and, for the thermocapillary problem, inviscid.

  1. Activity recognition using a mixture of vector fields.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Jacinto C; Figueiredo, Mário A T; Marques, Jorge S

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of moving objects in image sequences (video) has been one of the major themes in computer vision. In this paper, we focus on video-surveillance tasks; more specifically, we consider pedestrian trajectories and propose modeling them through a small set of motion/vector fields together with a space-varying switching mechanism. Despite the diversity of motion patterns that can occur in a given scene, we show that it is often possible to find a relatively small number of typical behaviors, and model each of these behaviors by a "simple" motion field. We increase the expressiveness of the formulation by allowing the trajectories to switch from one motion field to another, in a space-dependent manner. We present an expectation-maximization algorithm to learn all the parameters of the model, and apply it to trajectory classification tasks. Experiments with both synthetic and real data support the claims about the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:23193235

  2. Formation and spread of aircraft-induced holes in clouds.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Andrew J; Thompson, Gregory; Morrison, Hugh; Bansemer, Aaron; Rasmussen, Roy M; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Damao

    2011-07-01

    Hole-punch and canal clouds have been observed for more than 50 years, but the mechanisms of formation, development, duration, and thus the extent of their effect have largely been ignored. The holes have been associated with inadvertent seeding of clouds with ice particles generated by aircraft, produced through spontaneous freezing of cloud droplets in air cooled as it flows around aircraft propeller tips or over jet aircraft wings. Model simulations indicate that the growth of the ice particles can induce vertical motions with a duration of 1 hour or more, a process that expands the holes and canals in clouds. Global effects are minimal, but regionally near major airports, additional precipitation can be induced. PMID:21719676

  3. On the initial motion of artificial comets in the AMPTE releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A model describing the initial Ba(+) cloud noted in the AMPTE program is presented which stresses the diamagnetic aspects of the interaction. Based on the observed magnetic field profile, it is suggested that the Ba(+) gyroradius becomes shorter than the cloud radius, and that the Ba(+) ions are magnetized. Momentum coupling force between the Ba(+) cloud and the solar wind in their relative streaming direction will produce an acceleration drift in the direction identical to the observed motion of the cloud, and the observed acceleration force is used to compute the magnitude of the coupling force and to compare it with other models.

  4. Thermal vector potential theory of magnon-driven magnetization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatara, Gen

    2015-08-01

    Thermal vector potential formulation is applied to study the thermal dynamics of magnetic structures for insulating ferromagnets. By separating the variables of the magnetic structure and the magnons, the equation of motion for the structure, including spin-transfer effect because of thermal magnons, is derived for the cases of a domain wall and a vortex. The magnon current is evaluated based on the linear response theory with the thermal vector potential representing the temperature gradient. The velocity of a domain wall when driven by thermal magnons exhibits a strong temperature dependence unlike the case of an electrically driven domain wall in metals.

  5. A comparative study of surface EMG classification by fuzzy relevance vector machine and fuzzy support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Huang, Hu; Wu, Jianhua; Liu, Lei

    2015-02-01

    We present a multiclass fuzzy relevance vector machine (FRVM) learning mechanism and evaluate its performance to classify multiple hand motions using surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals. The relevance vector machine (RVM) is a sparse Bayesian kernel method which avoids some limitations of the support vector machine (SVM). However, RVM still suffers the difficulty of possible unclassifiable regions in multiclass problems. We propose two fuzzy membership function-based FRVM algorithms to solve such problems, based on experiments conducted on seven healthy subjects and two amputees with six hand motions. Two feature sets, namely, AR model coefficients and room mean square value (AR-RMS), and wavelet transform (WT) features, are extracted from the recorded sEMG signals. Fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) analysis was also conducted for wide comparison in terms of accuracy, sparsity, training and testing time, as well as the effect of training sample sizes. FRVM yielded comparable classification accuracy with dramatically fewer support vectors in comparison with FSVM. Furthermore, the processing delay of FRVM was much less than that of FSVM, whilst training time of FSVM much faster than FRVM. The results indicate that FRVM classifier trained using sufficient samples can achieve comparable generalization capability as FSVM with significant sparsity in multi-channel sEMG classification, which is more suitable for sEMG-based real-time control applications. PMID:25571959

  6. O VI absorption in interstellar cloud surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Jenkins, E. B.; Songaila, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The velocity profiles of O VI absorption lines of 24 stars, observed in early Copernicus surveys, have been compared with the line profiles of Si III (1206.51 A) and N II (1083.99 A). The velocity structures of the O VI lines appear to be correlated with those of the material in the lower ionization stages. It is argued that the O VI absorption arises in the coronal gas of the conductive interface between hot gas, responsible for extended, soft X-ray emission, and cooler interstellar clouds. The velocity broadening of both sets of lines is attributed to motions of the cloud surfaces induced by pressure fluctuations in the interstellar medium.

  7. Precipitation growth in convective clouds. [hail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the equations of both the growth and motion of hailstones in updrafts and of cloud water contents which vary linearly with height were used to investigate hail growth in a model cloud. A strong correlation was found between the hail embyro starting position and its trajectory and final size. A simple model of the evolution of particle size distribution by coalescence and spontaneous and binary disintegrations was formulated. Solutions for the mean mass of the distribution and the equilibrium size distribution were obtained for the case of constant collection kernel and disintegration parameters. Azimuthal scans of Doppler velocity at a number of elevation angles were used to calculate high resolution vertical profiles of particle speed and horizontal divergence (the vertical air velocity) in a region of widespread precipitation trailing a mid-latitude squall line.

  8. On the origin of the Orion and Monoceros molecular cloud complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, J.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Bodenheimer, P.; Rozyczka, M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed model for the origin of the Orion and Monoceros cloud complexes is presented, showing that a single high-velocity H I cloud-galaxy collision can explain their main observed features. The collision generates massive shocked layers, and self-gravity can then provide the conditions for the transformation of these layers into molecular clouds. The clouds formed by the collision maintain the motion of their parental shocked gas and reach positions located far away from the plane. According to this model, both the Orion and Monoceros complexes were formed some 60 million yr ago, when the original shocked layer was fragmented by Galactic tidal forces.

  9. Reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by bandpass filtering magnetometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a unique scheme for reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by ground processing satellite magnetometer measurements. The measurements are modified based on ground knowledge of the earth's magnetic field and passed through bandpass filters tuned to the skiprope frequency. Skiprope motion is then deduced from the steady-state outputs of the filters. Simulation results are presented which verify the scheme and show it to be robust. The concept is not just limited to tethered satellites. Indeed, it can be applied whenever there is a need to reconstruct the coning motion of a body about a known axis, given measurements of a known vector in body-fixed axes.

  10. Improved optical flow motion estimation for digital image stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Lijun; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xuyao

    2015-11-01

    Optical flow is the instantaneous motion vector at each pixel in the image frame at a time instant. The gradient-based approach for optical flow computation can't work well when the video motion is too large. To alleviate such problem, we incorporate this algorithm into a pyramid multi-resolution coarse-to-fine search strategy. Using pyramid strategy to obtain multi-resolution images; Using iterative relationship from the highest level to the lowest level to obtain inter-frames' affine parameters; Subsequence frames compensate back to the first frame to obtain stabilized sequence. The experiment results demonstrate that the promoted method has good performance in global motion estimation.

  11. Clouds in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Norris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

  12. Community Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  13. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  14. Vector representation of tourmaline compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    The vector method for representing mineral compositions of amphibole and mica groups is applied to the tourmaline group. Consideration is given to the methods for drawing the relevant vector diagrams, relating the exchange vectors to one another, and contouring the diagrams for constant values of Na, Ca, Li, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and OH. The method is used to depict a wide range of possible tourmaline end-member compositions and solid solutions, starting from a single point. In addition to vector depictions of multicomponent natural tourmalines, vectors are presented for simpler systems such as (Na,Al)-tourmalines, alkali-free tourmalines, and elbaites.

  15. Motion coherence affects human perception and pursuit similarly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2000-01-01

    Pursuit and perception both require accurate information about the motion of objects. Recovering the motion of objects by integrating the motion of their components is a difficult visual task. Successful integration produces coherent global object motion, while a failure to integrate leaves the incoherent local motions of the components unlinked. We compared the ability of perception and pursuit to perform motion integration by measuring direction judgments and the concomitant eye-movement responses to line-figure parallelograms moving behind stationary rectangular apertures. The apertures were constructed such that only the line segments corresponding to the parallelogram's sides were visible; thus, recovering global motion required the integration of the local segment motion. We investigated several potential motion-integration rules by using stimuli with different object, vector-average, and line-segment terminator-motion directions. We used an oculometric decision rule to directly compare direction discrimination for pursuit and perception. For visible apertures, the percept was a coherent object, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the object-motion prediction. For invisible apertures, the percept was incoherently moving segments, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the terminator-motion prediction. Furthermore, both psychometric and oculometric direction thresholds were much higher for invisible apertures than for visible apertures. We constructed a model in which both perception and pursuit are driven by a shared motion-processing stage, with perception having an additional input from an independent static-processing stage. Model simulations were consistent with our perceptual and oculomotor data. Based on these results, we propose the use of pursuit as an objective and continuous measure of perceptual coherence. Our results support the view that pursuit and perception share a common motion-integration stage, perhaps within areas MT or MST.

  16. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J. E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  17. Human action recognition using motion energy template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yanhua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Human action recognition is an active and interesting research topic in computer vision and pattern recognition field that is widely used in the real world. We proposed an approach for human activity analysis based on motion energy template (MET), a new high-level representation of video. The main idea for the MET model is that human actions could be expressed as the composition of motion energy acquired in a three-dimensional (3-D) space-time volume by using a filter bank. The motion energies were directly computed from raw video sequences, thus some problems, such as object location and segmentation, etc., are definitely avoided. Another important competitive merit of this MET method is its insensitivity to gender, hair, and clothing. We extract MET features by using the Bhattacharyya coefficient to measure the motion energy similarity between the action template video and the tested video, and then the 3-D max-pooling. Using these features as input to the support vector machine, extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, Weizmann and KTH, were carried out. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, such as variation energy image, dynamic templates and local motion pattern descriptors, the experimental results demonstrate that our MET model is competitive and promising.

  18. Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between

  19. Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…

  20. Improving optical bench radius measurements using stage error motion data

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Tony L.; Gardner, Neil; Vaughn, Matthew; Medicus, Kate; Davies, Angela

    2008-12-20

    We describe the application of a vector-based radius approach to optical bench radius measurements in the presence of imperfect stage motions. In this approach, the radius is defined using a vector equation and homogeneous transformation matrix formulism. This is in contrast to the typical technique, where the displacement between the confocal and cat's eye null positions alone is used to determine the test optic radius. An important aspect of the vector-based radius definition is the intrinsic correction for measurement biases, such as straightness errors in the stage motion and cosine misalignment between the stage and displacement gauge axis, which lead to an artificially small radius value if the traditional approach is employed. Measurement techniques and results are provided for the stage error motions, which are then combined with the setup geometry through the analysis to determine the radius of curvature for a spherical artifact. Comparisons are shown between the new vector-based radius calculation, traditional radius computation, and a low uncertainty mechanical measurement. Additionally, the measurement uncertainty for the vector-based approach is determined using Monte Carlo simulation and compared to experimental results.

  1. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread. PMID:25564746

  2. Integrase defective, nonintegrating lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Zuleika; Negri, Donatella; Cara, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are a powerful tool for gene transfer into target cells in vitro and in vivo. However, there are concerns about safety with regard to their use in gene transfer protocols because of insertional mutagenesis following viral infection. Once in the target cells, and in addition to the integrated proviral DNA, lentiviral vectors produce episomal forms of DNA (E-DNA), which are transcriptionally active. Therefore, one strategy to improve safety would envision the block integration of the lentiviral vector while allowing production of E-DNA. Such nonintegrating lentiviral vectors can be produced by introducing mutations in the Integrase (IN) protein of the parental packaging vector. These vectors are fundamentally different from the parental IN competent counterpart, thus opening new avenues for this class of lentiviral vectors as a new gene delivery system for gene therapy strategies, vaccination protocols and as a tool for anti-Integrase drug discovery. PMID:20225038

  3. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  4. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  5. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. PMID:22289098

  6. Nighttime Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    An angry looking sky is captured in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The clip accelerates the motion. The images were take around 3 a.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 95 (Aug. 30), the 95th Martian day since landing.

    The swirling clouds may be moving generally in a westward direction over the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Extended field observations of cirrus clouds using a ground-based cloud observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  8. Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

  9. Entrainment, Drizzle, and Cloud Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    Increased aerosol and hence droplet concentrations in polluted clouds are expected to inhibit precipitation and thereby increase cloud water, leading to more reflective clouds that partially offset global warming. Yet polluted clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Much of the uncertainty regarding the indirect aerosol effect stems from inadequate understanding of such changes in cloud water. Detailed simulations show that the relative humidity of air overlying stratocumulus is a leading factor determining whether cloud water increases or decreases when precipitation is suppressed. When the overlying air is dry, cloud water can decrease as droplet concentrations increase.

  10. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  11. Motion through syntactic frames.

    PubMed

    Feist, Michele I

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of Talmy's (1985, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the fact of motion in motion verbs, while a second class, S-languages, tends to encode manner. In the experimental literature, it was reasoned that speakers may be expected to extend novel verbs in accordance with the lexicalization patterns of their native languages. However, the results regarding this prediction are mixed. In this paper, I examine the interplay between the meaning encoded in the motion verb itself and the meaning encoded in the motion description construction, offering a Gricean explanation for co-occurrence patterns and, by extension, for the mixed results. I then explore the implications of this argument for research on possible language effects on thought in this domain. PMID:20018276

  12. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.

    2011-10-15

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  13. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  14. A Cloud Mask for AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, N.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    With the preliminary release of AIRS Level 1 and 2 data to the scientific community, there is a growing need for an accurate AIRS cloud mask for data assimilation studies and in producing products derived from cloud free radiances. Current cloud information provided with the AIRS data are limited or based on simplified threshold tests. A multispectral cloud detection approach has been developed for AIRS that utilizes the hyper-spectral capabilities to detect clouds based on specific cloud signatures across the short wave and long wave infrared window regions. This new AIRS cloud mask has been validated against the existing AIRS Level 2 cloud product and cloud information derived from MODIS. Preliminary results for both day and night applications over the continental U.S. are encouraging. Details of the cloud detection approach and validation results will be presented at the conference.

  15. Neural Circuit to Integrate Opposing Motions in the Visual Field.

    PubMed

    Mauss, Alex S; Pankova, Katarina; Arenz, Alexander; Nern, Aljoscha; Rubin, Gerald M; Borst, Alexander

    2015-07-16

    When navigating in their environment, animals use visual motion cues as feedback signals that are elicited by their own motion. Such signals are provided by wide-field neurons sampling motion directions at multiple image points as the animal maneuvers. Each one of these neurons responds selectively to a specific optic flow-field representing the spatial distribution of motion vectors on the retina. Here, we describe the discovery of a group of local, inhibitory interneurons in the fruit fly Drosophila key for filtering these cues. Using anatomy, molecular characterization, activity manipulation, and physiological recordings, we demonstrate that these interneurons convey direction-selective inhibition to wide-field neurons with opposite preferred direction and provide evidence for how their connectivity enables the computation required for integrating opposing motions. Our results indicate that, rather than sharpening directional selectivity per se, these circuit elements reduce noise by eliminating non-specific responses to complex visual information. PMID:26186189

  16. Anisotropic responses to motion toward and away from the eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1986-01-01

    When a rigid object moves toward the eye, it is usually perceived as being rigid. However, in the case of motion away from the eye, the motion and structure of the object are perceived nonveridically, with the percept tending to reflect the nonrigid transformations that are present in the retinal image. This difference in response to motion to and from the observer was quantified in an experiment using wire-frame computer-generated boxes which moved toward and away from the eye. Two theoretical systems are developed by which uniform three-dimensional velocity can be recovered from an expansion pattern of nonuniform velocity vectors. It is proposed that the human visual system uses two similar systems for processing motion in depth. The mechanism used for motion away from the eye produces perceptual errors because it is not suited to objects with a depth component.

  17. Cloud Types and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hai; Ibrahim, Shadi; Bell, Tim; Gao, Wei; Huang, Dachuan; Wu, Song

    The increasing popularity of Internet services such as the Amazon Web Services, Google App Engine and Microsoft Azure have drawn a lot of attention to the Cloud Computing paradigm. Although the term "Cloud Computing" is new, the technology is an extension of the remarkable achievements of grid, virtualization, Web 2.0 and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) technologies, and the convergence of these technologies. Moreover, interest in Cloud Computing has been motivated by many factors such as the prevalence of multi-core processors and the low cost of system hardware, as well as the increasing cost of the energy needed to operate them. As a result, Cloud Computing, in just three years, has risen to the top of the IT revolutionary technologies, and has been announced as the top technology to watch in the year 2010.

  18. Electromagnetic scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to explain the nature of the optical effects of clouds on the light produced by lightning include a Monte Carlo simulation, an equivalent medium approach, and methods based on Boltzmann transport theory. A cuboidal cloud has been considered using transform methods and a diffusion approximation. Many simplifying assumptions have been used by authors to make this problem tractable. In this report, the cloud will have a spherical shape and its interior will consist of a uniform distribution of identical spherical water droplets. The source will be modeled as a Hertz dipole, electric or magnetic, inside or outside the cloud. An impulsive source is used. Superposition may be employed to obtain a sinusoid within an envelope which describes a lightning event. The problem is investigated by transforming to the frequency domain, obtaining Green's functions, and then using the Cagniard-DeHoop method to symbolically recover the time domain solution.

  19. Fingerprinting the Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M. V.; Caballero, J.; Lee, A. M.; Matrai, P. A.; Leck, C.; Madan, A.; Collins, H.

    2012-12-01

    Marine microgels play an important role in regulating ocean-basin-scale biogeochemical dynamics. We have found them in surface waters, in airborne aerosol, fog, and cloud water in the high Arctic (north of 80oN). Microgels dominated the available cloud condensation nuclei number population during the summer season. These microgels have unique physicochemical characteristics and originate from the ice algae and/or phytoplankton in the surface water. We have sequenced the genomic material found in the microgels from the sea surface and cloud waters with next-generation sequencing technology. The sequence analysis and annotation, show a high abundance of proteins of microbial and diatom origin, including a high number of proteins from different taxonomical origin associated with antifreeze functions. Our results have implications not only for cloud droplet activation but also for ice nucleation.

  20. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  1. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tothong, P.; Luco, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the objectives in performance-based earthquake engineering is to quantify the seismic reliability of a structure at a site. For that purpose, probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA) is used as a tool to estimate the mean annual frequency of exceeding a specified value of a structural demand parameter (e.g. interstorey drift). This paper compares and contrasts the use, in PSDA, of certain advanced scalar versus vector and conventional scalar ground motion intensity measures (IMs). One of the benefits of using a well-chosen IM is that more accurate evaluations of seismic performance are achieved without the need to perform detailed ground motion record selection for the nonlinear dynamic structural analyses involved in PSDA (e.g. record selection with respect to seismic parameters such as earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and ground motion epsilon). For structural demands that are dominated by a first mode of vibration, using inelastic spectral displacement (Sdi) can be advantageous relative to the conventionally used elastic spectral acceleration (Sa) and the vector IM consisting of Sa and epsilon (??). This paper demonstrates that this is true for ordinary and for near-source pulse-like earthquake records. The latter ground motions cannot be adequately characterized by either Sa alone or the vector of Sa and ??. For structural demands with significant higher-mode contributions (under either of the two types of ground motions), even Sdi (alone) is not sufficient, so an advanced scalar IM that additionally incorporates higher modes is used.

  2. Molecular clouds toward the super star cluster NGC 3603; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision in triggering the cluster formation

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; Ohama, A.; Hanaoka, N.; Furukawa, N.; Torii, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Fukuda, T.; Soga, S.; Moribe, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Kuwahara, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T.; Dawson, J. R.; Mizuno, N.; Kawamura, A.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Mizuno, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present new large field observations of molecular clouds with NANTEN2 toward the super star cluster NGC 3603 in the transitions {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0). We suggest that two molecular clouds at 13 km s{sup –1} and 28 km s{sup –1} are associated with NGC 3603 as evidenced by higher temperatures toward the H II region, as well as morphological correspondence. The mass of the clouds is too small to gravitationally bind them, given their relative motion of ∼20 km s{sup –1}. We suggest that the two clouds collided with each other 1 Myr ago to trigger the formation of the super star cluster. This scenario is able to explain the origin of the highest mass stellar population in the cluster, which is as young as 1 Myr and is segregated within the central sub-pc of the cluster. This is the second super star cluster along with Westerlund 2 where formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud collision.

  3. A hillock and cloud model for faculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.; Mayr, Hans G.; Omidvar, Kazem; Maier, Eugene

    1986-01-01

    A hillock model is used here to explain facular contrasts, allowing faculae to emit more energy than the surrounding unmagnetized photosphere. For downflows, horizontal motions converge near the photosphere and many fibril flux tubes are drawn together to form a large dark area, the sunspot. For upflows, the motions diverge near the photosphere and fibril flux tubes are dispersed over a larger area associated with faculae. The upflows transport material and energy, resulting in hotter than normal temperatures, which in turn cause the gas to expand compared with its surroundings. Buoyancy thus causes a 'network' of patchy hillocks, clouds, or geysers to form which allows the sun to reradiate the energy deficit associated with sunspots by locally increasing the effective surface area of the sun beyond that of a sphere. The consequences of this model for the physical form of the facular manifestation, the appearance of faculae from earth, and the 'energy balance' in active regions are addressed.

  4. GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Ben Sari, D.; Tealeb, A.

    2003-10-01

    We use continuously recording GPS (CGPS) and survey-mode GPS (SGPS) observations to determine Euler vectors for relative motion of the African (Nubian), Arabian and Eurasian plates. We present a well-constrained Eurasia-Nubia Euler vector derived from 23 IGS sites in Europe and four CGPS and three SGPS sites on the Nubian Plate (-0.95 +/- 4.8°N, -21.8 +/- 4.3°E, 0.06 +/- 0.005° Myr-1). We see no significant (>1 mm yr-1) internal deformation of the Nubian Plate. The GPS Nubian-Eurasian Euler vector differs significantly from NUVEL-1A (21.0 +/- 4.2°N, -20.6 +/- 0.6°E, 0.12 +/- 0.015° Myr-1), implying more westward motion of Africa relative to Eurasia and slower convergence in the eastern Mediterranean. The Arabia-Eurasia and Arabia-Nubia GPS Euler vectors are less well determined, based on only one CGPS and three SGPS sites on the Arabian Plate. The preliminary Arabia-Eurasia and Arabia-Nubia Euler vectors are 27.4 +/- 1.0°N, 18.4 +/- 2.5°E, 0.40 +/- 0.04° Myr-1, and 30.5 +/- 1.0°N, 25.7 +/- 2.3°E, 0.37 +/- 0.04° Myr-1, respectively. The GPS Arabia-Nubia Euler vector differs significantly from NUVEL-1A (24.1 +/- 1.7°N, 24.0 +/- 3.5°E, 0.40 +/- 0.05° Myr-1), but is statistically consistent at the 95 per cent confidence level with the revised Euler vector reported by Chu & Gordon based on a re-evaluation of magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (31.5 +/- 1.2°N, 23.0 +/- 2.7°E, 0.40 +/- 0.05° Myr-1). The motion implied in the Gulf of Aqaba and on the Dead Sea fault (DSF) by the new GPS Nubia-Arabia Euler vector (i.e. ignoring possible Sinai block motion and possible internal plate deformation) grades from pure left lateral strike-slip in the Gulf and on the southern DSF with increasing compression on the central and northern DSF with relative motion increasing from 5.6 to 7.5 mm yr-1 (+/-1 mm yr-1) from south to north. Along the northern DSF (i.e. north of the Lebanon restraining bend) motion is partitioned between 6 +/- 1 mm yr-1 left-lateral motion parallel to the fault trace and 4 +/- 1 mm yr-1 fault-normal compression. Relative motions on other plate boundaries (including the Anatolian and Aegean microplates) derived from the GPS Euler vectors agree qualitatively with the sense of motion indicated by focal mechanisms for large crustal earthquakes (M > 6). Where data are available on fault-slip rates on plate bounding faults (North Anatolian fault, East Anatolian fault, Dead Sea fault, Red Sea rift), they are generally lower than, but not significantly different from, the full plate motion estimates suggesting that the majority of relative plate motion is accommodated on these structures.

  5. Properties of the Acoustic Vector Field in Underwater Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, David R.

    This thesis focuses on the description and measurement of the underwater acoustic field, based on vector properties of acoustic particle velocity. The specific goal is to interpret vector sensor measurements in underwater waveguides, in particular those measurements made in littoral (shallow) waters. To that end, theoretical models, which include the effects of reflections from the waveguide boundaries, are developed for the acoustic intensity, i.e. the product of acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity. Vector properties of acoustic intensity are shown to correspond to a non-dimensional vector property of acoustic particle velocity, its degree of circularity, which describes the trajectory of particle motion. Both experimental measurements and simulations of this non-dimensional vector property are used to analyze characteristics of sound propagation in underwater waveguides. Two measurement techniques are utilized in the experiments described in this thesis. In the first, particle velocity is obtained indirectly by time integration of the measured pressure gradient between two closely spaced (with respect to an acoustic wavelength) conventional pressure sensitive hydrophones. This method was used in ocean experiments conducted with vertical line arrays of hydrophones. In the second technique, particle velocity is measured directly by time integration of the signal generated by an accelerometer. An additional pressure measurement from a co-located hydrophone forms what is known as a "combined sensor" in the Russian literature, which allows for estimation of the vector acoustic intensity. This method was utilized mainly in laboratory experiments.

  6. The Personal Motion Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian Vandellyn

    1993-01-01

    The Neutral Body Posture experienced in microgravity creates a biomechanical equilibrium by enabling the internal forces within the body to find their own balance. A patented reclining chair based on this posture provides a minimal stress environment for interfacing with computer systems for extended periods. When the chair is mounted on a 3 or 6 axis motion platform, a generic motion simulator for simulated digital environments is created. The Personal Motion Platform provides motional feedback to the occupant in synchronization with their movements inside the digital world which enhances the simulation experience. Existing HMD based simulation systems can be integrated to the turnkey system. Future developments are discussed.

  7. Measurement of visual motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  8. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  9. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

  10. Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.

  11. Breathing motion compensated reconstruction for C-arm cone beam CT imaging: initial experience based on animal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, D.; Lin, M.; Rao, P. P.; Loffroy, R.; Liapi, E.; Noordhoek, N.; Eshuis, P.; Radaelli, A.; Grass, M.; Geschwind, J.-F. H.

    2012-03-01

    C-arm based tomographic 3D imaging is applied in an increasing number of minimal invasive procedures. Due to the limited acquisition speed for a complete projection data set required for tomographic reconstruction, breathing motion is a potential source of artifacts. This is the case for patients who cannot comply breathing commands (e.g. due to anesthesia). Intra-scan motion estimation and compensation is required. Here, a scheme for projection based local breathing motion estimation is combined with an anatomy adapted interpolation strategy and subsequent motion compensated filtered back projection. The breathing motion vector is measured as a displacement vector on the projections of a tomographic short scan acquisition using the diaphragm as a landmark. Scaling of the displacement to the acquisition iso-center and anatomy adapted volumetric motion vector field interpolation delivers a 3D motion vector per voxel. Motion compensated filtered back projection incorporates this motion vector field in the image reconstruction process. This approach is applied in animal experiments on a flat panel C-arm system delivering improved image quality (lower artifact levels, improved tumor delineation) in 3D liver tumor imaging.

  12. Exploiting motion-based redundancy to enhance microgrid polarimeter imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Black, Wiley T.; LaCasse, Charles F.

    2009-08-01

    Microgrid polarimeters are a type of division of focal plane (DoFP) imaging polarimeter that contains a mosaic of pixel-wise micropolarizing elements superimposed upon an FPA sensor. Such a device measures a slightly different polarized state at each pixel. These measurements are combined to estimate the Stokes vector at each pixel in the image. DoFP devices have the advantage that they can obtain Stokes vector image estimates for an entire scene from a single frame capture. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the neighboring measurements that are used to estimate the Stokes vector images are acquired at differing instantaneous fields of view (IFOV). This IFOV issue leads to false polarization signatures that significantly degrade the Stokes vector images. Interpolation and other image processing strategies can be employed to reduce IFOV artifacts; however these techniques have a limit to the amount of enhancement they can provide on a single microgrid image. Here we investigate algorithms that use multiple microgrid images that contain frame-to-frame global motion to further enhance the Stokes vector image estimates. Motion-based imagery provides additional redundancy that can be exploited to recover information that is "missing" from a single microgrid frame capture. We have found that IFOV and aliasing artifacts can be defeated entirely when these types of algorithms are applied to the data prior to Stokes vector estimation. We demonstrate results on real LWIR microgrid data using a particular resolution enhancement technique from the literature.

  13. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  14. Kontur: Observations of cloud streets and open cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, B.; Bakan, S.; Hinzpeter, H.

    1985-08-01

    In September and October 1981 the experiment KonTur (Convection and turbulence) was conducted over the North Sea. Its objectives were to investigate organized convective patterns, like cloud streets (boundary layer rolls) and cellular cloud structures. Two aircraft (British Hercules C-130 and German Falcon 20) performed detailed measurements within these patterns. Several cases of cloud streets and open cells were observed. Boundary layer rolls appear to be connected with an inflection point in the cross-roll wind component. The aspect ratio of the rolls (wavelength versus depth) is between three and four in accordance with other observations and linear stability analysis. Four scales of motion are involved: the mean flow, the roll circulation, individual clouds and turbulence. The vertical transport are dominated at lower levels by turbulence and at higher levels by roll-scale motions. Open cellular cloud structures are connected with large air-sea temperature differences due to cold air outbreaks from the northwest. The aspect ratio of the cells is of the order of 10. The bulk contribution to the total transport of heat and momentum originates from the cloudy walls of the cells. A vertical cross section through a composite open cell is presented.

  15. HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying Poi; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Numerous viral vectors have been developed for the delivery of transgenes to specific target cells. For persistent transgene expression, vectors based on retroviruses are attractive delivery vehicles because of their ability to stably integrate their DNA into the host cell genome. Initially, vectors based on simple retroviruses were the vector of choice for such applications. However, these vectors can only transduce actively dividing cells. Therefore, much interest has turned to retroviral vectors based on the lentivirus genus because of their ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells. The best characterized lentiviral vectors are derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This chapter describes the basic features of the HIV-1 replication cycle and the many improvements reported for the lentiviral vector systems to increase the safety and efficiency. We also provide practical information on the production of HIV-1 derived lentiviral vectors, the cell transduction protocol and a method to determine the transduction titers of a lentiviral vector. PMID:24158830

  16. A new parameterization for predicting the fast response of stratiform cloud to unresolved diabatic radiative heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Schmidt, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional GCMs are easily capable of representing the convective response of the atmosphere to the slow cooling of clear skies over timescales of days to weeks. On the other hand, representing the interactions of radiation with cloudy skies lie beyond current GCM capabilities because the the associated heating gradients are so sharp, and these drive circulations a traditional GCM framework cannot resolve. Moreover, because clouds are partly the consequence of the very circulations they drive, the problem quickly becomes non-linear and difficult to parameterize. Using a combination of LES simulations and simple theoretical arguments, we have found that a single dimensionless “Spreading Number” S captures the small-scale, fast response of horizontally finite stratiform cloud layers to radiative flux convergence/divergence. The Spreading Number factors in local heating gradients, the atmospheric static stability, and the cloud aspect ratio. For very low values of S, where the cloud is either narrow or optically tenuous, the thermodynamic response of the cloud layer to heating is to slowly loft and spread in laminar motions, maintaining continuity while isentropic surfaces stay approximately flat: thin tropopause cirrus is an example. Very large values of S are associated with clouds that are so wide and/or optically dense that heating gradients destabilize the cloud to the point that it convects: one example is the development of mammatus clouds at cirrus anvil cloud base. We suggest that for the purpose of GCM simulations, values of S can be calculated for parameterized cloud cover that cannot be explicitly resolved, and that this offers a shortcut for calculating cloud dynamic fast response over unresolved timescales. Numerical simulation of mammatus cloud using interactive IR radiative heating within the University of Utah LES. Cloud fields are subsequently passed through a 3D radiative transfer solver SHDOM (one quarter domain looking up at cloud base). The mammatus field developed from an initially homogeneous and still cloud layer with a very high value of the spreading number S.

  17. Eliminating malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria vectors which predominantly feed indoors upon humans have been locally eliminated from several settings with insecticide treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying or larval source management. Recent dramatic declines of An. gambiae in east Africa with imperfect ITN coverage suggest mosquito populations can rapidly collapse when forced below realistically achievable, non-zero thresholds of density and supporting resource availability. Here we explain why insecticide-based mosquito elimination strategies are feasible, desirable and can be extended to a wider variety of species by expanding the vector control arsenal to cover a broader spectrum of the resources they need to survive. The greatest advantage of eliminating mosquitoes, rather than merely controlling them, is that this precludes local selection for behavioural or physiological resistance traits. The greatest challenges are therefore to achieve high biological coverage of targeted resources rapidly enough to prevent local emergence of resistance and to then continually exclude, monitor for and respond to re-invasion from external populations. PMID:23758937

  18. Lifted transformations on the tangent bundle, and symmetries of particle motion

    SciTech Connect

    Maartens, R.; Taylor, D.R. )

    1993-01-01

    We define affine transport lifts on the tangent bundle by associating a transport rule for tangent vectors with a vector field on the base manifold. Our aim is to develop tools for the study of kinetic/dynamic symmetries in particle motion. The new lift unifies and generalizes all the various existing lifted vector fields, with clear geometric interpretations. In particular, this includes the important but little-known matter symmetries of relativistic kinetic theory. We find the affine dynamical symmetries of general relativistic charged particle motion, and we compare this to previous results and to the alternative concept of matter symmetry.

  19. Three Dimensional Charged Interior Solutions Admitting Conformal Killing Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Arkopriya; Karar, Indrani; Rahaman, Farook; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of new class of solutions for charged fluid distribution in (2+1)-dimension admitting conformal motion of killing vectors has always become a subject of special interest to the physicist in recent years. In this paper, we present some new types of non-singular model for anisotropic charged fluid in (2+1) dimensions. The solutions obtained here satisfy all the regularity conditions at the origin. We have discussed various physical properties of the model.

  20. FORMATION OF MASSIVE MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES BY CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament.

  1. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  2. Cloud physics and cloud water sampler comparison during FEBUKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieprecht, W.; Acker, K.; Mertes, S.; Collett, J.; Jaeschke, W.; Brüggemann, E.; Möller, D.; Herrmann, H.

    Optical methods for counting and sizing cloud droplets and a wide range of cloud water sampling methods were used to characterize the atmospheric liquid phase during the FEBUKO cloud experiments. Results near cloud base as well as more than 300 m inside the hill cap clouds are presented, reflecting their inhomogeneous nature. The cloud droplet number varies from 50 to 1000 cm -3 and drop sizes between 1 and 20 μm diameter are most frequent. Variations in the liquid water content (LWC) and in the total ion content (TIC) are much smaller when the measurement position is deeper in the cloud. Near cloud base variability in updraft strength and, near cloud top, entrainment processes (droplet evaporation by mixing with drier air, aerosol and gas scavenging) disturb the adiabatic conditions and produce large variations in LWC and chemical composition. Six different active cloud water collectors and impactors were running side by side; they differ in the principle of sampling, in the throughput of cloudy air per unit time and in the calculated 50% cutoff diameter, which influence also their sampling efficiency. Two of them are designed to collect cloud water in two droplet size fractions. Three cloud events were selected by the FEBUKO team for detailed cloud physical and chemical analyses because they serve best the modelling demands concerning connected flow between the upwind, summit and downwind sites for process studies. Frequency distributions of the LWC and, also of the cloud base height are given as statistical parameters for both FEBUKO experiments.

  3. A GALACTIC ORIGIN FOR HE 0437-5439, THE HYPERVELOCITY STAR NEAR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Anderson, Jay; Bond, Howard E.; Livio, Mario; Gnedin, Oleg Y. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: jayander@stsci.ed E-mail: mlivio@stsci.ed

    2010-08-10

    We use Hubble Space Telescope imaging to measure the absolute proper motion of the hypervelocity star (HVS) HE 0437-5439, a short-lived B star located in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We observe ({mu}{sub {alpha}} {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (+0.53 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.33(sys), + 0.09 {+-} 0.21(stat) {+-} 0.48(sys)) mas yr{sup -1}. The velocity vector points directly away from the center of the Milky Way; an origin from the center of the LMC is ruled out at the 3{sigma} level. The flight time of the HVS from the Milky Way exceeds its main-sequence lifetime, thus its stellar nature requires it to be a blue straggler. The large space velocity rules out a Galactic-disk ejection. Combining the HVS's observed trajectory, stellar nature, and required initial velocity, we conclude that HE 0437-5439 was most likely a compact binary ejected by the Milky Way's central black hole.

  4. Biview learning for human posture segmentation from 3D points cloud.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Maoying; Cheng, Jun; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-01-01

    Posture segmentation plays an essential role in human motion analysis. The state-of-the-art method extracts sufficiently high-dimensional features from 3D depth images for each 3D point and learns an efficient body part classifier. However, high-dimensional features are memory-consuming and difficult to handle on large-scale training dataset. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage dimension reduction scheme, termed biview learning, to encode two independent views which are depth-difference features (DDF) and relative position features (RPF). Biview learning explores the complementary property of DDF and RPF, and uses two stages to learn a compact yet comprehensive low-dimensional feature space for posture segmentation. In the first stage, discriminative locality alignment (DLA) is applied to the high-dimensional DDF to learn a discriminative low-dimensional representation. In the second stage, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to explore the complementary property of RPF and the dimensionality reduced DDF. Finally, we train a support vector machine (SVM) over the output of CCA. We carefully validate the effectiveness of DLA and CCA utilized in the two-stage scheme on our 3D human points cloud dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed biview learning scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method for human posture segmentation. PMID:24465721

  5. Biview Learning for Human Posture Segmentation from 3D Points Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Maoying; Cheng, Jun; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-01-01

    Posture segmentation plays an essential role in human motion analysis. The state-of-the-art method extracts sufficiently high-dimensional features from 3D depth images for each 3D point and learns an efficient body part classifier. However, high-dimensional features are memory-consuming and difficult to handle on large-scale training dataset. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage dimension reduction scheme, termed biview learning, to encode two independent views which are depth-difference features (DDF) and relative position features (RPF). Biview learning explores the complementary property of DDF and RPF, and uses two stages to learn a compact yet comprehensive low-dimensional feature space for posture segmentation. In the first stage, discriminative locality alignment (DLA) is applied to the high-dimensional DDF to learn a discriminative low-dimensional representation. In the second stage, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to explore the complementary property of RPF and the dimensionality reduced DDF. Finally, we train a support vector machine (SVM) over the output of CCA. We carefully validate the effectiveness of DLA and CCA utilized in the two-stage scheme on our 3D human points cloud dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed biview learning scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method for human posture segmentation. PMID:24465721

  6. The collective gyration of a heavy ion cloud in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenning, N.; Swenson, C.; Kelley, M. C.; Providakes, J.; Torbert, R.

    1990-01-01

    In both the ionospheric barium injection experiments CRIT 1 and CRIT 2, a long duration oscillation was seen with a frequency close to the gyro frequency of barium and a time duration of about one second. A model for the phenomena which was proposed for the CRIT 1 experiment is compared to the results from CRIT 2 which made a much more complete set of measurements. The model follows the motion of a low Beta ion cloud through a larger ambient plasma. The internal field of the model is close to antiparallel to the injection direction v sub i but slightly tilted towards the self polarization direction E sub p = -V sub i by B. As the ions move across the magnetic field, the space charge is continuously neutralized by magnetic field aligned electron currents from the ambient ionosphere, drawn by the divergence in the perpendicular electric field. These currents give a perturbation of the magnetic field related to the electric field perturbation by Delta E/Delta B approximately equal to V sub A. The model predictions agree quite well with the observed vector directions, field strengths, and decay times of the electric and magnetic fields in CRIT 2. The possibility to extend the model to the active region, where the ions are produces in this type of self-ionizing injection experiments, is discussed.

  7. A Galactic Origin for HE 0437-5439, The Hypervelocity Star Near the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Anderson, Jay; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Bond, Howard E.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Livio, Mario

    2010-08-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope imaging to measure the absolute proper motion of the hypervelocity star (HVS) HE 0437-5439, a short-lived B star located in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We observe (μα, μδ) = (+0.53 ± 0.25(stat) ± 0.33(sys), + 0.09 ± 0.21(stat) ± 0.48(sys)) mas yr-1. The velocity vector points directly away from the center of the Milky Way; an origin from the center of the LMC is ruled out at the 3σ level. The flight time of the HVS from the Milky Way exceeds its main-sequence lifetime, thus its stellar nature requires it to be a blue straggler. The large space velocity rules out a Galactic-disk ejection. Combining the HVS's observed trajectory, stellar nature, and required initial velocity, we conclude that HE 0437-5439 was most likely a compact binary ejected by the Milky Way's central black hole. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Cloud Structure Anomalies Over the Tropical Pacific During the 1997/98 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Minghua; Wang, Pi-Huan; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite measurements of both cloud vertical structure and cloud-radiative forcing have been used to show that during the strong 1997/98 El Nino there was a substantial change in cloud vertical structure over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Relative to normal years, cloud altitudes were lower in the western portion of the Pacific and higher in the eastern portion. The reason for these redistributions was a collapse of the Walker circulation and enhanced large-scale upward motion over the eastern Pacific, both caused by the lack of a zonal sea surface temperature gradient during El Nino. It is proposed that these cloud structure changes, which significantly impact satellite measurements of the tropical Pacific's radiation budget, would serve as one useful means of testing cloud-climate interactions in climate models.

  9. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.

  10. Self-motion perception in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lich, Matthias; Bremmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion through space generates a visual pattern called optic flow. It can be used to determine one's direction of self-motion (heading). Previous studies have already shown that this perceptual ability, which is of critical importance during everyday life, changes with age. In most of these studies subjects were asked to judge whether they appeared to be heading to the left or right of a target. Thresholds were found to increase continuously with age. In our current study, we were interested in absolute rather than relative heading judgments and in the question about a potential neural correlate of an age-related deterioration of heading perception. Two groups, older test subjects and younger controls, were shown optic flow stimuli in a virtual-reality setup. Visual stimuli simulated self-motion through a 3-D cloud of dots and subjects had to indicate their perceived heading direction after each trial. In different subsets of experiments we varied individually relevant stimulus parameters: presentation time, number of dots in the display, stereoscopic vs. non-stereoscopic stimulation, and motion coherence. We found decrements in heading performance with age for each stimulus parameter. In a final step we aimed to determine a putative neural basis of this behavioral decline. To this end we modified a neural network model which previously has proven to be capable of reproduce and predict certain aspects of heading perception. We show that the observed data can be modeled by implementing an age related neuronal cell loss in this neural network. We conclude that a continuous decline of certain aspects of motion perception, among them heading, might be based on an age-related progressive loss of groups of neurons being activated by visual motion. PMID:25309379

  11. Vertical Air Motion Estimates from W-band Radar Doppler Spectra Observed during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. R.; Gibson, J. S.; Fairall, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    During the DYNAMO field campaign, a vertically pointing NOAA W-band (94 GHz) radar was mounted on the R/V Revelle to sample a wide range of clouds from shallow warm clouds to high cirrus clouds. The Doppler velocity spectra often contained multiple peak structures. In warm clouds, multiple peaks were due to cloud droplets and drizzle droplets in the same radar pulse volume. And in rainfall beneath well-defined reflectivity dim-bands near the melting layer, the multiple peaks were due to Mie scattering signatures from raindrops larger than 1.6 mm. This presentation will describe a method of identifying multiple peaks in Doppler spectra and then determining if the multiple peaks were due to cloud and drizzle droplets or due to large raindrops exciting a Mie scattering signature. In both cases, the multiple peak structure provides a signature to estimate vertical air motion. For spectra containing cloud droplets, the symmetric peak is a tracer used to estimate the air motion. For spectra with asymmetric shapes and large downward Doppler velocities, the Mie scattering notch is used to estimate the air motion. Examples of the retrieval procedure will be provided at the conference.

  12. Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

    The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

    At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

    In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

    The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color.

    The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring.

    Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  13. HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color. The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring. Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites. Credits: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA.

  14. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

  15. Images from Galileo of the Venus cloud deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Smith, Michael D.; Helfenstein, Paul; Schinder, Paul J.; Pollack, James B.; Rages, Kathy A.; Morrison, David; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Pilcher, Carl B.

    1991-01-01

    Images of Venus taken at 418 and 986 nm show that the morphology and motions of large-scale features change with depth in the cloud deck. Poleward meridional velocities, seen in both spectral regions, are much reduced in the NIR. In the south polar region the markings in the two wavelength bands are strongly anticorrelated. The images follow the changing state of the upper cloud layer downwind of the subsolar point, and the zonal flowfield shows a longitudinal periodicity that may be coupled to the formation of large-scale planetary waves. No optical lightning was detected.

  16. Images from Galileo of the Venus cloud deck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Gierasch, P.J.; Smith, M.D.; Helfenstein, P.; Schinder, P.J.; Pollack, James B.; Rages, K.A.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Klaasen, K.P.; Veverka, J.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W., III; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    Images of Venus taken at 418 (violet) and 986 [near-infrared (NIR)] nanometers show that the morphology and motions of large-scale features change with depth in the cloud deck. Poleward meridional velocities, seen in both spectral regions, are much reduced in the NIR. In the south polar region the markings in the two wavelength bands are strongly anticorrelated. The images follow the changing state of the upper cloud layer downwind of the subsolar point, and the zonal flow field shows a longitudinal periodicity that may be coupled to the formation of large-scale planetary waves. No optical lightning was detected.

  17. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures. PMID:26699014

  18. Numerical Modeling of Cloud Convection in Jupiter's Atmosphere: robustness and a mechanism of the intermittent emergence of vigorous cumulonimbus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Nakajima, K.; Odaka, M.; Ishiwatari, M.; Kuramoto, K.; Nishizawa, S.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The mean structure of cloud layer of Jupiter's atmosphere is thought to be maintained by the statistical contribution of a large number of clouds driven by internal and radiative heating/cooling over multiple cloud life cycles. The mean structure and its relationship to cloud convection remain unclear, because it is difficult to observe the structure under the extensive surface cloud layer by remote sensing. Sugiyama et al. (2009) develop a two-dimensional numerical fluid model that incorporates condensation of H2O and NH3 and production reaction of NH4SH, and Sugiyama et al. (2011) investigate a possible cloud layer structure with thermal forcing whose intensity is of the order of that expected in the real Jupiter's atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to confirm robustness of the characteristics of the structure demonstrated by Sugiyama et al. (2011) and to discuss a mechanism that causes their most remarkable characteristic, intermittent emergence of vigorous cumulonimbus clouds. Many long-term numerical calculations are performed in order to examine the dependency of the structure of cloud layer on both key parameter of cloud microphysics and abundance of condensible gases in the sub-cloud layer. In the parameter study about the time scale of conversion from cloud to rain, the intermittent cloud activity exists. In the parameter study about the abundance of the condensible gases in sub-cloud layer, the intermittent cloud activity exists except for the case in which the abundance of condensible gases is extremely small. The period of the intermittency is roughly proportional to the abundance of H2O gas in the sub-cloud layer. As the abundance of condensible gases increases, the condensation levels and the formation level become stronger barrier for the vertical convective motion. Our results do not reproduce the Galileo probe observation that all of the condensible gases are significantly depleted below the H2O condensation level. The trigger that starts active cloud development is existence of downward plumes that reach below the H2O condensation level under latent instability. Vigorous cumulonimbus clouds form due to returning updrafts associated with the downward plumes. On the other hand, at the end of the active cloud development, a relatively heavy air parcel that consists of many condensible gases cannot rise from H2O condensation level to the tropopause. The value of cloud work function is almost zero at the time. The intermittency of our model is caused by the fact that the amount of heating due to H2O condensation of the cumulonimbus clouds during the active periods is quite large compared to radiative cooling. A saw-tooth like temporal variation of overall temperature synchronized with the intermittent cloud activity is obtained in our model. The period of the intermittency is roughly estimated by using the temperature difference due to the intermittency and the radiative cooling rate.

  19. Long-term Behaviour Of Venus Winds At Cloud Level From Virtis/vex Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for more than three years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present an analysis of the overall dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere at both levels using observations that cover a large fraction of the VIRTIS dataset. We will present our latest results concerning the zonal winds, the overall stability in the lower cloud deck motions and the variability in the upper cloud. Meridional winds are also observed in the upper and lower cloud in the UV and IR images obtained with VIRTIS. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present more irregular, variable and less intense motions in the meridional direction. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  20. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of nature,…

  1. Motion through Syntactic Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Michele I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of (Talmy, 1985), (Talmy, 1985) and (Talmy, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the…

  2. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  3. Teaching Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  4. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  5. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  6. Making Sense of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When watching a small child with a toy car, it is seen that interest in motion comes early. Children often suggest speed through sounds such as "RRRrrrRRRooooommMMMmmmm" as the toy car is made to speed up, slow down, or accelerate through a turn. Older children start to consider force and motion studies in more detail, and experiences in school

  7. Motion through Syntactic Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Michele I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of (Talmy, 1985), (Talmy, 1985) and (Talmy, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the

  8. Radiotherapy delivery during motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceberg, Sofie; Bäck, Sven Å. J.

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses the 3D dosimetric consequences of radiotherapy delivery during two kinds of motion, (i) the respiratory motion by the patient and (ii) the motion by the gantry while rotating around the patient. Respiratory motion primarily compromises treatments in the thorax and abdomen regions. Several strategies to reduce respiratory motion effects have been developed or are under development. The organ motion could for instance be measured and incorporated in the treatment planning, or adapted to by using respiratory gating and tumour-tracking delivery techniques. Gantry motion is involved in various forms of intensity-modulated arc-therapy techniques. The purpose is to increase the modulation by simultaneously varying the MLC positions, the rotation speed of the gantry, and the dose rate during the treatment. The advantage of these techniques is the increased possibility to deliver a high absorbed dose to the target volume while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. However, the dosimetric uncertainties associated with motion, small fields and steep dose gradients, has to be evaluated in detail, and this requires adequate true 3D dose-verification tools.

  9. Making Sense of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When watching a small child with a toy car, it is seen that interest in motion comes early. Children often suggest speed through sounds such as "RRRrrrRRRooooommMMMmmmm" as the toy car is made to speed up, slow down, or accelerate through a turn. Older children start to consider force and motion studies in more detail, and experiences in school…

  10. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions....

  11. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions....

  12. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions....

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions....

  14. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions....

  15. Investigations of Clouds and Aerosols on Mars, Venus and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    1999-01-01

    This final report was included as part of a new proposal. This new proposal was selected for funding on 9 Nov. 1999. For Titan our interest during the past few years was to explain the observed asymmetry in the albedo. We suggested earlier, from one-dimensional modeling studies, that vertical transport rates were comparable to particle fall speeds. Since heating of the upper atmosphere, which drives dynamical motions, is largely due to the aerosols, a nonlinear interaction between dynamics, radiative heating and particle microphysics is possible. We pursued this interaction in a two-dimensional model. We showed that the observed variations in the albedo between the two hemispheres and over an orbital cycle, could be due to dynamical motions suspending particles so that particle sizes and optical depths vary across the planet. In the Cassini time frame, future studies of this interaction between dynamics, radiation and microphysics may be worthwhile using, the strong modeling base that others, and we have developed. In our recently approved proposal, however, we plan to extend our modeling to hydrocarbon clouds that lie at lower levels. We know very little about such clouds, and numerical models for their properties are non-existent. These clouds may be observed by the Huygen's Probe, and by the Cassini orbiter, so predictions of their properties should help in the analysis of Cassini data. We have also developed a sophisticated model for the lower, condensational, clouds on Venus. In this model we explored the water vapor budget on Venus, and the properties of the clouds such as particle size distribution. During the past few years we have applied our model of the water ice clouds on Mars to new data sets from Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor. We have compared our predictions of cloud properties with those seen by Pathfinder, and found reasonable agreement.

  16. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

  17. GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrieff, Mitch

    1993-01-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) program seeks to improve the physical understanding of sub-grid scale cloud processes and their representation in parameterization schemes. By improving the description and understanding of key cloud system processes, GCSS aims to develop the necessary parameterizations in climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. GCSS will address these issues mainly through the development and use of cloud-resolving or cumulus ensemble models to generate realizations of a set of archetypal cloud systems. The focus of GCSS is on mesoscale cloud systems, including precipitating convectively-driven cloud systems like MCS's and boundary layer clouds, rather than individual clouds, and on their large-scale effects. Some of the key scientific issues confronting GCSS that particularly relate to research activities in the central U.S. are presented.

  18. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  19. Arctic Cloud-driven Mixed Layers and Surface Coupling State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.; de Boer, G.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic low-level clouds interact with the atmosphere and underlying surface via many inter-related processes. The balance of cloud radiative warming and cooling effects imparts a strong control on the net surface energy budget. Cloud-driven atmospheric circulations can impact surface turbulent heat fluxes and influence the vertical mixing of atmospheric state parameters and aerosols. Large-scale advection of heat and moisture provides the background context within which these local interactions unfold. Importantly, these radiative, dynamical, and advective processes also contribute to a complex web of self-sustaining cloud processes that can promote cloud maintenance over long periods of time. We examine many of these processes, with a specific focus on the dynamical linkages between Arctic clouds and the surface that influence low-level atmospheric structure and mixing. Comprehensive, ground-based observations from meteorological towers, remote-sensors, and radiosondes are used to simultaneously characterize surface fluxes, atmospheric structure, cloud properties, in-cloud motions, and the depth of the cloud-driven mixed layer in multiple Arctic environments. Relationships among these parameters are explored to elucidate the properties of the system that determine the degree of vertical atmospheric mixing and the coupling state between cloud and surface. The influence of temperature and moisture inversions on this system is also explored. Transitions in the coupling state are utilized to illustrate the relative roles of different processes. Cases from a coastal Arctic site at Barrow, Alaska and a station embedded in the Arctic sea-ice pack are used to contrast conditional influences related to season and surface type. It is found that over sea-ice, where surface turbulent fluxes are weak, the coupling of cloud-level processes to the surface layer is largely due to proximity of the cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface, which appears to be primarily influenced by the larger-scale, advective environment. In contrast, surface-forced turbulence can also play a significant role in vertical atmospheric mixing and cloud maintenance in the presence of open ocean or land processes.

  20. Two novel motion-based algorithms for surveillance video analysis on embedded platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijverberg, Julien A.; Loomans, Marijn J. H.; Koeleman, Cornelis J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes two novel motion-vector based techniques for target detection and target tracking in surveillance videos. The algorithms are designed to operate on a resource-constrained device, such as a surveillance camera, and to reuse the motion vectors generated by the video encoder. The first novel algorithm for target detection uses motion vectors to construct a consistent motion mask, which is combined with a simple background segmentation technique to obtain a segmentation mask. The second proposed algorithm aims at multi-target tracking and uses motion vectors to assign blocks to targets employing five features. The weights of these features are adapted based on the interaction between targets. These algorithms are combined in one complete analysis application. The performance of this application for target detection has been evaluated for the i-LIDS sterile zone dataset and achieves an F1-score of 0.40-0.69. The performance of the analysis algorithm for multi-target tracking has been evaluated using the CAVIAR dataset and achieves an MOTP of around 9.7 and MOTA of 0.17-0.25. On a selection of targets in videos from other datasets, the achieved MOTP and MOTA are 8.8-10.5 and 0.32-0.49 respectively. The execution time on a PC-based platform is 36 ms. This includes the 20 ms for generating motion vectors, which are also required by the video encoder.