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1

Analysis of radar and lidar returns from clouds: Implications for the proposed Earth Radiation Mission  

E-print Network

Analysis of radar and lidar returns from clouds: Implications for the proposed Earth Radiation 1999, a near­continuous dataset of observations by cloud radar, lidar ceilometer and drop reflectiv­ ity, the difference in radar and lidar measured cloud base, and the frequency of occurrence

Hogan, Robin

2

215 GHz for monitoring ice clouds: Comparison with radar/lidar synergy  

E-print Network

215 GHz for monitoring ice clouds: Comparison with radar/lidar synergy 2.2.1 Introduction and a visible lidar; the very different scattering behaviour of the two instruments would enable aerosols, rain, and cloud of all types to be detected. In section 2.5 we will show how lidar and radar can be used to infer

Hogan, Robin

3

Facilitating cloud radar and lidar algorithms: the Cloudnet Instrument Synergy/Target Categorization product  

E-print Network

Facilitating cloud radar and lidar algorithms: the Cloudnet Instrument Synergy recognition of the usefulness of cloud radar for evaluating numerous aspects of the representation of clouds.j.hogan@reading.ac.uk. 1http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/radar/cloudnet/ 2http://www.arm.gov/ are regular 6-hourly radiosonde

Hogan, Robin

4

Facilitating cloud radar and lidar algorithms: the Cloudnet Instrument Synergy/Target Categorization product  

E-print Network

Facilitating cloud radar and lidar algorithms: the Cloudnet Instrument Synergy recognition of the usefulness of cloud radar for evaluating numerous aspects of the representation of clouds, UK. E­mail: r.j.hogan@reading.ac.uk. 1 http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/radar/cloudnet/ 2 http

Hogan, Robin

5

Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations  

SciTech Connect

Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2013-06-11

6

An evaluation of ice formation in large-eddy simulations of supercooled Arctic stratocumulus using ground-based lidar and cloud radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate possible ice formation processes in mixed phase Arctic stratocumulus, we compare measurements of radar reflectivity and Doppler velocity and lidar backscatter coefficient and circular depolarization ratio with the corresponding quantities computed from large-eddy simulations (LES). The measurements are taken from the Millimeter Cloud Radar and the Arctic High Spectral Resolution Lidar during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud

B. van Diedenhoven; A. M. Fridlind; A. S. Ackerman; E. W. Eloranta; G. M. McFarquhar

2009-01-01

7

Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

1993-01-01

8

Evaluation of Cloud-Phase Retrieval Methods for SEVIRI on Meteosat-8 Using Ground-Based Lidar and Cloud Radar Data  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Cloud-Phase Retrieval Methods for SEVIRI on Meteosat-8 Using Ground-Based Lidar and Cloud Radar Data ERWIN L. A. WOLTERS, ROBERT A. ROEBELING, AND ARNOUT J. FEIJT Royal Netherlands 2007) ABSTRACT Three cloud-phase determination algorithms from passive satellite imagers are explored

Stoffelen, Ad

9

Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties  

SciTech Connect

The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

Wang, Zhien

2010-06-29

10

Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer cloud using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievals using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m-2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent 3-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10-20 g m-2.

Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

2015-02-01

11

Cirrus Clouds Optical, Microphysical and Radiative Properties Observed During Crystal-Face Experiment: I. A Radar-Lidar Retrieval System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of retrieving cloud microphysical properties using combined observations from both cloud radar and lidar is introduced. This retrieval makes use of an improvement to the traditional optimal estimation retrieval method, whereby a series of corrections are applied to the state vector during the search for an iterative solution. This allows faster convergence to a solution and is less processor intensive. The method is first applied to a synthetic cloud t o demonstrate its validity, and it is shown that the retrieval reliably reproduces vertical profiles of ice water content. The retrieval method is then applied to radar and lidar observations from the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, and vertical profiles of ice crystal diameter, number concentration, and ice water content are retrieved for a cirrus cloud layers observed one day of that experiment. The validity of the relationship between visible extinction coefficient and radar reflectivity was examined. While synthetic tests showed such a functional relationship, the measured data only partially supported such a conclusion. This is due to errors in the forward model (as explained above) as well as errors in the data sets, including possible mismatch between lidar and radar profiles or errors in the optical depth. Empirical relationships between number concentrations and mean particle diameter were also examined. The results indicate that a distinct and robust relationship exists between these retrieved quantities and it is argued that such a relationship is more than an artifact of the retrieval process offering insight into the nature of the microphysical processes taking place in cirrus.

Mitrescu, C.; Haynes, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McGill, M. J.

2004-01-01

12

A variational scheme for retrieving ice cloud properties from combined radar, lidar and infrared radiometer  

E-print Network

radiometer JULIEN DELANO ¨E AND ROBIN J. HOGAN Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, United of ground-based or spaceborne radar, lidar and infrared radiometer. The forward model includes effects are still possible from the combination of lidar and radiometer. The method is tested first on simulated

Reading, University of

13

Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and  

E-print Network

Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

Hogan, Robin

14

The CloudSat radar-lidar geometrical profile product (RL-GeoProf): Updates, improvements, and selected results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Derived by combining data from the CloudSat radar and the CALIPSO lidar, the so-called radar-lidar geometrical profile product (RL-GeoProf) allows for characterization of the vertical and spatial structure of hydrometeor layers. RL-GeoProf is one of the standard data products of the CloudSat Project. In this paper we describe updates to the RL-GeoProf algorithm. These improvements include a significant fix to the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) that more accurately renders the occurrence frequencies of low-level clouds over the global oceans. Additionally, we now account for the navigational challenges associated with coordinated measurements of the two instruments by providing additional diagnostic information in the data files. We also document how the along-track averaging of the VFM influences the accuracy of RL-GeoProf. We find that the 5 km averaged VFM when merged with data from the CloudSat radar provides a global description of cloud occurrence that best matches an independently derived cloud mask from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MYD35) over daytime global oceans. Expanding on the comparison with MYD35, we demonstrate that RL-GeoProf and MYD35 closely track the monthly averaged cloud occurrence fraction during a 4 year span of measurements. A more detailed examination reveals latitudinal dependency in the comparison. Specifically, MYD35 tends to be significantly low biased relative to RL-GeoProf over the Polar Regions when cloud layers present low visible and thermal contrast with underlying surfaces. Additional analyses examine the geometrically defined hydrometeor layer occurrence climatologies over select regions of the Earth and the seasonal variations of low-based and low-topped cloud cover.

Mace, Gerald G.; Zhang, Qiuqing

2014-08-01

15

Vertical Cloud Climatology During TC4 Derived from High-Altitude Aircraft Merged Lidar and Radar Profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft lidar works by shooting laser pulses toward the earth and recording the return time and intensity of any of the light returning to the aircraft after scattering off atmospheric particles and/or the Earth s surface. The scattered light signatures can be analyzed to tell the exact location of cloud and aerosol layers and, with the aid of a few optical assumptions, can be analyzed to retrieve estimates of optical properties such as atmospheric transparency. Radar works in a similar fashion except it sends pulses toward earth at a much larger wavelength than lidar. Radar records the return time and intensity of cloud or rain reflection returning to the aircraft. Lidar can measure scatter from optically thin cirrus and aerosol layers whose particles are too small for the radar to detect. Radar can provide reflection profiles through thick cloud layers of larger particles that lidar cannot penetrate. Only after merging the two instrument products can accurate measurements of the locations of all layers in the full atmospheric column be achieved. Accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of clouds is important information for understanding the Earth/atmosphere radiative balance and for improving weather/climate forecast models. This paper describes one such merged data set developed from the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment based in Costa Rica in July-August 2007 using the nadir viewing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Statistics were developed concerning cloud probability through the atmospheric column and frequency of the number of cloud layers. These statistics were calculated for the full study area, four sub-regions, and over land compared to over ocean across all available flights. The results are valid for the TC4 experiment only, as preferred cloud patterns took priority during mission planning. The TC4 Study Area was a very cloudy region, with cloudy profiles occurring 94 percent of the time during the ER-2 flights. One to three cloud layers were common, with the average calculated at 2.03 layers per profile. The upper troposphere had a cloud frequency generally over 30%, reaching 42 percent near 13 km during the study. There were regional differences. The Caribbean was much clearer than the Pacific regions. Land had a much higher frequency of high clouds than ocean areas. One region just south and west of Panama had a high probability of clouds below 15 km altitude with the frequency never dropping below 25% and reaching a maximum of 60% at 11-13 km altitude. These cloud statistics will help characterize the cloud volume for TC4 scientists as they try to understand the complexities of the tropical atmosphere.

Hlavka, Dennis; Tian, Lin; Hart, William; Li, Lihua; McGill, Matthew; Heymsfield, Gerald

2009-01-01

16

Independent evaluation of the ability of spaceborne radar and lidar  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Independent evaluation of the ability of spaceborne radar and lidar to retrieve the microphysical and radiative properties of ice clouds Summary. The combination of radar and lidar in space offers, that of correcting the lidar signal for extinction. In this chapter "blind tests" of these two algorithms are carried

Hogan, Robin

17

An Assessment of MultiAngle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Stereo-Derived Cloud Top Heights and cloud top winds using ground-based radar, lidar, and microwave radiometers  

SciTech Connect

Clouds are of tremendous importance to climate because of their direct radiative effects and because of their role in atmospheric dynamics and the hydrological cycle. The value of satellite imagery in monitoring cloud properties on a global basis can hardly be understated. One cloud property that satellites are in an advantageous position to monitor is cloud top height. Cloud top height retrievals are especially important for MISR because the derived height field is used to co-register the measured radiances. In this presentation we show the results of an ongoing comparison between ground-based millimeter-wave cloud radar and lidar measurements of cloud top and MISR stereo-derived cloud top height. This comparison is based on data from three radar systems located in the U.S Southern Great Plains (Lamont, Oklahoma), the Tropical Western Pacific (Nauru Island) and the North Slope of Alaska (Barrow, Alaska). These radars are operated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The MISR stereo height algorithm is performing largely as expected for most optically thick clouds. As with many satellite retrievals, the stereo-height retrieval has difficulty with optically thin clouds or ice clouds with little optical contrast near cloud top.

Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Moroney, C.

2007-03-17

18

Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

2005-01-01

19

Weather Radars and Lidar for Observing the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado develops and deploys state-of-the-art ground-based radar, airborne radar and lidar instruments to advance scientific understanding of the earth system. The ground-based radar (S-Pol) is equipped with dual-wavelength capability (S-band and Ka-band). S-Pol is the only transportable radar in the world. In order to capture faster moving weather events such as tornadoes and record observations of clouds over rugged mountainous terrain and ocean, an airborne radar (ELDORA) is used. It is the only airborne Doppler meteorological radar that is able to detect motions in the clear air. The EOL is in the process of building the first phase of a three phase dual wavelength W/Ka-band airborne cloud radar to be called the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR). This phase is a pod based W-band radar system with scanning capability. The second phase will add pulse compression and polarimetric capability to the W-band system, while the third phase will add complementary Ka-band radar. The pod-based radar is primarily designed to fly on the Gulfstream V (GV) and C-130 aircraft. The envisioned capability of a millimeter wave radar system on GV is enhanced by coordination with microwave radiometer, in situ probes, and especially by the NCAR GV High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) which is also under construction. The presentation will describe the capabilities of current instruments and also planned instrumentation development.

(Vivek) Vivekanandan, J.

2010-05-01

20

The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in different tropical "regimes" recently identified in the literature to aid the development of better process-oriented parameterizations in models. For this purpose, the statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness), and the microphysical and radiative properties (ice water content, visible extinction, effective radius, and total concentration). The variability of these tropical ice cloud properties is then studied as a function of the large-scale cloud regimes derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the amplitude and phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the large-scale atmospheric regime as derived from a long-term record of radiosonde observations over Darwin. The vertical variability of ice cloud occurrence and microphysical properties is largest in all regimes (1.5 order of magnitude for ice water content and extinction, a factor 3 in effective radius, and three orders of magnitude in concentration, typically). 98 % of ice clouds in our dataset are characterized by either a small cloud fraction (smaller than 0.3) or a very large cloud fraction (larger than 0.9). In the ice part of the troposphere three distinct layers characterized by different statistically-dominant microphysical processes are identified. The variability of the ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale atmospheric regime, cloud regime, and MJO phase is large, producing mean differences of up to a factor 8 in the frequency of ice cloud occurrence between large-scale atmospheric regimes and mean differences of a factor 2 typically in all microphysical properties. Finally, the diurnal cycle of the frequency of occurrence of ice clouds is also very different between regimes and MJO phases, with diurnal amplitudes of the vertically-integrated frequency of ice cloud occurrence ranging from as low as 0.2 (weak diurnal amplitude) to values in excess of 2.0 (very large diurnal amplitude). Modellers should now use these results to check if their model cloud parameterizations are capable of translating a given atmospheric forcing into the correct statistical ice cloud properties.

Protat, A.; Delano, J.; May, P. T.; Haynes, J.; Jakob, C.; O'Connor, E.; Pope, M.; Wheeler, M. C.

2011-08-01

21

Fast Lidar and Radar Multiple-Scattering Models. Part I: Small-Angle Scattering Using the Photon VarianceCovariance Method  

E-print Network

Fast Lidar and Radar Multiple-Scattering Models. Part I: Small-Angle Scattering Using the Photon method is described for the calculation of the intensity of multiply scattered lidar returns from clouds-based and airborne lidars because of their small footprint on the cloud. For spaceborne lidar, it must be used

Hogan, Robin

22

Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Measurements at PEARL  

E-print Network

Measurements at PEARL T. Ayash, J.-P. Blanchet and E. W. Eloranta During the cold and dark Polar winter months Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut by an Automated High Spectral Resolution Lidar (AHSRL

Eloranta, Edwin W.

23

Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

KB Widener; K Johnson

2005-01-30

24

Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

2003-01-01

25

Arctic multilayered, mixed-phase cloud processes revealed in millimeter-wave cloud radar Doppler spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

radar Doppler velocity spectra, lidar backscattering coefficients and depolarization ratios, and aircraft in situ measurements are used to investigate microphysical processes occurring in a case of multilayered, mixed-phase clouds over the North Slope of Alaska. Some liquid-cloud layers were observed to exist in well-mixed atmospheric layers, but others were found in absolutely stable atmospheric layers. The observations suggest that strong cloud top cooling was necessary to produce the well-mixed cloud layers; clouds shielded from radiative cooling by overlaying clouds more frequently existed in absolutely stable layers. The in situ measurements revealed that most liquid layers contained drizzle, the production process of which was shown from the radar and lidar measurements to have been interrupted only during heavier ice-precipitation events. Different layers interacted with one another by changing the radiative heating profile and by precipitation which changed the growth paths available to cloud particles and even initiated new hydrometeor classes.

Verlinde, Johannes; Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

2013-12-01

26

THOR: Cloud Thickness from Off beam Lidar Returns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional wisdom is that lidar pulses do not significantly penetrate clouds having optical thickness exceeding about tau = 2, and that no returns are detectable from more than a shallow skin depth. Yet optically thicker clouds of tau much greater than 2 reflect a larger fraction of visible photons, and account for much of Earth s global average albedo. As cloud layer thickness grows, an increasing fraction of reflected photons are scattered multiple times within the cloud, and return from a diffuse concentric halo that grows around the incident pulse, increasing in horizontal area with layer physical thickness. The reflected halo is largely undetected by narrow field-of-view (FoV) receivers commonly used in lidar applications. THOR - Thickness from Off-beam Returns - is an airborne wide-angle detection system with multiple FoVs, capable of observing the diffuse halo, detecting wide-angle signal from which physical thickness of optically thick clouds can be retrieved. In this paper we describe the THOR system, demonstrate that the halo signal is stronger for thicker clouds, and validate physical thickness retrievals for clouds having z > 20, from NASA P-3B flights over the Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Southern Great Plains site, using the lidar, radar and other ancillary ground-based data.

Cahalan, Robert F.; McGill, Matthew; Kolasinski, John; Varnai, Tamas; Yetzer, Ken

2004-01-01

27

Drizzle Droplet Size Estimation Using High Spectral Resolution LIDAR and Millimeter Radar Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spectral resolution lidar(HSRL) provides calibrated measurement of optical extinction that can be used with millimeter wavelength radar to provide a measure of drizzle droplet size. The strengths and limitations of the this approach are examined using a combination of HSRL, KAZR radar and disdrometer data acquired during the MAGIC deployment of the DOE AMF2 mobile facility. Data was collected on a ship during multiple trips between Long Beach, CA an Honolulu, HI. Lidar-radar particle size estimations are typically based on the assumption of a mono-modal size distribution. The multi-mode particle size distributions that exist in clouds where drizzle co-exists with cloud droplets yield lidar-radar size estimates that are not characteristic of either distribution. A similar problem is encountered in the sub-cloud layer where aerosol scattering co-exists with drizzle. This paper examines the possibility of using aerosol scattering measured outside the drizzle shafts to correct for aerosol contributions and compares the lidar-radar drizzle derived particle sizes with disdrometer measurements.

Eloranta, E. W.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Bharadwaj, N.

2013-12-01

28

Lidar and Radar Measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark bands were observed by the Univ. of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) on several IOPs and SOPs (among others, 23 July, 15 August, 17 August). Dark band signatures appear in the lidar measurements of particle backscattering at 355, 532 and 1064 nm and particle extinction at 355 and 532 nm, as well as in particle depolarization measurements. Lidar data are supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester Radio UHF clear air wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and discussed to support in the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar dark band and radar bright band.

Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Bhawar, Rohini; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Vaughan, Geraint; Norton, Emily; Peters, Gerhard

2009-03-01

29

Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Returns - Thor Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical thickness of a cloud layer, and sometimes multiple cloud layers, can be estimated from the time delay of off-beam returns from a pulsed laser source illuminating one side of the cloud layer. In particular, the time delay of light returning from the outer diffuse halo of light surrounding the beam entry point, relative to the time delay at beam center, determines the cloud physical thickness. The delay combined with the pulse stretch gives the optical thickness. The halo method works best for thick cloud layers, typically optical thickness exceeding 2, and thus compliments conventional lidar which cannot penetrate thick clouds. Cloud layer top and base have been measured independently over the ARM/SGP site using conventional laser ranging (lidar) and the top minus base thickness are compared with a cloud top halo estimate obtained from the NASA/Goddard THOR System (THOR = THickness from Offbeam Returns). THOR flies on the NASA P3, and measures the halo timings from several km above cloud top, at the same time providing conventional lidar cloud top height. The ARM/SGP micropulse lidar provides cloud base height for validation.

Cahalan, R.; Kolasinski, J.; McGill, M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

30

An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when ? approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

2006-10-01

31

Fast lidar and radar multiple-scattering models Part 1: Quasi-small-angle scattering using the photon variance-covariance method  

E-print Network

Fast lidar and radar multiple-scattering models Part 1: Quasi-small-angle scattering using for the calculation of the intensity of multiply scattered lidar returns from clouds. At each range gate-angle forward scattering events, which is suitable for most ground-based and airborne lidars due to their small

Reading, University of

32

Fast lidar and radar multiple-scattering models Part 2: Wide-angle scattering using the time-dependent two-stream approximation  

E-print Network

Fast lidar and radar multiple-scattering models Part 2: Wide-angle scattering using the time. Atmos. Sci., October 2007 ABSTRACT Spaceborne lidar returns from liquid water clouds contain significant a near-direct path out to and back from a single backscattering event (in the case of lidar, accounting

Reading, University of

33

Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar is an optical radar technique employing laser energy. Variations in signal intensity as a function of range provide information on atmospheric constituents, even when these are too tenuous to be normally visible. The theoretical and technical basis of the technique is described and typical values of the atmospheric optical parameters given. The significance of these parameters to atmospheric and meteorological problems is discussed. While the basic technique can provide valuable information about clouds and other material in the atmosphere, it is not possible to determine particle size and number concentrations precisely. There are also inherent difficulties in evaluating lidar observations. Nevertheless, lidar can provide much useful information as is shown by illustrations. These include lidar observations of: cirrus cloud, showing mountain wave motions; stratification in clear air due to the thermal profile near the ground; determinations of low cloud and visibility along an air-field approach path; and finally the motion and internal structure of clouds of tracer materials (insecticide spray and explosion-caused dust) which demonstrate the use of lidar for studying transport and diffusion processes.

Collis, R. T. H.

1969-01-01

34

A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple Field-of-View Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While liquid clouds playa very important role in the global radiation budget, it's been very difficult to remotely determine their internal cloud structure. Ordinary lidar instruments (similar to radars but using visible light pulses) receive strong signals from such clouds, but the information is limited to a thin layer near the cloud boundary. Multiple field-of-view (FOV) lidars offer some new hope as they are able to isolate photons that were scattered many times by cloud droplets and penetrated deep into a cloud before returning to the instrument. Their data contains new information on cloud structure, although the lack of fast simulation methods made it challenging to interpret the observations. This paper describes a fast new technique that can simulate multiple-FOV lidar signals and can even estimate the way the signals would change in response to changes in cloud properties-an ability that allows quick refinements in our initial guesses of cloud structure. Results for a hypothetical airborne three-FOV lidar suggest that this approach can help determine cloud structure for a deeper layer in clouds, and can reliably determine the optical thickness of even fairly thick liquid clouds. The algorithm is also applied to stratocumulus observations by the 8-FOV airborne "THOR" lidar. These tests demonstrate that the new method can determine the depth to which a lidar provides useful information on vertical cloud structure. This work opens the way to exploit data from spaceborne lidar and radar more rigorously than has been possible up to now.

Pounder, Nicola L.; Hogan, Robin J.; Varnai, Tamas; Battaglia, Alessandro; Cahalan, Robert F.

2011-01-01

35

Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer: observations of dark and bright band phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-wavelength lidar measurements in the melting layer revealing the presence of dark and bright bands have been performed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during a stratiform rain event. Simultaneously radar measurements have been also performed from the same site by the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (35.5 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radar (24.15 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Measurements from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and discussed in this paper for a specific case study on 23 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE. Measurements and model results are found to confirm and support the conceptual microphysical/scattering model elaborated by Sassen et al. (2005).

Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Cacciani, M.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

2012-05-01

36

Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.

Sivaraman, C; Comstock, J

2011-07-25

37

LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications  

SciTech Connect

It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

White, Devin A [ORNL

2013-01-01

38

Forest Biomass retrieval strategies from Lidar and Radar modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of regional and global forest biomass and forest structure are essential for understanding and monitoring ecosystem responses to human activities and climate change. Lidars with capabilities of recording the time-varying return signals provide vegetation height, ground surface height, and vertical distribution of vegetated surfaces intercepted by laser pulses. Large footprint lidar has been shown to be an effective technique for measuring forest canopy height, and biomass from space. Essentially, radar responds to the amount of water in a forest canopy, as well as its spatial structure. Data from these sensors contain information relevant to different aspects of the biophysical properties of the vegetation canopy including above ground biomass. The planned NASA new mission DESDynI will provide global systematic lidar sampling data and complete global coverage of L-band high resolution SAR and InSAR data for vegetation 3D structure mapping. By combining lidar and high-resolution SAR data, our quantitative knowledge of global carbon dynamics and ecosystem structure and function can be improved. This requires some new data processing and fusion technologies. What is the proper lidar sampling design and how to expand the vegetation spatial structural parameters estimated at lidar footprints to global spatial coverage in high resolution need to be resolved. Current configuration of DESDynI may also require lidar observations with variable looking angles, which creates a new challenge in lidar data processing. Models designed to simulate lidar and radar response from a variety of forest canopies can help answer these questions. In this paper we present an overview of our spatially explicit lidar and radar models and their use for examining the questions above. Specifically we will discuss sensitivities of large-footprint lidar and L-band polarimetric and interferometric radar to forest

Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

2008-12-01

39

Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

2012-06-18

40

Using Lidar and Radar measurements to constrain predictions of forest2 ecosystem structure and function3  

E-print Network

#12;1 1 Using Lidar and Radar measurements to constrain predictions of forest2 ecosystem structure in their spatial extent. Lidar and Synthetic Aperture Radar are promising remote47 sensing-based techniques investigate how Lidar-derived forest heights and49 Radar-derived above-ground biomass can be used to constrain

Moorcroft, Paul R.

41

A depolarisation lidar-based method for the determination of liquid-cloud microphysical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that polarisation lidars measure a depolarisation signal in liquid clouds due to the occurrence of multiple scattering is well known. The degree of measured depolarisation depends on the lidar characteristics (e.g. wavelength and receiver field of view) as well as the cloud macrophysical (e.g. cloud-base altitude) and microphysical (e.g. effective radius, liquid water content) properties. Efforts seeking to use depolarisation information in a quantitative manner to retrieve cloud properties have been undertaken with, arguably, limited practical success. In this work we present a retrieval procedure applicable to clouds with (quasi-)linear liquid water content (LWC) profiles and (quasi-)constant cloud-droplet number density in the cloud-base region. Thus limiting the applicability of the procedure allows us to reduce the cloud variables to two parameters (namely the derivative of the liquid water content with height and the extinction at a fixed distance above cloud base). This simplification, in turn, allows us to employ a fast and robust optimal-estimation inversion using pre-computed look-up tables produced using extensive lidar Monte Carlo (MC) multiple-scattering simulations. In this paper, we describe the theory behind the inversion procedure and successfully apply it to simulated observations based on large-eddy simulation (LES) model output. The inversion procedure is then applied to actual depolarisation lidar data corresponding to a range of cases taken from the Cabauw measurement site in the central Netherlands. The lidar results were then used to predict the corresponding cloud-base region radar reflectivities. In non-drizzling condition, it was found that the lidar inversion results can be used to predict the observed radar reflectivities with an accuracy within the radar calibration uncertainty (2-3 dBZ). This result strongly supports the accuracy of the lidar inversion results. Results of a comparison between ground-based aerosol number concentration and lidar-derived cloud-droplet number densities are also presented and discussed. The observed relationship between the two quantities is seen to be consistent with the results of previous studies based on aircraft-based in situ measurements.

Donovan, D. P.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J. S.; de Roode, S. R.; Siebesma, A. P.

2015-01-01

42

Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the potential of the combined use of lidar samples and radar imagery for forest biomass mapping. Various issues regarding lidar/radar data synergies for biomass mapping are discussed in the paper.

Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

2011-01-01

43

A depolarisation lidar based method for the determination of liquid-cloud microphysical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that polarisation lidars measure a depolarisation signal in liquid clouds due to the occurrence of multiple-scattering is well-known. The degree of measured depolarisation depends on the lidar characteristics (e.g. wavelength and receiver field-of-view) as well as the cloud macrophysical (e.g. liquid water content) and microphysical (e.g. effective radius) properties. Efforts seeking to use depolarisation information in a quantitative manner to retrieve cloud properties have been undertaken with, arguably, limited practical success. In this work we present a retrieval procedure applicable to clouds with (quasi-)linear liquid water content (LWC) profiles and (quasi-)constant cloud droplet number density in the cloud base region. Thus limiting the applicability of the procedure allows us to reduce the cloud variables to two parameters (namely the derivative of the liquid water content with height and the extinction at a fixed distance above cloud-base). This simplification, in turn, allows us to employ a fast and robust optimal-estimation inversion using pre-computed look-up-tables produced using extensive lidar Monte-Carlo multiple-scattering simulations. In this paper, we describe the theory behind the inversion procedure and successfully apply it to simulated observations based on large-eddy simulation model output. The inversion procedure is then applied to actual depolarisation lidar data corresponding to a range of cases taken from the Cabauw measurement site in the central Netherlands. The lidar results were then used to predict the corresponding cloud-base region radar reflectivities. In non-drizzling condition, it was found that the lidar inversion results can be used to predict the observed radar reflectivities with an accuracy within the radar calibration uncertainty (2-3 dBZ). This result strongly supports the accuracy of the lidar inversion results. Results of a comparison between ground-based aerosol number concentration and lidar-derived cloud droplet number densities are also presented and discussed. The observed relationship between the two quantities is seen to be consistent with the results of previous studies based on aircraft-based in situ measurements.

Donovan, D. P.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J. S.; de Roode, S. R.; Siebesma, A. P.

2014-09-01

44

Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site  

SciTech Connect

[1] Active remote sensors such as lidars or radars can be used with other data to quantify the cloud properties at regional scale and at global scale (Dupont et al., 2009). Relative to radar, lidar remote sensing is sensitive to very thin and high clouds but has a significant limitation due to signal attenuation in the ability to precisely quantify the properties of clouds with a 20 cloud optical thickness larger than 3. In this study, 10-years of backscatter lidar signal data are analysed by a unique algorithm called STRucture of ATmosphere (STRAT, Morille et al., 2007). We apply the STRAT algorithm to data from both the collocated Micropulse lidar (MPL) and a Raman lidar (RL) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 1998 and 2009. Raw backscatter lidar signal is processed and 25 corrections for detector deadtime, afterpulse, and overlap are applied. (Campbell et al.) The cloud properties for all levels of clouds are derived and distributions of cloud base height (CBH), top height (CTH), physical cloud thickness (CT), and optical thickness (COT) from local statistics are compared. The goal of this study is (1) to establish a climatology of macrophysical and optical properties for all levels of clouds observed over the ARM SGP site 30 and (2) to estimate the discrepancies induced by the two remote sensing systems (pulse energy, sampling, resolution, etc.). Our first results tend to show that the MPLs, which are the primary ARM lidars, have a distinctly limited range where all of these cloud properties are detectable, especially cloud top and cloud thickness, but even actual cloud base especially during summer daytime period. According to the comparisons between RL and MPL, almost 50% of situations show a signal to noise ratio too low (smaller than 3) for the MPL in order to detect clouds higher than 7km during daytime period in summer. Consequently, the MPLderived annual cycle of cirrus cloud base (top) altitude is biased low, especially for daylight periods, compared with those derived from the RL data, which detects 5 cloud base ranging from 7.5 km in winter to 9.5 km in summer (and tops ranging from 8.6 to 10.5 km). The optically thickest cirrus clouds (COT>0.3) reach 50% of the total population for the Raman lidar and only 20% for the Micropulse lidar due to the difference of pulse energy and the effect of solar irradiance contamination. A complementary study using the cloud fraction 10 derived from the Micropulse lidar for clouds below 5 km and from the Raman lidar for cloud above 5 km allows for better estimation of the total cloud fraction between the ground and the top of the atmosphere. This study presents the diurnal cycle of cloud fraction for each season in comparisons with the Long et al. (2006) cloud fraction calculation derived from radiative flux analysis.

Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Morille, Y.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Newsom, Rob K.

2011-02-16

45

An analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lidar observations by Browell et al. (1990) are interpreted using single scattering calculations for nonspherical particles and aerosol microphysical calculations. Many of the lidar observations are consistent with particles containing 10 ppbv of condensed nitric acid vapor and an equivalent mass of water. The lidar observations of these Type 1 clouds identify two subtypes, whose properties are deduced. Type 1b

Owen B. Toon; S. Kinne; E. V. Browell; J. Jordan

1990-01-01

46

ROUTINE CLOUD-BOUNDARY ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT FOR ARM MICROPULSE LIDAR  

E-print Network

ROUTINE CLOUD-BOUNDARY ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT FOR ARM MICROPULSE LIDAR Chitra Sivaraman, Pacific implemented for use with the ARM micropulse lidar (MPL) systems. As part of this value-added product (VAP backscatter lidar signal to provide a corrected attenuated backscatter profile. This VAP will be the primary

47

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin Aerodynamic flow around a lidar-radar based technique to measure the downward flux of snow at an altitude of ~100m. When particles the square of the mass of the average snowflake. For particles large compared to the wavelength, the lidar

Eloranta, Edwin W.

48

Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region  

E-print Network

Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above 29 January 2005. [1] Simultaneous sodium (Na) Doppler lidar and meteor radar measurements/s at altitudes below 96 km. This is smaller than the RMS differences observed in a previous Na lidar and meteor

Chu, Xinzhao

49

First radar echoes from cumulus clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In attempting to use centimeter-wavelength radars to investigate the early stage of precipitation formation in clouds, 'mantle echoes' are rediscovered and shown to come mostly from scattering by small-scale variations in refractive index, a Bragg kind of scattering mechanism. This limits the usefulness of single-wavelength radar for studies of hydrometeor growth, according to data on summer cumulus clouds in North Dakota, Hawaii, and Florida, to values of reflectivity factor above about 10 dBZe with 10-cm radar, 0 dBZe with 5-cm radar, and -10 dBZe with 3-cm radar. These are limits at or above which the backscattered radar signal from the kinds of clouds observed can be assumed to be almost entirely from hydrometeors or (rarely) other particulate material such as insects. Dual-wavelength radar data can provide the desired information about hydrometeors at very low reflectivity levels if assumptions can be made about the inhomogeneities responsible for the Bragg scattering. The Bragg scattering signal itself probably will be a useful way to probe inhomogeneities one-half the radar wavelength in scale for studying cloud entrainment and mixing processes. However, this use is possible only before scattering from hydrometeors dominates the radar return.

Knight, Charles A.; Miller, L. J.

1993-01-01

50

Automatic building extraction and segmentation directly from lidar point clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic approach for building extraction and segmentation directly from Lidar point clouds without previous rasterization or triangulation. The algorithm works in the following sequential steps. First, a filtering algorithm, which is capable of preserving steep terrain features, is performed on raw Lidar point clouds. Points that belong to the bare earth and those that belong to

Jingjue Jiang; Ying Ming

2006-01-01

51

Relationship between cloud characteristics and radar reflectivity based on aircraft and cloud radar co-observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud properties were investigated based on aircraft and cloud radar co-observation conducted at Yitong, Jilin, Northeast China. The aircraft provided in situ measurements of cloud droplet size distribution, while the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar vertically scanned the same cloud that the aircraft penetrated. The reflectivity factor calculated from aircraft measurements was compared in detail with simultaneous radar observations. The results showed that the two reflectivities were comparable in warm clouds, but in ice cloud there were more differences, which were probably associated with the occurrence of liquid water. The acceptable agreement between reflectivities obtained in water cloud confirmed that it is feasible to derive cloud properties by using aircraft data, and hence for cloud radar to remotely sense cloud properties. Based on the dataset collected in warm clouds, the threshold of reflectivity to diagnose drizzle and cloud particles was studied by analyses of the probability distribution function of reflectivity from cloud particles and drizzle drops. The relationship between reflectivity factor ( Z) and cloud liquid water content (LWC) was also derived from data on both cloud particles and drizzle. In comparison with cloud droplets, the relationship for drizzle was blurred by many scatter points and thus was less evident. However, these scatters could be partly removed by filtering out the drop size distribution with a large ratio of reflectivity and large extinction coefficient but small effective radius. Empirical relationships of Z-LWC for both cloud particles and drizzle could then be derived.

Zong, Rong; Liu, Liping; Yin, Yan

2013-09-01

52

Use of a Lidar Forward Model for Global Comparisons of Cloud Fraction between the ICESat Lidar and the ECMWF Model  

E-print Network

Use of a Lidar Forward Model for Global Comparisons of Cloud Fraction between the ICESat Lidar observations by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System lidar on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). To account for lidar attenuation in the comparison, model variables are used to simulate

Reading, University of

53

Use of a Lidar Forward Model for Global Comparisons of Cloud Fraction between the ICESat Lidar and the ECMWF Model  

E-print Network

Use of a Lidar Forward Model for Global Comparisons of Cloud Fraction between the ICESat Lidar Altimeter System (GLAS) lidar on the ICESat satellite. In order to account for lidar attenuation in the comparison, we use model variables to simulate the attenuated backscatter using a lidar forward model

Hogan, Robin

54

Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.  

PubMed

We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

2002-10-20

55

Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: observations of dark and bright band phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark and bright bands were observed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during several intensive (IOPs) and special (SOPs) observation periods (among others, 23 July, 15 August, and 17 August 2007). Lidar data were supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars for 23 July 2007 are illustrated and discussed to support the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar and radar dark and bright bands. Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE.

di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Bhawar, R.; di Iorio, T.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

2011-11-01

56

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications  

E-print Network

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing. Profiling, millimeterwavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity

57

Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol and water vapour measurements were performed with the lidar system WALES of Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in October and November 2010 during the first mission with the new German research aircraft G55-HALO. Curtains composed of lidar profiles beneath the aircraft show the vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of water vapour mixing ratio and backscatter ratio above Germany. Two missions on 3 and 4 November 2010 were selected to derive the water vapour mixing ratio inside cirrus clouds from the lidar instrument. A good agreement was found with in situ observations performed on a second research aircraft flying below HALO. ECMWF analysis temperature data are used to derive relative humidity fields with respect to ice (RHi) inside and outside of cirrus clouds from the lidar water vapour observations. The RHi variability is dominated by small-scale fluctuations in the water vapour fields while the temperature variation has a minor impact. The most frequent in-cloud RHi value from lidar observations is 98%. The RHi variance is smaller inside the cirrus than outside of the cloud. 2-D histograms of relative humidity and backscatter ratio show significant differences for in-cloud and out-of-cloud situations for two different cirrus cloud regimes. Combined with accurate temperature measurements, the lidar observations have a great potential for detailed statistical cirrus cloud and related humidity studies.

Gro, S.; Wirth, M.; Schfler, A.; Fix, A.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.

2014-08-01

58

THOR---Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Lidar Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom is that lidar pulses do not significantly penetrate clouds having an optical thickness exceeding about 2, and that no returns are detectible from more than a shallow skin depth. Yet optically thicker clouds of 2 reflect a larger fraction of visible photons and account for much of the earth's global average albedo. As cloud-layer thickness grows, an increasing

Matthew McGill; John Kolasinski; Tams Vrnai; Ken Yetzer

2005-01-01

59

Feature enhancing aerial lidar point cloud refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raw aerial LiDAR point clouds often suffer from noise and under-sampling, which can be alleviated by feature preserving refinement. However, existing approaches are limited to only preserving normal discontinuous features (ridges, ravines and crest lines) while position discontinuous features (boundaries) are also universal in urban scenes. We present a new refinement approach to accommodate unique properties of aerial LiDAR building points. By extending recent developments in geometry refinement to explicitly regularize boundary points, both normal and position discontinuous features are preserved and enhanced. The refinement includes two steps: i) the smoothing step applies a two-stage feature preserving bilateral filtering, which first filters normals and then updates positions under the guidance of the filtered normals. In a separate similar process, boundary points are smoothed directed by tangent directions of underlying lines, and ii) the up-sampling step interpolates new points to fill gaps/holes for both interior surfaces and boundary lines, through a local gap detector and a feature-aware bilateral projector. Features can be further enhanced by limiting the up-sampling near discontinuities. The refinement operates directly on points with diverse density, shape and complexity. It is memory-efficient, easy to implement, and easily extensible.

Gao, Zhenzhen; Neumann, Ulrich

2014-03-01

60

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution  

E-print Network

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended

61

MU radar and lidar observations of clear-air turbulence and mammatus underneath cirrus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammatus are smooth hanging protuberances on the undersurface of a cloud (Glossary of Meteorology). Their mechanisms for formation and their role in the atmosphere are still not well-known. We obtained Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR) lidar measurements of cirrus mammatus in the night of 07-08 June 2006 at Shigaraki Observatory (34.85N, 136.10E, Japan). Coincident observations from the VHF (46.5 MHz) MU radar in range imaging (FII) mode revealed the presence of downward developing turbulent layers and oscillatory vertical wind perturbations (+/-0.7 m/s) near the cirrus cloud base and in the mammatus environment. Moreover, simultaneous radiosonde data showed the presence of a dry and weakly stable layer underneath the cirrus. Our analysis suggests that turbulence and mammatus were generated by convective overturns due to evaporative cooling in the subcloud region. The cooling was likely the consequence of sublimation of ice crystals below the cloud base due to either precipitation or, more likely, spontaneous mixing of the saturated air and the dry air through the cloud-base detrainment instability (CDI) mechanism at the cloud base. Clear air downdrafts measured by the MU radar were associated with the descending mammatus lobes and clear air updrafts were observed between the lobes. Consequently, in addition to a possible negative buoyancy of the cloudy air, the cloudy air might have been pushed down by the downdrafts of the "upside-down" convective instability and pushed up by the updrafts to form mammatus lobes.

Luce, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.

2009-04-01

62

Arctic aerosol and clouds studied by bistatic lidar technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol and cloud studies were carried out with a polarimetric bistatic lidar setup at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) in Andenes (69N, 16E), Norway. The measurements were performed from 10 to 23 October 2006 and covered altitudes between 1.5 and 11 km, corresponding to scattering angles between 130 and 170. The degree of linear polarization, PL,

K. Frans G. Olofson; Erik A. Svensson; Georg Witt; Jan B. C. Pettersson

2009-01-01

63

Lidar-Radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent RF-modulated Q-switched laser  

E-print Network

Lidar-Radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent RF- modulated Q-switched laser M. Vallet,1 of this transmitter for Lidar-Radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that Lidar-Radar is a promising technique that allows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Cloud Thickness from Diffusion of Lidar Pulses in Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the distribution of reflected light from a laser beam incident on an aqueous suspension of particles or "cloud" with known thickness and particle size distribution are reported. The distribution is referred to as the "cloud radiative Green's function", G. In the diffusion domain, G is sensitive to cloud thickness, allowing that important quantity to be retrieved. The goal of the laboratory simulation is to provide preliminary estimates of sensitivity of G to cloud thickness,for use in the optimal design of an offbeam Lidar instrument for remote sensing of cloud thickness (THOR, Thickness from Offbeam Returns). These clouds of polystyrene microspheres suspended in water are analogous to real clouds of water droplets suspended in air. The microsphere size distribution is roughly lognormal, from 0.5 microns to 25 microns, similar to real clouds. Density of suspended spheres is adjusted so mean-free-path of visible photons is about 10 cm, approximately 1000 times smaller than in real clouds. The light source is a ND:YAG laser at 530 nm. Detectors are flux and photon-counting Photomultiplier Tube (PMTS), with a glass probe for precise positioning. A Labview 5 VI controls positioning, and data acquisition, via an NI Motion Control board connected to a stepper motor driving an Edmund linear slider, and a 16-channel 16-bit NI-DAQ board. The stepper motor is accurate to 10 microns, and step size is selectable from the VI software. Far from the incident beam, the rate of exponential increase as the direction of the incident beam is approached scales as expected from diffusion theory, linearly with the cloud thickness, and inversely as the square root of the reduced optical thickness, and is independent of particle size. Near the beam the signal begins to increase faster than exponential, due to single and low-order scattering near the backward direction, and here the distribution depends on particle size. Results are being used to verify 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, used to estimate signal-to-noise ratios for remotely sensed off beam returns, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds. Signal-to-noise estimates show that unfiltered observations are straight forward at night, while narrow band pass filters are being studied for day.

Cahalan, Robert F.; Davis, A.; McGill, Matthew

1999-01-01

65

Threshold radar reflectivity for drizzling clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical studies have suggested the existence of a threshold radar reflectivity between nonprecipitating and precipitating clouds; however, there has been neither a rigorous theoretical basis for the threshold reflectivity nor a sound explanation as to why empirically determined threshold reflectivities differ among studies. Here we present a theory for the threshold reflectivity by relating it to the autoconversion process. This theory not only demonstrates the sharp transition from cloud to rain when the radar reflectivity exceeds some value (threshold reflectivity) but also reveals that the threshold reflectivity is an increasing function of the cloud droplet concentration. The dependence of threshold reflectivity on droplet concentration suggests that the differences in empirically determined threshold reflectivity arise from the differences in droplet concentration. The favorable agreement with measurements collected over a wide range of conditions further provides observational support for the theoretical formulation. The results have many potential applications, especially to remote sensing of cloud properties and studies of the second aerosol indirect effect.

Liu, Yangang; Geerts, Bart; Miller, Mark; Daum, Peter; McGraw, Robert

2008-02-01

66

Lidar studies of microphysical properties of cirrus clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three microphysical backscatter ratios (color ratio, depolarization ratio, and lidar ratio) widely used for interpretation of lidar signals returned from cirrus clouds have been calculated for the first time. The physical-optics code developed earlier by the authors is applied. Though the data are obtained for the hexagonal ice plates and columns, that are the simplest crystal shapes, their arbitrary spatial orientation has been taken into account. The lidar experimental data measuring simultaneously the depolarization ratio and color ratio in cirrus clouds are also presented.

Borovoi, Anatoli; Balin, Yurii; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Penner, Iogannes; Kustova, Natalia; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Liu, Dong; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wu, Decheng; Xie, Chenbo; Hu, Shunxing; Wang, Yingjian

2014-11-01

67

VALIDATION OF A RADAR DOPPLER SPECTRA SIMULATOR USING MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ARM CLOUD RADARS  

E-print Network

VALIDATION OF A RADAR DOPPLER SPECTRA SIMULATOR USING MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ARM CLOUD RADARS to compare models with observations contains advantages and challenges. Radar Doppler spectra simulators model output with the Doppler spectra recorded from the vertically pointing cloud radars at the ARM

68

CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator  

SciTech Connect

The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

2011-03-01

69

A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform, occupy minimum cabin space and maximize scan coverage, a pod-based configuration was adopted. Currently, the radar system is capable of collecting observations between zenith and nadir in a fixed scanning mode. Measurements are corrected for aircraft attitude changes. The near-nadir and zenith pointing observations minimize the cross-track Doppler contamination in the radial velocity measurements. An extensive engineering monitoring mechanism is built into the recording system status such as temperature, pressure, various electronic components' status and receiver characteristics. Status parameters are used for real-time system stability estimates and correcting radar system parameters. The pod based radar system is mounted on a modified Gulfstream V aircraft, which is operated and maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) on behalf of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The aircraft is called the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) (Laursen et al., 2006). It is also instrumented with high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and an array of in situ and remote sensors for atmospheric research. As part of the instrument suite for HIAPER, the NSF funded the development of the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR). The HCR is an airborne, millimeter-wavelength, dual-polarization, Doppler radar that serves the atmospheric science community by providing cloud remote sensing capabilities for the NSF/NCAR G-V (HIAPER) aircraft. An optimal radar configuration that is capable of maximizing the accuracy of both qualitative and quantitative estimated cloud microphysical and dynamical properties is the most attractive option to the research community. The Technical specifications of cloud radar are optimized for realizing the desired scientific performance for the pod-based configuration. The radar was both ground and flight tested and preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected. HCR observed sensitivity as low as -37 dBZ at 1 km range and resolved linear depolarization ratio (LDR) si

Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

2014-05-01

70

SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS  

E-print Network

SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS P. Kollias, I. Jo, A, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers

71

ARM Value-Added Products for New Scanning and Zenith-pointing Cloud Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has extended and improved its cloud observing capabilities with the addition of the dual-frequency Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) and the upgrade of the vertically pointing 35GHz cloud radars to become the Ka-band ARM Zenith-pointing Radars (KAZRs). These radars are now installed at each of the facility's existing fixed sites and as part of both ARM mobile facilities. While these radars are capable of producing unprecedented continuous long-term cloud property data sets, the measurements will be most utilized if scientists can readily incorporate the observations into their research, without the need for extensive radar analysis and expertise. For this reason, value-added products (VAPs) are being developed to provide quality-controlled gridded radar moments (reflectivity, radial velocity, spectrum width) as well as derived products, such as hydrometeor masks and cloud boundaries. The Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) VAP has been producing a first generation of these products for over 10 years. The VAP combines zenith-pointing cloud radar data with micropulse lidar, ceilometer and rain gauge data to produce best-estimate quality-controlled radar moments and cloud boundaries. ARSCL has been rewritten and improved to take advantage of the upgraded KAZR radars. In addition, a new product is being developed for the polarization-diverse scanning Ka/W-band and X/Ka-band cloud radars. Initially, moments from each individual radar will be corrected for water vapor attenuation as well as range and velocity folding. Next, three-dimensional gridded moments will be produced, followed by combined-frequency, synergistic products. The new products will be described and examples of available and anticipated data products will be shown. Example of best-estimate reflectivity produced by ARSCL-KAZR product. Image is for date 2011.05.20, using measurements from the KAZR radar at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. Corresponding cloud boundaries produced by ARSCL-KAZR product.

Johnson, K. L.; Troyan, D.; Kollias, P.; Kalesse, H.; Luke, E. P.; Giangrande, S. E.; Jensen, M. P.

2012-12-01

72

Lidar-radar synergy for characterizing properties of ultragiant volcanic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric aerosol has a relevant effect on our life influencing climate, aviation safety, air quality and natural hazards. The identification of aerosol layers through inspection of continuous measurements is strongly recommended for quantifying their contribution to natural hazards and air quality and to establish suitable alerting systems. In particular, the study of ultragiant aerosols may improve the knowledge of physical-chemical processes underlying the aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of giant nuclei as a potential element to expedite the warm-rain process. Moreover, the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols may strongly contribute to quantify their impact on human health and their role in airplane engine damages or in visibility problems, especially in case of extreme events as explosive volcanic eruptions. During spring 2010, volcanic aerosol layers coming from Eyjafjallajkull volcano were observed over most of the European countries, using lidar technique. From 19 April to 19 May 2010, they were also observed at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) with the multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems of the Potenza EARLINET station (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l), Southern Italy. During this period, ultragiant aerosol were also observed at CIAO using a co-located Ka-band MIRA-36 Doppler microwave radar operating at 8.45 mm (35.5 GHz). The Ka-band radar observed in four separate days (19 April, 7, 10, 13 May) signatures consistent with the observations of non-spherical ultragiant aerosol characterized by anomalous values of linear depolarization ratio higher than -4 dB, probably related to the occurrence of multiple effects as particle alignment and presence of an ice coating. 7-days backward trajectory analysis shows that the air masses corresponding to the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar were coming from the Eyjafjallajkull volcano area. Only in one case the trajectories do not come directly from Iceland, but from Central Europe where many lidar observations confirm the presence of volcanic aerosol in the previous days. Therefore, both CIAO lidar observations and the backtrajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar, revealing that these particles might have travelled for more than 4000 km after their injection into the atmosphere. The reported observation fostered a study, reported in this work, about the performances of multi-wavelength Raman lidars in the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols layers in the troposphere. Results from simulations using Mie, T-Matrix and ray-tracing codes will be presented and compared with the observations performed in April-May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajkull eruption. Sensitivity ranges in detection of aerosol layer are pointed out in terms of experimental limits of both lidar and radar techniques and of aerosol optical depth. Moreover, recommendations for use of a combined lidar-radar approach for the aerosol typing and for the retrieval of their microphysical properties are reported.

Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Giunta, A.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

2011-12-01

73

Liquid Water Cloud Measurements Using the Raman Lidar Technique: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent work in the Raman lidar liquid water cloud measurement technique. The range-resolved spectral measurements at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center indicate that the Raman backscattering spectra measured in and below low clouds agree well with theoretical spectra for vapor and liquid water. The calibration coefficients of the liquid water measurement for the Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site of the U.S. Department of Energy were determined by comparison with the liquid water path (LWP) obtained with Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the liquid water content (LWC) obtained with the millimeter wavelength cloud radar and water vapor radiometer (MMCR-WVR) together. These comparisons were used to estimate the Raman liquid water cross-sectional value. The results indicate a bias consistent with an effective liquid water Raman cross-sectional value that is 28%-46% lower than published, which may be explained by the fact that the difference in the detectors' sensitivity has not been accounted for. The LWP of a thin altostratus cloud showed good qualitative agreement between lidar retrievals and AERI. However, the overall ensemble of comparisons of LWP showed considerable scatter, possibly because of the different fields of view of the instruments, the 350-m distance between the instruments, and the horizontal inhomogeneity of the clouds. The LWC profiles for a thick stratus cloud showed agreement between lidar retrievals andMMCR-WVR between the cloud base and 150m above that where the optical depth was less than 3. Areas requiring further research in this technique are discussed.

Tetsu, Sakai; Whiteman, David N.; Russo, Felicita; Turner, David D.; Veselovskii, Igor; Melfi, S. Harvey; Nagai, Tomohiro; Mano, Yuzo

2013-01-01

74

Lidar multiple scattering models for use in cirrus clouds E. W. Eloranta  

E-print Network

Lidar multiple scattering models for use in cirrus clouds E. W. Eloranta University of Wisconsin: eloranta@lidar.ssec.wisc.edu ABSTRACT An approximate model for lidar multiple scattering has been extend to compute lidar returns when the cloud particle sizes are described by log-normal, gamma or exponential

Eloranta, Edwin W.

75

Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction  

E-print Network

555 Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar;Comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar and the ECMWF model Abstract The performance observations by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) lidar on the ICESat satellite. In order to account

Hogan, Robin

76

Comparison of millimeter-wave cloud radar measurements for the Fall 1997 Cloud IOP  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary objectives of the Fall 1997 IOP was to intercompare Ka-band (350Hz) and W-band (95GHz) cloud radar observations and verify system calibrations. During September 1997, several cloud radars were deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SOP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, including the full time operation 35 GHz CART Millimeter-wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), the University of Massachusetts (UMass) single antenna 33GHz/95 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS), the 95 GHz Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) flown on the University of Wyoming King Air, the University of Utah 95 GHz radar and the dual-antenna Pennsylvania State University 94 GHz radar. In this paper the authors discuss several issues relevant to comparison of ground-based radars, including the detection and filtering of insect returns. Preliminary comparisons of ground-based Ka-band radar reflectivity data and comparisons with airborne radar reflectivity measurements are also presented.

Sekelsky, S.M.; Li, L.; Galloway, J.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Miller, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Clothiaux, E.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haimov, S. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mace, G.; Sassen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1998-05-01

77

Threshold radar reflectivity for drizzling clouds Yangang Liu,1  

E-print Network

Threshold radar reflectivity for drizzling clouds Yangang Liu,1 Bart Geerts,2 Mark Miller,2 Peter; published 7 February 2008. [1] Empirical studies have suggested the existence of a threshold radar cloud to rain when the radar reflectivity exceeds some value (threshold reflectivity) but also reveals

78

Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from Solar Background "signal" of Micropulse Lidars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed lidars are commonly used to retrieve vertical distributions of cloud and aerosol layers. It is widely believed that lidar cloud retrievals (other than cloud base altitude) are limited to optically thin clouds. Here we demonstrate that lidars can retrieve optical depths of thick clouds using solar background light as a signal, rather than (as now) merely a noise to be subtracted. Validations against other instruments show that retrieved cloud optical depths agree within 10-15% for overcast stratus and broken clouds. In fact, for broken cloud situations one can retrieve not only the aerosol properties in clear-sky periods using lidar signals, but also the optical depth of thick clouds in cloudy periods using solar background signals. This indicates that, in general, it may be possible to retrieve both aerosol and cloud properties using a single lidar. Thus, lidar observations have great untapped potential to study interactions between clouds and aerosols.

Chiu, J. Christine; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Valencia, S.; Welton, E. J.

2007-01-01

79

Surface Complexity Component of LIDAR Point Cloud Error Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several data product characterization methods to describe LiDAR data quality. Typically based on guidelines developed by government or professional societies, these techniques require the statistical analysis of vertical differences at known checkpoints (surface patches) to obtain a measure of the vertical accuracy. More advanced methods attempt to also characterize the horizontal accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud, using measurements at LiDAR-specific targets or other man-made objects that can be distinctly extracted from both horizontal and vertical representation in the LiDAR point cloud. There are two concerns with these methods. First, the number of check points/features is relatively small with respect to the point cloud size that is typically measured, at least, in millions. Second, these locations are usually selected in relatively benign areas, such as hard flat surfaces at easily accessible locations. The problem with this characterization is that it is not likely that a statistically representative analysis can be obtained from a limited number of points at locations that may not properly represent the overall object space composition. There is an ongoing effort to address these issues, and some of the newer methods to characterize LiDAR data include an average points spacing measure, computed from the LiDAR point cloud. Clearly, it is an important step forward but it ignores the surface complexity. The objective of this study is to elaborate only on the requirements for adequate surface representation in combination with the LiDAR error characterization techniques to identify the relation between the two surfaces, the measured and reference (ideal), and thus, to support better LiDAR or, in general, point cloud error characterization.

Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

2012-07-01

80

Cirrus clouds and deep convection in the tropics: Insights from CALIPSO and CloudSat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 2-year data set of combined lidar and cloud radar measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and CloudSat satellites, the occurrence of tropical cirrus and deep convective clouds is studied. The cloud identification algorithm takes advantage of the ability of the radar to probe deep precipitating clouds and of the lidar to sample even

Kenneth Sassen; Zhien Wang; Dong Liu

2009-01-01

81

Frequency-agile dual-frequency lidar for integrated coherent radar-lidar architectures.  

PubMed

We propose a novel architecture for implementing a dual-frequency lidar (DFL) exploiting differential Doppler shift measurement. The two frequency tones, needed for target velocity measurements, are selected from the spectrum of a mode-locked laser operating in the C-band. The tones' separation is easily controlled by using a programmable wavelength selective switch, thus allowing for a dynamic trade-off among robustness to atmospheric turbulence and sensitivity. Speed measurements for different tone separations equal to 10, 40, 80, and 160GHz are demonstrated, proving the system's capability of working in different configurations. Thanks to the acquisition system based on an analog-to-digital converter and digital-signal processing, real-time velocity measurements are demonstrated. The MLL-based proposed architecture enables the integration of the DFL with a photonic-based radar that exploits the same laser for generating and receiving radio-frequency signal with high performance, thus allowing for simultaneous or complementary target observations by exploiting the advantages of both radar and lidar. PMID:25831332

Vercesi, Valeria; Onori, Daniel; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Bogoni, Antonella; Scaffardi, Mirco

2015-04-01

82

First flight of the Cloud Detection Lidar Instrument Package  

SciTech Connect

The Cloud Detection Lidar Instrument Package is composed of three instruments: the Cloud Detection Lidar (CDL) and two Wide Field of View (WFOV) cameras. The CDL can be rotated to operate in either a nadir-looking or zenith-looking mode. The WFOV cameras provide imagery to complement the CDL measurements. One camera is fixed at nadir looking and the other at zenith looking. Only one camera may be operational at a time. All instruments were successfully flown in September--November 1995.

Henderson, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Cameron, G.; Carter, P.; Hugenberger, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Nielsen, D.P.; Stratton, P.; Taylor, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-03-01

83

Evaluation of a 35 GHz radar for cloud physics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 35-GHz radar, such as the one that is presently modernized through the incorporation of solid state electronics, Dopplerization, and improved data display capabilities, is useful in observations of the internal structures of clouds and for the detection of low ice particle concentrations in the atmosphere. Simultaneous airborne and radar measurements indicate that the radar reflectivity factors for various water clouds, determined from radar measurements, were generally in good agreement with those derived from in situ measurements of the drop size spectra. The radar can also detect clouds in which droplet diameters do not exceed 27 microns, provided there are sufficient concentrations of 10-15 microns diameter droplets.

Hobbs, P. V.; Locatelli, J. D.; Biswas, K. R.; Funk, N. T.; Weiss, R. R., Sr.

1985-03-01

84

Lidar remote sensing of cloud and fog properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lidar technique for the remote sensing of microphysical and optical properties of fog and clouds. The technique is based on recovering the information contained in the multiple scattering contributions to the lidar signals. The multiple scattering contributions are measured via detection at three or more fields of view ranging from a value slightly greater than the laser beam divergence to a maximum less than the width of the forward peak of the phase function at the lidar wavelength. The inversion is performed by least squares fitting these measurements to a multiple scattering lidar equation obtained in analytic form from a phenomenological model of the scattering processes. The solutions are the scattering coefficient and the effective radius of the fog or cloud droplets. This is sufficient information to determine the parameters of an assumed gamma distribution for the droplet sizes from where cloud properties such as the liquid water content and the extinction coefficients at visible and infrared wavelengths can be calculated. Typical results on slant path optical depth, vertical extinction profiles and fluctuation statistics of clouds are compared with in situ data. The agreement is very satisfactory. Sample appliication results on monitoring the visual and infrared detection ranges through clouds are discussed.

Bissonnette, Luc R.; Hutt, Daniel L.

1995-09-01

85

Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2012 Level-2 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud data sets are investigated for thresholds that distinguish the presence of cirrus clouds in autonomous lidar measurements, based on temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ? -37 C, is evaluated versus CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers using polarized backscatter measurements. Derived global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km above mean sea level; a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 km a.m.s.l. vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 C vs. -52.18 C and -42.40 C vs. -38.13 C, respectively, for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to this constraint. Over 99 % of all Ttop ? -37 C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level-2 algorithms. Over 81 % of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ? -37 C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical estimates of phase, Ttop ? -37 C provides sufficient justification for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid-water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at relatively "warm" (Ttop > -37 C) temperatures. Although accounting for uncertainties in temperatures collocated with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the threshold to include warmer cases, the ambiguity of "warm" ice clouds cannot be fully reconciled with available measurements, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are investigated, and global distributions and frequencies derived, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. These data provide little additional information, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall.

Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

2015-01-01

86

Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud datasets from 2012 are investigated for metrics that help distinguish the cirrus cloud presence of in autonomous lidar measurements, using temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001; SC2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ? -37 C, is evaluated vs. CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers alone using depolarized backscatter. Global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 C vs. -52.18 C and -42.40 C vs. -38.13 C, respectively for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to these competing constraints. Over 99% of all Ttop ? -37 C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level 2 algorithms. Over 81% of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ? -37 C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical phase estimates, Ttop ? -37 C proves stable for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at warmer temperatures. Uncertainties in temperature profiles use to collocate with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the Ttop ? -37 C threshold to include warmer cases. The ambiguity of "warm" (Ttop > -37 C) ice cloud genus cannot be reconciled completely with available measurements, however, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are evaluated as potential constraints, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. However, these data provide, at best, additional constraint in regional samples, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall globally.

Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

2014-07-01

87

24th International Laser Radar Conference BACKSCATTER NEPHELOM.ETER TO CALIBRATE SCANNING LIDAR  

E-print Network

-end generally have a poor signal-to-noise ratio and a high relative level of systematic distortion, so24th International Laser Radar Conference BACKSCATTER NEPHELOM.ETER TO CALIBRATE SCANNING LIDAR-grade instrument, which operates at the wavelength 355 nm, will be co-located with a scanning-lidar at measurement

88

An analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds  

SciTech Connect

The authors interpret lidar observations by Browell et al. (1990) using single scattering calculations for nonspherical particles and aerosol microphysical calculations. Many of the lidar observations are consistent with particles containing 10 ppbv of condensed nitric acid vapor and an equivalent mass of water. The lidar observations of these Type 1 clouds identify two subtypes, whose properties the authors deduce. Type 1b particles are spherical, or nearly spherical, and typically have radii near 0.5 {mu}m; Type 1a particles are not spherical, and have a spherical volume equivalent radius exceeding 1.0 {mu}m. Several factors may cause variations in the size of the particles. The most significant factors are the cooling rate and the degree to which the air parcels cool below the condensation point. Specific examples in which cooling rate and cooling point may have led to variations in particle size are found in the Browell et al. (1990) data set. Condensation of 1 ppmm of water or less is quantitatively sufficient to account for the magnitude of the lidar backscatter observed from water ice clouds. The ice particles are not spherical in shape. The sizes of particles in water ice clouds cannot be determined because they are much larger than the wavelength of the lidar.

Toon, O.B.; Kinne, S. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA)); Browell, E.V. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Jordan, J. (Sterling Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

89

An analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar observations by Browell et al. (1990) are interpreted using single scattering calculations for nonspherical particles and aerosol microphysical calculations. Many of the lidar observations are consistent with particles containing 10 ppbv of condensed nitric acid vapor and an equivalent mass of water. The lidar observations of these Type 1 clouds identify two subtypes, whose properties are deduced. Type 1b particles are spherical, or nearly spherical, and typically have radii near 0.5 micron; Type 1a particles are not spherical, and have a spherical volume equivalent radius exceeding 1.0 micron. Several factors may cause variations in the size of the particles. The most significant factors are the cooling rate and the degree to which the air parcels cool below the condensation point. Specific examples in which cooling rate and cooling point may have led to variations in particle size are found in the Browell et al. (1990) data set. Condensation of 1 ppmm of water or less is quantitatively sufficient to account for the magnitude of the lidar backscatter observed from water ice clouds. The ice particles are not spherical in shape. The sizes of particles in water ice clouds cannot be determined because they are much larger than the wavelength of the lidar.

Toon, Owen B.; Kinne, S.; Browell, E. V.; Jordan, J.

1990-01-01

90

Doppler lidar measurements of oriented planar ice crystals falling from supercooled and glaciated layer clouds  

E-print Network

The properties of planar ice crystals settling horizontally have been investigated using a vertically-pointing Doppler lidar. Strong specular reflections were observed from their oriented basal facets, identified by comparison with a second lidar pointing 4 degrees from zenith. Analysis of 17 months of continuous high-resolution observations reveal that these pristine crystals are frequently observed in ice falling from mid-level mixed-phase layer clouds (85% of the time for layers at -15C). Detailed analysis of a case study indicates that the crystals are nucleated and grow rapidly within the supercooled layer, then fall out, forming well-defined layers of specular reflection. Polarimetric radar measurements confirmed that a substantial fraction of the crystal population was well oriented. As the crystals fall into subsaturated air, specular reflection is observed to switch off as the crystal faces become rounded and lose their faceted structure. Specular reflection in ice falling from supercooled layers col...

Westbrook, CD; O'Connor, EJ; Hogan, RJ

2009-01-01

91

Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

92

Diode - Pumped Nd:YAG Lidar for Airborne Cloud Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is concerned with the experimental method used to separate scattering and to use it for the determination of cloud microphysical parameters. It is also the first airborne test of a lidar version related to the ATLID Program - ESA's scheduled spaceborne lidar. The already tested DLR microlidar was modified with the new diode-pumped laser and a faster data recording system was added. The system was used during the CLEOPATRA campaign in the DLR research aircraft Falcon 20 to measure cloud parameters. The diode pumped Nd:YAG laser we developed for the microlidar is a modification of the laser we introduced at the Lidar Congress at 'Laser 1991' in Munich. Various aspects of this work are discussed.

Mehnert, A.; Halldorsson, TH.; Herrmann, H.; Haering, R.; Krichbaumer, W.; Streicher, J.; Werner, CH.

1992-01-01

93

Study on Edge Detection of LIDAR Point Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIDAR points should be interpolated to grids by the method of the edge detection with images directly. That will damage the position precision of the edge points. This paper proposes methods of using height difference and the spatial structure information of points cloud. The methods transition from 2D level to 3D level, they get a clear edge, retains the

Rongrong Wang; Xudong Lai; Wenguang Hou

2011-01-01

94

The use of an airborne lidar for mapping cirrus clouds in FIRE, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Univ. of Washington (UW) and Georgia Tech have recently built a dual wavelength airborne lidar for operation on the UW's Convair C-131A research aircraft. This lidar was used in studying aerosols and clouds. These studies demonstrated the utility of airborne lidar in a variety of atmospheric research and prompt the suggestion that this facility be included in the next FIRE cirrus experiment. The vertically pointing airborne lidar would be used as a complement to ground based lidars. The airborne lidar would ensure extended coverage of IFO cases that develop upwind of the surface lidars or which miss the ground based lidars while still being the focus of satellite and aircraft in situ studies. The airborne lidar would help assure that cirrus clouds were simultaneously viewed by satellite, sampled by aircraft, and structurally characterized by lidar. System specifications are listed and a schematic is shown of the lidar system aboard the C-131A.

Radke, Lawrence F.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1990-01-01

95

Airborne lidar and radiometric observations of PBL- and low clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer- and low altitude clouds over open ocean and continent areas have been studied during several field campaigns since mid-1990 using the French airborne backscatter lidar LEANDRE in conjunction with on-board IR and visible radiometers. LEANDRE is an automatic system, and a modification of the instrumental parameters, when airborne, is computer controlled through an operator keyboard. The vertical range squared lidar signals and instrument status are displayed in real time on two dedicated monitors. The lidar is used either down- or up-looking while the aircraft is flying above or below clouds. A switching of the viewing configuration takes about a minute. The lidar measurements provide a high resolution description of cloud morphology and holes in cloud layers. The flights were conducted during various meteorological conditions on single or multilayer stratocumulus and cumulus decks. Analysis on a single shot basis of cloud top (or bottom) altitude and a plot of the corresponding histogram allows one to determine a probability density function (PDF). The preliminary results show the PDFs for cloud top are not Gaussian and symmetric about the mean value. The skewness varies with atmospheric conditions. An example of results recorded over the Atlantic ocean near Biarritz is displayed, showing: (1) the range squared lidar signals as a function of time (here 100 s corresponds to about 8 km, 60 shots are averaged on horizontal); the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) - up to 600 m - is observed at the beginning of the leg as well as on surface returns, giving an indication of the porosity; (2) the cloud top altitude variation between 2.4 to 2.8 km during the 150 to 320 s section; and (3) the corresponding PDF. Similar results are obtained on stratocumulus over land. Single shot measurements can be used also to determine an optical porosity at a small scale as well as a fractional cloudiness at a larger scale. A comparison of cloud top altitude retrieved from lidar and narrowbeam IR radiometer is conducted to study the scale integration problem. A good agreement within less than 100 m relies on spatial uniformity and an optically thick layer. In the presence of holes, a discrepancy is observed. This is illustrated in figure 2, displaying as a function of time (1) the lidar signals; (2) the target temperature (either clouds or sea surface) retreived from a narrowbeam IR radiometer, 17 C is the sea surface temperature on that day; and (3) the visible flux, linked to cloud albedo, measured by a pyranometer. In preparation of ASTEX, down- and up-looking measurements where conducted on stratocumulus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean near Quimper in Brittany. Depending on the flight pattern orientation with respect to the wind, the top and bottom cloud morphologies are different. Preliminary results are given on cloud morphology, cloud top PDFs, optical porosity, fractional cloudiness, and comparison of lidar and radiometric measurements.

Flamant, P. H.; Valentin, R.; Pelon, J.

1992-01-01

96

Seasonal and optical characterisation of cirrus clouds over Indian sub-continent using LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an important remote sensing technique to study about the cirrus clouds. The subject of cirrus clouds and related climate is challenging one. The received scattered signal from Lidar contains information on the physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. The Lidar profile of the cirrus cloud provides information on the optical characteristics like depolarisation ratio, lidar ratio and optical depth, which give knowledge about possible phase, structure and orientation of cloud particle that affect the radiative budgeting of cirrus clouds. The findings from the study are subjected to generate inputs for better climatic modelling.

Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Dhaman, Reji K.; Motty, G. S.

2014-10-01

97

Seasonal and optical characterisation of cirrus clouds over Indian sub-continent using LIDAR  

SciTech Connect

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an important remote sensing technique to study about the cirrus clouds. The subject of cirrus clouds and related climate is challenging one. The received scattered signal from Lidar contains information on the physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. The Lidar profile of the cirrus cloud provides information on the optical characteristics like depolarisation ratio, lidar ratio and optical depth, which give knowledge about possible phase, structure and orientation of cloud particle that affect the radiative budgeting of cirrus clouds. The findings from the study are subjected to generate inputs for better climatic modelling.

Jayeshlal, G. S., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, Malladi, E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji K., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Motty, G. S., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Karyavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

2014-10-15

98

BUILDING ROOF SEGMENTATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

BUILDING ROOF SEGMENTATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES presents an approach to creating a polyhedral model of building roof from LiDAR point clouds using with the k-means algorithm. This generates the necessary planar parameters, and segments the LiDAR roof

Shan, Jie

99

A comparison of ambipolar diffusion coefficients in meteor trains using VHF radar and UV lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the first comparative estimations of ionic diffusion rates for sporadic meteor trains near the mesopause made using VHF radar and UV Rayleigh lidar observations. In both cases we initially assumed that the meteor trains dissipate primarily through ambipolar diffusion. For the radar data, the diffusion coefficient within the meteor train was determined from the decay

Phillip B. Chilson; Peter Czechowsky; Gerhard Schmidt

1996-01-01

100

Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

Wheeler, Mark M.

1997-01-01

101

The interdependence of continental warm cloud properties derived from unexploited solar background signal in ground-based lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extensively analysed the interdependence between cloud optical depth, droplet effective radius, liquid water path (LWP) and geometric thickness for stratiform warm clouds using ground-based observations. In particular, this analysis uses cloud optical depths retrieved from untapped solar background signal that is previously unwanted and needs to be removed in most lidar applications. Combining these new optical depth retrievals with radar and microwave observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma during 2005-2007, we have found that LWP and geometric thickness increase and follow a power-law relationship with cloud optical depth regardless of the presence of drizzle; LWP and geometric thickness in drizzling clouds can be generally 20-40% and at least 10% higher than those in non-drizzling clouds, respectively. In contrast, droplet effective radius shows a negative correlation with optical depth in drizzling clouds, while it increases with optical depth and reaches an asymptote of 10 ?m in non-drizzling clouds. This asymptotic behaviour in non-drizzling clouds is found in both droplet effective radius and optical depth, making it possible to use simple thresholds of optical depth, droplet size, or a combination of these two variables for drizzle delineation. This paper demonstrates a new way to enhance ground-based cloud observations and drizzle delineations using existing lidar networks.

Chiu, J. C.; Holmes, J. A.; Hogan, R. J.; O'Connor, E. J.

2014-04-01

102

The interdependence of continental warm cloud properties derived from unexploited solar background signals in ground-based lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extensively analysed the interdependence between cloud optical depth, droplet effective radius, liquid water path (LWP) and geometric thickness for stratiform warm clouds using ground-based observations. In particular, this analysis uses cloud optical depths retrieved from untapped solar background signals that are previously unwanted and need to be removed in most lidar applications. Combining these new optical depth retrievals with radar and microwave observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma during 2005-2007, we have found that LWP and geometric thickness increase and follow a power-law relationship with cloud optical depth regardless of the presence of drizzle; LWP and geometric thickness in drizzling clouds can be generally 20-40% and at least 10% higher than those in non-drizzling clouds, respectively. In contrast, droplet effective radius shows a negative correlation with optical depth in drizzling clouds and a positive correlation in non-drizzling clouds, where, for large optical depths, it asymptotes to 10 ?m. This asymptotic behaviour in non-drizzling clouds is found in both the droplet effective radius and optical depth, making it possible to use simple thresholds of optical depth, droplet size, or a combination of these two variables for drizzle delineation. This paper demonstrates a new way to enhance ground-based cloud observations and drizzle delineations using existing lidar networks.

Chiu, J. C.; Holmes, J. A.; Hogan, R. J.; O'Connor, E. J.

2014-08-01

103

Lidar Studies on The Optical Characteristics of High Altitude Cirrus Clouds at A Low Latitiude Station, Gadanki (13.5N , 79.2E ) India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) which is analogous to Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR), has become an important and unique technology for atmospheric research and applications. The technology is widely used for the remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, vegetation and the characteristics of Earth's topography. Remote sensing of atmosphere, for its structure, composition and dynamics, is one of the proven applications of the lidar systems. More importantly the lidar technique is applied for the study of clouds, aerosols and minor constituents in the atmosphere. It provides the information on the above with good spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracy. The high altitude cirrus clouds which play an important role in the Earth's radiative budget and global climate can be studied by using the LIDAR system. These clouds absorb long-wave outgoing radiation from Earth's surface while reflecting part of the incoming short-wave solar radiation. Lidar measurements are useful in deriving the altitude, top height, bottom height and the optical properties of cirrus clouds, which are essential in understanding the cloud-radiation effects. The optical depth, the effective lidar ratio and the depolarization of the clouds are also derived by inverting the lidar signals from the cirrus clouds. In this paper we present the results on the lidar derived optical and microphysical properties of the cirrus clouds at a tropical station Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E) India during two year period from 2009 to210. The seasonal variations of the cloud properties during the observation period are presented and discussed with reference to earlier period.

Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, M.; Motty, G. S.; Dhaman, R. K.; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Ramakrishnarao, D.; Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.

2014-11-01

104

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Global verification of cloud fraction in models using CloudSat  

E-print Network

. In this paper, the spaceborne CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar are used to evaluate the global distribution and CALIPSO lidar (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Ob- servations) to evaluate the Met evaluated the mean or the distribution of cloud properties in models, but not whether the clouds were

Hogan, Robin

105

A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.  

SciTech Connect

The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

2007-08-06

106

UNCERTAINTIES OF RADAR-DERIVED VERTICAL VELOCITIES IN DEEP CONVECTIVE CLOUDS USING ARM PRECIPITATION RADARS  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTIES OF RADAR-DERIVED VERTICAL VELOCITIES IN DEEP CONVECTIVE CLOUDS USING ARM PRECIPITATION RADARS Kirk North, McGill University Scott Collis, Argonne National Laboratory Scott Giangrande of the new ARRA enhanced radar networks is to provide such measurements routinely. The retrieval approach

107

Thin Cloud Length Scales Using CALIPSO and CloudSat Data  

E-print Network

to other cloud types. Historicaly, observation of opticaly thin clouds has been a dificult task, especialy from the standpoint of global distributions. Ground-based observation campaigns using lidar and radar are capable of detecting cloud over a wide.... Also, ground-based campaigns may mis high thin clouds if thick clouds occur below them since the thick clouds wil atenuate the lidar and the radar is unable to detect opticaly thin cloud layers. Other types of measurement campaigns have their own...

Solbrig, Jeremy E.

2010-10-12

108

The first observed cloud echoes and microphysical parameter retrievals by China's 94-GHz cloud radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the cloud echoes first successfully observed by China's indigenous 94-GHz SKY cloud radar, the macrostructure and microphysical properties of drizzling stratocumulus clouds in Anhui Province on 8 June 2013 are analyzed, and the detection capability of this cloud radar is discussed. The results are as follows. (1) The cloud radar is able to observe the time-varying macroscopic and microphysical parameters of clouds, and it can reveal the microscopic structure and small-scale changes of clouds. (2) The velocity spectral width of cloud droplets is small, but the spectral width of the cloud containing both cloud droplets and drizzle is large. When the spectral width is more than 0.4 m s-1, the radar reflectivity factor is larger (over -10 dBZ). (3) The radar's sensitivity is comparatively higher because the minimum radar reflectivity factor is about -35 dBZ in this experiment, which exceeds the threshold for detecting the linear depolarized ratio (LDR) of stratocumulus (commonly -11 to -14 dBZ; decreases with increasing turbulence). (4) After distinguishing of cloud droplets from drizzle, cloud liquid water content and particle effective radius are retrieved. The liquid water content of drizzle is lower than that of cloud droplets at the same radar reflectivity factor.

Wu, Juxiu; Wei, Ming; Hang, Xin; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Peichang; Li, Nan

2014-06-01

109

A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements  

E-print Network

A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements Chuanfeng algorithm to detect aerosols and clouds based on micropulse lidar measurements. A semidiscretization is then introduced. Combined with empirical threshold values, we determine if the signal waves indicate clouds

Li, Zhanqing

110

Global estimation of above-cloud aerosols using spaceborne LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of global mean direct climate forcing by absorbing aerosols located above boundary layer clouds are large, uncertain, and almost entirely unconstrained by observations. Spaceborne lidar offers a new opportunity of estimating the aerosols at global scale. Here we use two recently available techniques quantifying the above-cloud aerosols using liquid water clouds as lidar targets from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) [Chand et al., 2008]. Both methods can quantify aerosols above clouds and are based on their self-calibrating techniques. We used one year of global data between 70N-70S to show that day time calibration constants are different than night time calibrations constants. A clear latitudinal dependence is observed in the calibrations constants in CALIPSO observations. Using these 'self-calibration' constants, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) of 'above- cloud' aerosols are quantified. Biomass burning is a major source of fine mode aerosols in different regions of world. For example, it is observed that June is the onset of the biomass burning fires in Southern Africa, peaking in August and September and then slowly decreasing until November, with a corresponding signature in aerosol optical depth. Layers with aerosol optical depth greater than 0.3 are commonly observed up to several thousand kilometers away from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. The 'above-cloud' AOD as high as 1.5 is observed in the peak months. Despite of large variations is AOD, mean AE of these aerosols is about 1.6, without any systematic variability away from the source region. The results estimating the aerosols above clouds, including other regions at global scale, will be presented in the AGU meeting. Chand, D., T. L. Anderson, R. Wood, R. J. Charlson, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, and M. Vaughan (2008), Quantifying above-cloud aerosol using spaceborne lidar for improved understanding of cloudy-sky direct climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009433.

Chand, D.; Wood, R.; Anderson, T. L.; Satheesh, S. K.; Leahy, L.

2008-12-01

111

Automatic building extraction and segmentation directly from lidar point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an automatic approach for building extraction and segmentation directly from Lidar point clouds without previous rasterization or triangulation. The algorithm works in the following sequential steps. First, a filtering algorithm, which is capable of preserving steep terrain features, is performed on raw Lidar point clouds. Points that belong to the bare earth and those that belong to buildings are separated. Second, the building points which may include some vegetation and other objects due to the disturbance of noise and the distribution of points are segmented further by using a Riemannian Graph. Then building segments are recognized by considering size and roughness. Finally, each segment can be treated as a building roof plane. Experiment results show that the algorithm is very promising.

Jiang, Jingjue; Ming, Ying

2006-10-01

112

Urban building roof segmentation from airborne lidar point clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new approach to segmenting building rooftops from airborne lidar point clouds. A progressive morphological filter technique is first applied for separation between ground and non-ground points. For the non-ground points, a region-growing algorithm based on a plane-fitting technique is used to separate building points from vegetation points. Then, an adaptive Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm based

Dong Chen; Liqiang Zhang; Jonathan Li; Rei Liu

2012-01-01

113

First detection of a noctilucent cloud by lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the night of August 5\\/6, 1989 for the first time a noctilucent cloud (NLC) was detected and measured by a lidar instrument. The NLC developed at about 22:20 UT, reached its maximum backscatter cross-section at 23:05 UT and became unobservable at around 00:10 UT. During this period, the NLC exhibited the following properties: (1) its altitude ranged between 83.4

G. Hansen; M. Serwazi; U. von Zahn

1989-01-01

114

Cloud Physics Lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the

Matthew McGill; Dennis Hlavka; William Hart; V. Stanley Scott; James Spinhirne; Beat Schmid

2002-01-01

115

GLITTER: New Lidar Technique for Cloud-Base Altimetry. Description and Initial Aircraft Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of cloud-base heights is important for climate studies, weather, and military operations. Conventional lidar methods monitor cloud depths by direct transmission of the beam through the cloud and sensing the backscattered returns. These techniques are limited by severe optical scattering by cloud particles to thickness < 0.5 km. We have conceived of a novel lidar method measurement for thick-cloud-base

Jerry A. Gelbwachs; Robert W. Farley

2004-01-01

116

Lidar Observations of the Optical Properties and 3-Dimensional Structure of Cirrus Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific research conducted under this grant have been reported in a series of journal articles, dissertations, and conference proceedings. This report consists of a compilation of these publications in the following areas: development and operation of a High Spectral Resolution Lidar, cloud physics and cloud formation, mesoscale observations of cloud phenomena, ground-based and satellite cloud cover observations, impact of volcanic aerosols on cloud formation, visible and infrared radiative relationships as measured by satellites and lidar, and scattering cross sections.

Eloranta, E. W.

1996-01-01

117

Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the classification results can be achieved by using the proposed approach.

El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

2014-09-01

118

Uniform grid upsampling of 3D lidar point cloud data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne laser scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems are used for remote sensing topology and bathymetry. The most common data collection technique used in LiDAR systems employs a linear mode scanning. The resulting scanning data form a non-uniformly sampled 3D point cloud. To interpret and further process the 3D point cloud data, these raw data are usually converted to digital elevation models (DEMs). In order to obtain DEMs in a uniform and upsampled raster format, the elevation information from the available non-uniform 3D point cloud data are mapped onto the uniform grid points. After the mapping is done, the grid points with missing elevation information are lled by using interpolation techniques. In this paper, partial di erential equations (PDE) based approach is proposed to perform the interpolation and to upsample the 3D point cloud onto a uniform grid. Due to the desirable e ects of using higher order PDEs, smoothness is maintained over homogeneous regions, while sharp edge information in the scene well preserved. The proposed algorithm reduces the draping e ects near the edges of distinctive objects in the scene. Such annoying draping e ects are commonly associated with existing point cloud rendering algorithms. Simulation results are presented in this paper to illustrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm.

Gurram, Prudhvi; Hu, Shuowen; Chan, Alex

2013-03-01

119

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications  

SciTech Connect

Several aspects of spectral broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloud-scale observations of microphysics and dynamics are essential to guide and evaluate corresponding modeling efforts. Profiling, millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectrum width, are often used to retrieve cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. Such retrievals are subject to errors introduced by the assumptions made in the inversion process. Here, we introduce two additional morphological parameters of the radar Doppler spectrum, the skewness and kurtosis, in an effort to reduce the retrieval uncertainties. A forward model that emulates observed radar Doppler spectra is constructed and used to investigate these relationships. General, analytical relationships that relate the five radar observables to cloud and drizzle microphysical parameters and cloud turbulence are presented. The relationships are valid for cloud-only, cloud mixed with drizzle, and drizzle-only particles in the radar sampling volume and provide a seamless link between observations and cloud microphysics and dynamics. The sensitivity of the five observed parameters to the radar operational parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectra velocity resolution are presented. The predicted values of the five observed radar parameters agree well with the output of the forward model. The novel use of the skewness of the radar Doppler spectrum as an early qualitative predictor of drizzle onset in clouds is introduced. It is found that skewness is a parameter very sensitive to early drizzle generation. In addition, the significance of the five parameters of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum for constraining drizzle microphysical retrievals is discussed.

Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Rmillard, J.; Szyrmer, W.

2011-07-02

120

Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part I: Operational Sampling Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Probing clouds in three-dimensions has never been done with scanning millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars in a continuous operating environment. The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generate the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) is discussed. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of the ARM program, however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACRs scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud properties that are vastly different for rain and snow shafts that are the primary target of precipitation radars. A cloud surveillance scan strategy is introduced (HS-RHI) based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS). The HS-RHI scan strategy is repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between HS-RHI scan strategies other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. The SACRs are pointing vertically in the case of measurable precipitation at the ground. The radar reflectivities are corrected for water vapor attenuation and non-meteorological detection are removed. A hydrometeor detection mask is introduced based on the difference of cloud and noise statistics is discussed.

Kollias, Pavlos; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Jo, Ieng; Johnson, Karen

2014-03-01

121

Balloonborne lidar for cloud physics studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative balloonborne microjoule lidar (MULID) has been developed within the framework of the HIBISCUS project to provide nighttime measurements of visible and subvisible cirrus and aerosols. MULID has been designed to be a low-cost and an ultralow consumption instrument, due to the remote possibilities of payload recovery and the necessity of a low-weight battery power supply. Ground tests have been performed at the Observatory of Haute Provence (France), and the first technical flight has been made from Trapani, Italy, on a stratospheric balloon; finally, the instrument has been scientifically deployed during the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS tropical campaigns in Bauru, Brazil, in February 2003 and February 2004, respectively. A description of the instrument is provided together with the results of the ground-based and flight tests as well as an overview and discussion of the first results.

di Donfrancesco, Guido; Cairo, Francesco; Buontempo, Carlo; Adriani, Alberto; Viterbini, Maurizio; Snels, Marcel; Morbidini, Roberto; Piccolo, Francesco; Cardillo, Francesco; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Garnier, Anne

2006-08-01

122

Radar Evaluation of Optical Cloud Constraints to Space Launch Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather constraints to launching space vehicles are designed to prevent loss of the vehicle or mission due to weather hazards (See, e.g., Ref 1). Constraints include Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning. The LLCC currently in use at most American launch sites including the Eastern Range and Kennedy Space Center require the Launch Weather Officer to determine the height of cloud bases and tops, the location of cloud edges, and cloud transparency. The preferred method of making these determinations is visual observation, but when that isn't possible due to darkness or obscured vision, it is permissible to use radar. This note examines the relationship between visual and radar observations in three ways: A theoretical consideration of the relationship between radar reflectivity and optical transparency. An observational study relating radar reflectivity to cloud edge determined from in-situ measurements of cloud particle concentrations that determine the visible cloud edge. An observational study relating standard radar products to anvil cloud transparency. It is shown that these three approaches yield results consistent with each other and with the radar threshold specified in Reference 2 for LLCC evaluation.

Merceret, Francis J.; Short, David A.; Ward, Jennifer G.

2005-01-01

123

Evaluation of wind field statistics near and inside clouds using a coherent Doppler lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes advanced techniques for measuring the spatial wind field statistics near and inside clouds using a vertically pointing solid state coherent Doppler lidar on a fixed ground based platform. The coherent Doppler lidar is an ideal instrument for high spatial and temporal resolution velocity estimates. The basic parameters of lidar are discussed, including a complete statistical description of

Brian Todd Lottman

1998-01-01

124

Segmentation and Reconstruction of Polyhedral Building Roofs From Aerial Lidar Point Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a solution framework for the segmentation and reconstruction of polyhedral building roofs from aerial LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) point clouds. The eigenanalysis is first carried out for each roof point of a building within its Voronoi neighborhood. Such analysis not only yields the surface normal for each lidar point but also separates the lidar points into

Aparajithan Sampath; Jie Shan

2010-01-01

125

Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the LITE lidar  

E-print Network

lidar Robin J. Hogan, Mukunda D. Behera,1 Ewan J. O'Connor, and Anthony J. Illingworth Department distinguished from ice by their high lidar backscatter coefficient and sharp backscatter gradient at cloud top. In this paper, data from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE), which flew on the space shuttle

Hogan, Robin

126

A 2year climatology of clouds at Eureka, Canada prepared from High Spectral Resolution lidar data.  

E-print Network

A 2year climatology of clouds at Eureka, Canada prepared from High Spectral Resolution lidar data. Edwin W. Eloranta University of WisconsinMadison eloranta@lidar.ssec.wisc.edu Measurements show. These instruments include the University of Wisconsin Arctic High Spectral Resolution Lidar(AHSRL) and the NOAA 8

Eloranta, Edwin W.

127

Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya, Norway (69[degrees]N) during January 1992. On one day the cloud seemed to be just forming. One two days the clouds showed characteristics of type 1a clouds. The fourth observation showed the cloud formed within the altitude band where significant aerosol products from the Pinatubo volcanic eruption were present.

Schaefer, H.J.; Scheuch, P.; Langer, M.; Fricke, K.H.; Zahn, U. von (Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet, Bonn (Germany)); Knudsen, B.M. (DMI Copenhagen (Denmark))

1994-06-22

128

Prospects of the WSR-88D Radar for Cloud Studies  

E-print Network

Sounding of nonprecipitating clouds with the 10-cm wavelength Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) is discussed. Readily available enhancements to signal processing and volume coverage patterns of the WSR-88D allow observations of a...

Melnikov, Valery M.; Zrni?, Dusan S.; Doviak, Richard J.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Yefim L.

2011-04-01

129

COMPARISON OF MILLIMETER-WAVE CLOUD RADAR MEASUREMENTS FOR THE FALL 1997 CLOUD IOP  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary objectives of the Fall 1997 IOP was to intercompare Ka-band (35GHz) and W-band (95GHz) cloud radar observations and verify system calibrations. During September 1997, several cloud radars were deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, including the full time operation 35 GHz CART Millimeter-wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), (Moran, 1997), the University of Massachusetts (UMass) single antenna 33GHz/95 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS), (Sekelsky, 1996), the 95 GHz Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) flown on the University of Wyoming King Air (Galloway, 1996), the University of Utah 95 GHz radar and the dual-antenna Pennsylvania State University 94 GHz radar (Clothiaux, 1995). In this paper the authors discuss several issues relevant to comparison of ground-based radars, including the detection and filtering of insect returns. Preliminary comparisons of ground-based Ka-band radar reflectivity data and comparisons with airborne radar reflectivity measurements are also presented.

SEKELSKY,S.M.; LI,L.; GALLOWAY,J.; MCINTOSH,R.E.; MILLER,M.A.; CLOTHIAUX,E.E.; HAIMOV,S.; MACE,G.; SASSEN,K.

1998-03-23

130

Ground-based millimeter wave cloud profiling radar system (CPRS)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) is a two frequency (35 GHz, 95 GHz) polarimetric radar with a single reflector-lens antenna. The system will be used to perform three dimensional Doppler and polarimetric measurements on clouds. The various subsystems are currently being developed and this report gives technical details about the status of these subsystems. This report also updates other research activities. 7 figs.

McIntosh, R.E.; Pazmany, A.L.; Mead, J.B.

1991-08-01

131

Ground-based millimeter wave Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) is a two frequency (35 GHz, 95 GHz) polarimetric radar with a single reflector-lens antenna. The system will be used to perform three dimensional Doppler and polarimetric measurements on clouds. The various subsystems are currently being developed and this report gives technical details about the status of these subsystems. This report also updates other research activities.

McIntosh, R. E.; Pazmany, A. L.; Mead, J. B.

1991-08-01

132

Study of Rain-Cloud Characteristics Using Weather Radar Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of detail structure and behavior of natural rainfall field is important for improving an efficiency of rainmaking activities. The use of data from weather radar is an efficient way of observing rainfall characteristics. Weather radar can measure physical characteristics of rain-cloud such as rain drop size distributions, spatial and temporal distributions of rainfall intensities, velocity of rain-cells, vertical profile

S. Chumchean

133

Aircraft lidar observations of an enhanced type Ia polar stratospheric clouds during APE-POLECAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) which do not fit into the standard type Ia\\/Ib scheme were measured by the airborne lidar OLEX (Ozone Lidar Experiment) on board the Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfhart (DLR) Falcon during the Airborne Polar Experiment and Polar stratospheric clouds, Leewaves, Chemistry Aerosol and Transport (APE-POLECAT) campaign. In contrast, the standard classification is satisfied by almost

A. Tsias; M. Wirth; K. S. Carslaw; J. Biele; H. Mehrtens; J. Reichardt; C. Wedekind; V. Wei; W. Renger; R. Neuber; U. von Zahn; B. Stein; V. Santacesaria; L. Stefanutti; F. Fierli; J. Bacmeister; T. Peter

1999-01-01

134

Solid Image Extraction from LIDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laser scanner architectural surveying it is necessary to extract orthogonal projections from the tridimensional model, plans, elevations and cross sections. The paper presents the workflow of architectural drawings production from laser scans, focusing on the orthogonal projection of the point cloud on solid images, in order to avoid the time consuming surface modeling, when it is not strictly necessary. The proposed procedures have been implemented in fortran90 and included in the VELOCE software package, then tested and applied to the case study of the San Pietro church in Porto Venere (SP), integrating the architectural surveying with an existing bathymetric and coastal surveying.

Munaretto, D.; Roggero, M.

2013-02-01

135

New Cloud Science from the New ARM Cloud Radar Systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE ARM Program is deploying over $30M worth of scanning polarimetric Doppler radars at its four fixed and two mobile sites, with the object of advancing cloud lifecycle science, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interaction science, by a quantum leap. As of 2011, there will be 13 scanning radar systems to complement its existing array of profiling cloud radars: C-band for precipitation, X-band for drizzle and precipitation, and two-frequency radars for cloud droplets and drizzle. This will make ARM the worlds largest science user of, and largest provider of data from, ground-based cloud radars. The philosophy behind this leap is actually quite simple, to wit: dimensionality really does matter. Just as 2D turbulence is fundamentally different from 3D turbulence, so observing clouds only at zenith provides a dimensionally starved, and sometimes misleading, picture of real clouds. In particular, the zenith view can say little or nothing about cloud lifecycle and the second indirect effect, nor about aerosol-precipitation interactions. It is not even particularly good at retrieving the cloud fraction (no matter how that slippery quantity is defined). This talk will review the history that led to this development and then discuss the aspirations for how this will propel cloud-aerosol-precipitation science forward. The step by step plan for translating raw radar data into information that is useful to cloud and aerosol scientists and climate modelers will be laid out, with examples from ARMs recent scanning cloud radar deployments in the Azores and Oklahoma . In the end, the new systems should allow cloud systems to be understood as 4D coherent entities rather than dimensionally crippled 2D or 3D entities such as observed by satellites and zenith-pointing radars.

Wiscombe, W. J.

2010-12-01

136

The DROPPS mission: a study of the polar summer mesosphere with rocket radar and lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DROPPS (The Distribution and Role of Particles in the Polar Summer Mesosphere), a highly coordinated international study conducted in July, 1999, involved two sequences of rockets launched from the Norwegian rocket range in Andya, Norway. These studies were designed to investigate the properties of the polar summer mesosphere, particularly relating to polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) and their possible relationship to particles (aerosol and dust layers) and to noctilucent clouds (NLC). Each of the two sequences included a DROPPS NASA-Black Brant payload, consisting of an array of instruments to measure the electrodynamic and optical structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. These were provided by participants from several US and European scientific laboratories. The DROPPS payloads were each accompanied by a sequence of several European payloads (MIDAS, Mini-MIDAS, and Mini-DUSTY) designed to study electrodynamic structure of the same region, and by several meteorological rockets to provide wind and temperature data in the critical region of study. ALOMAR Lidars, and MF and MST Radars (all located adjacent to the Andya launch site) were used to continuously monitor the mesosphere for NLCs and PMSEs, respectively. EISCAT VHF radar (Troms, Norway) provided similar information about PMSEs. Sequence 1 was launched during the night of 5 - 6 July into a strong PMSE display with a weak NLC at the base of the PMSE. Sequence 2 was launched on the early morning of 14 July into a strong NLC, but surprisingly with no PMSE evident. Of note is the observed presence of negatively charged particles within the PMSE region but absent from the NLC. The PMSE layer also contained electrodynamic turbulence, which was absent within the NLC observed during Sequence 2. As noted above, DROPPS was designed to investigate the origin of PMSEs and how they might relate to NLCs. This paper provides an overview of the program and discusses the above findings.

Goldberg, R. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Holzworth, R. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Voss, H. D.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; Croskey, C. L.; Mitchell, J. D.; Friedrich, M.; Murtagh, D.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; von Zahn, U.; Singer, W.; Hoppe, U.-P.

2001-08-01

137

Reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry using a scanning cloud radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds are one of the main reasons of uncertainties in the forecasts of weather and climate. In part, this is due to limitations of remote sensing of cloud microphysics. Present approaches often use passive spectral measurements for the remote sensing of cloud microphysical parameters. Large uncertainties are introduced by three dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer effects and cloud inhomogeneities. Such effects are largely caused by unknown orientation of cloud sides or by shadowed areas on the cloud. Passive ground based remote sensing of cloud properties at high spatial resolution could be improved crucially with this kind of additional knowledge of cloud geometry. To this end, a method for the accurate reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry from cloud radar measurements is developed in this work. Using a radar simulator and simulated passive measurements of static LES model clouds, the effects of different radar scan resolutions and varying interpolation methods are evaluated. In reality a trade-off between scan resolution and scan duration has to be found as clouds are changing quickly. A reasonable choice is a scan resolution of 1 to 2. The most suitable interpolation procedure identified is the barycentric interpolation method. The 3-D reconstruction method is demonstrated using radar scans of convective cloud cases with the Munich miraMACS, a 35 GHz scanning cloud radar. As a successful proof of concept, camera imagery collected at the radar location is reproduced for the observed cloud cases via 3-D volume reconstruction and 3-D radiative transfer simulation. Data sets provided by the presented reconstruction method will aid passive spectral ground-based measurements of cloud sides to retrieve microphysical parameters.

Ewald, F.; Winkler, C.; Zinner, T.

2014-11-01

138

Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) is a new custom-built instrument for the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The CPL can provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its state-of-the-art technology gives it a high repetition rate, and photon-counting detection, and includes a low-pulse-energy laser. The CPL was first deployed at the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V. Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

2002-01-01

139

The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

140

Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods.  

PubMed

We focus on improvement of the retrieval of optical properties of cirrus clouds by combining two lidar methods. We retrieve the cloud's optical depth by using independently the molecular backscattering profile below and above the cloud [molecular integration (MI) method] and the backscattering profile inside the cloud with an a priori effective lidar ratio [particle integration (PI) method]. When the MI method is reliable, the combined MI-PI method allows us to retrieve the optimal effective lidar ratio. We compare these results with Raman lidar retrievals. We then use the derived optimal effective lidar ratio for retrieval with the PI method for situations in which the MI method cannot be applied. PMID:15818860

Cadet, Bertrand; Giraud, Vincent; Haeffelin, Martial; Keckhut, Philippe; Rechou, Anne; Baldy, Serge

2005-03-20

141

Lidar measurements of boundary layers, aerosol scattering and clouds during project FIFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed account of progress achieved under this grant funding is contained in five journal papers. The titles of these papers are: The calculation of area-averaged vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity using volume imaging lidar data; Volume imaging lidar observation of the convective structure surrounding the flight path of an instrumented aircraft; Convective boundary layer mean depths, cloud base altitudes, cloud top altitudes, cloud coverages, and cloud shadows obtained from Volume Imaging Lidar data; An accuracy analysis of the wind profiles calculated from Volume Imaging Lidar data; and Calculation of divergence and vertical motion from volume-imaging lidar data. Copies of these papers form the body of this report.

Eloranta, Edwin W. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

142

Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at the ARM sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program upgraded its fixed and mobile facilities with the acquisition of state-of-the-art scanning, dual-wavelength, polarimetric, Doppler cloud radars. The scanning ARM cloud radars (SACR's) are the most expensive and significant radar systems at all ARM sites and eight SACR systems will be operational at ARM sites by the end of 2013. The SACR's are the primary instruments for the detection of 3D cloud properties (boundaries, volume cloud fractional coverage, liquid water content, dynamics, etc.) beyond the soda-straw (profiling) limited view. Having scanning capabilities with two frequencies and polarization allows more accurate probing of a variety of cloud systems (e.g., drizzle and shallow, warm rain), better correction for attenuation, use of attenuation for liquid water content retrievals, and polarimetric and dual-wavelength ratio characterization of non-spherical particles for improved ice crystal habit identification. Examples of SACR observations from four ARM sites are presented here: the fixed sites at Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and the mobile facility deployments at Graciosa Island, Azores and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The 3D cloud structure is investigated both at the macro-scale (20-50 km) and cloud-scale (100-500 m). Doppler velocity measurements are corrected for velocity folding and are used either to describe the in-cloud horizontal wind profile or the 3D vertical air motions.

Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Shupe, M.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Miller, M. A.; Verlinde, H.; Luke, E. P.; Johnson, K. L.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Lamer, K.

2012-12-01

143

Building blocks for a two-frequency laser lidar-radar: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

A new principle of lidar-radar is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The proposed architecture is based on the use of an rf modulation of the emitted light beam and a direct detection of the backscattered intensity. Use of a radar-processing chain allows one to obtain range and Doppler measurements with the advantages of lidar spatial resolution. We calculate the maximum range of this device, taking into account different possible improvements. In particular, we show that use of a pulsed two-frequency laser and a spatially multimode optical preamplification of the backscattered light leads to calculated ranges larger than 20 km, including the possibility of both range and Doppler measurements. The building blocks of this lidar-radar are tested experimentally: The radar processing of an rf-modulated backscattered cw laser beam is demonstrated at 532 nm, illustrating the Doppler and identification capabilities of the system. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio improvement by optical pre-amplification is demonstrated at 1.06 microm. Finally, a two-frequency passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is developed. This laser then permits two-frequency pulses with tunable pulse duration (from 18 to 240 ns) and beat frequency (from 0 to 2.65 GHz) to be obtained. PMID:12269571

Morvan, Loc; Lai, Ngoc D; Dolfi, Daniel; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Brunel, Marc; Bretenaker, Fabien; Le Floch, Albert

2002-09-20

144

Time Shifted PN Codes for CW Lidar, Radar, and Sonar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Prasad, Narasimha S. (Inventor); Harrison, Fenton W. (Inventor); Flood, Michael A. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

145

Lidar measurements of cloud extinction coefficient distribution and its forward scattering phase function according to multiply scattered lidar returns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the inversion algorithm for the single scatter lidar equation, for quantitative determination of cloud (or aerosol) optical properties, has received much attention over the last thirty years. Some of the difficulties associated with the solution of this equation are not yet solved. One problem is that a single scatter lidar equation has two unknowns. Because of this, the determination of the far-end boundary value, in the case of Klett's algorithm, is a problem if the atmosphere is optically inhomogeneous. Another difficulty concerns multiple scattering. There is a large error in the extinction distribution solution, in many cases, if only the single scattering component is considered, while neglecting the multiple scattering component. However, the use of multiple scattering in the remote sensing of aerosol or cloud optical properties is promising. In our early study, an inversion method for simultaneous determination of the cloud (or aerosol) Extinction Coefficient Distribution (ECD) and its Forward Scattering Phase Function (FSPF) was proposed according to multiply scattered lidar returns with two fields of view for the receiver. The method is based on a parameterized multiple scatter lidar equation. This paper is devoted to further numerical tests and an experimental study of lidar measurements of cloud ECD and FSPF using this method.

Qiu, Jinhuan; Huang, Qirong

1992-01-01

146

VII Workshop on Lidar Measurements in Latin America Pucn, 2013 Characteristics of Cirrus Clouds in the Central Amazon region during one week in  

E-print Network

VII Workshop on Lidar Measurements in Latin America Pucón, 2013 Characteristics of Cirrus Clouds and the lidar technique is very useful for their study. In the present work, data from a lidar instrument clouds; lidar; Central Amazon Region. WLMLA Area: Lidar applications in environmental sciences

Barbosa, Henrique

147

THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOMOGRAPHY OF CLOUD MICROPHYSICS BY COMBINING MICROWAVE RADAR AND RADIOMETER  

E-print Network

THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOMOGRAPHY OF CLOUD MICROPHYSICS BY COMBINING MICROWAVE RADAR AND RADIOMETER on either cloud radars or microwave radiometers. These instruments are actually complementary in nature as microwave radiometers measure path-integrated water content while cloud radars provide range

148

The structure of the convective atmospheric boundary layer as revealed by lidar and Doppler radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on the structure of the convective atmospheric boundary layer based on the analyses of data from the instrumented NSSL-KTVY tower, airborne Doppler lidar, and ground-based Doppler radars are presented. The vertically averaged wind over the boundary layer was found to be insensitive to baroclinicity, supporting the hypothesis of Arya and Wyngaard (1975). The computed momentum flux profiles were affected by baroclinicity. Horizontal wind spectra from lidar, radar, and tower data compared well with each other both in shape and magnitude. A consistent peak found near 4 km in all the computed spectra might have been caused by horizontally symmetric cells with horizontal wavelength 4 times the boundary-layer height as shown in Kuettner (1971) for the case of weak wind shear.

Eilts, M. D.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Doviak, R. J.

1985-01-01

149

Mixed-phase cloud phase partitioning using millimeter wavelength cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrieving and quantifying cloud liquid drop contributions to radar returns from mixed-phase clouds remains a challenge because the radar signal is frequently dominated by the returns from the ice particles within the radar sample volume. We present a technique that extracts the weak cloud liquid drop contributions from the total radar returns in profiling cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra. Individual spectra are first decomposed using a continuous wavelet transform, the resulting coefficients of which are used to identify the region in the spectra where cloud liquid drops contribute. By assuming that the liquid contribution to each Doppler spectrum is Gaussian shaped and centered on an appropriate peak in the wavelet coefficients, the cloud liquid drop contribution may be estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution centered on the velocity of this peak to the original Doppler spectrum. The cloud liquid drop contribution to reflectivity, the volume mean vertical air motion, subvolume vertical velocity variance, and ice particle mean fall speed can be estimated based on the separation of the liquid contribution to the radar Doppler spectrum. The algorithm is evaluated using synthetic spectra produced from output of a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model study of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. The retrievals of cloud liquid drop mode reflectivities were generally consistent with the original model values with errors less than a factor of 2. The retrieved volume mean vertical air velocities reproduced the updraft and downdraft structures, but with an overall bias of approximately -0.06 m s-1. Retrievals based on Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Zenith Radar observations from Barrow, Alaska, during October 2011 are also presented.

Yu, G.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Chen, Y.-S.

2014-06-01

150

Coherent Doppler Lidar for Wind and Cloud Measurements on Venus from an Orbiting or Floating/Flying Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Given the presence of clouds and haze in the upper portion of the Venus atmosphere, it is reasonable to consider a Doppler wind lidar (DWL) for making remote measurements of the 3D winds within the tops of clouds and the overlying haze layer. Assuming an orbit altitude of 250 km and cloud tops at 60km (within the upper cloud layer), an initial performance assessment of an orbiting DWL was made using a numerical instrument and atmospheres model developed for both Earth and Mars. The threshold aerosol backscatter for 2-micron was taken to be 1.0*10-6 msr-1. This backscatter value is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude lower than that expected for clouds with optical depths greater than 2.0. Cloud composition was assumed to be mixture of dust, frozen CO2 and sulfuric acid. Based on the DWL assessment and simulation, it is reasonable to expect vertical profiles of the 3D wind speed with 1 km vertical resolution and horizontal spacing of 25 km to several 100 kms depending upon the desired integration times. These profiles would begin somewhere just below the tops of the highest clouds and extend into the overlying haze layer to some TBD height. Getting multiple layers of cloud returns is also possible with no negative impact on velocity measurement accuracy. With support from the NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement in the Earths atmosphere [1-3]. The knowledge and expertise for developing coherent Doppler wind lidar technologies and techniques for Earth related mission at NASA LaRC is being leveraged to develop an appropriate system suitable for wind measurement around Venus. We are considering a fiber laser based lidar system of high efficiency and smaller size and advancing the technology level to meet the requirements for DWL system for Venus from an orbiting or floating/flying platform. This presentation will describe the concept, simulation and technology development plan for wind and cloud measurements on Venus. References [1] M.J. Kavaya, U.N. Singh, G.J. Koch, B.C. Trieu, M. Petros, and P.J. Petzar, "Development of a Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver and Plans for Flights on NASA's DC-8 and WB-57 Aircraft," Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Toulouse, France, June 2009. [2] G.J. Koch, J.Y. Beyon, B.W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, F. Amzajerdian, M.J. Kavaya, and U.N. Singh, "High-Energy 2-micron Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements," Optical Engineering 46(11), 116201-14 (2007). [3] J.Y. Beyon and G.J. Koch, "Novel Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation Technique for the Coherent Doppler Validation Lidar," Optical Engineering 46(1), 0160021-9 (2007).

Singh, Upendra; Limaye, Sanjay; Emmitt, George; Kavaya, Michael; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

151

Algorithm for detecting important changes in lidar point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of installations in hostile environments is a very critical part of military and civilian operations that requires a significant amount of security personnel to be deployed around the clock. Any electronic change detection system for detection of threats must have high probability of detection and low false alarm rates to be useful in the presence of natural motion of trees and vegetation due to wind. We propose a 3D change detection system based on a LIDAR sensor that can reliably and robustly detect threats and intrusions in different environments including surrounding trees, vegetation, and other natural landscape features. Our LIDAR processing algorithm finds human activity and human-caused changes not only in open spaces but also in heavy vegetated areas hidden from direct observation by 2D imaging sensors. The algorithm processes a sequence of point clouds called frames. Every 3D frame is mapped into a 2D horizontal rectangular grid. Each cell of this grid is processed to calculate the distribution of the points mapped into it. The spatial differences are detected by analyzing the differences in distributions of the corresponding cells that belong to different frames. Several heuristic filters are considered to reduce false detections caused by natural changes in the environment.

Korchev, Dmitriy; Owechko, Yuri

2014-06-01

152

An Automated Cloud-edge Detection Algorithm Using Cloud Physics and Radar Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated cloud edge detection algorithm was developed and extensively tested. The algorithm uses in-situ cloud physics data measured by a research aircraft coupled with ground-based weather radar measurements to determine whether the aircraft is in or out of cloud. Cloud edges are determined when the in/out state changes, subject to a hysteresis constraint. The hysteresis constraint prevents isolated transient cloud puffs or data dropouts from being identified as cloud boundaries. The algorithm was verified by detailed manual examination of the data set in comparison to the results from application of the automated algorithm.

Ward, Jennifer G.; Merceret, Francis J.; Grainger, Cedric A.

2003-01-01

153

Smoke-Column Observations from Two Forest Fires Using Doppler Lidar and Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To demonstrate the usefulness of active remote-sensing systems in observing forest fire plume behavior, we studied two fires, one using a 3.2-cm-wavelength Doppler radar, and one more extensively, using Doppler lidar. Both instruments observed the kinematics of the convection column, including the presence of two different types of rotation in the columns, and monitored the behavior of the smoke plume.The

R. M. Banta; L. D. Olivier; E. T. Holloway; R. A. Kropfli; B. W. Bartram; R. E. Cupp; M. J. Post

1992-01-01

154

Arctic polar stratospheric cloud observations by airborne lidar  

SciTech Connect

Lidar observations obtained from January 24 to February 2, 1989, during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) mission further support the existence of two distinct classes (Types 1 and 2) of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Most of the Type 1 PSCs observed were formed by rapid adiabatic cooling and exhibited very low depolarization ratios and low-to-intermediate scattering ratios. Type 2 PSCs were observed in regions of lowest temperature and showed much larger depolarization and scattering ratios, as would be expected from larger ice crystals. PSCs with low scattering ratios but moderate depolarization ratios were observed near the center of the vortex on one flight. These may have been either sparse Type 2 PSCs or Type 1 PSCs formed by less rapid cooling.

McCormick, M.P.; Poole, L.R. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Kent, G.S. (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, VA (USA)); Hunt, W.H. (Wyle Laboratories, Hampton, VA (USA)); Osborn, M.T.; Pitts, M.C. (ST Systems Corporation, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-03-01

155

Arctic polar stratospheric cloud observations by airborne lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar observations obtained from January 24 to February 2, 1989, during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric expedition (AASE) mission further support the existence of two distinct classes (Types 1 and 2) of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Most of the Type 1 PSCs observed were formed by rapid adiabatic cooling and exhibited very low depolarization ratios and low-to-intermediate scattering ratios. Type 2 PSCs were observed in regions of lowest temperature and showed much larger depolarization and scattering ratios, as would be expected from larger ice crystals. PSCs with low scattering ratios but moderate depolarization ratios were observed near the center of the vortex on one flight. These may have been either sparse Type 2 PSCs or Type 1 PSCs formed by less rapid cooling.

Mccormick, M. P.; Poole, L. R.; Kent, G. S.; Hunt, W. H.; Osborn, M. T.

1990-01-01

156

A Method of 3D Building Boundary Extraction from Airborne LIDAR Points Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building boundary is of great significance for building reconstruction and digital mapping. The emergence of airborne LIDAR technology makes rapid extraction of buildings possible. Based on the analysis of existing buildings extraction method, the article proposes an automatic method for extracting 3D building boundaries directly from airborne LIDAR points cloud, which consists of three steps: firstly, building points are segmented

Xu Jing-zhong; Wan You-chuan; Yao Fang

2010-01-01

157

Polar Cirrus Cloud Properties Through Long-Term Lidar and Radiometer Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In comparison to mid latitude cloud cover, knowledge of polar cirrus and other cloud cover is limited. The interpretations of satellite-based cloud imaging and retrievals in polar regions have major problems due to factors such as darkness and extreme low temperatures. Beginning in 2002 a NASA orbiting lidar instrument, GLAS, (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) will unambiguously define cloud type and fraction with good coverage of polar regions. Active laser sensing gives the spatial and temporal distribution of clouds and diamond dust. In preparation for, and supplementing the GLAS measurements are ground based MP (micro pulse) lidar experiments providing continuous profiling. MP lidar installations have been operating at the South Pole since December 1999 and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program arctic site since 1996. Both at the ARM Barrow, Alaska site and at the South Pole station, Fourier-transform interferometers also observe clouds in the wavelength intervals between approximately 5 and 18 microns. Spectral instruments can yield cloud microphysical properties with additional information from lidar about the vertical extent of clouds being modeled. We examine the simultaneous lidar and spectral data from both Barrow and South Pole, to obtain cloud properties (optical depth, particle size) by the use of both instruments. The results have applications to interpretation of current satellite data, and GLAS measurements when available.

Spinhirne, James; Campbell, James; Mahesh, Ashwin; Welton, Judd; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

158

[Analysis of cloud spectral structure characteristics based on cloud profile radar data].  

PubMed

Cloud plays a very important role in the earth-atmosphere system. However, the current climate models are still lacking data about internal fine structure of cloud. And when the traditional passive satellite radiometer is used for remote sense, a plentiful information of the vertical distribution of cloud layer will be lost. For these reasons, NASA proposed the launch project of CloudSat, Whose purpose is to provide the necessary observation, and then allow us to understand better the internal structure of the cloud. CloudSat was successfully launched on April 28, 2006. It carried the first cloud profile radar (CPR) with W band (94 GHz), which can provide continuous and global time sequence vertical structure and characteristics of cloud. In the present paper, using CloudSat satellite data, we analyzed the 8th "Morakot" and 15th " Koppu" typhoon cloud systems. According to the "typhoon" cloud detection results, the radar reflectivity, cloud types and optical thickness successive variation of cloud layer were gotten, which will provide a reference for studying optical properties of typhoon cloud system. PMID:23841397

Han, Yong; L, Da-Ren

2013-04-01

159

Space-Based Lidar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of space-based lidar systems is presented. from the first laser altimeter on APOLLO 15 mission in 1971 to the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER mission currently in orbit, and those currently under development. Lidar, which stands for Light Detection And Ranging, is a powerful tool in remote sensing from space. Compared to radars, lidars operate at a much shorter wavelength with a much narrower beam and much smaller transmitter and receiver. Compared to passive remote sensing instruments. lidars carry their own light sources and can continue measuring day and night. and over polar regions. There are mainly two types of lidars depending on the types of measurements. lidars that are designed to measure the distance and properties of hard targets are often called laser rangers or laser altimeters. They are used to obtain the surface elevation and global shape of a planet from the laser pulse time-of-night and the spacecraft orbit position. lidars that are designed to measure the backscattering and absorption of a volume scatter, such as clouds and aerosols, are often just called lidars and categorized by their measurements. such as cloud and aerosol lidar, wind lidar, CO2 lidar, and so on. The advantages of space-based lidar systems over ground based lidars are the abilities of global coverage and continuous measurements.

Sun, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

160

Dual Wavelength Lidar Observation of Tropical High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds During the ALBATROSS 1996 Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual wavelength aerosol lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds were performed during the ALBATROSS 1996 campaign aboard the research vessel POLARSTERN on the Atlantic ocean in October-November 1996.

Beyerle, G.; Schafer, J.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

1998-01-01

161

Min-Cut Based Segmentation of Airborne LIDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing an organization to the unstructured point cloud before extracting information from airborne lidar data is common in many applications. Aggregating the points with similar features into segments in 3-D which comply with the nature of actual objects is affected by the neighborhood, scale, features and noise among other aspects. In this study, we present a min-cut based method for segmenting the point cloud. We first assess the neighborhood of each point in 3-D by investigating the local geometric and statistical properties of the candidates. Neighborhood selection is essential since point features are calculated within their local neighborhood. Following neighborhood determination, we calculate point features and determine the clusters in the feature space. We adapt a graph representation from image processing which is especially used in pixel labeling problems and establish it for the unstructured 3-D point clouds. The edges of the graph that are connecting the points with each other and nodes representing feature clusters hold the smoothness costs in the spatial domain and data costs in the feature domain. Smoothness costs ensure spatial coherence, while data costs control the consistency with the representative feature clusters. This graph representation formalizes the segmentation task as an energy minimization problem. It allows the implementation of an approximate solution by min-cuts for a global minimum of this NP hard minimization problem in low order polynomial time. We test our method with airborne lidar point cloud acquired with maximum planned post spacing of 1.4 m and a vertical accuracy 10.5 cm as RMSE. We present the effects of neighborhood and feature determination in the segmentation results and assess the accuracy and efficiency of the implemented min-cut algorithm as well as its sensitivity to the parameters of the smoothness and data cost functions. We find that smoothness cost that only considers simple distance parameter does not strongly conform to the natural structure of the points. Including shape information within the energy function by assigning costs based on the local properties may help to achieve a better representation for segmentation.

Ural, S.; Shan, J.

2012-07-01

162

G band atmospheric radars: new frontiers in cloud physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and associated precipitation are the largest source of uncertainty in current weather and future climate simulations. Observations of the microphysical, dynamical and radiative processes that act at cloud scales are needed to improve our understanding of clouds. The rapid expansion of ground-based super-sites and the availability of continuous profiling and scanning multi-frequency radar observations at 35 and 94 GHz have significantly improved our ability to probe the internal structure of clouds in high temporal-spatial resolution, and to retrieve quantitative cloud and precipitation properties. However, there are still gaps in our ability to probe clouds due to large uncertainties in the retrievals. The present work discusses the potential of G band (frequency between 110 and 300 GHz) Doppler radars in combination with lower frequencies to further improve the retrievals of microphysical properties. Our results show that, thanks to a larger dynamic range in dual-wavelength reflectivity, dual-wavelength attenuation and dual-wavelength Doppler velocity (with respect to a Rayleigh reference), the inclusion of frequencies in the G band can significantly improve current profiling capabilities in three key areas: boundary layer clouds, cirrus and mid-level ice clouds, and precipitating snow.

Battaglia, A.; Westbrook, C. D.; Kneifel, S.; Kollias, P.; Humpage, N.; Lhnert, U.; Tyynel, J.; Petty, G. W.

2014-06-01

163

Cloud radar deployment for Indian Monsoon observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)'s acquired Ka-band radar for the Study of the interaction between Cloud and Environment for formation of Precipitation. Main objective of it is to make simultaneous high resolution measurements on dynamical, cloud microphysical and precipitation parameters pertain to monsoon system probably at diverse locations. The goal is to understand the interplay between cloud processes and environment that not only allow understanding the fundamental cloud-environment interactions but also precipitation formation mechanisms and further to estimate cloud contribution to the re-distribution of energy and water in climate system. For this, Polarimetric weather Doppler Radar at higher frequencies (9.5 and 35 GHz) can be a potential tool to gain knowledge on this scientific as well as societal application oriented programme. IITM's Polarimetric scanning Ka-band (cloud) radar operations started recently during May 2013. Mobile Ka-band Scanning Polarimetric Doppler Radar (KaSPR) is a cloud radar operating at wavelength of 8.5 mm with average powers of 110 W. KaSPR incorporates a conduction cooled Extended Interaction Klystron Amplifier. It is having four foot diameter Ka-band cassegrain antenna. Liquid cooled air-sealed RF unit provides excellent temperature stability. Antenna on the top of RF unit is mounted on the Elevation over azimuth pedestal which is designed to rotate continuously in the azimuth axis and a full 180 degrees in the elevation axis (horizon to horizon) with a maximum velocity of 200/sec and maximum acceleration of 120/s2. KaSPR uses dual channel 16-bit digital receiver having dynamic range of more than 80 dB with bandwidths 10 MHz. Arbitrary waveform generator capable of generating any user-defined waveform of up to 16K samples in length. It is having sensitivity of the order -45 dBZ at 5 km. KaSPR has been providing high sensitivity versatile measurements of cloud and precipitation at tropical site (Manderdev, 18.04290 N, 73.86890 E, 1.35 km AMSL) from a scanning mobile platform since May, 2013. The initial results of the above cloud radar observations on Indian monsoon will be discussed.

Chakravarty, K.; Kalapureddy, M.; Pa, M.; Deshpandy, S.; Das, S.; Pandithurai, G.; Prabhakaran, T.; Chandrasekar, C. V.; Goswami, B.

2013-12-01

164

Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

Winker, David M.

1998-01-01

165

Categorizing precipitating clouds by using radar and geostationary satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of precipitating cloud systems over Thailand was attempted by using radar reflectivity and Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) infrared brightness temperature (TBB) data. The proposed method can classify the convective rain (CR) area, stratiform rain (SR) area and non-precipitation area such as cumulus and cirrus cloud by applying an integrating analysis of rain gauge, ground-based radar and geostationary satellite data. Since the present study focuses on precipitation, the classified results of precipitation area are used to estimate quantitative precipitation amount. To merge different rainfall products, the bias between the products should be removed. The bias correction method is used to estimate spatially varying multiplicative biases in hourly radar and satellite rainfall using a gauge and radar rainfall product, respectively. An extreme rain event was selected to obtain the multiplicative bias correction and to merge data set. Correlation coefficient (CC), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias are used to evaluate the performance of bias correction method. The combined radar-MTSAT method is a simple and useful method. This method has been successfully applied to merge radar and gauge rainfall for hydrological purpose.

Wetchayont, P.; Hayasaka, T.; Katagiri, S.; Satomura, T.

2012-11-01

166

Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds.  

PubMed

A formalism for the error treatment of lidar ozone measurements with the Raman differential absorption lidar technique is presented. In the presence of clouds wavelength-dependent multiple scattering and cloud-particle extinction are the main sources of systematic errors in ozone measurements and necessitate a correction of the measured ozone profiles. Model calculations are performed to describe the influence of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds on the ozone. It is found that it is sufficient to account for cloud-particle scattering and Rayleigh scattering in and above the cloud; boundary-layer aerosols and the atmospheric column below the cloud can be neglected for the ozone correction. Furthermore, if the extinction coefficient of the cloud is ?0.1 km(-1), the effect in the cloud is proportional to the effective particle extinction and to a particle correction function determined in the limit of negligible molecular scattering. The particle correction function depends on the scattering behavior of the cloud particles, the cloud geometric structure, and the lidar system parameters. Because of the differential extinction of light that has undergone one or more small-angle scattering processes within the cloud, the cloud effect on ozone extends to altitudes above the cloud. The various influencing parameters imply that the particle-related ozone correction has to be calculated for each individual measurement. Examples of ozone measurements in cirrus clouds are discussed. PMID:18354611

Reichardt, J

2000-11-20

167

Refinement of the basic radar equation for clouds and precipitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A derivation of the basic radar equation for clouds and precipitation is given that takes into account the antenna radiation pattern. The reasons for the differences in the equations used by various authors are demonstrated. More rigorous forms for writing down the basic equation are given.

Salman, Y. M.

1975-01-01

168

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In part I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended to include skewness and kurtosis as additional descriptors of the Doppler spectrum. Here, a short climatology of observed Doppler spectra moments as a function of the radar reflectivity at continental and maritime ARM sites is presented. The evolution of the Doppler spectra moments is consistent with the onset and growth of drizzle particles and can be used to assist modeling studies of drizzle onset and growth. Time-height radar observations are used to exhibit the coherency of the Doppler spectra shape parameters and demonstrate their potential to improve the interpretation and use of radar observations. In addition, a simplified microphysical approach to modeling the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution in warm stratiform clouds is described and used to analyze the observations. The formation rate of embryonic drizzle droplets due to the autoconversion process is not calculated explicitly; however, accretion and evaporation processes are explicitly modeled. The microphysical model is used as input to a radar Doppler spectrum forward model, and synthetic radar Doppler spectra moments are generated. Three areas of interest are studied in detail: early drizzle growth near the cloud top, growth by accretion of the well-developed drizzle, and drizzle depletion below the cloud base due to evaporation. The modeling results are in good agreement with the continental and maritime observations. This demonstrates that steady state one-dimensional explicit microphysical models coupled with a forward model and comprehensive radar Doppler spectra observations offer a powerful method to explore the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution.

Kollias, Pavlos; Szyrmer, Wanda; RMillard, Jasmine; Luke, Edward

2011-07-01

169

Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution  

SciTech Connect

In part I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended to include skewness and kurtosis as additional descriptors of the Doppler spectrum. Here, a short climatology of observed Doppler spectra moments as a function of the radar reflectivity at continental and maritime ARM sites is presented. The evolution of the Doppler spectra moments is consistent with the onset and growth of drizzle particles and can be used to assist modeling studies of drizzle onset and growth. Time-height radar observations are used to exhibit the coherency of the Doppler spectra shape parameters and demonstrate their potential to improve the interpretation and use of radar observations. In addition, a simplified microphysical approach to modeling the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution in warm stratiform clouds is described and used to analyze the observations. The formation rate of embryonic drizzle droplets due to the autoconversion process is not calculated explicitly; however, accretion and evaporation processes are explicitly modeled. The microphysical model is used as input to a radar Doppler spectrum forward model, and synthetic radar Doppler spectra moments are generated. Three areas of interest are studied in detail: early drizzle growth near the cloud top, growth by accretion of the well-developed drizzle, and drizzle depletion below the cloud base due to evaporation. The modeling results are in good agreement with the continental and maritime observations. This demonstrates that steady state one-dimensional explicit microphysical models coupled with a forward model and comprehensive radar Doppler spectra observations offer a powerful method to explore the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution.

Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Szyrmer, W.; Rmillard, J.

2011-07-02

170

Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds.  

PubMed

A compact airborne Raman lidar system, which can perform water vapor and aerosol measurements both during nighttime and daytime is described. The system design, setup and the data processing methods are described in the paper. The Raman lidar was tested on University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft (UWKA) during the Wyoming King Air PBL Exploratory Experiment (KAPEE) in 2010. An observation showing clouds, aerosols and a dry line is presented to illustrate the lidar detection capabilities. Comparisons of the water vapor and aerosol measurements using the Raman lidar and other in situ airborne instruments show good agreement. PMID:25321266

Liu, Bo; Wang, Zhien; Cai, Yong; Wechsler, Perry; Kuestner, William; Burkhart, Matthew; Welch, Wayne

2014-08-25

171

Conditional Random Fields for the Classification of LIDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a probabilistic supervised classification algorithm for LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) point clouds. Several object classes (i.e. ground, building and vegetation) can be separated reliably by considering each point's neighbourhood. Based on Conditional Random Fields (CRF) this contextual information can be incorporated into classification process in order to improve results. Since we want to perform a point-wise classification, no primarily segmentation is needed. Therefore, each 3D point is regarded as a graph's node, whereas edges represent links to the nearest neighbours. Both nodes and edges are associated with features and have effect on the classification. We use some features available from full waveform technology such as amplitude, echo width and number of echoes as well as some extracted geometrical features. The aim of the paper is to describe the CRF model set-up for irregular point clouds, present the features used for classification, and to discuss some results. The resulting overall accuracy is about 94 %.

Niemeyer, J.; Mallet, C.; Rottensteiner, F.; Srgel, U.

2011-09-01

172

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds  

E-print Network

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb (SEVIRI) on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites and weather radar reflectivity factors/TCu clouds for the collection of pixels that pass the CCM. In this model, MSG-SEVIRI cloud physical

Schmeits, Maurice

173

Retrieving the microphysical characteristics of cirrus clouds from lidar data by depolarization and color ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper focuses on retrieving the microphysical characteristics of cirrus clouds from lidar data. The beam-splitting algorithm developed by the authors within framework of physical optics approximation has been used to solve the problem of light scattering by the hexagonal ice crystals. The paper presents the color ratio, depolarization ratio, and lidar ratio that have been calculated for the first time for quasi-horizontally and randomly oriented hexagonal ice particles. The lidar experimental data measuring simultaneously the depolarization ratio and color ratio in cirrus clouds are also presented.

Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kustova, Natalia; Borovoi, Anatoli; Balin, Yurii; Samokhvalov, Ignatii

2014-10-01

174

A New Technique for Measurements of Cloud Properties Using Lidar Depolarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative behaviour of clouds is dependent on cloud particle phase. Water droplets can exist in temperatures well below 0 C for extended periods. Lidar depolarization ratio measurements allow liquid and solid states to be differentiated in individual clouds at high spatial-temporal resolution. The 2012 and 2013 Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaigns in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80N, 86W) provided an opportunity to make nearly continuous depolarization measurements using the CANDAC Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar (CRL) in the troposphere. Depolarization ratio measurements using two techniques are presented here. The CRL transmits linearly polarized 532 nm laser pulses. The depolarizing effect of the cloud particles on the backscattered 532 nm photons is expressed as the linear depolarization ratio. A typical lidar uses two detection channels to determine the ratio: a 'Parallel' channel and a 'Perpendicular' channel. Backscattered photons may all remain polarized parallel to the transmitted beam (depol ratio = 0), or be depolarized, up to half parallel and half perpendicular (depol ratio = 1; light unpolarized). Thus, even before taking receiver optics into account, maximum possible count rates differ by a factor of two between the channels. In the CRL, optics further suppress perpendicular photons, reducing perpendicular rates to an order of magnitude smaller than the parallel rates, making the conventional retrieval technique challenging. To use the conventional technique, perpendicular signals require considerable co-adding to meet acceptable signal-to-noise thresholds, i.e. greater than 30 minutes even in ice clouds where signal rates are highest. Clear-sky retrievals are impossible. The CRL has been experimenting with an alternate approach: using the parallel channel in conjunction with the familiar polarization-insensitive Rayleigh Elastic channel. Sufficient parallel and Rayleigh elastic photons are recorded that depolarization ratio calculations with the new technique are possible at 10-minute resolution even in clear sky, and better in clouds. The 2012 measurements were made using the parallel and Rayleigh elastic channels, and are examined in the context of local meteorological measurements including radiosonde temperature. Results from this campaign were encouraging, and an expanded investigation of the technique was carried out simultaneously with the old technique during the 2013 Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign. Calibrations and analyses which are currently underway will explicitly demonstrate the validity of the alternate depolarization ratio technique, and will quantify its advantages. Our plan is to combine the improved depolarization ratio measurements from the CRL with complementary, coincident measurements at Eureka. Comparisons with both ground-based instruments (e.g. millimetre cloud radar, microwave radiometer, several spectrometers) and satellite-borne instruments with overpasses of the high Arctic (in particular the ACE experiment) are possible at Eureka, and measurements by these instruments were also made during the 2012 and 2013 ACE validation campaigns.

McCullough, E. M.; Perro, C. W.; Sica, R. J.; Duck, T.; Walker, K. A.; Drummond, J. R.

2013-12-01

175

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is

D. D. Turner; David D

2005-01-01

176

The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as air quality and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data.

Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

2011-01-01

177

Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud radar  

E-print Network

Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud to analyze cloud vertical structure over this area by taking advantage of the first direct measurements of cloud vertical layers from the 95 GHz radar. Singlelayer, twolayer, and threelayer clouds account for 28

Li, Zhanqing

178

Retrieval of cloud optical parameters from space-based backscatter lidar data.  

PubMed

We present an approach to estimating the multiple-scattering (MS) contribution to lidar return signals from clouds recorded from space that enables us to describe in more detail the return formation at the depth where first orders of scattering dominate. Estimates made have enabled us to propose a method for correcting solutions of single-scattering lidar equations for the MS contribution. We also describe an algorithm for reconstructing the profiles of the cloud scattering coefficient and the optical thickness tau under conditions of a priori uncertainties. The approach proposed is illustrated with results for optical parameters of cirrus and stratiform clouds determined from return signals calculated by the Monte Carlo method as well as from return signals acquired with the American spaceborne lidar during the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE). PMID:18324166

Balin, Y S; Samoilova, S V; Krekova, M M; Winker, D M

1999-10-20

179

Comparison of lidar and stereo photogrammetric point clouds for change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud collection has significantly improved the ability to model the world in precise, fine, three dimensional detail. The objective of this research was to demonstrate accurate, foundational methods for fusing LiDAR data and photogrammetric imagery and their potential for change detection. The scope of the project was to investigate optical image-to-LiDAR registration methods, focusing on dissimilar image types including high resolution aerial frame and WorldView-1 satellite and LiDAR with varying point densities. An innovative optical image-to-LiDAR data registration process was established. Comparison of stereo imagery point cloud data to the LiDAR point cloud using a 90% confidence interval highlighted changes that included small scale (< 50cm), sensor dependent change and large scale, new home construction change.

Basgall, Paul L.; Kruse, Fred A.; Olsen, Richard C.

2014-06-01

180

Airborne validation of cirrus cloud properties derived from CALIPSO lidar measurements: Spatial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite was successfully launched in 2006 and has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study cloud and aerosol layers using range-resolved laser remote sensing. Dedicated validation flights were conducted using the airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) to validate the CALIPSO Level 1 and 2 data products. This paper presents results from coincident CALIPSO and CPL measurements of ice cloud spatial properties. Flight segment case studies are shown as well as statistics for all coincident measurements during the CALIPSO-CloudSat Validation Experiment (CC-VEX). CALIPSO layer detection algorithms for cirrus clouds are reliable in comparison with CPL, with best agreement occurring during nighttime coincident segments when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of both instruments is greatest. However, the two instruments disagree on ice cloud spatial properties in two distinct cases. CALIPSO experiences less sensitivity to optically thin cirrus due to lower SNR when compared to CPL data at identical spatial scales. The incorporation of extended spatial averaging in the CALIPSO layer detection algorithm succeeds in detecting the optically thin cirrus, but the averaging process occasionally results in spatial smearing, both horizontally and vertically, of broken cirrus clouds. The second disparity occurs because, in contrast to CPL, multiple scattering contributes significantly to CALIPSO lidar measurements of cirrus clouds. As a result, the CALIPSO signal penetrates deeper into opaque cirrus clouds, and in these cases CALIPSO will report lower apparent cloud base altitudes than CPL.

Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; McGill, Matthew J.; Hart, William D.; Rodier, Sharon; Kuehn, Ralph

2011-10-01

181

Fast Lidar and Radar Multiple-Scattering Models. Part II: Wide-Angle Scattering Using the Time-Dependent Two-Stream Approximation  

E-print Network

Fast Lidar and Radar Multiple-Scattering Models. Part II: Wide-Angle Scattering Using the Time (Manuscript received 5 October 2007, in final form 7 April 2008) ABSTRACT Spaceborne lidar returns from liquid backscattering event (in the case of lidar, accounting for small-angle forward scatterings on the way

Hogan, Robin

182

Aerosol and Cloud Interaction Observed From High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies utilizing satellite retrievals have shown a strong correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud cover. However, these retrievals from passive sensors are subject to many limitations, including cloud adjacency (or 3D) effects, possible cloud contamination, uncertainty in the AOD retrieval. Some of these limitations do not exist in High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) observations; for instance, HSRL observations are not a ected by cloud adjacency effects, are less prone to cloud contamination, and offer accurate aerosol property measurements (backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, backscatter Angstrom exponent,and aerosol optical depth) at a neospatial resolution (less than 100 m) in the vicinity of clouds. Hence, the HSRL provides an important dataset for studying aerosol and cloud interaction. In this study, we statistically analyze aircraft-based HSRL profiles according to their distance from the nearest cloud, assuring that all profile comparisons are subject to the same large-scale meteorological conditions. Our results indicate that AODs from HSRL are about 17% higher in the proximity of clouds (approximately 100 m) than far away from clouds (4.5 km), which is much smaller than the reported cloud 3D effect on AOD retrievals. The backscatter and extinction coefficients also systematically increase in the vicinity of clouds, which can be explained by aerosol swelling in the high relative humidity (RH) environment and/or aerosol growth through in cloud processing (albeit not conclusively). On the other hand, we do not observe a systematic trend in lidar ratio; we hypothesize that this is caused by the opposite effects of aerosol swelling and aerosol in-cloud processing on the lidar ratio. Finally, the observed backscatter Angstrom exponent (BAE) does not show a consistent trend because of the complicated relationship between BAE and RH. We demonstrate that BAE should not be used as a surrogate for Angstrom exponent, especially at high RH.

Su, Wenying; Schuster, Gregory L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.

2008-01-01

183

Airborne lidar/radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud parameters and their application to LOWTRAN radiance evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SRI has assembled an airborne lidar/radiometric instrumentation suite for mapping cirrus cloud distribution and analyzing cirrus cloud optical properties. Operation of upward viewing infrared radiometers from an airborne platform provides the optimum method of measuring high altitude cold cloud radiative properties with minimum interference from the thermal emission by the earth's surface and lower atmospheric components. Airborne installed sensors can also operate over large regional areas including water, urban, and mountain surfaces and above lower atmospheric convective clouds and haze layers. Currently available sensors installed on the SRI Queen Air aircraft are illustrated. Lidar and radiometric data records are processed for real time viewing on a color video screen. A cirrus cloud data example is presented as a black and white reproduction of a color display of data at the aircraft altitude of 12,000 ft, the 8 to 14 micron atmospheric radiation background was equivalent to a blackbody temperature of about -60 C and, therefore, the radiometer did not respond strongly to low density cirrus cloud concentrations detected by the lidar. Cloud blackbody temperatures (observed by radiometer) are shown plotted against midcloud temperatures (derived from lidar observed cloud heights and supporting temperature profiles) for data collected on 30 June and 28 July.

Uthe, Edward E.

1990-01-01

184

Lidar Observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Stratospheric Temperatures at the South Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) play a crucial role in the ozone chemistry of the polar regions. Current chemical models rely on the presence of these clouds to explain the rapid destruction of ozone observed each spring in Antarctica. We present lidar observations of PCS's and stratospheric temperatures at the South Pole throughout the Antarctic winter and spring of 1990.

Collins, Richard L.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Gardner, Chester S.

1992-01-01

185

The Polarization Lidar Technique for Cloud Research: A Review and Current Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the polarization lidar field over the past two decades is reviewed, and the current cloud-research capabilities and limitations are evaluated. Relying on fundamental scattering principles governing the interaction of polarized laser light with distinctly shaped hydrometers, this remote-sensing technique has contributed to our knowledge of the composition and structure of a variety of cloud types. For example,

Kenneth Sassen

1991-01-01

186

The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current uncertainties in the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. The CALIPSO satellite will use an active lidar together with passive instruments to provide vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds and their properties which w ill help address these uncertainties. CALIPSO will

David M. Winker; Jacques Pelon; M Patrick McCormick

187

Lidar depolarization measurements of ice-precipitating liquid cloud layers during the 2012 Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is still great uncertainty in the relative abundance of liquid and solid particles in polar clouds, particularly in winter. Measurements of these quantities are important for the correct estimate of the local radiation budget. Depolarization measurements by the CANDAC Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar (CRL) at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80N, 86W) are improving our understanding in this area. The 2012 Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign provided an opportunity to run the CRL depolarization channel nearly continuously (both day and night) throughout the polar sunrise season, measuring cloud particle phase with 7.5 m resolution in altitude and 1-minute time resolution in the troposphere. More than 10 co-located instruments, and additional detection channels of the CRL itself, make for a data set which is well-supported for intercomparison analyses. The CRL is a versatile instrument with eight detection channels, capable of measuring 532 nm (visible) and 355 nm (ultraviolet) elastic and nitrogen Raman backscatter, aerosol extinction, water vapour mixing ratio, tropospheric temperature profiles, as well as particulate properties including density and colour ratio. The 532 nm depolarization channel measures the extent to which the polarization state of the lidar beam is changed by scattering interactions with cloud particles in the sky, providing the ability to discern between ice crystals and liquid water droplets in polar clouds. This paper will focus on such measurements of early springtime clouds over Eureka. A nearly-continuous time series of depolarization was collected from late February through early April 2012 and provides a detailed case study of several distinct cloud features. Particular attention is paid to thin ice clouds of several varieties (both precipitating and non-precipitating, as well as some possible examples of mixed-phase clouds) and to ice-precipitating liquid cloud layers, examined in the context of local meteorological measurements. The high resolution of the CRL measurements is of importance for these cloud types as their morphology is variable on timescales of several minutes. Several examples in early March show layers < 40 m in vertical extent. There is the potential to expand this study to include data from the many other instruments at Eureka (e.g. millimeter cloud radar, microwave radiometer, several spectrometers), as well as satellite-borne instruments with overpasses of the high Arctic, in particular the ACE experiment.

McCullough, E. M.; Perro, C. W.; Nott, G. J.; Hopper, J.; Duck, T. J.; Sica, R. J.; Drummond, J. R.

2012-12-01

188

UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows to determine the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud anvil. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicates that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results illustrated in this study demonstrate that Raman lidars, like the one used in this study, can resolve the spatial and temporal scales required for the study of cirrus cloud microphysical processes and appears sensitive enough to reveal and quantify upper tropospheric humidification associated with cirrus cloud sublimation.

di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

2009-07-01

189

UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results illustrated in this study demonstrate that Raman lidars, like the one used in this study, can resolve the spatial and temporal scales required for the study of cirrus cloud microphysical processes and appear sensitive enough to reveal and quantify upper tropospheric humidification associated with cirrus cloud sublimation.

di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

2009-11-01

190

Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.50 N, 79.20 E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

S, Motty G.; Satyanarayana, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; Dhaman, Reji k.

2014-10-01

191

Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations  

SciTech Connect

The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

2014-10-15

192

Monostatic lidar/radar invisibility using coated spheres.  

PubMed

The Lorenz-Mie theory is revisited to explicitly include materials whose permeability is different from unity. The expansion coefficients of the scattered field are given for light scattering by both homogeneous and coated spheres. It is shown that the backscatter is exactly zero if the impedance of the spherical particles is equal to the intrinsic impedance of the surrounding medium. If spherical particles are sufficiently large, the zero backscatter can be explained as impedance matching using the asymptotic expression for the radar backscattering cross section. In the case of a coated sphere, the shell can be regarded as a cloak if the product of the thickness and the imaginary part of the refractive index of the outer shell is large. PMID:18542217

Zhai, Peng-Wang; You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Yang, Ping

2008-02-01

193

Three-dimensional lidar point-cloud visualization and analysis of coseismic deformation using LidarViewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize new point-cloud analysis techniques, and results obtained from lidar data collected from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake surface rupture, using LidarViewer, an open-source software platform developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Imaging of earthquake deformation with multi-resolution and multi-temporal lidar presents several challenges for visualization and analysis. Instruments, data resolution, and even the geodetic reference frame may change significantly between surveys. Grid-based techniques fail to adequately represent fully 3-D features, such as scarps and vegetation, and introduce aliasing artifacts that are especially troublesome when the deformation signal sought is less than the point spacing. Once obtained, the resulting dense field of 3-D vectors derived from differential lidar are difficult to visualize together with the terrain, limiting interpretation of these results. Points are the native, resolution-independent format of lidar, but working with massive point data sets can overwhelm system memory. LidarViewer overcomes these challenges using hierarchal data storage, view-dependent rendering, and an efficient, recursive data analysis framework. Pre-earthquake airborne lidar, collected as part of a regional survey, are very sparse (0.013 pts/m2) compared to the post-earthquake survey (9 pts/m2). A simple, \\chi2 minimization approach to matching these data sets takes advantage of this dramatic resolution difference to extract 3-D ground motion. We visualize the resulting displacement field in a 3-D environment using streamline-based approaches, colored by elevation change, and superimposed on the post-earthquake topography. This fused data product encourages exploration and assessment of the deformation signal and its relationship to landscape features, such as fault scarps, vegetation, and topographic relief. Terrestrial lidar scans collected within two weeks of the earthquake reveal the surface rupture at centimeter resolution. Virtual field measurements of offset features were collected using the full point-cloud in an immersive 3-D cave environment. Repeat measurements, both at a point and along strike, reveal substantial epistemic (interpretive) uncertainty that is generally greater than that reported by geologists working in the field after an earthquake. Combining observations from differential airborne and post-earthquake terrestrial lidar from the strike-slip Borrego fault reveals smooth coseismic slip gradients of 10-3, similar to strains measured from ground-surface deformation across strike. Higher strains are found along the Paso Superior normal fault surface rupture, due largely to distributed faulting and sagging of the hangingwall.

Oskin, M. E.; Kreylos, O.; Banesh, D.; Hamann, B.; Gold, P. O.; Elliott, A. J.; Hinojosa, A.; Kellogg, L. H.

2012-12-01

194

Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

1986-01-01

195

Analysis of experiments on high-level cloud sensing with a satellite radiometer and a ground-based polarization lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of joint analysis of the data of high-level cloud sensing with a polarization lidar and satellite radiometer MODIS. The possibility of detection from space of cirrus clouds with preferred orientation of ice crystals is discussed.

Samokhvalov, I. V.; Belov, V. V.; Kaul, B. V.; Bryukhanova, V. V.; Nasonov, S. V.; Bryukhanov, I. D.; Tarasenkov, M. V.

2014-11-01

196

Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The micropulse lidar (MPL) is a ground-based optical remote sensing system designed primarily to determine the altitude of clouds overhead. The physical principle is the same as for radar. Pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is infered. Besides real-time detection of clouds, post-processing of the lidar return can also characterize the extent and properties of aerosol or other particle-laden regions.

Mendoza, A; Flynn, C

2006-05-01

197

Active probing of cloud thickness and optical depth using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60{sup o} full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Section 2 covers the up-to-date evolution of the nighttime WAIL instrument at LANL. Section 3 reports our progress towards daytime capability for WAIL, an important extension to full diurnal cycle monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter. Section 4 describes briefly how the important cloud properties can be inferred from WAIL signals.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

198

Influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by spaceborne elastic scattering lidar.  

PubMed

The influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by realistic spaceborne lidar was examined by computer simulations. The reflected solar radiations, which contaminate the daytime return signals of lidar operations, were strictly and explicitly estimated by accurate radiative transfer calculations. It was found that the model multilayer cirrus clouds and the boundary layer aerosols could be observed during the daytime and the nighttime with only a few laser shots. However, high background noise and noise current make it difficult to observe volcanic aerosols in middle and upper atmospheric layers. Optimal combinations of the laser power and receiver field of view are proposed to compensate for the negative influence that is due to these noises. For the computer simulations, we used a realistic set of lidar parameters similar to the Experimental Lidar in-Space Equipment of the National Space Development Agency of Japan. PMID:18324021

Nakajima, T Y; Imai, T; Uchino, O; Nagai, T

1999-08-20

199

Electric Field Magnitude and Radar Reflectivity as a Function of Distance from Cloud Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of analyses of data collected during a field investigation of thunderstorm anvil and debris clouds are reported. Statistics of the magnitude of the electric field are determined as a function of distance from cloud edge. Statistics of radar reflectivity near cloud edge are also determined. Both analyses use in-situ airborne field mill and cloud physics data coupled with ground-based radar measurements obtained in east-central Florida during the summer convective season. Electric fields outside of anvil and debris clouds averaged less than 3 kV/m. The average radar reflectivity at the cloud edge ranged between 0 and 5 dBZ.

Ward, Jennifer G.; Merceret, Francis J.

2004-01-01

200

BUILDING ROOF SEGMENTATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commission III\\/ThS-7 ABSTRACT: This paper presents an approach to creating a polyhedral model of building roof from LiDAR point clouds using clustering techniques. A building point cloud is first separated into planar and breakline sections using the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix in a small neighbourhood. The planar components from the point cloud are then grouped into small patches containing

Aparajithan Sampath; Jie Shan

201

Autonomous, Full-Time Cloud Profiling at Arm Sites with Micro Pulse Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the early 1990's technology advances permit ground based lidar to operate full time and profile all significant aerosol and cloud structure of the atmosphere up to the limit of signal attenuation. These systems are known as Micro Pulse Lidars (MPL), as referenced by Spinhirne (1993), and were first in operation at DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites. The objective of the ARM program is to improve the predictability of climate change, particularly as it relates to cloud-climate feedback. The fundamental application of the MPL systems is towards the detection of all significant hydrometeor layers, to the limit of signal attenuation. The heating and cooling of the atmosphere are effected by the distribution and characteristics of clouds and aerosol concentration. Aerosol and cloud retrievals in several important areas can only be adequately obtained with active remote sensing by lidar. For cloud cover, the height and related emissivity of thin clouds and the distribution of base height for all clouds are basic parameters for the surface radiation budget, and lidar is essetial for accurate measurements. The ARM MPL observing network represents the first long-term, global lidar study known within the community. MPL systems are now operational at four ARM sites. A six year data set has been obtained at the original Oklahoma site, and there are several years of observations at tropical and artic sites. Observational results include cloud base height distributions and aerosol profiles. These expanding data sets offer a significant new resource for cloud, aerosol and atmospheric radiation analysis. The nature of the data sets, data processing algorithms, derived parameters and application results are presented.

Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Scott, V. Stanley; Flynn, Connor J.

2000-01-01

202

Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Height profiles of the extinction and the backscatter coefficients in cirrus clouds are determined independently from elastic- and inelastic- (Raman) backscatter signals. An extended error analysis is given. Examples covering the measured range of extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) in ice clouds are presented. Lidar ratios between 5 and 15 sr are usually found. A strong variation between 2 and 20

Albert Ansmann; Ulla Wandinger; Maren Riebesell; Claus Weitkamp; Walfried Michaelis

1992-01-01

203

Breakthrough in multichannel laser-radar technology providing thousands of high-sensitive lidar receivers on a chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new proved multi-channel laser-radar technology which enables several thousands of high-sensitive laser-radar or lidar receivers to be integrated on a fingernail-sized CMOS-chip for fast 3D-perception and, furthermore, to explain the huge number of resulting applications and to estimate the desirable scientific, economic and society impacts. These extraordinary capabilities rely on the

Rudolf M. Schwarte

2004-01-01

204

A 95 GHz airborne cloud radar: Statistics of cloud reflectivity and analysis of beam-filling errors for a proposed spaceborn cloud radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) at the University of Massachusetts, in collaboration with The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed a new radar designed to facilitate measurements of the radiative properties of clouds. Details of this new design are described with particular emphasis on improvements from previous systems. This radar system was used to collect cloud data during three experiment campaigns. During these experiments, reflectivity data from all prevalent cloud types were collected over a wide range of geographical locations. The observations were then used to examine the reflectivity vs. altitude and temperature characteristics and layer structure for various types of cloud complexes. To increase the representation of tropical cirrus clouds in the composite data set, the airborne data was supplemented with data from MCTEX collected by the UMass CPRS radar. All observations were classified into four classes of clouds and histograms of altitude and temperature vs. reflectivity were used to demonstrate the reflectivity characteristics of various clouds types. Statistics of layer base and top altitudes, thickness and number of layers were also computed. Also, the relationship between cirrus cloud thickness, reflectivity and ice water path (IWP) is examined. The data sets from the four experiments were then used to address performance issues for a spaceborne radar. The problem of cloud detectability is discussed and an analysis of the ice water content (IWC) estimation error resulting from spatial inhomogeneity is presented. The fraction of clouds thinner than one range gate of the CloudSat radar was found to be 14% for all data sets combined. The data sets are used to simulate satellite radar pixels and the distributions of errors in IWC estimates due to inhomogeneity are calculated. On average, 40% of the pixels were partially filled and the relative IWC error was 24%. The distribution of the relative errors vs. IWC values indicated that the largest relative error occurred at vary small values of IWC and the mean error for all experiments was only 15% for IWC values larger than 10 -3 gm3.

Sadowy, Gregory A.

1999-11-01

205

Coherent lidar imaging of dust clouds: waveform comparison with the poly-phase (P4) modulation waveform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dust or aerosol cloud represents a convenient target to examine the capabilities of range-resolved Doppler and intensity (RRDI) or inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAR) imaging coherent laser radar, known as coherent "lidar" for optically thin targets. The poly-phase P4 ladar waveform and its RRDI images are described and compared with previous pulse-burst, linear-FM chirp pulse-compression, pseudo-random phase modulation waveforms, and several other waveforms which have not been utilized to date. A "dust cloud" has very many independently moving point scatterers with velocities that are approximately Gaussian randomly distributed in x,y,z with standard deviations of about 10% of the mean wind + aerosol velocity. This is contrary to a hard-target where the point scatterers are rigidly attached and moving together. The dust cloud produced speckle effects for the various ladar waveforms are compared. In addition, a reference set of four corner-cube retro-reflectors within the dust cloud further illustrates the differences in the various waveform capabilities and resolution.

Youmans, Douglas G.

2008-04-01

206

Automatic extraction of salient geometric entities from LIDAR point clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a modularized tool for the processing of LIDAR data based on the analysis of neighbor relationships between LIDAR points with the goal to extract planes, lines, and points in 3D. The tool's functionalities will be exemplified by the application of reconstructing building roofs. Detecting buildings within digital surface models is one further step to enhance the results

Stefan Auer; Stefan Hinz

2007-01-01

207

Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p << r). Once the high-resolution surface response has thus become available, the profile of surface clutter can be accurately estimated by use of a conventional maximum-correlation scheme: A translated and scaled version of the high-resolution surface response is fitted to the observed low-resolution profile. The translation and scaling factors that optimize the fit in a maximum-correlation sense represent (1) the true position of the surface relative to the sampled surface peak and (2) the magnitude of the surface backscatter. The performance of this algorithm has been tested on CloudSat data acquired over an ocean surface. A preliminary analysis of the test data showed a surface-clutter-rejection ratio over flat surfaces of >10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the observed profile of reflectivity (see CloudSat product documentation for details and performance at http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/ dataSpecs.php?prodid=1).

Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood

2008-01-01

208

Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous wind measurements in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM with Na wind/temperature lidar and meteor radar have been performed and compared. 20 nights of hourly data recorded with these two instruments at two layers around 86 and 93km altitude are compared for both zonal and meridional wind components. The mean values are found to have no statistically significant differences. The correlation coefficients vary between 0.63 and 0.70, indicating that the two sets of measurements are broadly consistent. When comparing the averaged variations over the night, the two measurements are highly correlated, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.84 to 0.95. It indicates that the strong tidal variation is well captured by both instruments. Differences are however significant at individual hours, which are believed to be mainly due to the fact that the meteor radar wind is an average over the entire sky while the lidar measures wind within a volume about 100m in diameter.

Liu, Alan Z.; Hocking, Wayne K.; Franke, Steven J.; Thayaparan, T.

2002-01-01

209

Comparison of Na Lidar and Meteor Radar Wind Measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous wind measurements in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM with Na wind/temperature lidar and meteor radar have been performed and compared. 20 nights of hourly data recorded with these two instruments at two layers around 86 and 93~km altitude are compared for both zonal and meridional wind components. The mean values are found to have no statistically significant differences. The correlation coefficients vary between 0.63 and 0.70, indicating that the two sets of measurements are broadly consistent. When comparing the averaged variations over the night, the two measurements are highly correlated, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.84 to 0.95. It indicates the strong tidal variation is well captured by both instruments. Differences are however significant at individual hours, which are believed to be mainly due to the fact that the radar wind is an average over the entire sky while the lidar measures wind within a volume about 100~m in diameter.

Liu, A. Z.; Hocking, W. K.; Franke, S. J.; Thayaparan, T.

2001-05-01

210

Process virtualization of large-scale lidar data in a cloud computing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light detection and ranging (lidar) technologies have proven to be the most powerful tools to collect, within a short time, three-dimensional (3-D) point clouds with high-density, high-accuracy and significantly detailed surface information pertaining to terrain and objects. However, in terms of feature extraction and 3-D reconstruction in a computer-aided drawing (CAD) format, most of the existing stand-alone lidar data processing software packages are unable to process a large volume of lidar data in an effective and efficient fashion. To break this technical bottleneck, through the design of a Condor-based process virtualization platform, we presented in this paper a novel strategy that uses network-related computational resources to process, manage, and distribute vast quantities of lidar data in a cloud computing environment. Three extensive experiments with and without a cloud computing environment were compared. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed process virtualization approach is promisingly applicable and effective in the management of large-scale lidar point clouds.

Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Zhong, Liang; Yongtao, Yu; Chapman, Michael

2013-10-01

211

On the Feasibility of Precisely Measuring the Properties of a Precipitating Cloud with a Weather Radar  

E-print Network

In this paper the results of an investigation are presented that are concerned with the feasibility of employing a weather radar to make precise measurements of the properties of a precipitating cloud. A schematic cloud is proposed as a model...

Runnels, R.C.

212

Aerosols and cirrus clouds over Hanoi, Vietnam: comparison between satellite products and results derived from ground-based lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present examples of aerosol and Cirrus cloud altitude profiles over Hanoi, Vietnam, measured with the ground LIDAR setup of the Institute of Physics. Comparisons are made to LIDAR data collected by the Calipso satellite of the NASA A-Train during its orbits over the Hanoi area. The height distributions for both surface aerosols and Cirrus clouds derived from ground and satellite observations are generally consistent, with distributions between 2km-3km, and 8km-15km respectively for aerosols and Cirrus clouds. Cirrus cloud locations inferred from an analysis of limb spectral radiances obtained by the SCIAMACHY satellite are also consistent with the LIDAR data.

Dothe, H.; Dinh, Trung van; Bui, Hai van; Gruninger, J. H.

2014-11-01

213

How well do operational models represent drizzle and light rain when compared with radar and lidar observations?  

E-print Network

How well do operational models represent drizzle and light rain when compared with radar and lidar reaching the ground. However, for rain rates of 0.03 to 1 mm hr-1 the evaporation rate is still too low; we 2007; ABSTRACT Both climate and operational forecast models have difficulty representing the drizzle

Reading, University of

214

Classification of particle effective shape ratios in cirrus clouds based on the lidar depolarization ratio.  

PubMed

A shape classification technique for cirrus clouds that could be applied to future spaceborne lidars is presented. A ray-tracing code has been developed to simulate backscattered and depolarized lidar signals from cirrus clouds made of hexagonal-based crystals with various compositions and optical depth, taking into account multiple scattering. This code was used first to study the sensitivity of the linear depolarization rate to cloud optical and microphysical properties, then to classify particle shapes in cirrus clouds based on depolarization ratio measurements. As an example this technique has been applied to lidar measurements from 15 mid-latitude cirrus cloud cases taken in Palaiseau, France. Results show a majority of near-unity shape ratios as well as a strong correlation between shape ratios and temperature: The lowest temperatures lead to high shape ratios. The application of this technique to space-borne measurements would allow a large-scale classification of shape ratios in cirrus clouds, leading to better knowledge of the vertical variability of shapes, their dependence on temperature, and the formation processes of clouds. PMID:12148751

Noel, Vincent; Chepfer, Helene; Ledanois, Guy; Delaval, Arnaud; Flamant, Pierre H

2002-07-20

215

The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data. Input from the ICAP community is desired to help plan our NRT mission goals and interactions with ICAP forecasters.

Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

2012-01-01

216

Simulation of Lidar Return Signals Associated with Water Clouds  

E-print Network

We revisited an empirical relationship between the integrated volume depolar- ization ratio, oacc, and the effective multiple scattering factor, -n, on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of spaceborne lidar backscatter associated with homogeneous...

Lu, Jianxu

2010-01-14

217

STUDY OF CLOUD LIFETIME EFFECTS USING THE SGP HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTED RADAR NETWORK: PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS  

E-print Network

STUDY OF CLOUD LIFETIME EFFECTS USING THE SGP HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTED RADAR NETWORK: PRELIMINARY-dimensional morphology and life cycle of clouds. Detailing key cloud processes as they transit from the formation stage to precipitation onset and cloud dissipation is critical towards establishing uncertainties in climate models

218

Comparison of winds, waves, and turbulence as observed by airborne lidar, ground-based radars, and instrumented tower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On June 29, 1981, two ground-based Doppler radars, an airborne Doppler optical radar (lidar), an instrumented tower, and a rawinsonde were employed to collect wind data in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in central Oklahoma. The main objectives of this experiment were related to a comparison of wind estimates and the visualization of the three-dimensional eddy structure in the convective atmospheric boundary layer. Discrepancies in the mean wind and wind profile detected by the different sensing systems were explained as being caused by a Schuler resonance of the aircraft's inertial navigation system, which caused an erroneous component of the aircraft's ground-relative velocity vector to be subtracted from the lidar-measured radial velocities. It is concluded that NASA's airborne Doppler optical radar system is capable of measuring wind fields in clear air on a smaller scale than was previously available with fixed remote sensors.

Eilts, M. D.; Doviak, R. J.; Sundara-Rajan, A.

1984-01-01

219

Development of a scanning micro-pulse lidar for aerosol and cloud detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scanning micro-pulse lidar (MPL) was developed by Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation, Shandong Academy of Sciences, which can be used for routine observations of optical properties, temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud in the lower troposphere. In addition to the optical system design, the design of 3 dimensional (3-D) scanning system controlled by servo motors is analyzed, including servo motor selection and mechanical design. Through the measurements in Qingdao, it is proved that 3-D scanning system can control the lidar azimuth/elevation scanning with high precision. The lidar has good performance and can provide time-height indication (THI), range-height indication (RHI) and plane-position indication (PPI) of lidar signals which can well reflect the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol.

Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Qu, Junle; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Lv, Bin; Kabanov, V. V.

2014-11-01

220

El Chichon eruption cloud - Comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sun photometer and lidar backscatter measurements of the El Chichon volcanic cloud were obtained during an airborne latitude survey. The observations were collected between 46 deg N and 46 deg S from Oct. 19-Nov. 7, 1982. Comparisons between these data sets have been performed. An aerosol optical model was developed for the conversion of the lidar measurements to optical thickness values using numerical aerosol size distribution data and index of refraction information collected with coordinated dustsonde balloon flights. The derived lidar optical thickness values were found to agree with the sun photometer optical thickness values within measurement uncertainties. The lidar derived values ranged from 0.16 at the equator to 0.03 at 30 deg S latitude. Peak values were concentrated between 35 deg N and 10 deg S.

Swissler, T. J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Spinhirne, J. D.

1983-01-01

221

The problem of regime summaries of the data from radar observations. [for cloud system identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peculiarities of the radar information about clouds are examined in comparison with visual data. An objective radar classification is presented and the relation of it to the meteorological classification is shown. The advisability of storage and summarization of the primary radar data for regime purposes is substantiated.

Divinskaya, B. S.; Salman, Y. M.

1975-01-01

222

Second annual progress report of the Millimeter Wave Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS)  

SciTech Connect

The Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) is a single antenna, two frequency (33 GHz and 95 GHz) polarimetric radar which is currently under the development at the University of Massachusetts (UMASS). This system will be capable of making four dimensional Doppler and polarimetric measurements of clouds. This report gives details about the status of the various subsystems under development and discusses current research activities.

Pazmany, A.L.; Sekelsky, S.M.; McIntosh, R.E.

1992-06-07

223

Microphysical characterization of microwave Radar reflectivity due to volcanic ash clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based microwave radar systems can have a valuable role in volcanic ash cloud monitoring as evidenced by available radar imagery. Their use for ash cloud detection and quantitative retrieval has been so far not fully investigated. In order to do this, a forward electromagnetic model is set up and examined taking into account various operating frequencies such as S-, C-,

Frank Silvio Marzano; Gianfranco Vulpiani; William I. Rose

2006-01-01

224

Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors is that they inherently have narrow dynamic ranges. However, by using photon-counting detectors along with a high-repetition rate laser, it is possible to obtain wide dynamic range through accumulation of counts over many pulses.

McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

2008-01-01

225

Dual wavelength lidar observation of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds during the ALBATROSS 1996 campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual wavelength aerosol lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds were performed during the ALBATROSS 1996 campaign aboard the research vessel ``POLARSTERN'' on the Atlantic ocean in October-November 1996. On the basis of 57 hours of night-time observations between 23.5N and 23.5S we find in 72% of the altitude profiles indications of the presence of cirrus cloud layers. This percentage

Gcorg Beyerle; H.-J. Schfer; Roland Neuber; Otto Schrems; I. S. McDermid

1998-01-01

226

DC-8 scanning lidar characterization of aircraft contrails and cirrus clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Subsonic Assessment (SASS) element of the overall Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) was initiated by NASA to assess the atmospheric impact of subsonic aircraft. SRI was awarded a project to develop and test a scanning backscatter lidar for installation on the NASA DC-8 (year 1), participate in the Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program (year 2), and conduct a comprehensive analysis of field data (year 3). A scanning mirror pod attached to the DC-8 aircraft provides for scanning lidar observations ahead of the DC-8 and fixed-angle upward or downward observations. The lidar system installed within the DC-8 transmits 275 MJ at 1.06 gm wavelength or about 130 mJ at 1.06 and 0.53 gm simultaneously. Range-resolved aerosol backscatter is displayed in real time in terms of cloud/contrail spatial distributions. The objectives of the project are to map contrail/cloud vertical distributions ahead of DC-8; provide DC-8 guidance into enhanced scattering layers; document DC-8 flight path intersection of contrail and cloud geometries (in-situ measurement positions relative to cloud/contrail shape and an extension of in-situ measurements into the vertical -- integrated contrail/cloud properties); analyze contrail/cloud radiative properties with LIRAD (combined lidar and radiometry) technique; evaluate mean particle sizes of aircraft emissions from two-wavelength observations; study contrail/cloud interactions, diffusion, and mass decay/growth; and make observations in the near-field of aircraft engine emissions. The scanning mirror pod may also provide a scanning capability for other remote sensing instruments.

Nielsen, Norman B.; Uthe, Edward E. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

227

Arctic polar stratospheric cloud measurements by means of a four wavelength depolarization lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar has been operated during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) in Sodankyl, in the Finnish Arctic. The lidar performed measurements during the months of December 1991, January, February and March 1992. The Finnish Meteorological Institute during the same period launched regularly three Radiosondes per day, and three Ozone sondes per week. Both Mt. Pinatubo aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Clouds were measured. The use of four wavelengths, respectively at 355 nm, 532 nm , 750 nm, and 850 nm permits an inversion of the lidar data to determine aerosol particle size. The depolarization technique permits the identification of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Frequent correlation between Ozone minima and peaks in the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol maxima were detected. Measurements were carried out both within and outside the Polar Vortex.

Stefanutti, L.; Castagnoli, F.; Delguasta, M.; Flesia, C.; Godin, S.; Kolenda, J.; Kneipp, H.; Kyro, Esko; Matthey, R.; Morandi, M.

1994-01-01

228

Airborne lidar observation of mountain-wave-induced polar stratospheric clouds during EASOE  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of airborne lidar measurements of aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) above Kiruna. Polarization measurements allow the distinction between volcanic aerosols, and PSC. They observed PSC formations near Kiruna on December 11, 1991, extending over 100's of km west and east.

Godin, S.; Megie, G.; David, C.; Haner, D. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Flesia, C.; Emery, Y. (Observatoire de Neuchaetel (Switzerland))

1994-06-22

229

Calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel using water phase and cirrus clouds.  

PubMed

Calibration is essential to derive aerosol backscatter coefficients from elastic scattering lidar. Unlike the visible UV wavelengths where calibration is based on a molecular reference, calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel requires other approaches, which depend on various assumptions. In this paper, we analyze two independent calibration methods which use (i) low-altitude water phase clouds and (ii) high cirrus clouds. In particular, we show that to achieve optimal performance, aerosol attenuation below the cloud base and cloud multiple scattering must be accounted for. When all important processes are considered, we find that these two independent methods can provide a consistent calibration constant with relative differences less than 15%. We apply these calibration techniques to demonstrate the stability of our lidar on a monthly scale, along with a natural reduction of the lidar efficiency on an annual scale. Furthermore, our calibration procedure allows us to derive consistent aerosol backscatter coefficients and angstrom coefficient profiles (532-1064 nm) along with column extinction-to-backscatter ratios which are in good agreement with sky radiometer inversions. PMID:21772382

Wu, Yonghua; Gan, Chuen Meei; Cordero, Lina; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

2011-07-20

230

Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere: Polar stratospheric clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere and their optical characteristics were measured with a multi-wavelength airborne lidar system as part of the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. PSCs were observed on 10 flights between January 6 and February 2, 1989, into the polar vortex. The PSCs were found in the 14-27 km altitude range in regions

E. V. Browell; S. Ismail; A. F. Carter; N. S. Higdon; C. F. Butler; P. A. Robinette; O. B. Toon; M. R. Schoeberl; A. F. Tuck

1990-01-01

231

COMPARISON OF AMV CLOUD TOP PRESSURE DERIVED FROM MSG WITH SPACE BASED LIDAR OBSERVATIONS (CALIPSO)  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF AMV CLOUD TOP PRESSURE DERIVED FROM MSG WITH SPACE BASED LIDAR OBSERVATIONS (CALIPSO all CTHs from MSG (CLA box and AMV) and CALIOP. However, the AMV pressure allocation is systematically of the HA methods to several atmospheric parameters. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) provides many new

Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

232

Lidar measurement of winter time cirrus clouds at a tropical coastal station in Trivandrum, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cirrus clouds which are global in nature have been identified as one of the important constituents if the atmosphere. They play a dual role in the earth radiation budget increasing the Earth's albedo while simultaneously decreasing the emission of Infrared radiation to space. Tropical cirrus clouds come in a variety of forms ranging from optically thick anvil cirrus closely associated with deep convection to optically thin cirrus layers frequently observed near the tropopause. For better understanding of the formation, subsistence and dissipation of cirrus clouds extended studies are necessary. From earlier investigations it is realized that the climatology of cirrus clouds is distinctly different at the low latitude coastal station at the west coast of India. Some of the important characteristics of the cirrus clouds like time history of formation and dissipation, geometrical and optical properties during the winter time have been investigated using the ground based Mutiwavelength Lidar system designed and developed in house at the Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum, India. The lidar provides a vertical resolution of 3.75m by making use of the modified receiver electronics of the MWL system. The high resolution measurements have facilitated the study of the fine internal structure, optical depth extinction coefficient and other parameters of importance of cirrus clouds. The present paper describes lidar system and the results obtained over a period of one year covering all the seasons and the peculiar characteristics of the cirrus during winter time at this coastal station.

Satyanarayana, Malladi; Veerabuthiran, Sangaipillai; Sreeja, Rajappan; Presennakumar, Bhargavan; Muraleedharen Nair, Sivarama Pillai; Ramakrishna Rao, Duggirala; Pillai Mohankumar, Santhibhavan Vasudevan

2006-12-01

233

New Aerosol and Cloud Products from the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) is a federated network of Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems designed to measure aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously, day and night, over long time periods required to contribute to climate change studies and provide ground validation for models and satellite sensors in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). At present, there are thirteen permanent sites worldwide, and five more to be completed soon. Numerous temporary sites have been deployed in support of various field campaigns since the start of MPLNET in 2000. Most MPLNET sites are co-located with sites in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) to provide both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud data. Here we present a collection of new MPLNET aerosol and cloud products that are available. Scene classification is now provided continuously, including identification of multiple cloud layer heights (base and top), planetary boundary layer height, and the height of the highest aerosol layer. Our existing aerosol products have been enhanced to include continuous aerosol extinction profiles throughout the day (previously only available at AERONET observation times). PBL heights are generated using a wavelet technique. Cloud layer heights and subsequent optical depths are now provided to the limit of detection capability. New thick cloud optical depths in excess of 10 are also provided using a novel technique based on the lidar background signal. We will present an overview of the new products and methodology as well as data examples from several diverse sites in our network.

Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Belcher, L.; Berkoff, T. A.; Stewart, S. A.; Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Sawyer, V.

2007-12-01

234

ER-2 lidar measurements of stratocumulus cloud top structure on July 14, 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 14, 1987 NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft flew a mission to measure the structure of stratocumulus clouds off the coast of California. A flight pattern was executed so that the two-dimensional variability of the clouds could be detected. The technique of analysis of the lidar data to measure cloud tops follows. First each signal is searched for its maximum in return strength. This maximum is caused by scattering of the laser light off cloud particles or from the ocean surface. Next the variance of the signal return above the level of maximum backscatter is determined. Cloud top is assigned to a level (above the level of maximum backscatter) where the backscatter exceeds the average variance. This two-step process is necessary because the level of maximum backscatter does not correspond to the cloud top. Ocean surface returns are easily separated from cloud returns in this process, described in detail by Boers, Spinhirne, and Hart (1988). Analysis of the data so far has shown that there were very few breaks in the clouds. Furthermore the layer top was very flat with local oscillations not exceeding 30 m. Such small cloud top variations are still well within the range of detectability, because the precision of this technique of cloud top detection has previously been established to be 13 to 15 m. Data are presently being analyzed to compute cloud top distributions and fractional cloudiness. The aim of this research is to relate the fractional cloudiness to the mean thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer. Researchers plan to compute spectral scales of the cloud top variability in two dimensions to determine the orientation of the clouds with respect to the mean wind. Furthermore the lidar derived cloud top distribution will be used in the computation of the thermodynamic and radiation budget of the boundary layer.

Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

1990-01-01

235

Lidar Observations of Tropical High-altitude Cirrus Clouds: Results form Dual Wavelength Raman Lidar Measurements During the ALBATROSS Campaign 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from dual wavelength Raman Lidar Observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds are reported. Based on 107 hours of night-time measurements cirrus cloud were present in more than 50% of the observations at latitudes between 23.5 degress S and 23.5 degrees N and altitudes between 11 and 16km.

Neuber, R.; Wegener, Alfred; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

1997-01-01

236

mESY LIDAR - a new cost-effective, versatile and powerful lidar configuration for tropospheric aerosols, clouds and water vapor investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of remote sensing tools development for the monitoring of relevant atmospheric parameters triggering crucial processes in troposphere this work is presenting a new mini lidar system i.e mESY LIDAR. The basic configuration of this lidar is dedicated for tropospheric (100m to 12-15 Km ASL) aerosols and clouds high temporal (minutes) and spatial resolution (meters) investigation. Based on powerful Nd:YAG 30 Hz pulsed laser (35 mJ at 355 nm, 100 mJ at 532 nm, 200 mJ at 1064 nm), a 16" Newtonian telescope and a new easy up-gradable opto-mechanics the mESY LIDAR is a cost-effective and powerful equipment useful both for atmospherically researches and didactic - educational - lidar training activities also. The basic configuration (two detection channels) may be used either for depolarization studies (at 532, 355 or 1064nm) or the choice of two elastic and is ideal for continuous monitoring of planetary boundary layer dynamic i.e. PBL. The Raman Nitrogen at 387 nm and water vapor channels at 408 nm may be upgraded easily. The design of this lidar, developed within the research partnership between Switzerland and Romanian academic - private partnership institutions, is the standard lidar proposed for ROLINET (ROmanian LIdar NETwork) project with the final aim to be integrated in the EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork) in 2010.

Cazacu, M. M.; Ristori, P.; Tudose, O.; Balanici, A.; Nicolae, D.; Ristici, V.; Balin, D.; Balin, I.

2009-04-01

237

Depolarization ratio and attenuated backscatter for nine cloud types: analyses based on collocated CALIPSO lidar and MODIS measurements.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the relationship between lidar backscatter and the corresponding depolarization ratio for nine types of cloud systems. The data used in this study are the lidar returns measured by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite and the collocated cloud products derived from the observations made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua satellite. Specifically, the operational MODIS cloud optical thickness and cloud-top pressure products are used to classify cloud types on the basis of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud classification scheme. While the CALIPSO observations provide information for up to 10 cloud layers, in the present study only the uppermost clouds are considered. The layer-averaged attenuated backscatter (gamma') and layer-averaged depolarization ratio (delta) from the CALIPSO measurements show both water- and ice-phase features for global cirrus, cirrostratus, and deep convective cloud classes. Furthermore, we screen both the MODIS and CALIPSO data to eliminate cases in which CALIPSO detected two- or multi-layered clouds. It is shown that low gamma' values corresponding to uppermost thin clouds are largely eliminated in the CALIPSO delta-gamma' relationship for single-layered clouds. For mid-latitude and polar regions corresponding, respectively, to latitude belts 30 degrees -60 degrees and 60 degrees -90 degrees in both the hemispheres, a mixture of water and ice is also observed in the case of the altostratus class. MODIS cloud phase flags are also used to screen ice clouds. The resultant water clouds flagged by the MODIS algorithm show only water phase feature in the delta-gamma' relation observed by CALIOP; however, in the case of the ice clouds flagged by the MODIS algorithm, the co-existence of ice- and water-phase clouds is still observed in the CALIPSO delta-gamma' relationship. PMID:18542490

Cho, Hyoun-Myoung; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Nasiri, Shaima L; Hu, Yongxiang; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Charles; Winker, David

2008-03-17

238

An approach to DSM refinement with fusion of airborne lidar point cloud data and optical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The airborne LiDAR system, which usually integrated with optical camera, is an efficient way of acquiring 3D geographic information and enjoys widely application in building DSM. However, when the airborne LiDAR is used in urban area, where there are a large amount of tall buildings, the characteristic points of buildings are seldom measured and the measured points are frequently too sparse to create precise building models. In this paper, an approach to DSM refining DSM in urban area with fusion of airborne LiDAR point cloud data and optical imagery is put forward. Firstly, the geometric relationship between the airborne LiDAR point and the correspondent pixel on the image synchronously taken by optical camera is analyzed. The relative position and attitude parameters between the laser rangefinder and the camera are determined in the process of alignment and calibration. Secondly, the building roof edges on the optical image are extracted by edge detection. By tracing the building roof edges, the contours of building roofs in vector format are acquired and the characteristic points of buildings are further extracted. Thirdly, all the LiDAR measured points on the roof of specific building are separated from the point cloud data by judging the geometric relation between LiDAR measured points and the building outline, which is represented by a polygon, according to their plane coordinates. Finally, the DSM refinement for buildings can be implemented. All pixels representing the building roof are given heights as same as that of nearer LiDAR point inside the polygon. Ortho-photo map and virtual building models of urban area with higher quality can be reached with the refined DSM and optical images.

Hao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Weiqiang; Jiang, Lixing

2013-05-01

239

Towards 4d Virtual City Reconstruction from LIDAR Point Cloud Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a joint approach on virtual city reconstruction and dynamic scene analysis based on point cloud sequences of a single car-mounted Rotating Multi-Beam (RMB) Lidar sensor. The aim of the addressed work is to create 4D spatio-temporal models of large dynamic urban scenes containing various moving and static objects. Standalone RMB Lidar devices have been frequently applied in robot navigation tasks and proved to be efficient in moving object detection and recognition. However, they have not been widely exploited yet for geometric approximation of ground surfaces and building facades due to the sparseness and inhomogeneous density of the individual point cloud scans. In our approach we propose an automatic registration method of the consecutive scans without any additional sensor information such as IMU, and introduce a process for simultaneously extracting reconstructed surfaces, motion information and objects from the registered dense point cloud completed with point time stamp information.

Jzsa, O.; Brcs, A.; Benedek, C.

2013-05-01

240

NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Clouds During IHOP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U.S. The SRL acquired measurements of water vapor, aerosols, cloud liquid and ice water, and temperature for more than 200 hours during IHOP. Here we report on the SRL water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements with particular emphasis being given to the measurements of June 19-20, 2002, which are motivating cirrus cloud model comparison studies.

Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joe; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Rei-Fong; Evans, Keith; Veselovskii, Igor

2004-01-01

241

Atmospheric Aerosol Distribution and Cloud Properties using Raman Lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric aerosol measurements are essential to better understand their role as a feedback process in modifying the Earth's radiation budget as well as their influence on human health. The PSU Raman lidars have been used for a number of years, in different locations, to measure the profiles of molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, water vapor and the rotational Raman scatter (the

Sachin J. Verghese; C. Russell Philbrick

242

Advances in Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds and Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultraviolet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground- based, upward-looking tests. RASL is an airborne Raman Lidar system designed to measure water vapor mixing ratio, and aerosol backscatter/extinction/depolarization. It also possesses the capability to make experimental measurements of cloud liquid water and carbon dioxide. It is being prepared for first flight tests during the summer of 2006. With the newly developed filters installed in RASL, measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction- to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1-minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. Downward-looking from an airborne RASL should possess the same measurement statistics with approximately a factor of 5 - 10 decrease in averaging time. A description of the technology improvements are provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Rush, Kurt; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Comer, Joseph

2006-01-01

243

Cloud model-based simulation of spaceborne radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of observations from potential spaceborne radars are made based on storm structure generated from the three-dimensional (3D) Goddard cumulus ensemble model simulation of an intense overland convective system. Five frequencies of 3, 10, 14, 35, and 95 GHz are discussed, but the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar sensor frequency (14 GHz) is the focus of this study. Radar reflectives and their attenuation in various atmospheric conditions are studied in this simulation. With the attenuation from cloud and precipitation in the estimation of reflectivity factor (dBZ), the reflectivities in the lower atmosphere in the convective cores are significantly reduced. With spatial resolution of 4 km X 4 km, attenuation at 14 GHz may cause as large as a 20-dBZ difference between the simulated measurements of the peak, Z(sub mp) and near-surface reflectivity, Z(sub ms) in the most intense convective region. The Z(sub mp) occurs at various altitudes depending on the hydrometeor concentrations and their vertical distribution. Despite the significant attenuation in the intense cores, the presence of the rain maximum is easily detected by using information of Z(sub mp). In the stratiform region, the attenuation is quite limited (usually less than 5 dBZ), and the reduction of reflectivity is mostly related to the actual vertical structure of cloud distribution. Since Z(sub ms) suffers severe attenuation and tends to underestimate surface rainfall intensity in convective regions. Z(sub mp) can be more representative for rainfall retrieval in the lower atmosphere in these regions. In the stratiform region where attenuation is negligible, however, Z(sub mp) tends to overestimate surface rainfall and Z(sub ms) is more appropriate for rainfall retrieval. A hybrid technique using a weight between the two rain intensities is tested and found potentially usefull for future applications. The estimated surface rain-rate map based on this hybrid approach captures many of the details of the cloud model rain field but still slightly underestimates the rain-rate maximum.

Yeh, H.-Y. M.; Prasad, N.; Meneghini, R.; Tao, W.-K.; Jones, J. A.; Adler, R. F.

1995-01-01

244

Algorithms for computing Arctic ice thickness from space and airborne lidars and radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air and space campaigns such as IceSAT, IceBridge, and CryoSAT have gathered data on either the elevation of the snow surface or ice surface to estimate ice thicknesses, using isostatic equilibrium, over the Arctic ice pack. A major uncertainty for airborne or spaceborne lidar elevations conversions has been lack of knowledge regarding the snow depth under the measured elevation. For spaceborne radar or the snow radar on IceBridge, the uncertainty lies in whether the radar return is truly from the snow-ice interface or instead is from some intermediate depth layer within the snow pack. We are attempting a different approach, based on direct measurements made during ice drilling campaigns conducted over several decades. From either gridded or ice line profile measurements, each data set composed of several hundred to around a thousand measurements was analyzed separately. It was found that, when averaged over lengths of several 10's to one hundred meters, that snow top elevation correlated with ice thickness with R2~ 0.80. However, individual data sets showed different linear coefficients. These coefficients have some universality, so that cutoff elevations could be chosen where different linear coefficients gave best fits to the data. These sets of equations were then applied to the data sets of elevation and a predicted ice thickness calculated was compared to the measured ice thickness. Optimum averaging distances were also determined. RMS error in predicted versus measured ice thicknesses will be presented. Similar analyses were conducted using ice freeboard as the predictor of ice thickness as a simulation of the accuracy of CryoSAT ice thicknesses. Both methods are compared to presently used algorithms which use isostasy with assumed constant densities and snow depths to compute estimated ice thickness.

Williams, S.; Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Holt, B.

2011-12-01

245

Millimeter-wavelength cloud measurements taken with the polarimetric cloud profiling radar system  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews hardware for the Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) and presents dual-frequency measurements that illustrate how CPRS reflectivity data may be used for cloud particle sizing. Reflectivity data show Mie scattering in the ice region, melting layer, and rain region of a stratiform cloud with light, broken precipitation. Measurements of Ze{sub 95} and Ze{sub 33} with and without precipitation show that differential attenuation is low and does not dominate the reflectivity differences. A theoretical model of Ze{sub 95} - Ze{sub 33} versus mean particle diameter for monodisperse and Gaussian size distributions of water droplets is presented to illustrate the concept of particle sizing using dual-wavelength reflectivity data.

Sekelsky, S.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1995-04-01

246

Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar at McMurdo Station during the 1993 winter  

SciTech Connect

Since 1990, a lidar system has been operating at McMurdo Station (78{degrees}S 167{degrees}E) during the local spring. In 1993, it performed measurements between 1 March and 10 October. The lidar can monitor the presence of clouds by measuring the light backscattered from the atmosphere. After system calibration, the received signal is compared with the one expected from an atmosphere not containing particles. On such a basis, a parameter called backscattering ratio, R, is calculated. When particles are not present R is 1. Any value larger than 1 is related to the presence of particles. Lidar can be used to monitor clouds in the lower stratosphere (polar stratospheric clouds - PSCs- or volcanic clouds). PSCs have an important role in the heterogeneous chemistry of the polar stratosphere, and their presence is strictly linked with the `ozone hole`. During the 1993 winter and spring, the antarctic stratosphere still presented a measurable amount of volcanic aerosol from the Mount Pinatubo eruption. The volcanic aerosols facilitated the formation of PSCs observed during the 1993 winter because they need condensation nuclei to form. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Adriani, A.; Gobbi, G.P. [Istituto Fisica dell`Atmosfera, Rome (Italy); Donfrancesco, G.D. [Energia e Ambients, Rome (Italy)

1994-12-31

247

Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL (Scanning Raman Lidar) and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20% . The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D. OC; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cardirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.

2000-01-01

248

Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference. Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, held at Annapolis, Maryland, July 6-10, 1998; 260 papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were Aerosol Clouds, Multiple Scattering; Tropospheric Profiling, Stratospheric/Mesospheric Profiling; Wind Profiling; New Lidar Technology and Techniques; Lidar Applications, Including Altimetry and Marine; Space and Future Lidar; and Lidar Commercialization/Eye Safety. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations, development of new lasers and lidar system technology, and current and future space-based lidar systems.

Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Ismail, Syed (Editor); Schwemmer, Geary K. (Editor)

1998-01-01

249

Lidar-inversion technique for monitoring and mapping localized aerosol plumes and thin clouds  

SciTech Connect

A new lidar-inversion technique is presented for the determination of the extinction-coefficient profile within a spatially restricted zone of atmospheric aerosol inhomogeneity such as a plume, thin cloud, etc. The return lidar signal is measured through the aerosol plume under investigation and also in a direction close to but outside the plume. By using the ratio of these signals, the constituent produced by the aerosol plume is separated from the aerosol background constituent. An iterative lidar-inversion technique is applied to the ratio of these signals rather than to the original signal. This technique is shown to be relatively insensitive to the assumed value of parameters used for the extinction-profile retrieval, and yields an acceptable measurement result even when the accuracy of the assumed parameters is poor.

Kovalev, V.A.; McElroy, J.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Characterization Research Div.; Eichinger, W.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

250

Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ?15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ?3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

2015-03-01

251

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

Turner, David D.

2005-04-01

252

Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

253

Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

2013-10-01

254

Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties from Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A retrieval algorithm has been developed for the microphysical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical data obtained using lidar instrumentation. The parameterization scheme of the PSC microphysical properties allows for coexistence of up to three different particle types with size-dependent shapes. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate optical properties of particles with maximum dimensions equal to or less than 2 mu m and with shapes that can be considered more representative of PSCs on the scale of individual crystals than the commonly assumed spheroids. Specifically. these are irregular and hexagonal crystals. Selection of the optical parameters that are input to the inversion algorithm is based on a potential data set such as that gathered by two of the lidars on board the NASA DC-8 during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 0 p (SAGE) Ozone Loss Validation experiment (SOLVE) campaign in winter 1999/2000: the Airborne Raman Ozone and Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) and the NASA Langley Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). The 0 microphysical retrieval algorithm has been applied to study how particle shape assumptions affect the inversion of lidar data measured in leewave PSCs. The model simulations show that under the assumption of spheroidal particle shapes, PSC surface and volume density are systematically smaller than the FDTD-based values by, respectively, approximately 10-30% and approximately 5-23%.

Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Yang, P.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

255

Coordinated Imaging and Lidar measurements of Noctilucent Cloud Dynamics over Poker Flat, Alaska, August 2005.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conjunction with the 2005 Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science (PARS) Summer School coordinated observations of noctilucent clouds (NLC) were made from central Alaska during August 2005 using imaging and lidar instrumentation. The image measurements was made from a field site near Donnelly Dome (63 N, 145 W) to record NLC over the lidar facility located at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) approximately 160 km to the north. A combination of two low-light digital color video cameras and several digital SLR cameras were used to image the NLC field over PFRR using wide and narrow field optics. At the same time NLC observations were made using the NICT Rayleigh lidar to investigate their altitude, structure and backscatter strength. Strong NLC were imaged from Donnelly Dome on three consecutive nights (August 8-10). These events were extensive, filling the northern twilight sky and were observed for over 4 hours. In particular the display of August 9 was very bright and was observed to extend well to the south of PFRR. The lidar measurements on this night were the strongest NLC signal yet recorded at PFRR. In this talk we will present a comparison between the imaging and lidar data focusing on August 9 display which was highly dynamic and observed to split into two distinct layers separated by approximately 1 km after local midnight. The two data sets will be used to study the dynamics of this display.

Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M. J.; Jensen, P. F.; Collins, R. L.; Su, L.; Thurairajah, B.; McDonald, J. G.; Marlow, Z. J.

2005-12-01

256

Automated Extraction of 3D Trees from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an automated algorithm for extracting 3D trees directly from 3D mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. To reduce both computational and spatial complexities, ground points are first filtered out from a raw 3D point cloud via blockbased elevation filtering. Off-ground points are then grouped into clusters representing individual objects through Euclidean distance clustering and voxel-based normalized cut segmentation. Finally, a model-driven method is proposed to achieve the extraction of 3D trees based on a pairwise 3D shape descriptor. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of mobile LiDAR point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Yu, Y.; Li, J.; Guan, H.; Zai, D.; Wang, C.

2014-06-01

257

Determination of cloud effective particle size from the multiple-scattering effect on lidar integration-method temperature measurements.  

PubMed

A method is presented that permits the determination of the cloud effective particle size from Raman- or Rayleigh-integration temperature measurements that exploits the dependence of the multiple-scattering contributions to the lidar signals from heights above the cloud on the particle size of the cloud. Independent temperature information is needed for the determination of size. By use of Raman-integration temperatures, the technique is applied to cirrus measurements. The magnitude of the multiple-scattering effect and the above-cloud lidar signal strength limit the method's range of applicability to cirrus optical depths from 0.1 to 0.5. Our work implies that records of stratosphere temperature obtained with lidar may be affected by multiple scattering in clouds up to heights of 30 km and beyond. PMID:16633433

Reichardt, Jens; Reichardt, Susanne

2006-04-20

258

Testing the Parameterizations of Cloud Base Mass-Flux for Shallow Cumulus Clouds using Cloud Radar Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow cumulus clouds have significant impact on the vertical distributions of heat and moisture and on surface energy fluxes over land through their effect on incoming shortwave radiation. The present resolutions of General Circulation Model (GCM) and Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are not fine enough to simulate shallow clouds directly, leaving not much choice other than parameterizations evaluated using either Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and observations. The representation of these clouds in numerical models is an important and challenging issue in model development, because of its potential impacts on near-surface weather and long-term climate simulations. Recent studies through LES have shown that the mass flux is the important parameter for determining the characteristics of cumulus transports within cloud layer. Based on LES results and scaling arguments, substantial efforts have been made to parameterize the cloud base mass flux to improve the interactions between the subcloud and cloud layer. Despite these efforts, what factors control the mass flux and how the interaction between subcloud and cloud layers should be parameterized is not fully understood. From the observational perspective, studies have been done using aircraft and remote sensing platform to address the above issue; there have been insufficient observations to develop detailed composite studies under different conditions. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) in Southern Great Plains (SGP) offers unique long-term measurements from cloud radars (35 and 94 GHz) along with synergetic measurements to address the above problem of non-precipitating shallow cumulus clouds over the SGP region. Doppler velocities from the cloud radar are processed to remove the insect contamination using a fuzzy-logic approach before they are used for the mass-flux calculation. The present observations are used to validate the existing mass-flux relations used in parameterizations. The possible factors [such as, effect of wind shear, transition layer strength, lower tropospheric relative humidity, large-scale vertical velocity and stability (CAPE and CIN)] that affects the mass-flux in addition to the convective velocity (w*) are studied using sounding and ECMWF model dataset. Furthermore, the data are classified based on time of the day, and for various cloud fractions and composite profiles are calculated to define the differences for different regimes.

Chandra, A.; Kollias, P.; Albrecht, B. A.; Zhu, P.; Klein, S. A.; Zhang, Y.

2010-12-01

259

Cloud and Aerosol Measurements from the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar: First Year Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global cloud and aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized. One application is the accurate height distribution and coverage of global cloud cover with one goal of defining the limitation and inaccuracies of passive retrievals. Comparison to MODIS cloud retrievals shows notable discrepancies. Initial comparisons to NOAA 14&15 satellite cloud retrievals show basic similarity in overall cloud coverage, but important differences in height distribution. Because of the especially poor performance of passive cloud retrievals in polar regions, and partly because of high orbit track densities, the GLAS measurements are by far the most accurate measurement of Arctic and Antarctica cloud cover from space to date. Global aerosol height profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation and transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. Oceanic surface energy flux derivation from PBL and LCL height measurements is another application of GLAS data that is being pursued. A special area of work for GLAS data is the correction and application of multiple scattering effects. Stretching of surface return pulses in excess of 40 m from cloud propagation effects and other interesting multiple scattering phenomena have been observed. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from GLAS are summarized.

Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

2004-01-01

260

Airborne lidar observation of mountain-wave-induced polar stratospheric clouds during EASOE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airborne backscatter lidar Leandre was flown during the EASOE campaign on board the French ARAT-Fokker 27, to provide mesoscale observations of scattering layers in the stratosphere. The use of crosspolarization channels at the 532 nm laser emitted wavelength, allowed discrimination between the quasi-spherical particles of the Pinatubo aerosol and the non-spherical frozen particles of polar stratospheric clouds. Measurements taken

S. Godin; G. Mgie; C. David; D. Haner; C. Flesia; Y. Emery

1994-01-01

261

Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an operational, self-contained, fully autonomous Raman lidar system that has been developed for unattended, around-the-clock atmospheric profiling of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds. During a 1996 three-week intensive observational period, the system operated during all periods of good weather (339 out of 504 h), including one continuous five-day period. The system is based on a dual-field-of-view design that

J. E. M. Goldsmith; Forest H. Blair; Scott E. Bisson; David D. Turner

1998-01-01

262

A New Power-Line Extraction Method Based on Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented to aid in accurately extracting power lines from airborne LiDAR point clouds, which can automatically extract multiple power lines and reconstruct power line in 3D space. According to the spatial distribution characteristics that power-line is closely linked on same power line, the data points belonging to a single power-line are identified. Then, the paper employs

Jing Liang; Jixian Zhang; Kazhong Deng; Zhengjun Liu; Qunshan Shi

2011-01-01

263

Remote sensing of clouds and evaluation with a 220GHz radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed 220GHz incoherent radar has potential for remote sensing of low reflectivity atmosphere targets in Cloud Chamber. Stepped frequency system is used and bandwidth 10GHz. Preliminary reflectivity measurements of clouds for ranges between 0.2m~4m in narrow Cloud Chamber. The instrument is briefly described. Highlighting uncertainties due to highly variable attenuation and signal interference. Then the results of investigations of the transmitter, receiver, Antennas, as well as the atmospheric Propagation Effects are presented. The results of this effort demonstrate that the radar is a stable, sensitive, system capable of providing accurate power for clouds.

An, Dawei; Shang, Jian; Wu, Qiong; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Weidong; Wang, Shitao; Bian, Mingming

2014-11-01

264

Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars  

SciTech Connect

Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

2013-08-27

265

Multiple Backscattering and Depolarization from Water Clouds for a Pulsed Lidar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational approach for the multiple backscattering from spherical cloud droplets for a collimated pulsed radar system has been developed, based on the geometry of the system. The radiative transfer relationships include a complete set of Stokes' parameters. The depolarization ratio of the multiple backscattering from a volume of spherically symmetrical and uniformly distributed water drops is obtained.Calculations are performed

Kuo-Nan Liou; Richard M. Schotland

1971-01-01

266

Extracting vertical winds from simulated clouds with ground-based coherent Doppler lidar.  

PubMed

The performance of mean velocity estimators is determined by computer simulations for solid-state coherent Doppler lidar measurements of wind fields at a cloud interface with deterministic profiles of velocity and aerosol backscatter. Performance of the velocity estimates is characterized by the standard deviation about the estimated mean and the bias referenced to the input velocity. A new class of estimators are required for cloud conditions, as traditional techniques result in biased estimates. We consider data with high signal energy that produces negligible random outliers. PMID:18301652

Lottman, B T; Frehlich, R G

1998-12-20

267

A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are in the process of developing a nadir-viewing, aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) at NASA Langley Research Center. The system is designed to measure backscatter and extinction of aerosols and tenuous clouds. The primary uses of the instrument will be to validate spaceborne aerosol and cloud observations, carry out regional process studies, and assess the predictions of chemical transport models. In this paper, we provide an overview of the instrument design and present the results of simulations showing the instrument's capability to accurately measure extinction and extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John W.; Cook, Anthony L.

2002-01-01

268

Microphysical and Radar Observations of Seeded and Nonseeded Continental Cumulus Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled cloud seeding experiments were conducted near Bethlehem, South Africa during the summer of 1984-85. The experimental unit was the semi-isolated cumulus congestus cloud. Microphysical measurements were obtained by three instrumented aircraft flying in stacked formation. Radar observations were made by a 5-cm wavelength radar performing volume scans at 5-min intervals. A three-way balanced randomization scheme was used to seed

T. W. Krauss; R. T. Bruintjes; J. Verlinde

1987-01-01

269

Improved simulation of aerosol, cloud, and density measurements by shuttle lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data retrievals are simulated for a Nd:YAG lidar suitable for early flight on the space shuttle. Maximum assumed vertical and horizontal resolutions are 0.1 and 100 km, respectively, in the boundary layer, increasing to 2 and 2000 km in the mesosphere. Aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated using 1.06 and 0.53 microns wavelengths independently. Error sources include signal measurement, conventional density information, atmospheric transmission, and lidar calibration. By day, tenuous clouds and Saharan and boundary layer aerosols are retrieved at both wavelengths. By night, these constituents are retrieved, plus upper tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric aerosols and noctilucent clouds. Density, temperature, and improved aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated by combining signals at 0.35, 1.06, and 0.53 microns. Particlate contamination limits the technique to the cloud free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically show effect of this contamination, as well as errors in absolute density nonmalization, reference temperature or pressure, and the sources listed above. For nonvolcanic conditions, relative density profiles have rms errors of 0.54 to 2% in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Temperature profiles have rms errors of 1.2 to 2.5 K and can define the tropopause to 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km.

Russell, P. B.; Morley, B. M.; Livingston, J. M.; Grams, G. W.; Patterson, E. W.

1981-01-01

270

Building a 13 to 16 years cloud climatology using lidar in space observations: CALIOP now, ATLID next  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the CALIOP lidar has collected more than seven years of observations, and will hopefully still operate in 2016, after the EarthCare/ATLID lidar launch. Lidars in space provide cutting edge information on the detailed vertical structure of clouds: a key element for both the evaluation of the description of clouds in climate models, and the survey of the clouds inter-annual evolution in various climatic conditions: El Nino, variation of North Atlantic Oscillations, polar regions, etc. For this purpose, the observations collected by CALIOP and by ATLID need to be merged into a long-term (13 to 16 years) cloud climatology. Here, we examine the possibility of building such a climatology, with the aim of defining its accuracy and relevance for cloud inter-annual studies. We examined the differences between the two instruments (wavelengths, satellite's altitudes, telescope fields of view, multiple scattering processes, spatial resolutions) and their ability to detect the same clouds consistently. Then, we defined a set of cloud detection thresholds for ATLID and CALIOP, and tested against synthetic cloud scenes (cirrus and shallow cumulus) over small areas (about 200km) produced by a lidar instrument simulator (ECSIM) running on Large Eddy Simulations. Doing so, we verify that CALIOP and ATLID will be able to detect the same clouds despite their differences (e.g. their sensitivities to noise). Finally, we used the COSP lidar simulator to predict the global scale cloud cover that ATLID and CALIOP would observe if they were overflying the same atmosphere predicted by a GCM. As a consequence, a merged CALIOP/ATLID cloud climatology is likely to be useful for clouds inter-annual studies, if the post-launch sensitivity of ATLID is in line with what is predicted today.

Reverdy, M.; Chepfer, H.; Donovan, D. P.; Noel, V.; Cesana, G.; Hoareau, C.; Chiriaco, M.; Bastin, S.

2013-12-01

271

Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate knowledge of the vertical and horizontal extent of clouds and aerosols in the earth s atmosphere is critical in assessing the planet s radiation budget and for advancing human understanding of climate change issues. To retrieve this fundamental information from the elastic backscatter lidar data acquired during the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, a selective, iterated boundary location (SIBYL) algorithm has been developed and deployed. SIBYL accomplishes its goals by integrating an adaptive context-sensitive profile scanner into an iterated multiresolution spatial averaging scheme. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the architecture and performance of the SIBYL algorithm. It begins with a brief review of the theory of target detection in noise-contaminated signals, and an enumeration of the practical constraints levied on the retrieval scheme by the design of the lidar hardware, the geometry of a space-based remote sensing platform, and the spatial variability of the measurement targets. Detailed descriptions are then provided for both the adaptive threshold algorithm used to detect features of interest within individual lidar profiles and the fully automated multiresolution averaging engine within which this profile scanner functions. The resulting fusion of profile scanner and averaging engine is specifically designed to optimize the trade-offs between the widely varying signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements and the disparate spatial resolutions of the detection targets. Throughout the paper, specific algorithm performance details are illustrated using examples drawn from the existing CALIPSO dataset. Overall performance is established by comparisons to existing layer height distributions obtained by other airborne and space-based lidars.

Vaughan, Mark A.; Powell, Kathleen A.; Kuehn, Ralph E.; Young, Stuart A.; Winker, David M.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hunt, William H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; McGill, Matthew J.; Getzewich, Brian J.

2009-01-01

272

A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical Properties Derived from Lidar Depolarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part II of this series of papers describing the results of the extended time observations of cirrus clouds from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS), the information content of laser backscatter depolarization measurements in terms of cloud microphysical content is treated. The authors rely on scattering principles indicating that polarization lidar can be applied to

Kenneth Sassen; Sally Benson

2001-01-01

273

Global distribution of instantaneous daytime radiative effects of high thin clouds observed by the cloud profiling radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instantaneous daytime geographical distribution and radiative effects of high thin clouds (optical thickness < 5) are investigated on the basis of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) radiative flux and cloud classification products. The regional features of the fraction and radiative effects of high thin clouds are associated with ITCZ, SPCZ and mid-latitude storm track regions. High thin clouds have positive net cloud-induced radiative effect (CRE) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and negative net CRE at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA). The magnitudes of TOA and BOA CREs depend on cloud optical thickness, cloud fraction and geographical location. The magnitude of the net CRE of high thin clouds increases at both TOA and BOA as cloud optical thickness increases. Net CRE at both TOA and BOA contributes to a positive net CRE in-atmosphere and warms the atmosphere regardless of cloud fraction. The global annual mean of the net CRE multiplied by cloud fraction is 0.49 W/m2 at TOA, -0.54 W/m2 at BOA and 1.03 W/m2 in-atmosphere. The most radiatively effective cloud optical thickness of a high thin cloud is between 1-2 for the TOA and in-atmosphere CREs or 3-4 for the BOA CRE.

Lee, Yong-Keun; Greenwald, Thomas J.; Yang, Ping; Ackerman, Steve; Huang, Hung-Lung

2010-09-01

274

Improving Cirrus Cloud Radiative Modeling with Global CALISPO Lidar Depolarization Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treating the radiative effects of ice crystal clouds like cirrus presents many difficulties. The major complexity is related to the diverse shapes of the crystals that can be present, although obviously the vertical distribution of the mean particle size and ice water content are important. Because the polarization properties of laser backscattering can be considered as an analog of natural light scattering in the atmosphere, in that the lidar linear depolarization ratio ? is sensitive to the exact particle shape and orientation, this data can be applied to the problem of treating the variability of ice crystal shapes in clouds. In this study we use two years of global lidar depolarization data from the CALIPSO satellite to characterize the height/temperature variability in ?: each 1-yr period represents near-nadir (~0.3) and off-nadir (~3.0) measurements that reflect the effects of horizontally oriented plate crystals. We show that the ? steadily increase with increasing height/decreasing temperature globally, although the details depend on latitude, and of course on the lidar pointing angle. We parameterize this trend in various latitude belts and convert the nadir vs. off-nadir differences to the percentage of oriented vs. non-oriented plate crystals. The range of off-zenith ? approximately span the ~0.3 to 0.6 predicted by ray tracing theory to correspond to the transition in crystal shape from randomly oriented thin plates to long columns. Therefore, we present a simple model of the height/temperature dependence of ice crystal shape (i.e., axis ratio changing from plates to columns) and percentage of plate orientation. Although this model ignores other important shape effects, such as from hollow and radial particles, the details of ice crystal shape may not be of critical importance if one considers lidar depolarization as a proxy of solar scattering in ice clouds.

Sassen, K.; Kayetha, V. K.

2012-12-01

275

[The estimation of cirrus cloud particulate shape using combined simulation and a three-wavelength lidar measurement].  

PubMed

The global occurrence of cirrus clouds can reach as high as 30%, whose scattering properties are essential impact on the climatic model, radiative transfer, and remote sensing. Their scattering properties are determined by the ice crystal shape, size distribution, refractive index and so on. Retrieval of the backscattering color ratios of cirrus cloud using a 355, 532 and 1 064 nm three-wavelength lidar, combined with the simulation of the three backscattering color ratios of different ice crystal shape, the shape of the lidar-measured ice crystal can be estimated. The results indicate that the shape of cirrus cloud over Hefei city is mostly composed by aggregates. PMID:24059165

Tao, Zong-Ming; Liu, Dong; Wei, He-Li; Ma, Xiao-Min; Shi, Bo; Nie, Miao; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Ying-Jian

2013-07-01

276

First temperature measurements within Polar Stratospheric Clouds with the Esrange lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the winter stratosphere polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provide the surface for heterogeneous reactions which transform stable chlorine and bromine species into their highly reactive ozone-destroying states. PSCs are classified into three types (PSC Ia: nitric acid di- or trihydrate crystals, NAD or NAT; PSC Ib: supercooled liquid ternary solutions, STS; PSC II: ice) according to their particle composition and to their physical phase. The formation of PSCs depends strongly on temperature. For a comprehensive understanding of such temperature-dependent processes in the lower stratosphere, lidar measurements using the rotational-Raman technique are most suitable. The rotational-Raman technique allows for temperature measurements without a priori assumptions of the state of the atmosphere. The technique is feasible in aerosol layers and clouds, such as PSCs. A rotational-Raman channel for temperature measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere was added to the Esrange lidar in late 2010. The Esrange lidar operates at Esrange (68N, 21E) near the Swedish city of Kiruna. By combining rotational-Raman measurements (4-35 km height) and the integration technique (30-80 km height), the Esrange lidar is now capable of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere. Such measurements could be used to validate current lidar-based PSC classification schemes and the current understanding of PSC formation. The new capability of the instrument furthermore enables the studies of other clouds layers, temperature variations and exchange processes in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. These studies will take advantage of the geographical location of Esrange where mountain wave activity in the lee of the Scandinavian mountain range gives rise to a wide range of PSC growth conditions. Although several lidars are operated at polar latitudes, there are few instruments that are capable of measuring temperature profiles in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, as well as aerosols extinction in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this study, we utilize measurements of PSCs and temperature during the winters 2010/11, 2011/12, and 2012/13 to gain insight into the temperature dependence of different PSC types.

Achtert, Peggy; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Khosrawi, Farahnaz; Gumbel, Jrg

2013-04-01

277

Polar stratospheric clouds at the South Pole in 1990: Lidar observations and analysis  

SciTech Connect

In December 1989 a Rayleigh/sodium lidar (589 nm) was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station, and was used to measure stratospheric aerosol, temperature, and mesospheric sodium profiles through October 1990. Observations of stratospheric aerosol and temperature are presented in this paper. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were first observed in late May at about 20 km. As the lower stratosphere cooled further, PSCs were observed throughout the 12-27 km altitude region, and remained there from mid-June until late August. Observations in early September detected no PSCs above 21 km. An isolated cloud was observed in mid-October. Throughout the winter the clouds had small backscatter ratios (< 10). Observations made at two wavelengths in July show that the clouds are predominately composed of nitric acid trihydrate with associated Angstrom coefficients between 0.2 and 3.7. Comparison of the lidar data and balloon borne frost point measurements in late August indicate that the nitric acid mixing ratio was less than 1.5 ppbv. Observations over periods of several hours show downward motions in the cloud layers similar to the phase progressions of upwardly-propagating gravity waves. The vertical phase velocities of these features ([approx] 4 cm/s) are significantly faster than the expected settling velocities of the cloud particles. Both the backscatter ratio profiles and the radiosonde horizontal wind profiles show 1-4 km vertical structures. This suggests that the kilometer-scale vertical structure of the PSCs is maintained by low frequency gravity waves propagating through the cloud layers. 24 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Collins, R.L.; Bowman, K.P.; Gardner, C.S. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States))

1993-01-20

278

Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20%. The UV/lR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, O C.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cadirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F.

2000-01-01

279

Assessing riparian shade for the Lemhi River, Idaho using LiDAR: A point cloud analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian vegetation plays a crucial role in shading streams by reducing the amount of incoming solar insolation that would otherwise reach the water surface, negatively affecting water temperature and photosynthetic organisms within the water column. Unlike incoming solar insolation, riparian shade can be manipulated by adding or removing riparian vegetation, making it attractive for restoration as well as thermal credit trading programs. Before riparian shade can be evaluated in such trading programs, the existing riparian vegetation needs to be quantified. Several studies have investigated the utility of LiDAR derived canopy height models for estimating riparian shade, however, few to no studies have used point cloud data as a direct model input in order to improve the riparian shade estimates. Using point cloud data increases spatial resolution and the ability to extract vegetation shape information without losses due to interpolation/rasterization. In this study, we assessed the ability of LiDAR point cloud data to estimate riparian shade for 32 km of the Lemhi River in north central Idaho. Riparian shade quantification of the point cloud and canopy height models are compared to shade values calculated using established models in practice.

Spaete, L.; Glenn, N. F.; Shrestha, R.; Shumar, M. L.; Mitchell, J.

2012-12-01

280

a Data Driven Method for Building Reconstruction from LiDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne laser scanning, commonly referred to as LiDAR, is a superior technology for three-dimensional data acquisition from Earth's surface with high speed and density. Building reconstruction is one of the main applications of LiDAR system which is considered in this study. For a 3D reconstruction of the buildings, the buildings points should be first separated from the other points such as; ground and vegetation. In this paper, a multi-agent strategy has been proposed for simultaneous extraction and segmentation of buildings from LiDAR point clouds. Height values, number of returned pulse, length of triangles, direction of normal vectors, and area are five criteria which have been utilized in this step. Next, the building edge points are detected using a new method named "Grid Erosion". A RANSAC based technique has been employed for edge line extraction. Regularization constraints are performed to achieve the final lines. Finally, by modelling of the roofs and walls, 3D building model is reconstructed. The results indicate that the proposed method could successfully extract the building from LiDAR data and generate the building models automatically. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the proposed method is then provided.

Sajadian, M.; Arefi, H.

2014-10-01

281

Impact of Non-Uniform Beam Filling on Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Radar Retrieval Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation we will discuss the performance of classification and retrieval algorithms for spaceborne cloud and precipitation radars such as the Global Precipitation Measurement mission Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM/DPR), and notional radar for the Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystem (ACE) mission and related concepts. Spaceborne radar measurements are simulated either from Airborne Precipitation Radar 2nd Generation observations, or from atmospheric model outputs via instrument simulators contained in the NASA Earth Observing Systems Simulators Suite (NEOS(sup 3)). Both methods account for the three dimensional nature of the scattering field at resolutions smaller than that of the spaceborne radar under consideration. We will focus on the impact of non-homogeneities of the field of hydrometeors within the beam. We will discuss also the performance of methods to identify and mitigate such conditions, and the resulting improvements in retrieval accuracy. The classification and retrieval algorithms analyzed in this study are those derived from APR-2's Suite of Processing and Retrieval Algorithms (ASPRA); here generalized to operate on an arbitrary set of radar configuration parameters to study the expected performance of spaceborne cloud and precipitation radars. The presentation will highlight which findings extend to other algorithm families and which ones do not.

Tanelli, Simone; Sacco, Gian Franco; Durden, Stephen L.; Haddad, Ziad S.

2012-01-01

282

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity  

E-print Network

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

Bellan, Paul M.

283

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

284

Performance of the Lidar Design and Data Algorithms for the GLAS Global Cloud and Aerosol Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in early 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument design includes high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of atmospheric clouds and aerosol. The backscatter lidar operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. For the atmospheric cloud and aerosol measurements, the 532 nm channel was designed for ultra high efficiency with solid state photon counting detectors and etalon filtering. Data processing algorithms were developed to calibrate and normalize the signals and produce global scale data products of the height distribution of cloud and aerosol layers and their optical depths and particulate scattering cross sections up to the limit of optical attenuation. The paper will concentrate on the effectiveness and limitations of the lidar channel design and data product algorithms. Both atmospheric receiver channels meet and exceed their design goals. Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode modules are used for the 532 nm signal. The operational experience is that some signal artifacts and non-linearity require correction in data processing. As with all photon counting detectors, a pulse-pile-up calibration is an important aspect of the measurement. Additional signal corrections were found to be necessary relating to correction of a saturation signal-run-on effect and also for daytime data, a small range dependent variation in the responsivity. It was possible to correct for these signal errors in data processing and achieve the requirement to accurately profile aerosol and cloud cross section down to 10-7 llm-sr. The analysis procedure employs a precise calibration against molecular scattering in the mid-stratosphere. The 1064 nm channel detection employs a high-speed analog APD for surface and atmospheric measurements where the detection sensitivity is limited by detector noise and is over an order of magnitude less than at 532 nm. A unique feature of the GLAS is a full acquisition of the surface return pulse, which has important application to the atmospheric transmission retrieval.

Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.

2007-01-01

285

Validation of Satellite-Based Objective Overshooting Cloud-Top Detection Methods Using CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two satellite infrared-based overshooting convective cloud-top (OT) detection methods have recently been described in the literature: 1) the 11-mm infrared window channel texture (IRW texture) method, which uses IRW channel brightness temperature (BT) spatial gradients and thresholds, and 2) the water vapor minus IRW BT difference (WV-IRW BTD). While both methods show good performance in published case study examples, it is important to quantitatively validate these methods relative to overshooting top events across the globe. Unfortunately, no overshooting top database currently exists that could be used in such study. This study examines National Aeronautics and Space Administration CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar data to develop an OT detection validation database that is used to evaluate the IRW-texture and WV-IRW BTD OT detection methods. CloudSat data were manually examined over a 1.5-yr period to identify cases in which the cloud top penetrates above the tropopause height defined by a numerical weather prediction model and the surrounding cirrus anvil cloud top, producing 111 confirmed overshooting top events. When applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager proxy data, the IRW-texture (WV-IRW BTD) method offered a 76% (96%) probability of OT detection (POD) and 16% (81%) false-alarm ratio. Case study examples show that WV-IRW BTD.0 K identifies much of the deep convective cloud top, while the IRW-texture method focuses only on regions with a spatial scale near that of commonly observed OTs. The POD decreases by 20% when IRW-texture is applied to current geostationary imager data, highlighting the importance of imager spatial resolution for observing and detecting OT regions.

Bedka, Kristopher M.; Dworak, Richard; Brunner, Jason; Feltz, Wayne

2012-01-01

286

Lidar data inversion for Cirrus clouds: An approach based on a statistical analysis of in situ microphysical measurements  

SciTech Connect

The problem of the lidar equation inversion lies in the fact that it requires a lidar calibration or else a reference value from the studied medium. This paper presents an approach to calibrate the lidar by calculating the constant Ak (lidar constant A multiplied by the ratio of backscatter coefficient to extinction coefficient k). This approach is based on statistical analysis of in situ measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the extinction coefficient has a typical probablility distribution in cirrus clouds. The property of this distribution, as far as the attenuation of laser beam in the cloud, is used as a constraint to calculate the value of Ak. The validity of this method is discussed and results compared with two other inversion methods.

Febvre, G. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)] [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

1994-10-01

287

Observations of Cirrus Clouds over the Pacific Region by the NASA Multiwavelength Lidar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West Campaign that took place during 16 Sep. - 21 Oct. 1991, lidar measurements were made from the ARC DC-8 aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km. This mission provided a unique opportunity to make cirrus cloud observations around the Pacific region covering the latitude range from 5 to 55 deg N and the longitude range from -114 to 120 deg E. Cirrus clouds were observed on most of these flights providing a unique data base. The latitudinal coverage of cirrus observations was further extended to -5 deg S from observations on 30 Jan. 1992 as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2. During this latter mission, aerosol depolarizations at 622 and 1064 nm were also measured. The optical characteristics and statistics related to these cirrus cloud observations are summarized.

Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Nowicki, Greg D.

1992-01-01

288

Measurements of cirrus cloud backscatter color ratio with a two-wavelength lidar.  

PubMed

We present observations of cirrus clouds from June 2006 to July 2007 performed by using a two-wavelength lidar located at Hampton University. For this time period, cirrus clouds were observed mostly in 7-13.5 km altitudes. Data analyses have been performed focusing on a color-ratio retrieval. In total, 86,369 samples from 1,689 profiles (1 min average and 15 m range resolution) containing cirrus clouds with attenuated backscatter ratio (ratio of attenuated total backscatter to the molecular backscatter) larger than 10 have been selected. The cirrus color ratio distribution shows a peak value at about 0.88 and a full width at half-maximum of 0.12. PMID:18382576

Tao, Zongming; McCormick, M Patrick; Wu, Dong; Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A

2008-04-01

289

A Qualitative Comparison between MISR and Cloud Radar Cloud Heights at the North Slope of Alaska ARM Site paquita.zuidema@noaa.gov  

E-print Network

A Qualitative Comparison between MISR and Cloud Radar Cloud Heights at the North Slope of Alaska at 10:10 AM local time or ~23:00 UTC.The Pt.Barrow site is also known as the North Slope of Alaska (NSA between cloud heights as perceived by a surface-based cloud radar located at Pt.Barrow,Alaska (71.2N,156

Zuidema, Paquita

290

Vertical velocities within a Cirrus cloud from Doppler lidar and aircraft measurements during FIRE: Implications for particle growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large and comprehensive data set taken by the NOAA CO2 Doppler lidar, the NCAR King Air, and rawinsondes on 31 October 1986 during the FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) field program which took place in Wisconsin are presented. Vertical velocities are determined from the Doppler lidar data, and are compared with velocities derived from the aircraft microphysical data. The data are used for discussion of particle growth and dynamical processes operative within the cloud.

Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

1990-01-01

291

Lidar observations of polar mesospheric clouds at Rothera, Antarctica (67.5S, 68.0W)  

E-print Network

Lidar observations of polar mesospheric clouds at Rothera, Antarctica (67.5S, 68.0W) Xinzhao lidar at Rothera (67.5S, 68.0W), Antarctica in the austral summer of 20022003. The Rothera PMC at Rothera, Antarctica (67.5S, 68.0W), Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02114, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018638. 1

Chu, Xinzhao

292

Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties From Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of particle sizes and number densities of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) is highly important, because they are critical parameters for the modeling of the ozone chemistry of the stratosphere. In situ measurements of PSC particles are rare. the main instrument for the accumulation of PSC data are lidar systems. Therefore the derivation of some microphysical properties of PSCS from the optical parameters measured by lidars would be highly beneficial for ozone research. Inversion of lidar data obtained in the presence of PSCs formed from crystalline particles type 11 and the various nitric acid tri Ydrrate (NAT) types cannot be easily accomplished, because a suitable scattering theory for small faceted crystals has not been readily available tip to now. As a consequence, the T-matrix method is commonly used for the interpretation of these PSC lidar data. Here the assumption is made that the optical properties of an ensemble of spheroids resemble those of crystalline PSCs, and microphysical properties of the PSC are inferred from the optical signatures of the PSC at two or more wavelengths. The problem with the T-matrix approach is that the assumption of spheroidal instead of faceted particles can lead to dramatically wrong results: Usually cloud particle properties are deduced from analysis of lidar profiles of backscatter ratio and depolarization ratio. The particle contribution to the backscatter ratio is given by the product of the particle number density and the backscattering cross section. The latter is proportional to the value of the particle's scattering phase function at 180 degrees scattering angle. At 180 degrees however, the phase functions of rough, faceted crystals and of spheroids with same maximum dimension differ by a factor of 6. From this it follows that for a PSC consisting of faceted crystals, the particle number density is underestimated by roughly the same factor if spheroidal particles are unrealistically assumed. We are currently developing a retrieval technique for determining the microphysical parameters of crystalline PSCs that takes into account the faceted shape of the PSC particles. This approach utilizes finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of particle optical properties. The accuracy and the free choice of the shape of the scattering particle make the FDTD technique a promising tool for the inversion of PSC lidar data. A first comparison of FDTD and T-matrix calculations will be presented.

Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens; Yang, Ping; McGee, Thomas J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

293

Lidar Investigations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Clouds over Coastal Environment and its Diurnal Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the high pressure region, diurnal evolution of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) leads to the development of fair weather clouds, which in turn play an important role in modulating the thermodynamic structure of ABL, radiation balance at surface, and further development of ABL. As they usually cap the ABL, aerosol-cloud interaction in these clouds are expected to be quite large. Notwithstanding their importance, characteristics of the ABL clouds, their diurnal evolution and the resulting feedback are least explored. Major objectives of this study are to: (i) quantify the diurnal evolution of fair-weather ABL clouds and their characteristics (in terms of their altitude of occurrence, physical thickness and optical depth) based on multi-year (2008-2011) Micropulse Lidar observations at the coastal station, Thumba (8.5() N, 77() E), and (ii) explore the potential impact of these clouds in modulating the downwelling shortwave radiative flux at surface and further development of ABL. Altitude of occurrence of ABL clouds is found to undergo significant diurnal variation during the development of convective ABL (CABL). Typically, the ABL cloud base increases from <500 m at 09 LT to >1500 m at 12 LT. Base altitude of the ABL clouds is rather steady during the afternoon, associated with the stabilization of CABL development. Clouds in the nocturnal ABL (NABL) generally occur at the altitude of the preceding afternoon CABL height. Simultaneous occurrence of clouds in the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) and developed CABL/residual layer (RL) are also observed, through they are less frequent. The TIBL clouds are distinctly separated from those formed at the top of CABL/RL. Base heights of clouds are distinctly lower in TIBL and evolving CABL compared to those in developed CABL and RL, though their mean physical thickness are comparable (typically 250m). Optically thin clouds dominate the TIBL, compared to the other three regimes. Reduction in the instantaneous incoming shortwave flux by ABL clouds can be as large as 550 Wm(-2) and the associated surface cooling would inhibit the growth of thermals, causing a reduction in the rate of CABL growth.

Mishra, Manoj; Rajeev, Kunjukrishnapillai; Nair, Anish Kumar M.

294

The 94 GHz Cloud Radar System on a NASA ER-2 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 94-GHz (W-band) Cloud Radar System (CRS) has been developed and flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude (20 km) aircraft. The CRS is a fully coherent, polarimeteric Doppler radar that is capable of detecting clouds and precipitation from the surface up to the aircraft altitude in the lower stratosphere. The radar is especially well suited for cirrus cloud studies because of its high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. This paper describes the CRS motivation, instrument design, specifications, calibration, and preliminary data &om NASA s Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) field campaign. The unique combination of CRS with other sensors on the ER-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study cloud radiative effects on the global energy budget. CRS observations are being used to improve our knowledge of atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics at 94 GHz, and to provide datasets for algorithm implementation and validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar to provide the first direct global survey of the vertical structure of cloud systems.

Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Racette, Paul E.; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

2003-01-01

295

Global Lidar Measurements of Clouds and Aerosols from Space Using the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is scheduled for launch on the ICESat satellite as part of the NASA EOS mission in 2002. GLAS will be used to perform high resolution surface altimetry and will also provide a continuously operating atmospheric lidar to profile clouds, aerosols, and the planetary boundary layer with horizontal and vertical resolution of 175 and 76.8 m, respectively. GLAS is the first active satellite atmospheric profiler to provide global coverage. Data products include direct measurements of the heights of aerosol and cloud layers, and the optical depth of transmissive layers. In this poster we provide an overview of the GLAS atmospheric data products, present a simulated GLAS data set, and show results from the simulated data set using the GLAS data processing algorithm. Optical results from the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which uses many of the same processing algorithms as GLAS, show algorithm performance with real atmospheric conditions during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000).

Hlavka, Dennis L.; Palm, S. P.; Welton, E. J.; Hart, W. D.; Spinhirne, J. D.; McGill, M.; Mahesh, A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

296

Vertical distribution of clouds over Hampton, Virginia observed by lidar under the ECLIPS and FIRE ETO programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intensive cloud lidar observations have been made by NASA Langley Research Center during the two observation phases of the ECLIPS project. Less intensive but longer term observations have been conducted as part of the FIRE extended time observation (ETO) program since 1987. We present a preliminary analysis of the vertical distribution of clouds based on these observations. A mean cirrus thickness of just under 1 km has been observed with a mean altitude of about 80 percent of the tropopause height. Based on the lidar data, cirrus coverage was estimated to be just under 20 percent, representing roughly 50 percent of all clouds studied. Cirrus was observed to have less seasonal variation than lower clouds. Mid-level clouds are found to occur primarily in association with frontal activity.

Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

1994-01-01

297

CART Raman Lidar Aerosol and Water Vapor Measurements in the Vicinity of Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosol and water vapor profiles acquired by the Raman lidar instrument located at the Climate Research Facility (CRF) at Southern Great Plains (SGP) provide data necessary to investigate the atmospheric variability in the vicinity of clouds near the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Recent CARL upgrades and modifications to the routine processing algorithms afforded the necessarily high temporal and vertical data resolutions for these investigations. CARL measurements are used to investigate the behavior of aerosol backscattering and extinction and their correlation with water vapor and relative humidity.

Clayton, Marian B.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Newsom, Rob; Sivaraman, Chitra

2008-01-01

298

Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds - Indications of two distinct growth stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) during January 1984 and January 1986 show contrast suggestive of two distinct PSC growth stages delineated by the frost-point temperature. Results obtained at temperatures 2-6 K above the frost point indicate a stage of significant, but limited, particle growth such as proposed in recent models of PSC formation by co-deposition of HNO3 and H2O vapors. Results obtained at a temperature near the frost point indicate the formation of somewhat larger crystalline particles.

Poole, Lamont R; Mccormick, M. Patrick

1988-01-01

299

Polarization lidar returns from aerosols and thin clouds: a framework for the analysis.  

PubMed

Relationships for the interpretation of polarization lidar observations of aerosols and thin clouds are presented. They allow for the separation of contributions to backscatter from solid and liquid phases by the use of either the classical backscatter and depolarization ratio parameters or the particulate cross-polarized backscatter cross sections. It is shown that different aerosol phases can be better separated by use of the latter coordinates. Emphasis is placed on the study of composition and phase properties of polar stratospheric aerosols. PMID:18286035

Gobbi, G P

1998-08-20

300

Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Spacecraft: Independent Technical Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CALIPSO is a joint science mission between the CNES, LaRC and GSFC. It was selected as an Earth System Science Pathfinder satellite mission in December 1998 to address the role of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's radiation budget. The spacecraft includes a NASA light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) instrument, a NASA wide-field camera and a CNES imaging infrared radiometer. The scope of this effort was a review of the Proteus propulsion bus design and an assessment of the potential for personnel exposure to hydrazine propellant.

Gilbrech, Richard J.; McManamen, John P.; Wilson, Timmy R.; Robinson, Frank; Schoren, William R.

2005-01-01

301

Introduction Mixed-phase clouds, such as those found in the Arctic  

E-print Network

) and NSA Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) (left,top and bottom) show a cloud layer extending from ~600 m-1600 Amount: Total Sky Imager (Long) - Precipitation Rate: NSA 40m Tower Barrow Radiosonde Mea- surements from made using a combination of the AHSRL and NSA MMCR (see Lidar/Radar section, top). For these re

Eloranta, Edwin W.

302

Cloud image retrieval and characterization using ground-based dual-wavelength radar at millimeter wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the microphysical properties of non-precipitating stratus clouds including their suspended-water droplet size distribution and the cloud's liquid water content are estimated in this work. The dual wavelength ratio, DWR, and the differential extinction, DE, were computed at two millimeter frequencies, 33 GHz and 95 GHz, using UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) to estimate the drop size distribution. Data from radiosonde observations (Raob) is used as input in a recently calibrated model for estimation of the gaseous attenuation at Ka.-band and Liebe's model at W-band. Integrated specific humidity from a radiometer is used to constrain the radiosonde specific humidity. The radar reflectivity is corrected to take into account the effect of the wind speed, the difference of beamwidth at both frequencies and the difference in sampled range cells. Radar reflectivity and ancillary data are combined to obtain the differential extinction and the estimated cloud's liquid water density. Profiles of the processed data, such as DE, the DWR and the cloud's liquid water density are presented. Cloud's water density and radar reflectivity were used for the size distribution estimation of the suspended water droplets and the median drop diameter.

Colon-Diaz, Nivia; Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.; Sekelsky, Stephen M.

2003-04-01

303

Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankyl (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankyl the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

2013-04-01

304

On Integrating Cloud-Radar-Derived Arctic Ice Cloud Properties into the Radiative Transfer Model "Streamer" 1.Introduction  

E-print Network

the AERI-determined . This tuned estimate of is shown in Fig.2a.The cloud optical depth corresponding-only is either in agreement with or an overestimate relative to the AERI . Over the entire SHEBA year, radar-only estimated optical depths were about 25% lower than the AERI optical depths (S

Zuidema, Paquita

305

Observations of atmospheric water vapor, aerosol, and cloud with a Raman lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio and rejection rate for elastic Mie-Rayleigh signals, a set of dichroic mirrors and narrow-band interference filters with high efficiency was proposed to constitute a new spectroscopy for atmospheric water vapor, aerosol, and cloud studies. Based on the curves of signal-to-noise ratio at three different channels, the actual rejection rates of elastic Mie-Rayleigh signals at the Raman channels were found to be higher than eight orders of magnitude with the cloudy conditions. Continuous nighttime observations showed that the statistical error of the water vapor mixing ratio was <10% at a height of 2.3 km with an aerosol backscatter ratio of 17. Temporal variations of water vapor and aerosols were obtained under the conditions of cloud and cloud-free, the change relevance between aerosol and water vapor was analyzed, and the growth characteristics of water vapor and aerosols showed a good agreement within the cloud layers. Obtained results indicate achievement of the continuous detection of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud with a high efficiency and stability by Raman lidar.

Yufeng, Wang; Fei, Gao; Chengxuan, Zhu; Qing, Yan; Dengxin, Hua

2014-11-01

306

Detecting and Updating Changes in Lidar Point Clouds for Automatic 3D Urban Cartography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a method that automatically detects, analyses and then updates changes in LiDAR point clouds for accurate 3D urban cartography. In the proposed method, the 3D point cloud obtained in each passage is first classified into 2 main object classes: Permanent and Temporary. The Temporary objects are then removed from the 3D point cloud to leave behind a perforated 3D point cloud of the urban scene. These perforated 3D point clouds obtained from different passages (in the same place) at different days and times are then matched together to complete the 3D urban landscape by incremental updating. Different natural or man-made changes occurring in the urban landscape over this period of time are detected and analyzed using cognitive functions of similarity and the resulting 3D cartography is progressively modified and updated accordingly. The results, evaluated on real data using different standard evaluation metrics, not only demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method but also shows that this method is easily applicable and well scalable, making it suitable for handling large urban scenes.

Aijazi, A. K.; Checchin, P.; Trassoudaine, L.

2013-10-01

307

A 94 GHz RF Electronics Subsystem for the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CloudSat spacecraft, scheduled for launch in 2004, will carry the 94 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The design, assembly and test of the flight Radio Frequency Electronics Subsystem (RFES) for this instrument has been completed and is presented here. The RFES consists of an Upconverter (which includes an Exciter and two Drive Amplifiers (DA's)), a Receiver, and a Transmitter Calibrator assembly. Some key performance parameters of the RFES are as follows: dual 100 mW pulse-modulated drive outputs at 94 GHz, overall Receiver noise figure < 5.0 dB, a highly stable W-band noise source to provide knowledge accuracy of Receiver gain of < 0.4 dB over the 2 year mission life, and a W-band peak power detector to monitor the transmitter output power to within 0.5 dB over life. Some recent monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) designs were utilized which implement the DA's in 0.1 micron GaAs high electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) technology and the Receiver low-noise amplifier (LNA) in 0.1 micron InP HEMT technology.

LaBelle, Remi C.; Girard, Ralph; Arbery, Graham

2003-01-01

308

a Marked Point Process Model for Vehicle Detection in Aerial LIDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an automated method for vehicle detection in LiDAR point clouds of crowded urban areas collected from an aerial platform. We assume that the input cloud is unordered, but it contains additional intensity and return number information which are jointly exploited by the proposed solution. Firstly, the 3-D point set is segmented into ground, vehicle, building roof, vegetation and clutter classes. Then the points with the corresponding class labels and intensity values are projected to the ground plane, where the optimal vehicle configuration is described by a Marked Point Process (MPP) model of 2-D rectangles. Finally, the Multiple Birth and Death algorithm is utilized to find the configuration with the highest confidence.

Brcs, A.; Benedek, C.

2012-07-01

309

Orbiting lidar simulations. 2: Density, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements by a wavelength-combining technique.  

PubMed

A technique is described for combining several wavelength backscatter measurements to yield profiles of molecular density and temperature plus aerosol and cloud backscatter with associated error-bar profiles. Error sources include signal, transmission, calibration, conventional density, lidar density normalization, temperature or pressure estimation at a reference height, and backscatter wavelength-dependence estimation. Strong particulate contamination limits the technique to the cloud-free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically returned as part of the measurement show when such contamination occurs. Relative density (temperature) profiles have rms errors of 0.5-2% (1.2-2.5 K) in the nonvolcanic stratosphere and upper troposphere. The density profiles significantly improve aerosol retrievals. The fine vertical resolution of the temperature profiles would permit defining the tropopause to approximately 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km. PMID:20389896

Russell, P B; Morley, B M

1982-05-01

310

Optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds over oceans from CALIPSO infrared radiometer and lidar measurements, and an evaluation of the lidar multiple scattering factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a detailed evaluation of cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 ?m and comparisons to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 ?m from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on-board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. The blackbody radiance taken in the IIR Version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are then compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent 2-way transmittance through the cloud. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40% as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. This behavior is explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ?T to be applied to correct the measured transmittance, which is taken equal to 0.6 in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm, and which is found here to vary with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ?T = 0.8 at 200 K to ?T = 0.5 at 240 K for clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ?T introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP depolarization ratios and particle habits derived from IIR measurements.

Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

2015-02-01

311

TRMM Radar Observations of Cloud Tops in the Tropical Tropopause Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air dehydrates to stratospheric abundances in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The role of overshooting convection in the dehydration process is not well understood. To study this effect, we use the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation radar (PR) to measure the altitudes of cloud tops forming in the TTL. Because the radar signal is dominated by scatter from large particles, these cloud observations imply the presence of strong convective systems with large updraft. Both winter and summer data from two different years are examined to study both interseasonal and interannual variability. The global distribution of these clouds is in good agreement with those of the surface precipitation rates. In addition, the altitude distributions of these clouds follow an exponential dependence. However, clouds over continental regions typically extend to higher altitudes in the tropics. Almost no cloud tops were observed above 20 km. Comparison between the radar cloud tops and colocated IR brightness temperature measurements reveal a large difference in both the diurnal cycle and intensity between continental and oceanic convection.

Alcala, C. M.; Dessler, A. E.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

312

A new method for building roof segmentation from airborne LiDAR point cloud data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method based on the combination of two kinds of clustering algorithms for building roof segmentation from airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) point cloud data is proposed. The K-plane algorithm is introduced to classify the laser footprints that cannot be correctly classified by the traditional K-means algorithm. High-precision classification can be obtained by combining the two aforementioned clustering algorithms. Furthermore, to improve the performance of the new segmentation method, a new initialization method is proposed to acquire the number and coordinates of the initial cluster centers for the K-means algorithm. In the proposed initialization method, the geometrical planes of a building roof are estimated from the elevation image of the building roof by using the mathematical morphology and Hough transform techniques. By calculating the number and normal vectors of the estimated geometrical planes, the number and coordinates of the initial cluster centers for the K-means algorithm are obtained. With the aid of the proposed initialization and segmentation methods, the point cloud of the building roof can be rapidly and appropriately classified. The proposed methods are validated by using both simulated and real LiDAR data.

Kong, Deming; Xu, Lijun; Li, Xiaolu

2013-09-01

313

D Building Reconstruction from LIDAR Point Clouds by Adaptive Dual Contouring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel workflow for data-driven building reconstruction from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds. The method comprises building extraction, a detailed roof segmentation using region growing with adaptive thresholds, segment boundary creation, and a structural 3D building reconstruction approach using adaptive 2.5D Dual Contouring. First, a 2D-grid is overlain on the segmented point cloud. Second, in each grid cell 3D vertices of the building model are estimated from the corresponding LiDAR points. Then, the number of 3D vertices is reduced in a quad-tree collapsing procedure, and the remaining vertices are connected according to their adjacency in the grid. Roof segments are represented by a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) and are connected to each other by common vertices or - at height discrepancies - by vertical walls. Resulting 3D building models show a very high accuracy and level of detail, including roof superstructures such as dormers. The workflow is tested and evaluated for two data sets, using the evaluation method and test data of the "ISPRS Test Project on Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" (Rottensteiner et al., 2012). Results show that the proposed method is comparable with the state of the art approaches, and outperforms them regarding undersegmentation and completeness of the scene reconstruction.

Orthuber, E.; Avbelj, J.

2015-03-01

314

Planar segmentation and topological reconstruction for urban buildings with lidar point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a framework for segmentation and topological relationship reconstruction of building planar surfaces by using airborne LiDAR point clouds. The analysis of a planar surface structure is fundamental to almost any applications involving LiDAR data, especially building reconstruction. The proposed framework consists of two steps. Firstly, point clouds is segmented using an improved RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm with variant consensus set threshold. It is designed to solve under- or no- segmentation problem. It reduces consensus set threshold when the original RANSAC could not find valid planes, hence small planar surfaces would be extracted. Then, the topological relationship planar surface is constructed based on estimating connectedness of connecting point pairs between each pair of adjacent planar surfaces. The types of connectedness of planar surface are divided into three categories and a statistical method is used to estimate the connectedness type. The reconstructed topological relationship is described by an adjacent graph and can be utilized in the building modeling. Experiments show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework.

Li, Yunfan; Ma, Hongchao; Wu, Jianwei

2011-10-01

315

Radar-Derived Forecasts of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over Houston, Texas  

E-print Network

RADAR-DERIVED FORECASTS OF CLOUD-TO-GROUglyph1197D LIGHTglyph1197Iglyph1197G OVER HOUSTOglyph1197, TEXAS A Thesis by RICHARD MATTHEW MOSIER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences RADAR-DERIVED FORECASTS OF CLOUD-TO-GROUglyph1197D LIGHTglyph1197Iglyph1197G OVER HOUSTOglyph1197, TEXAS A Thesis by RICHARD MATTHEW MOSIER...

Mosier, Richard Matthew

2011-02-22

316

Lidar observations of subvisual cirrus clouds in the tropics and the midlatitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements performed with the Mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar MARL in Punta Arenas/Chile (53.12^oS, 70.88^oW), in Prestwick /Scotland (55.5^oN, 4.60^oW), and aboard the German research vessel Polarstern within the German PAZI project are reported. MARL is able to measure backscatter profiles at the wavelengths of 532~nm and 355~nm with a vertical resolution of 7.5~m and a time resolution of 140~s. Additionally, the depolarization is detected at both wavelengths. With the help of a newly developed algorithm the detection of clouds by the lidar is very sensitive and enables us to observe thin layers with an estimated optical depth down to 10-4 by making use of the backscatter and the depolarization caused by the ice particles. During the northern and the southern hemispheric campaigns which were part of the European INCA project, about 60 hours of lidar measurements were gathered, respectively. At both sites, subvisual cirrus with an optical depth (OD)<0.03 were present in about 30% of the obtained data. An analysis of the depolarization and the color index suggests differences in the microphysical properties of the cloud particles. The measurements in the tropics aboard Polarstern revealed the frequent occurrence of tropical subvisual cirrus (TSC) in the equatorial Atlantic region. The TSCs differed significantly from their midlatitude counterparts with respect to their horizontal extent and their lifetime as well as in their optical and microphysical properties. Simultaneous radiosonde soundings performed aboard Polarstern allowed the determination of the temperature and other meteorological parameters of the tropical tropopause layer.

Immler, F.; Schrems, O.

2003-04-01

317

Cloud Radar Observations made during the Rains of EPIC-2001 P.Zuidema,C.Fairall,T.Uttal,I.Djalalova,S.Matrosov  

E-print Network

Cloud Radar Observations made during the Rains of EPIC-2001 P-31, the ship remained located at roughly 10N,95 W. A cloud radar (Ka-band,8.66 mm wavelength) was present on the RHB during this time. Although cloud radars are not normally applied within heavily-raining regions

Zuidema, Paquita

318

Lidar Measurements of Cirrus Clouds In The Northern and Southern Hemisphere (inca): An Interhemispheric Comparison.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cirrus cloud measurements were performed during the INCA field campaigns in Punta Arenas/Chile (53.12S, 70.88W) and in Prestwick/Scotland (55.51N, 4.60W) in 2000. From lidar backscatter profiles at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelength the optical depth of the clouds are retrieved as well as base and top altitude and the particle phase. The range of detection covers clouds with optical depth (OD) of 3 down to below 10- 3 setting the focus on thin and subvisual cirrus. Comparisons with climatologies of cloud properties suggest that the data obtained within a period of 3 weeks are to some extend representative. One main difference found is the observation of very faint layers of particles in the northern hemisphere in an altitude range of 5 to 8 km. Comparable structures in the SH have not been observed. For cirrus itself the distributions of the occurrence frequencies versus the optical depth (dt / dlogOD) look very similar. In Punta Arenas about 38 % of all detected ice clouds are found in the subvisible range (OD<.03) while 35% were characterized as thin cirrus (.03 .3) In Prestwick these fractions were 32%, 41% and 27%, respec- tively. Differences in the results from the southern and the northern hemisphere are found in the wavelength dependence of the backscatter coefficient and the depolariza- tion behaviour. These results suggest, that there are clouds consisting of rather large particles in Punta Arenas, which have not been detected in Prestwick. In summary our data suggest that the higher concentration of aerosol (including anthropogenic aerosols) in the northern hemisphere does not have an impact on the abundance of cirrus, including those in the subvisible range. However, there are indications for an influence on the microphysical properties of all high altitude clouds.

Immler, F.; Schrems, O.; Strm, J.

319

Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 1; Cloud-information content and sensitivity to noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review the basic multiple scattering theory of off-beam lidar returns from optically thick clouds using the diffusion approximation. The shape of the temporal signal - the stretched pulse - depends primarily on the physical thickness of the cloud whereas its spatial counterpart - the diffuse spot - conveys specific information on the cloud's optical thickness, as do the absolute returns. This makes observation of the weak off-beam lidar returns an attractive prospect in remote sensing of cloud properties. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio, we show that night-time measurements can be performed with existing technology. By the same criterion, day-time operation is a challenge that can only be met with a combination of cutting-edge techniques in filtering and in laser sources.

Davis, Anthony B.; Cahalan, Robert F.

1998-01-01

320

Validation of Cloud Seeding using the Airborne Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cloud seeding programs, the effect of cloud seeding in natural situation has been statistically verified by analyzing the long-term variation of precipitation between experimental and control region. The case analysis for each cloud seeding experiment is needed for the advance of seeding technology, but is avoided because of the limitation of existing instruments. One of the preferable instruments

K. Chang; J. Jung; J. Cha; C. Lee; Y. Choi; H. Lee

2010-01-01

321

Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll  

SciTech Connect

To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

2014-05-16

322

The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO Cirrus Case Study: Cloud Optical Properties Determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the First ISCCP Region Experiment (FIRE) cirrus intensive field observation (IFO) the High Spectral Resolution Lidar was operated from a roof top site on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus. Because the HSRL technique separately measures the molecular and cloud particle backscatter components of the lidar return, the optical thickness is determined independent of particle backscatter. This is accomplished by comparing the known molecular density distribution to the observed decrease in molecular backscatter signal with altitude. The particle to molecular backscatter ratio yields calibrated measurements of backscatter cross sections that can be plotted ro reveal cloud morphology without distortion due to attenuation. Changes in cloud particle size, shape, and phase affect the backscatter to extinction ratio (backscatter-phase function). The HSRL independently measures cloud particle backscatter phase function. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the HSRL cirrus cloud data acquired over an approximate 33 hour period of continuous near zenith observations. Correlations between small scale wind structure and cirrus cloud morphology have been observed. These correlations can bias the range averaging inherent in wind profiling lidars of modest vertical resolution, leading to increased measurement errors at cirrus altitudes. Extended periods of low intensity backscatter were noted between more strongly organized cirrus cloud activity. Optical thicknesses ranging from 0.01-1.4, backscatter phase functions between 0.02-0.065 sr (exp -1) and backscatter cross sections spanning 4 orders of magnitude were observed. the altitude relationship between cloud top and bottom boundaries and the cloud optical center altitude was dependent on the type of formation observed Cirrus features were observed with characteristic wind drift estimated horizontal sizes of 5-400 km. The clouds frequently exhibited cellular structure with vertical to horizontal dimension ratios of 1:5-1:1.

Grund, C. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

1996-01-01

323

Vertical Mass Flux Calculations in Hawaiian Trade Cumulus Clouds from Dual-Doppler Radar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ground-based Doppler radars and an instrumented aircraft provided a means for computing the vertical mass flux in trade wind cumulus clouds that formed east of the island of Hawaii dining the Hawaiian Rainband Project of 1990. This study compares the mass fluxes of small isolated cells with larger groups of clouds and rainbands. Because of excellent sensitivity, the 5.5-cm wavelength radars were capable of detecting Bragg backscatter, which extended the measurements to include some precipitation-free air within and surrounding the clouds.The shape of the vertical profile of vertical mass flux within shallow cumulus clouds and cloud groups varied considerably over the cloud's life cycle but was comparatively independent of cloud size. The early stages of convection displayed a mass flux profile that resembled those produced by buoyancy sorting and entraining plume models, but the mature and later stages were considerably more affected by precipitation-driven down-drafts and included mean downward mass fluxes. The vertical mass flux profiles predicted by a three-dimensional LES model of an isolated cumulus cloud showed the same evolutionary phases as the observations.

Grinnell, Scott A.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Fraser, Alistair M.; Stevens, David E.

1996-07-01

324

Scale Dependence of Variability in Stratiform Clouds Based on Millimeter Wave Could Radar  

SciTech Connect

Internal variability of stratiform clouds is manifested on grid scales ranging from cloud resolving models to general circulation models, and its accurate formulation is one of the most important tasks in improvement of model predictions. Understanding cloud variability on different scales will help to develop and improve subgrid-scale cloud parameterizations. Information about variability is also crucial when dealing with retrieval of microphysical information from observations of volume averaged reflectivity parameters, since neglecting variability can lead to substantial biases in estimation of retrieved microphysical variables. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) operates millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) at the ARM Climate Research Facility over the Southern Great Plains (ACRF SGP) that provides a unique opportunity to obtain continuous observations in order to address issues of cloud variability. These data contain information on spatial and/or temporal short- and long-range correlations in cloudiness, enabling scale-by-scale (scaling) analyses over a range of hundreds of meters to hundreds of kilometers. The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis based on radar reflectivity observations of clouds over the ACRF SGP site with special emphasis on boundary layer clouds, and the effect of drizzle.

Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Mechem, D.B.

2005-03-18

325

Measurements of the Vertical Structure of Aerosols and Clouds Over the Ocean Using Micro-Pulse LIDAR Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds over the ocean is needed for accurate retrievals of ocean color from satellites observations. The presence of absorbing aerosol layers, especially at altitudes above the boundary layer, has been shown to influence the calculation of ocean color. Also, satellite data must be correctly screened for the presence of clouds, particularly cirrus, in order to measure ocean color. One instrument capable of providing this information is a lidar, which uses pulses of laser light to profile the vertical distribution of aerosol and cloud layers in the atmosphere. However, lidar systems prior to the 1990s were large, expensive, and not eye-safe which made them unsuitable for cruise deployments. During the 1990s the first small, autonomous, and eye-safe lidar system became available: the micro-pulse lidar, or MPL. The MPL is a compact and eye-safe lidar system capable of determining the range of aerosols and clouds by firing a short pulse of laser light (523 nm) and measuring the time-of-flight from pulse transmission to reception of a returned signal. The returned signal is a function of time, converted into range using the speed of light, and is proportional to the amount of light backscattered by atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering), aerosols, and clouds. The MPL achieves ANSI eye-safe standards by sending laser pulses at low energy (micro-J) and expanding the beam to 20.32 cm in diameter. A fast pulse-repetition-frequency (2500 Hz) is used to achieve a good signal-to-noise, despite the low output energy. The MPL has a small field-of-view (< 100 micro-rad) and signals received with the instrument do not contain multiple scattering effects. The MPL has been used successfully at a number of long-term sites and also in several field experiments around the world.

Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Bates, David; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

326

Optimal form and frequency of presentation of radar data on clouds and phenomena connected with them  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available data on the space and time structure of the radio echoes from different clouds is examined. On the basis of their analysis, a basis is given for the optimal form of presentation and the operational quality of renewal of radar information used for operational purposes in ZGMO and the TGMTs.

Salman, Y. M.; Divinskaya, B. S.

1975-01-01

327

Extinction coefficients from lidar observations in ice clouds compared to in-situ measurements from the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer during CRYSTAL-FACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison of volume extinction coefficients in tropical ice clouds retrieved from two instruments : the 532-nm Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), and the in-situ probe Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN). Both instruments were mounted on airborne platforms during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign and took measurements in ice clouds up to 17km. Coincident observations from three cloud cases are compared : one synoptically-generated cirrus cloud of low optical depth, and two ice clouds located on top of convective systems. Emphasis is put on the vertical variability of the extinction coefficient. Results show small differences on small spatial scales (approx. 100m) in retrievals from both instruments. Lidar retrievals also show higher extinction coefficients in the synoptic cirrus case, while the opposite tendency is observed in convective cloud systems. These differences are generally variations around the average profile given by the CPL though, and general trends on larger spatial scales are usually well reproduced. A good agreement exists between the two instruments, with an average difference of less than 16% on optical depth retrievals.

Noel, Vincent; Winker, D. M.; Garrett, T. J.; McGill, M.

2005-01-01

328

Can we estimate precipitation rate during snowfall using a scanning terrestrial LiDAR?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate snowfall measurements in windy areas have proven difficult. To examine a new approach, we have installed an automatic scanning terrestrial LiDAR at Mammoth Mountain, CA. With this LiDAR, we have demonstrated effective snow depth mapping over a small study area of several hundred m2. The LiDAR also produces dense point clouds by detecting falling and blowing hydrometeors during storms. Daily counts of airborne detections from the LiDAR show excellent agreement with automated and manual snow water equivalent measurements, suggesting that LiDAR observations have the potential to directly estimate precipitation rate. Thus, we suggest LiDAR scanners offer advantages over precipitation radars, which could lead to more accurate precipitation rate estimates. For instance, uncertainties in mass-diameter and mass-fall speed relationships used in precipitation radar, combined with low reflectivity of snow in the microwave spectrum, produce errors of up to 3X in snowfall rates measured by radar. Since snow has more backscatter in the near-infrared wavelengths used by LiDAR compared to the wavelengths used by radar, and the LiDAR detects individual hydrometeors, our approach has more potential for directly estimating precipitation rate. A key uncertainty is hydrometeor mass. At our study site, we have also installed a Multi Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to measure size, fallspeed, and mass of individual hydrometeors. By combining simultaneous MASC and LiDAR measurements, we can estimate precipitation density and rate.

LeWinter, A. L.; Bair, E. H.; Davis, R. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Dozier, J.

2012-12-01

329

Subgrid-scale cirrus observed by lidar at mid-latitude: variability effects of the cloud optical depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability of the 532-nm optical depth of cirrus clouds observed with a lidar at Observatory of Haute-Provence (43.9N, 5.7E, and 683-m altitude), has been analyzed. While advection dominates at the first order, variability of the optical depth on timescales of minutes can be related to spatial fluctuations of cloud properties on typical scales of a few kilometers. Log-normal distributions of the optical depth have been used to model the variability of the cirrus optical depth as observed by lidars. These investigations have been performed for three independent classes of cirrus. The log-normal distribution of the optical depth is applicable to the classes of thin clouds; however, for thick clouds, likely due to successive freezing/defreezing effects, the distribution is rather bimodal. This work compares the effects of visible solar light scattered by inhomogeneous cirrus to effects generated by homogeneous clouds having a constant geometrical thickness using the short-scale lidar observations of optical depth distribution and an analytical approach. In the case of thin cirrus, the scattering of solar light reaching the ground is stronger for inhomogeneous than homogeneous cirrus. In case of thick cirrus, multiple-scattering processes need to be considered. The conclusion is that log-normal distribution of the cirrus optical depth should be considered in any radiative calculation in case of model grids larger than a few kilometers whatever the cirrus type is.

Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Thuillier, Grard; Hoareau, Christophe; Porteneuve, Jacques; Montoux, Nadge

2013-01-01

330

Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: Lidar and particle counter measurements  

SciTech Connect

Lidar and balloonborne particle counter measurements were performed simultaneously on two days when polar stratospheric clouds were observed in late August 1991 at McMurdo, Antarctica. Both nitric acid trihydrate and ice clouds were observed in the lower stratosphere between 10 and 23 km in different formation stages and with different cooling rate; however in all cases the size distributions were bimodal. Comparison of scattering ratios measured by lidar and calculated from particle size distributions are in good agreement; however, discrepancies were observed when the lower stratosphere was highly perturbed by wave activity. Lee waves generated by air flowing over the Trans Antarctic Mountains induced ice cloud formation at altitudes as high as 20 km. No PSCs were observed after the end of August in 1991.

Adriani, A.; Gobbi, G.P. (Instituto di Fisica dell'Atmosfera, Frascati (Italy)); Deshler, T.; Johnson, B.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)); Donfrancesco, G.Di. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

1992-09-04

331

Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the vertical structure of low-level clouds from CALIPSO lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

steady northeast trade winds impinge on the Hawaiian Islands, producing prominent island wakes of multispatial scales from tens to thousands of kilometers. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) reveal rich three-dimensional structures of low-level clouds that are induced by the islands, distinct from the background environment. The cloud frequency peaks between 1.5 and 2.0 km in cloud top elevation over the windward slopes of the islands of Kauai and Oahu due to orographic lifting and daytime island heating. In the nighttime near-island wake of Kauai, CALIPSO captures a striking cloud hole below 1.6 km as the cold advection from the island suppresses low-level clouds. The cyclonic eddy of the mechanical wake behind the island of Hawaii favors the formation of low-level clouds (below 2.5 km), and the anticyclonic eddy suppresses the low-level cloud formation, indicative of the dynamical effect on the vertical structure of low-level clouds. In the long Hawaiian wake due to air-sea interaction, low-level clouds form over both the warmer and colder waters, but the cloud tops are 400-600 m higher over the warm than the cold waters. In addition, the day-night differences and the sensitivity of low-level clouds to the background trade wind inversion height are also studied.

Liu, Jing-Wu; Xie, Shang-Ping; Zhang, Su-Ping

2015-01-01

332

Buildings classification from airborne LiDAR point clouds through OBIA and ontology driven approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data proved to be a valuable information resource for a vast number of applications ranging from land cover mapping to individual surface feature extraction from complex urban environments. To extract information from LiDAR data, users apply prior knowledge. Unfortunately, there is no consistent initiative for structuring this knowledge into data models that can be shared and reused across different applications and domains. The absence of such models poses great challenges to data interpretation, data fusion and integration as well as information transferability. The intention of this work is to describe the design, development and deployment of an ontology-based system to classify buildings from airborne LiDAR data. The novelty of this approach consists of the development of a domain ontology that specifies explicitly the knowledge used to extract features from airborne LiDAR data. The overall goal of this approach is to investigate the possibility for classification of features of interest from LiDAR data by means of domain ontology. The proposed workflow is applied to the building extraction process for the region of "Biberach an der Riss" in South Germany. Strip-adjusted and georeferenced airborne LiDAR data is processed based on geometrical and radiometric signatures stored within the point cloud. Region-growing segmentation algorithms are applied and segmented regions are exported to the GeoJSON format. Subsequently, the data is imported into the ontology-based reasoning process used to automatically classify exported features of interest. Based on the ontology it becomes possible to define domain concepts, associated properties and relations. As a consequence, the resulting specific body of knowledge restricts possible interpretation variants. Moreover, ontologies are machinable and thus it is possible to run reasoning on top of them. Available reasoners (FACT++, JESS, Pellet) are used to check the consistency of the developed ontologies, and logical reasoning is performed to infer implicit relations between defined concepts. The ontology for the definition of building is specified using the Ontology Web Language (OWL). It is the most widely used ontology language that is based on Description Logics (DL). DL allows the description of internal properties of modelled concepts (roof typology, shape, area, height etc.) and relationships between objects (IS_A, MEMBER_OF/INSTANCE_OF). It captures terminological knowledge (TBox) as well as assertional knowledge (ABox) - that represents facts about concept instances, i.e. the buildings in airborne LiDAR data. To assess the classification accuracy, ground truth data generated by visual interpretation and calculated classification results in terms of precision and recall are used. The advantages of this approach are: (i) flexibility, (ii) transferability, and (iii) extendibility - i.e. ontology can be extended with further concepts, data properties and object properties.

Tomljenovic, Ivan; Belgiu, Mariana; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.

2013-04-01

333

Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds With Spaceborne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic Season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of polar stratospheric clouds in polar ozone loss has been well documented. The CALIPSO satellite mission offers a new opportunity to characterize PSCs on spatial and temporal scales previously unavailable. A PSC detection algorithm based on a single wavelength threshold approach has been developed for CALIPSO. The method appears to accurately detect PSCs of all opacities, including tenuous clouds, with a very low rate of false positives and few missed clouds. We applied the algorithm to CALIPSO data acquired during the 2006 Antarctic winter season from 13 June through 31 October. The spatial and temporal distribution of CALIPSO PSC observations is illustrated with weekly maps of PSC occurrence. The evolution of the 2006 PSC season is depicted by time series of daily PSC frequency as a function of altitude. Comparisons with virtual solar occultation data indicate that CALIPSO provides a different view of the PSC season than attained with previous solar occultation satellites. Measurement-based time series of PSC areal coverage and vertically-integrated PSC volume are computed from the CALIPSO data. The observed area covered with PSCs is significantly smaller than would be inferred from a temperature-based proxy such as TNAT but is similar in magnitude to that inferred from TSTS. The potential of CALIPSO measurements for investigating PSC microphysics is illustrated using combinations of lidar backscatter coefficient and volume depolarization to infer composition for two CALIPSO PSC scenes.

Pitts, Michael C.; Thomason, L. W.; Poole, Lamont R.; Winker, David M.

2007-01-01

334

Filtering of LIDAR Point Cloud Using a Strip Based Algorithm in Residential Mountainous Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several algorithms have been developed to automatically detect the bare earth in LIDAR point clouds referred to as filtering. Previous experimental study on filtering algorithms determined that in flat and uncomplicated landscapes, algorithms tend to do well. Significant differences in accuracies of filtering appear in landscapes containing steep slopes and discontinuities. A solution for this problem is the segmentation of ALS point clouds. In this paper a new segmentation has been developed. The algorithm starts with first slicing a point cloud into contiguous and parallel profiles in different directions. Then the points in each profile are segmented into polylines based on distance and elevation proximity. The segmentation in each profile yields polylines. The polylines are then linked together through their common points to obtain surface segments. At the final stage, the data is partitioned into some windows in which the strips are exploited to analysis the points with regard to the height differences through them. In this case the whole data could be fully segmented into ground and non-ground measurements, sequentially via the strips which make the algorithm fast to implement.

Hosseini, S. A.; Arefi, H.; Gharib, Z.

2014-10-01

335

Rule-based segmentation of LIDAR point cloud for automatic extraction of building roof planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new segmentation technique for LIDAR point cloud data for automatic extraction of building roof planes. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups: ground and nonground points. The ground points are used to generate a "building mask" in which the black areas represent the ground where there are no laser returns below a certain height. The non-ground points are segmented to extract the planar roof segments. First, the building mask is divided into small grid cells. The cells containing the black pixels are clustered such that each cluster represents an individual building or tree. Second, the non-ground points within a cluster are segmented based on their coplanarity and neighbourhood relations. Third, the planar segments are refined using a rule-based procedure that assigns the common points among the planar segments to the appropriate segments. Finally, another rule-based procedure is applied to remove tree planes which are small in size and randomly oriented. Experimental results on the Vaihingen data set show that the proposed method offers high building detection and roof plane extraction rates.

Awrangjeb, M.; Fraser, C. S.

2013-10-01

336

Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere and their optical characteristics were measured with a multiwavelength airborne lidar system as part of the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. PSCs were observed on 10 flights between January 6 and February 2, 1989, into the polar vortex. The PSCs were found in the 14-27 km altitude range in regions where the temperatures were less than 195 K. Two types of aerosols with different optical characteristics (Types 1a and 1b) were observed in PSCs thought to be composed of nitric acid trihydrate. Water ice PSCs (Type 2) were observed to have high scattering ratios (greater than 10) and high aerosol depolarizations (greater than 10 percent) at temperatures less than 190 K.

Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Carter, A. F.; Higdon, N. S.; Butler, C. F.; Robinette, P. A.; Toon, O. B.; Schoeberl, M. R.

1990-01-01

337

Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds at McMurdo, Antarctica, during NOZE-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SRI International operated a dual wavelength (1.064 micrometer and .532 micrometer) aerosol lidar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of the National Ozone Expedition-2 (NOZE-2). The objective of the project was to map the vertical distributions of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which are believed to play an important role in the destruction of ozone in the Antarctic spring. Altitude, thickness, homogeneity, and duration of PSC events as well as information on particle shape, size or number density will be very useful in determining the exact role of PSCs in ozone destructions, and when combined with measurements of other investigators, additional properties of PSCs can be estimated. The results are currently being analyzed in terms of PSC properties which are useful for modeling the stratospheric ozone depletion mechanism.

Morley, Bruce M.

1988-01-01

338

Investigation of aerosol and cloud properties using multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar measurements obtained during several field campaigns have provided an extensive dataset for investigating aerosol characteristics and cloud properties. In this thesis we use measurements of multi-wavelength optical extinction measured with a Raman lidar to infer aerosol and cloud particle size variations. Aerosol extinction depends on both size and number density of the scatterers. The optical extinction at different wavelengths depends on the sixth power of the size parameter for aerosols much smaller than the scattering wavelength, and on the second power of the size parameter for aerosols much larger than the wavelength. Changes in the density of a particular size aerosol lead to a proportional response. The extinction profiles at several wavelengths are simultaneously examined to study changes in the aerosol size distribution over an interesting range of sizes corresponding to accumulation-mode particles. Model calculations based on Mie scattering theory are compared with extinction profiles at different wavelengths, water vapor profiles, and other simultaneous measurements, to investigate the formation and dissipation of cloud structures. The optical scattering measurements from aerosols and cloud particles demonstrate that various characteristics of aerosols and visibility can be determined. We demonstrate the capability of the new technique using the multi-wavelength extinction ratios to profile information about changes in CCN particle size in the range of 50 nm to 0.5 mum. Examples taken from three different field campaigns demonstrate that changes in the size of the cloud particles during the different stages of growth and dissipation are observed in the multi-wavelength aerosol extinction using this technique. We also show the relationship that exists between particle size increase or decrease in cloud regions, based on the extinction coefficients and changes in relative humidity. The deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) is found to exert a strong control on the optical extinction and visibility. Our results show that relative humidity values above 85% accompany drastic drops in visibility in the U.S. north-east regions. Increase in the relative humidity values beyond the DRH results in rapid growth of particle size, which in turn causes a simultaneous increase in the optical extinction and a drop in visibility. Comparison of data from the eastern and western regions of the United States show that different sources control the changes in optical extinction values in the lower boundary layer. During the Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS) campaign an increase of optical extinction was observed after sunset in the nocturnal boundary layer due to the growth of particles caused by the increasing relative humidity. On the other hand, the optical extinction during the North-East Particle and Oxidant Study (NEOPS) campaigns was controlled more by pollutant concentrations and showed an increase in values after sunrise and decreased values after sunset; opposite from that observed at Hesperia, Ca. We used theoretical simulations along with field measurements of multi-wavelength extinction coefficients to investigate the differences that particle growth and pollutant concentration have on the extinction coefficient as well as on the extinction coefficient ratios (visible/ultraviolet). Our results show that the increase in the extinction coefficient in a region of pollutants, typically composed of smaller size particles, depends on the number density of the scatterers, which has the same effect at all wavelengths. We additionally demonstrate the capability of the Raman lidar to measure atmospheric visibility conditions and transmission properties using the optical extinction measurements.

Verghese, Sachin John

339

A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is primarily concerned with an event observed from 16:30 to 24:30 UT on 29 October 2010 during a very geomagnetically quiet interval (Kp ≤ 1). The sodium LIDAR observations conducted at Tromsø, Norway (69.6 N, 19.2 E) captured a clearly discernible gravity wave (GW) signature. Derived vertical and horizontal wavelengths, maximum amplitude, apparent and intrinsic period, and horizontal phase velocity were about ~ 11.9 km, ~ 1.38 103 km, ~ 15 K, 4 h, ~ 7.7 h, and ~ 96 m s-1, respectively, between a height of 80 and 95 km. Of particular interest is a temporal development of the uppermost altitude that the GW reached. The GW disappeared around 95 km height between 16:30 and 21:00 UT, while after 21:00 UT the GW appeared to propagate to higher altitudes (above 100 km). We have evaluated three mechanisms (critical-level filtering, convective and dynamic instabilities) for dissipations using data obtained by the sodium LIDAR and a meteor radar. It is found that critical-level filtering did not occur, and the convective and dynamic instabilities occurred on some occasions. MF radar echo power showed significant enhancements between 18:30 and 21:00 UT, and an overturning feature of the sodium mixing ratio was observed between 18:30 and 21:20 UT above about 95 km. From these results, we have concluded that the GW was dissipated by wave breaking and instabilities before 21:00 UT. We have also investigated the difference of the background atmosphere for the two intervals and would suggest that a probable cause of the change in the GW propagation was due to the difference in the temperature gradient of the background atmosphere above 94 km.

Takahashi, T.; Nozawa, S.; Tsutsumi, M.; Hall, C.; Suzuki, S.; Tsuda, T. T.; Kawahara, T. D.; Saito, N.; Oyama, S.; Wada, S.; Kawabata, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Brekke, A.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Fujii, R.

2014-10-01

340

Modelling and Computer Simulation of Radar Screening using Plasma Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief introduction on the principles of screening an aerospace vehicle using a plasma, we develop models for the Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) associated with microwave (Radar) back-scattering from a strong and weakly ionized plasma screen. In the latter case, it is shown that the strength of the return signal is determined by an IRF that is characterised by

Jonathan Blackledge

2007-01-01

341

Analysis and Calibration of CRF Raman Lidar Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Raman lidar (RL), located at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF), is a unique state-of-the-art active remote sensor that is able to measure profiles of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud properties at high temporal and vertical resolution throughout the diurnal cycle. In October 2005, the capability of the RL was extended by the addition of a new detection channel that is sensitive to the Raman scattering of liquid water. This new channel permits the system, in theory, to measure profiles of liquid water content (LWC) by the RL. To our knowledge, the ARM RL is the only operation lidar with this capability. The liquid water Raman backscattering cross-section is a relatively weak and spectrally broad feature, relative to the water vapor Raman backscatter signal. The wide bandpass required to achieve reasonable signal-to-noise in the liquid water channel essentially eliminates the ability to measure LWC profiles during the daytime in the presence of large solar background, and thus all LWC observations are nighttime only. Additionally, the wide bandpass increases the probability that other undesirable signals, such as fluorescence from aerosols, may contaminate the observation. The liquid water Raman cross-section has a small amount of overlap with the water vapor Raman cross-section, and thus there will be a small amount of cross-talk between the two signals, with water vapor contributing a small amount of signal to the LWC observation. And finally, there is significant uncertainty in the actual strength of the liquid water Raman cross-section in the literature. The calibrated LWC profiles, together with the coincident cloud backscatter observations also made by the RL, can be used to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius. By combining these profiles of effective radius in the lower portion of the cloud with the aerosol extinction measurements made below the cloud by the RL, the first aerosol indirect effect can be investigated using a single instrument, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with aligning the different sampling periods and fields of view of multiple instruments. We have applied a first principles calibration to the LWC profiles. This approach requires that the relative differences in optical efficiency between the water vapor and liquid water channels be known; this relative difference is easily computed using the efficiency values of the beam splitters and interference filters in the lidar that were provided by the vendors of these components. The first principles approach then transfers the calibration from the water vapor mixing ratio to the LWC using the difference in the optical efficiency and an interpolated value of the liquid water Raman cross section from the literature, and the better established water vapor Raman cross section. After accounting for all known error sources, the vertical integral of LWC was compared against a similar value retrieved from a co-located ground-based infrared radiometer. The RL and infrared radiometer have significantly different fields of view; thus to compare the two sensors the data were averaged to 5 min intervals where only cloudy samples were included in the average of each. While there is fair scatter in the data (r=0.47), there is also a clear indication of a positive correlation between the infrared and the RL values. The value of the slope of the regression is 0.49, which indicates a tendency of the RL measurements to underestimate the total liquid amount with respect to the infrared retrieval. Research continues to investigate the source of the bias, but the most likely candidate is the large uncertainty in the liquid water Raman cross-section as there have been no direct measurements made of this parameter at the lidars laser wavelength of 355 nm. The calibrated LWC profile was then used together with the cloud backscatter coefficient profile from the RL to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number density. These profiles o

Turner, D.D.

2007-10-31

342

Continuous Lidar Monitoring of Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) play a primary role in the formation of annual ozone holes over Antarctica during the austral sunrise. Meridional temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, caused by strong radiative cooling, induce a broad dynamic vortex centered near the South Pole that decouples and insulates the winter polar airmass. PSC nucleate and grow as vortex temperatures gradually fall below equilibrium saturation and frost points for ambient sulfate, nitrate, and water vapor concentrations (generally below 197 K). Cloud surfaces promote heterogeneous reactions that convert stable chlorine and bromine-based molecules into photochemically active ones. As spring nears, and the sun reappears and rises, photolysis decomposes these partitioned compounds into individual halogen atoms that react with and catalytically destroy thousands of ozone molecules before they are stochastically neutralized. Despite a generic understanding of the ozone hole paradigm, many key components of the system, such as cloud occurrence, phase, and composition; particle growth mechanisms; and denitrification of the lower stratosphere have yet to be fully resolved. Satellite-based observations have dramatically improved the ability to detect PSC and quantify seasonal polar chemical partitioning. However, coverage directly over the Antarctic plateau is limited by polar-orbiting tracks that rarely exceed 80 degrees S. In December 1999, a NASA Micropulse Lidar Network instrument (MPLNET) was first deployed to the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL) Atmospheric Research Observatory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station for continuous cloud and aerosol profiling. MPLNET instruments are eye-safe, capable of full-time autonomous operation, and suitably rugged and compact to withstand long-term remote deployment. With only brief interruptions during the winters of 2001 and 2002, a nearly continuous data archive exists to the present.

Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D

2009-01-01

343

Signal simplification and cloud detection with an improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm for single-channel lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-channel lidar is a widely used system in atmospheric aerosol and cloud detection. However, many difficulties remain in the automatic and accurate identification of cloud from backscatter signals. Popular methods have been proposed, but there is still large uncertainty in cloud detection, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. In this study, a signal simplification approach based on an improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is proposed. The layer base and top are then selected using the simplified signal and the raw range-corrected signal. Finally, we use a peak-to-base ratio function to distinguish a cloud layer from a non-cloud layer. The detection results of our algorithm are remarkably better than those obtained using the differential zero-crossing method.

Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Song, Shalei

2011-06-01

344

Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds  

SciTech Connect

In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1996-04-01

345

Combined satellite and radar retrievals of drop concentration and CCN at convective cloud base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of activated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud drops at the base of convective clouds (Na) is retrieved based on the high-resolution (375 m) satellite retrievals of vertical profiles of convective cloud drop effective radius (re). The maximum cloud base supersaturation (S) is calculated when Na is combined with radar-measured updraft and yields CCN(S), which was validated well against ground-based CCN measurements during the conditions of well-mixed boundary layer over the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric System Research Southern Great Plains site. Satellite retrieving Na is a new capability, which is one essential component of simultaneous measurements of cloud microstructure and CCN from space by using clouds as natural CCN chambers. This has to be complemented by a methodology for satellite estimates of cloud base updraft, which is yet to be developed and demonstrated. In the mean time, the retrieved Na can be used for the assimilation of the combined CCN and updraft effects on clouds in models.

Rosenfeld, Daniel; Fischman, Baruch; Zheng, Youtong; Goren, Tom; Giguzin, David

2014-05-01

346

Climatology Of Thin Cirrus Clouds at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E) Using Ground Based Lidar And Satellite Based Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude cirrus clouds play a significant role in the radiative balance of Earth atmosphere system. Information on cirrus occurrences and their optical properties is essential for climate modeling studies. The influence of high altitude thin cirrus clouds on the climate is important due to their optical and thermodynamic properties. In order to quantify their effect on atmosphere, the vertical structure and optical properties of these thin cirrus clouds are to be characterized. The Lidar technique has become a unique tool for detecting and characterizing cirrus clouds for their optical properties. Ground based LIDAR system offers an excellent way to obtain characteristic values on the cirrus formations, although the microphysical and optical properties of thin cirrus clouds can also obtained on global scale by the observations from Earth-orbiting Satellites .The ground-based lidar observations could provide more intensive measurements on continuous basis, compared to satellite observations. Utilising observations from both, the statistical characteristics, physical and optical properties of thin cirrus clouds can be retrieved more precisely. The present study is based on the ground based lidar measurements using the pulsed monostatic LIDAR system at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory [NARL], Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The data obtained in the altitude range of 8-20 km are used for this study. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO and MODIS satellites are compared with the ground based lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology. Optically thin cirrus clouds (? < 0.3) observed during 2009 are selected and their microphysical and geometrical properties are studied. The microphysical properties such as optical depth, lidar ratio and depolarisation ratio for cirrus clouds were obtained. It is observed that the variability in optical depth depends on the composition and thickness of the clouds. The relationships between various quantities were also processed. The study shows that the thin cirrus generally was present in higher altitudes and the optical properties show correlation with the height and the temperature.

Motty, G. S.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, M.

2014-11-01

347

Comparison of convective clouds observed by spaceborne W-band radar and simulated by cloud-resolving atmospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play an important role in regulating global climate through vertical mass flux, vertical water transport, and radiation. For general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate the global climate realistically, they must simulate DCCs realistically. GCMs have traditionally used cumulus parameterizations (CPs). Much recent research has shown that multiple persistent unrealistic behaviors in GCMs are related to limitations of CPs. Two alternatives to CPs exist: the global cloud-resolving model (GCRM), and the multiscale modeling framework (MMF). Both can directly simulate the coarser features of DCCs because of their multi-kilometer horizontal resolutions, and can simulate large-scale meteorological processes more realistically than GCMs. However, the question of realistic behavior of simulated DCCs remains. How closely do simulated DCCs resemble observed DCCs? In this study I examine the behavior of DCCs in the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) and Superparameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), the latter with both single-moment and double-moment microphysics. I place particular emphasis on the relationship between cloud vertical structure and convective environment. I also emphasize the transition between shallow clouds and mature DCCs. The spatial domains used are the tropical oceans and the contiguous United States (CONUS), the latter of which produces frequent vigorous convection during the summer. CloudSat is used to observe DCCs, and A-Train and reanalysis data are used to represent the large-scale environment in which the clouds form. The CloudSat cloud mask and radar reflectivity profiles for CONUS cumuliform clouds (defined as clouds with a base within the planetary boundary layer) during boreal summer are first averaged and compared. Both NICAM and SP-CAM greatly underestimate the vertical growth of cumuliform clouds. Then they are sorted by three large-scale environmental variables: total preciptable water (TPW), surface air temperature (SAT), and 500hPa vertical velocity (W500), representing the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which the clouds form. The sorted CloudSat profiles are then compared with NICAM and SP-CAM profiles simulated with the Quickbeam CloudSat simulator. Both models have considerable difficulty representing the relationship of SAT and clouds over CONUS. For TPW and W500, shallow clouds transition to DCCs at higher values than observed. This may be an indication of the models' inability to represent the formation of DCCs in marginal convective environments. NICAM develops tall DCCs in highly favorable environments, but SP-CAM appears to be incapable of developing tall DCCs in almost any environment. The use of double moment microphysics in SP-CAM improves the frequency of deep clouds and their relationship with TPW, but not SAT. Both models underpredict radar reflectivity in the upper cloud of mature DCCs. SP-CAM with single moment microphysics has a particularly unrealistic DCC reflectivity profile, but with double moment microphysics it improves substantially. SP-CAM with double-moment microphysics unexpectedly appears to weaken DCC updraft strength as TPW increases, but otherwise both NICAM and SP-CAM represent the environment-versus-DCC relationships fairly realistically.

Dodson, Jason B.

348

An extraction method for interested buildings using lidar point clouds data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an active remote sensing technique for acquiring spatial information. It can quickly acquire three-dimensional (3D) geographic coordinate information of ground surface and ground targets, and has typical advantage in such applications as urban planning, 3D modeling, disaster assessment, etc. This paper presents an extraction method for interested buildings using three-dimensional laser point cloud data which are filtered and organized by the kd tree. First, the algorithm determines candidate points of a building from non-ground points and clusters them on the constraints of distance so that single building target can be segmented. Second, for each segmented building target, the algorithm extracts its edge points and regularizes its edge. The extracted building feature information is provided for quickly searching target of interest. At last, the method is proved to be effective based on the analysis of measured data. The method is no point cloud interpolation error, and is not affected by the size or shape of a building.

Zhou, Mei; Tang, Ling-li; Li, Chuan-rong; Xia, Bing

2011-10-01

349

Investigating particle orientation in cirrus clouds by measuring backscattering phase matrices with lidar.  

PubMed

The relation between the orientation of particles in ice-crystal clouds and backscattering phase matrices (BSPMs) is considered. Parameters characterizing the predominant orientation of particles in the azimuthal direction and in the horizontal position are presented. The parameters are expressed through BSPM elements. A technique for measuring BSPM elements with lidar is described. Examples of some measurements are presented along with a statistical generalization of the results from more than 400 BSPM measurements. It is found that the orientation of coarse particles with large diameters in an azimuthal direction and in a horizontal position is more probable than in a random direction. However, the orientation of large particles is often masked by small particles that are not subject to the effect of orienting factors. Thus the mean parameters characterizing the state of orientation of particles in clouds as a whole correspond to weak orientation. It is supposed that the orientation of particles in the azimuthal direction is caused by wind-velocity pulsations. PMID:15646781

Kaul, Bruno V; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V; Volkov, Sergei N

2004-12-20

350

Space radar image of Western Pacific rain clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image shows the ocean surface in a portion of the Western Pacific Ocean. Scientists are using images like this to study the occurrence, distribution and activity of tropical rain squalls and to understand the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean and the upper layer mixing in the tropical oceans, which are critical factors for understanding the driving forces which produce the El Nino phenomenon. The white, curved area at the top of the image is a portion of the Ontong Java Atoll, part of the Solomon Islands group. The yellowish green area near the bottom of the image is an intense rain cell. This image is centered near 5.5 degrees South latitude and 159.5 degrees East longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 21 kilometers (31 miles by 13 miles). This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 13th orbit on April 10, 1994. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the SIR-C radar as follows: Red is C-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received and blue is L-band horizontally transmitted and received. The large rain cell is about 15 kilometers by 15 kilometers (9 miles by 9 miles) and contains two dark regions, one circular and one rectangular, inside it. Two smaller reddish cells are visible closer to the atoll. The red areas may be caused by reflection from ice particles in the colder, upper portion of the storm cell and not from the ocean surface at all. This provides direct evidence that it is raining within this storm cell, valuable information which is usually very difficult to measure over more remote regions of the ocean away from coastal-based weather systems. The dark holes in the middle of the cell are thought to be areas of very heavy rainfall which actually smooth out the ocean surface and result in lower radar returns. The surrounding ocean is blue to green plus black. Winds and currents cause the ocean surface to be rough and those variations on the surface affect how the radar signals bounce off the surface. The bright areas on the image correspond to areas where the wind speed is high. The highest winds are seen as the yellow-green region of the large rain cell. The lowest winds are seen inside the atoll as dark areas. Outside the rain cell, the winds are moderately low, which is indicated by the puff-like, blue patterns surrounding the cell and extending into the atoll. The long, thin, dark lines extending across the ocean are surface currents. Here the currents are likely accumulating natural oils caused by small marine biological organisms. The oils cause the small, wind-generated waves to be reduced in size or damped which produces a smooth, dark zone on the radar image.

1995-01-01

351

NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds during WVIOP2000 and AFWEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was deployed to the Southern Great Plains CART site from September - December, 2000 and participated in two field campaigns devoted to comparisons of various water vapor measurement technologies and calibrations. These campaigns were the Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period 2000 (WVIOP2000) and the ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX). WVIOP2000 was devoted to validating water vapor measurements in the lower atmosphere while AFWEX had similar goals but for measurements in the upper troposphere. The SRL was significantly upgraded both optically and electronically prior to these field campaigns. These upgrades enabled the SRL to demonstrate the highest resolution lidar measurements of water vapor ever acquired during the nighttime and the highest S/N Raman lidar measurements of water vapor in the daytime; more than a factor of 2 increase in S/N versus the DOE CARL Raman Lidar. Examples of these new measurement capabilities along with comparisons of SRL and CARL, LASE, MPI-DIAL, in-situ sensors, radiosonde, and others will be presented. The profile comparisons of the SRL and CARL have revealed what appears to be an overlap correction or countrate correction problem in CARL. This may be involved in an overall dry bias in the precipitable water calibration of CARL with respect to the MWR of approx. 4%. Preliminary analysis indicates that the application of a temperature dependent correction to the narrowband Raman lidar measurements of water vapor improves the lidar/Vaisala radiosonde comparisons of upper tropospheric water vapor. Other results including the comparison of the first-ever simultaneous measurements from four water vapor lidar systems, a bore-wave event captured at high resolution by the SRL and cirrus cloud optical depth studies using the SRL and CARL will be presented at the meeting.

Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Demoz, B. B.; Turner, D.; Comstock, J.; Ismail, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

352

Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison  

SciTech Connect

During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

353

Evaluations of Three-Dimensional Building Model Reconstruction from LiDAR Point Clouds and Single-View Perspective Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly presents two approaches for effective three-dimensional (3D) building model reconstruction from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data and single perspective view imagery and assesses their applicability to the reconstruction of 3D models of landmark or historical buildings. The collected LiDAR point clouds are registered based on conjugate points identified using a seven-parameter transformation system. Three dimensional models are generated using plan and surface fitting algorithms. The proposed single-view reconstruction (SVR) method is based on vanishing points and single-view metrology. More detailed models can also be generated according to semantic analysis of the faade images. Experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate that both TLS and SVR approaches can successfully produce accurate and detailed 3D building models from LiDAR point clouds or different types of single-view perspective images.

Tsai, F.; Chang, H.

2014-06-01

354

Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A three-year project with a goal of advancing CO{sub 2} lidar technology and measurement techniques for cloud studies was successfully completed. An eyesafe, infrared lidar with good sensitivity and improved Doppler accuracy was designed, constructed, and demonstrated. Dual-wavelength operation was achieved. A major leap forward in robustness was demonstrated. CO{sub 2} lidars were operated as part of two Intensive Operations Periods at the Southern Great Plains CART site. The first used an older lidar and was intended primarily for measurement technique development. The second used the new lidar and was primarily a demonstration and evaluation of its performance. Progress was demonstrated in the development, evaluation, and application of measurement techniques using CO{sub 2} lidar.

Eberhard, W.L.; Brewer, W.A.; Intrieri, J.M.

1998-09-28

355

Uncertainties in Ice-Sheet Altimetry from a Spaceborne 1064-nm Single-Channel Lidar Due to Undetected Thin Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-II mission, this paper studies the bias in surface-elevation measurements caused by undetected thin clouds. The ICESat-II satellite may only have a 1064-nm single-channel lidar onboard. Less sensitive to clouds than the 532-nm channel, the 1064-nm channel tends to miss thin clouds. Previous studies have demonstrated that scattering by cloud particles increases the photon-path length, thus resulting in biases in ice-sheet-elevation measurements from spaceborne lidars. This effect is referred to as atmospheric path delay. This paper complements previous studies in the following ways: First, atmospheric path delay is estimated over the ice sheets based on cloud statistics from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua. Second, the effect of cloud particle size and shape is studied with the state-of-the-art phase functions developed for MODIS cirrus- cloud microphysical model. Third, the contribution of various orders of scattering events to the path delay is studied, and an analytical model of the first-order scattering contribution is developed. This paper focuses on the path delay as a function of telescope field of view (FOV). The results show that reducing telescope FOV can significantly reduce the expected path delay. As an example, the average path delays for FOV = 167 microrad (a 100-m-diameter circle on the surface) caused by thin undetected clouds by the 1064-nm channel over Greenland and East Antarctica are illustrated.

Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wiscombe, Warren; Yang, Ping

2010-01-01

356

Layers of quasi-horizontally oriented ice crystals in cirrus clouds observed by a two-wavelength polarization lidar.  

PubMed

Layers of quasi-horizontally oriented ice crystals in cirrus clouds are observed by a two-wavelength polarization lidar. These layers of thickness of several hundred meters are identified by three attributes: the backscatter reveals a sharp ridge while the depolarization ratio and color ratio become deep minima. These attributes have been justified by theoretical calculations of these quantities within the framework of the physical-optics approximation. PMID:25322032

Borovoi, Anatoli; Balin, Yurii; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Penner, Iogannes; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kustova, Natalia

2014-10-01

357

Application of Cloude's target decomposition theorem to polarimetric imaging radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we applied Cloude's decomposition to imaging radar polarimetry. We show in detail how the decomposition results can guide the interpretation of scattering from vegetated areas. For multifrequency polarimetric radar measurements of a clear-cut area, the decomposition leads us to conclude that the vegetation is probably thin compared to even the C-band radar wavelength of 6 cm. For a frosted area, we notice an increased amount of even number of reflection scattering at P-band and L-band, probably the result of penetration through the coniferous canopy resulting in trunk-ground double reflection scattering. However, the scattering for the forested area is still dominated by scattering from randomly oriented cylinders. It is found that these cylinders are thicker than in the case of clear-cut areas, leading us to conclude that scattering from the branches probably dominates in this case.

Vanzyl, Jakob J.

1993-01-01

358

Turbulence as observed by concurrent measurements made at NSSL using weather radar, Doppler radar, Doppler lidar and aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As air traffic increases and aircraft capability increases in range and operating altitude, the exposure to weather hazards increases. Turbulence and wind shears are two of the most important of these hazards that must be taken into account if safe flight operations are to be accomplished. Beginning in the early 1960's, Project Rough Rider began thunderstorm investigations. Past and present efforts at the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) to measure these flight safety hazards and to describe the use of Doppler radar to detect and qualify these hazards are summarized. In particular, the evolution of the Doppler-measured radial velocity spectrum width and its applicability to the problem of safe flight is presented.

Lee, Jean T.

1987-01-01

359

An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a statistical comparison of three cloud retrieval products of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site from 1998 to 2006: MICROBASE, University of Utah (UU), and University of North Dakota (UND) products. The probability density functions of the various cloud liquid water content (LWC) retrievals appear to be consistent with each other. While the mean MICROBASE and UU cloud LWC retrievals agree well in the middle of cloud, the discrepancy increases to about 0.03 gm-3 at cloud top and cloud base. Alarmingly large differences are found in the droplet effective radius (re) retrievals. The mean MICROBASE re is more than 6 ?m lower than the UU re, whereas the discrepancy is reduced to within 1 ?m if columns containing raining and/or mixed-phase layers are excluded from the comparison. A suite of stratified comparisons and retrieval experiments reveal that the LWC difference stems primarily from rain contamination, partitioning of total liquid later path (LWP) into warm and supercooled liquid, and the input cloud mask and LWP. The large discrepancy among the re retrievals is mainly due to rain contamination and the presence of mixed-phase layers. Since rain or ice particles are likely to dominate radar backscattering over cloud droplets, the large discrepancy found in this paper can be thought of as a physical limitation of single-frequency radar approaches. It is therefore suggested that data users should use the retrievals with caution when rain and/or mixed-phase layers are present in the column.

Huang, D.; Zhao, C.; Dunn, M.; Dong, X.; Mace, G. G.; Jensen, M. P.; Xie, S.; Liu, Y.

2012-06-01

360

Polarimetric Radar Observations of Arctic Clouds: Signal Processing and First Results from the may 2013 Iop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARM Climate Research Facility site at the North Slope of Alaska in Barrow provides polarimetric radar observations of Arctic clouds at X, Ka and W bands. During the May 2013 Scanning radar Intensive Observation Period, raw I and Q data were acquired with the X-SAPR and the Ka-W SACR for the purpose of validating existing, and testing new signal processing procedures specifically tailored for Arctic observations. The raw I and Q datasets were collected on May 3rd 2013 for the case of low-level boundary layer mixed-phase arctic clouds and on May 6th 2013 for the case of a synoptic low moving in from the west. http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/nsa2013nsasr The present paper describes the impact of signal processing procedures on the data, and establishes dual-polarization radar as a valuable tool for the microphysical characterization of ice clouds. In particular, the X-SAPR operates at STSR mode, making available differential reflectivity ZDR, copolar correlation coefficient ?hv, specific differential phase KDP and Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit DOPS. Low-level boundary layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds are characterized by layers of supercooled liquid water aloft, which present a stark polarimetric contrast with respect to the associated ice precipitation fallout. The ice particles falling from boundary layer Arctic clouds on May 2nd, 3rd and 4th 2013 (winds were very weak or absent) showed the remarkable property of being composed exclusively by large dendrites - fern-like, stellars, twelve-branched - indicating deposition as the main accretion mechanism. http://www.flickr.com/photos/michele_galletti/sets/72157633422079814/ Boundary Layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds provide an exceptional natural laboratory for the exploration of polarimetric signatures in presence of dendritic ice particles. The first-ever X-band analysis of differential reflectivity ZDR of mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented in [1]. For the May 6th case, ice particle populations associated with frontal systems underwent more significant vertical mixing, and therefore more significant break-up and aggregation, with the overall result that ice particles possessed less geometrical symmetry, and consequently less prominent polarimetric contrast was detected by the radars. [1] Oue, Galletti, Verlinde "Observations of X-band differential reflectivity in Arctic mixed-phase clouds", submitted.

Galletti, M.; Oue, M.; Verlinde, J.

2013-12-01

361

Long-term measurements of Polar Stratospheric Clouds with the Esrange lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) play a key role for ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere whose magnitude depends on the type of PSC and its lifetime and extent. PSCs are classified into three types (PSC Ia: nitric acid di- or trihydrate crystals, NAD or NAT; PSC Ib: supercooled liquid ternary solutions, STS; PSC II: ice) according to their particle composition and to their physical phase. This study presents long-term statistics of PSC occurrence from measurements with the lidar system at the Esrange Space Centre (68N, 21E), northern Sweden. The study gives an overview of the occurrence frequency of different PSC types in connection to the prevailing meteorological conditions for the northern hemispheric winters from 1996/97 to 2013/14. During these 18 years, most of the measurements were conducted in January. The geographical location of Esrange in the lee of the Scandinavian mountain range allows for the observation of a wide range of PSC growth conditions due to mountain-wave activity. The Esrange lidar data set contains hourly mean values of the parallel and perpendicularly polarized backscatter ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio - all measured at 532 nm. These parameters are used for PSC classification. The lowest occurrence frequency is found for PSCs of type II (6% for the entire period). This low occurrence rate is reasonable since PSCs of type II are formed at temperatures below the ice-frost point. Such temperatures are rarely reached in the Arctic polar vortex. Most of the observations between 1997 and 2014 showed low particle depolarization ratios and low backscatter ratios according to which observed PSCs were classified as type Ib (47%) or mixtures (33%). The remaining 13% of the observation were classified as type Ia PSCs (NAT particles).

Achtert, Peggy; Tesche, Matthias; Blum, Ulrich

2014-05-01

362

Augmented reality system using lidar point cloud data for displaying dimensional information of objects on mobile phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile augmented reality system is the next generation technology to visualise 3D real world intelligently. The technology is expanding at a fast pace to upgrade the status of a smart phone to an intelligent device. The research problem identified and presented in the current work is to view actual dimensions of various objects that are captured by a smart phone in real time. The methodology proposed first establishes correspondence between LiDAR point cloud, that are stored in a server, and the image t hat is captured by a mobile. This correspondence is established using the exterior and interior orientation parameters of the mobile camera and the coordinates of LiDAR data points which lie in the viewshed of the mobile camera. A pseudo intensity image is generated using LiDAR points and their intensity. Mobile image and pseudo intensity image are then registered using image registration method SIFT thereby generating a pipeline to locate a point in point cloud corresponding to a point (pixel) on the mobile image. The second part of the method uses point cloud data for computing dimensional information corresponding to the pairs of points selected on mobile image and fetch the dimensions on top of the image. This paper describes all steps of the proposed method. The paper uses an experimental setup to mimic the mobile phone and server system and presents some initial but encouraging results

Gupta, S.; Lohani, B.

2014-05-01

363

Polar Stratospheric Clouds from ground-based lidar and CALIPSO observations and Chemistry Climate Models evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the Antarctic PSC observational databases of CALIPSO and the ground-based lidars of NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) located in McMurdo and Dumont D'Urville stations and provide a process-oriented evaluation of PSC in a subset of CCMVAL-2 chemistry-climate models. Lidar observatories have a decadal coverage, albeit with discontinuities, spanning from 1992 to today hence offering a unique database. A clear issue is the representativeness of ground-based long-term data series of the Antarctic stratosphere conditions that may limit their value in climatological studies and model evaluation. The comparison with the CALIPSO observations with a global coverage is, hence, a key issue. In turn, models can have a biased representation of the stratospheric conditions and of the PSC microphysics leading to large discrepancies in PSC occurrence and composition. CALIPSO observations indicate a large longitudinal variability in PSC formation in the polar atmosphere and ground-based observations are hence representative of different cloud conditions. Point-to-point comparison is difficult due to sparseness of the database (or PSC appearance at the edge of the vortex) and to intrinsic differences in spatial distribution between models and observations. So the use of simple diagnostics that are independent from instrumental coverage is fundamental. Comparison between ground-based and satellite borne-lidar is overall satisfactory and differences may be attributed to differences in coverage. As expected, McMurdo site is dominated by a NAT-type regime that is a clear feature of the eastern part of polar vortex while Dumont D'Urville is largely influenced by the transition at the edge the polar vortex resulting, on average, in a much reduced PSC coverage with a partition between NAT and STS cloud types. Data from the 5 CCMs having provided PSC surface areas on daily basis have been evaluated using the same diagnostic type that may be derived CALIPSO (i.e. frequency of PSC occurrence function of lon-lat, height and temperature) showing large differences that may be explained by the interplay of model temperatures that may show a large bias (negative for 3 models over 5) and the microphysical scheme itself. Two models in fact show an excess of NAT formation relative to ice clouds while two others have an unrealistic dominance of ice. Most of them show a somewhat too efficient PSC production with temperature decrease below NAT formation temperature. Evaluation CCMs with ground-based instruments databases should be done with great care due to the large spatial differences inside the polar vortex that are not fully reproduced by the models. In turn, longer series as provided by NDACC should be used to evaluate interannual variability and trends that is difficult to identify in the shorter CALIPSO database.

Fierli, Federico; Di Liberto, Luca; Cairo, Francesco; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Snels, Marcel; Keckhut, Philippe; Jumelet, Julien; Pitts, Michael C.

2014-05-01

364

Automated Detection of Geomorphic Features in LiDAR Point Clouds of Various Spatial Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiDAR, also referred to as laser scanning, has proved to be an important tool for topographic data acquisition. Terrestrial laser scanning allows for accurate (several millimeter) and high resolution (several centimeter) data acquisition at distances of up to some hundred meters. By contrast, airborne laser scanning allows for acquiring homogeneous data for large areas, albeit with lower accuracy (decimeter) and resolution (some ten points per square meter) compared to terrestrial laser scanning. Hence, terrestrial laser scanning is preferably used for precise data acquisition of limited areas such as landslides or steep structures, while airborne laser scanning is well suited for the acquisition of topographic data of huge areas or even country wide. Laser scanners acquire more or less homogeneously distributed point clouds. These points represent natural objects like terrain and vegetation and artificial objects like buildings, streets or power lines. Typical products derived from such data are geometric models such as digital surface models representing all natural and artificial objects and digital terrain models representing the geomorphic topography only. As the LiDAR technology evolves, the amount of data produced increases almost exponentially even in smaller projects. This means a considerable challenge for the end user of the data: the experimenter has to have enough knowledge, experience and computer capacity in order to manage the acquired dataset and to derive geomorphologically relevant information from the raw or intermediate data products. Additionally, all this information might need to be integrated with other data like orthophotos. In all theses cases, in general, interactive interpretation is necessary to determine geomorphic structures from such models to achieve effective data reduction. There is little support for the automatic determination of characteristic features and their statistical evaluation. From the lessons learnt from automated extraction and modeling of buildings (Dorninger & Pfeifer, 2008) we expected that similar generalizations for geomorphic features can be achieved. Our aim is to recognize as many features as possible from the point cloud in the same processing loop, if they can be geometrically described with appropriate accuracy (e.g., as a plane). For this, we propose to apply a segmentation process allowing determining connected, planar structures within a surface represented by a point cloud. It is based on a robust determination of local tangential planes for all points acquired (Nothegger & Dorninger, 2009). It assumes that for points, belonging to a distinct planar structure, similar tangential planes can be determined. In passing, points acquired at continuous such as vegetation can be identified and eliminated. The plane parameters are used to define a four-dimensional feature space which is used to determine seed-clusters globally for the whole are of interest. Starting from these seeds, all points defining a connected, planar region are assigned to a segment. Due to the design of the algorithm, millions of input points can be processed with acceptable processing time on standard computer systems. This allows for processing geomorphically representative areas at once. For each segment, numerous parameter are derived which can be used for further exploitation. These are, for example, location, area, aspect, slope, and roughness. To prove the applicability of our method for automated geomorphic terrain analysis, we used terrestrial and airborne laser scanning data, acquired at two locations. The data of the Doren landslide located in Vorarlberg, Austria, was acquired by a terrestrial Riegl LS-321 laser scanner in 2008, by a terrestrial Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner in 2009, and additionally by three airborne LiDAR measurement campaigns, organized by the Landesvermessungsamt Vorarlberg, Feldkirch, in 2003, 2006, and 2007. The measurement distance of the terrestrial measurements was considerably varying considerably because of the various base points that were neede

Dorninger, Peter; Szkely, Balzs; Zmolyi, Andrs.; Nothegger, Clemens

2010-05-01

365

EarthCARE Simulator: The new Doppler Cloud Profiling Radar module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthCARE simulator provides end-to-end (forward and inversion) modeling of the instruments on board the European Space Agency Earth Clouds Aerosol Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission. One of the primary instruments on board the EarthCARE mission is the Doppler cloud profiling radar (CPR). The CPR is the first spaceborne Doppler radar and its vertical velocity measurements are expected to provide unique global insights in deep convective motions and ice particles sedimentation rates. Here we describe in detail the instrument and forward models of the EarthCARE CPR simulator. The instrument model includes the satellite platform motion and location parameters, the radar technical specifications and the digital signal processing module. The forward model includes hydrometeor scattering libraries, surface modeling, mirror images, multiple scattering and melting layer modules. Emphasis is given in the detail representation of the parameters that affect the quality (errors and biases) in the Doppler velocity measurements from space. Data produced by a state-of-the-art, high-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) serve as the basis for creating `scenes' that will be used as input to various radiative transfer programs and instrument simulation modules. This provides the ability to simulate satellite overpasses and subsequent measurement processes.

Kollias, P.; Battaglia, A.; Tanelli, S.; Tatarevic, A.; Wilker, H.; Acarreta, J. R.

2009-12-01

366

Wave breaking signatures in OH airglow and sodium densities and temperatures 1. Airglow imaging, Na lidar, and MF radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collaborative Observations Regarding the Nightglow (CORN) campaign took place at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory during September 1992. The instrumentation included, among others, the Aerospace Corporation narrowband nightglow CCD camera, which observes the OH Meinel (6-2) band (hereafter designated OH) and the O2 atmospheric (0-1) band (hereafter designated O2) nightglow emissions; the University of Illinois Na density/temperature lidar; and the University of Illinois MF radar. Here we report on observations of small-scale (below 10-km horizontal wavelength) structures in the OH airglow images obtained with the CCD camera. These small-scale structures were aligned perpendicular to the motion of 30- to 50-km horizontal wavelength waves, which had observed periods of about 10-20 min. The small-scale structures were present for about 20 min and appear to be associated with an overturned or breaking atmospheric gravity wave as observed by the lidar. The breaking wave had a horizontal wavelength of between 500 and 1500 km, a vertical wavelength of about 6 km, and an observed period of between 4 and 6 hours. The motion of this larger-scale wave was in the same direction as the ~30- to 50-km waves. While such small-scale structures have been observed before, and have been previously described as ripple-type wave structures [Taylor and Hapgood, 1990], these observations are the first which can associate their occurrence with independent evidence of wave breaking. The characteristics of the observed small-scale structures are similar to the vortices generated during wave breakdown in three dimensions in simulations described in Part 2 of this study [Fritts et al., this issue]. The results of this study support the idea that ripple type wave structures we observe are these vortices generated by convective instabilities rather than structures generated by dynamical instabilities.

Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Isler, J. R.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Franke, S. J.

367

The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site

P. Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

2005-01-01

368

Velocity and acceleration estimation of Doppler weather radar\\/lidar signals in colored noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are interested in estimating the Doppler shift occurred in weather radar returns, which yields precipitation velocity information. Conventional techniques including the pulse pair processor rely heavily on the assumption that the additive noise is white and hence their performance degrades when the noise color is unknown. Because the data length for a given range gate is usually small,

Weige Chen; Guotong Zhou; G. B. Giannakis

1995-01-01

369

Identification of a Debris Cloud from the Nuclear Powered SNAPSHOT Satellite with Haystack Radar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar) have been used in the past to examine families of objects from individual satellite breakups or families of orbiting objects that can be isolated in altitude and inclination. This is possible because for some time after a breakup, the debris cloud of particles can remain grouped together in similar orbit planes. This cloud will be visible to the radar, in fixed staring mode, for a short time twice each day, as the orbit plane moves through the field of view. There should be a unique three-dimensional pattern in observation time, range, and range rate which can identify the cloud. Eventually, through slightly differing precession rates of the right ascension of ascending node of the debris cloud, the observation time becomes distributed so that event identification becomes much more difficult. Analyses of the patterns in observation time, range, and range rate have identified good debris candidates released from the polar orbiting SNAPSHOT satellite (International Identifier: 1965-027A). For orbits near 90o inclination, there is essentially no precession of the orbit plane. The SNAPSHOT satellite is a well known nuclear powered satellite launched in 1965 to a near circular 1300 km orbit with an inclination of 90.3o. This satellite began releasing debris in 1979 with new pieces being discovered and cataloged over the years. 51 objects are still being tracked by the United States Space Surveillance Network. An analysis of the Haystack data has identified at least 60 pieces of debris separate from the 51 known tracked debris pieces, where all but 2 of the 60 pieces have a size less than 10cm. The altitude and inclination (derived from range-rate with a circular orbit assumption) are consistent with the SNAPSHOT satellite and its tracked debris cloud.

Stokely, C.; Stansbery, E.

2006-01-01

370

Characteristics of Tropical Midlevel Clouds Using A-Train Measurements  

E-print Network

al. 2002). CloudSat carries the CPR, an active 94 GHz near-nadir-looking radar designed to observe clouds and precipitation from space. The CPR has a footprint of approximately 1.4 km across-track and 1.7 km along-track. CloudSat has a vertical... distribution of CTH (km) frequency for cloud tops detected by only radar, only lidar, and total midlevel clouds.......................................110 xi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1. Satellite instruments and products used in this thesis...

Sutphin, Alisha Brooke

2013-07-22

371

Using radar and lidar instrument simulators to evaluate moist processes in the Community Atmosphere Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global vertically-profiling active satellite observations and instrument simulator packages enable new exposure of moist processes in global climate models. We evaluate the representation of cloud and precipitation processes within two versions of NCARs Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) that will be used for IPCC integrations (CAM3.5, CAM4). The two CAM model versions have large differences in cloud water content, cloud particle size, tropospheric humidity, and precipitation frequency and intensity. CloudSat and CALIOP observations and the COSP simulator package are used to produce apple-to-apple comparisons between observed and modeled cloud and precipitation properties. We then assess the fidelity of CAM3.5 and CAM4 cloud and precipitation fields to the CloudSat and CALIOP observations in three areas of climatological interest: the Pacific stratocumulus regions, the Tropical Pacific warm pool, and the North Pacific mid-latitude storm track. In addition to observational comparison, the climate implications of the revealed inter-model and observational differences will be discussed.

Kay, J. E.; Gettelman, A.; Zhang, Y.; Stephens, G. L.

2009-12-01

372

Measurements of Ocean Surface Scattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar: Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-band Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scattering properties of the Ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well understood, in part, due to the lack of experimental measurements. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), measurements of ocean surface backscattering were made using a 94-GHz (W-band) cloud radar onboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The measurement set includes the normalized Ocean surface cross section over a range of the incidence angles under a variety of wind conditions. Analysis of the radar measurements shows good agreement with a quasi-specular scattering model. This unprecedented dataset enhances our knowledge about the Ocean surface scattering mechanism at 94 GHz. The results of this work support the proposition of using the Ocean surface as a calibration reference for airborne millimeter-wave cloud radars and for the ongoing NASA CloudSat mission, which will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar for global cloud measurements.

Li, Li-Hua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Racette, Paul E.

2004-01-01

373

Assessing lidar-based classification schemes for polar stratospheric clouds based on 16 years of measurements at Esrange, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are commonly analyzed in classification schemes that apply the backscatter ratio and the particle depolarization ratio. This similarity of input data suggests comparable results of different classification schemesdespite measurements being performed with a variety of mostly custom-made instruments. Based on a time series of 16 years of lidar measurements at Esrange (68N, 21E), Sweden, we show that PSC classification differs substantially depending on the applied scheme. The discrepancies result from varying threshold values of lidar-derived parameters used to define certain PSC types. The resulting inconsistencies could impact the understanding of long-term PSC observations documented in the literature. We identify two out of seven considered classification schemes that are most likely to give reliable results and should be used in future lidar-based studies. Using polarized backscatter ratios gives the advantage of increased contrast for observations of weakly backscattering and weakly depolarizing particles. Improved confidence in PSC classification can be achieved by a more comprehensive consideration of the effect of measurement uncertainties. The particle depolarization ratio is the key to a reliable identification of different PSC types. Hence, detailed information on the calibration of the polarization-sensitive measurement channels should be provided to assess the findings of a study. Presently, most PSC measurements with lidar are performed at 532 nm only. The information from additional polarization-sensitive measurements in the near infrared could lead to an improved PSC classification. Coincident lidar-based temperature measurements at PSC level might provide useful information for an assessment of PSC classification.

Achtert, P.; Tesche, M.

2014-02-01

374

Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

2008-01-01

375

Application technology of micro pulse lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the constant exploration to the atmosphere and the attention to the air quality of the living environment, the applications of micro-pulse lidar are more and more important. Micro Pulse Lidar can be used to observe the distribution of atmospheric aerosol and analyse structure, spatial and temporal evolution of the aerosol. The paper gives the introduction about the reference of micro-pulse lidar which is researched in the laboratory. Through the precision optical design, the blind area of Micro Pulse Lidar can be less than 45m. The portable requirement in the structure is implemented. The software function of micro-pulse lidar includes: extinction coefficiency monitoring, tracking the pollution source, distinguish spherical particular (fog) from no-sphercial particular(ice or dust)? simulating the Mass concentration, scanning date integrating with GIS, and so on. The average height of the boundary layer measured by micro-pulse lidar. The relationship between the cloud height and aerosol echo signal can be seen from the data received from micro-pulse lidar and the peak is at 6KM. By acquiring corresponding visibility values from probing different heights, a conclusion can be drawn that visibility and extinction coeffcient is inversely proportionate. Take a 24 hour day as a circle and divide it into several time periods. An atmosphere evolution diagram of the backscattering of the height of atmospheric boundary layer and the atmospheric aerosol particles can be derived according to the difference in sun radiation. Information like structure and the evolution characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer, cloud height, cloud cover structure, atmospheric visibility and space particles obtained by the laser radar detection provides a basis for the establishment of the correct atmospheric model. At the same time because lidar can monitor the emissions of industrial soot and detect the law of diffusion of environmental pollutants of the sky over cities, it is of great significance to the environmental monitoring of the atmosphere and atmospheric science research.

Xu, Yan-ming; Tong, Shou-feng; Jia, Yu-guang

2013-09-01

376

Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing  

SciTech Connect

The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

2014-03-01

377

Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere: Polar stratospheric clouds  

SciTech Connect

Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere and their optical characteristics were measured with a multi-wavelength airborne lidar system as part of the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. PSCs were observed on 10 flights between January 6 and February 2, 1989, into the polar vortex. The PSCs were found in the 14-27 km altitude range in regions where the temperatures were {le}195 K. Two types of aerosols with different optical characteristics (Types 1a and 1b) were observed in PSCs thought to be composed of nitric acid trihydrate. Type 1a PSCs typically exhibited low scattering ratios (1.2-1.5) and high aerosol depolarizations (30-50%) at 603 nm, while Type 1b PSCs had higher scattering ratios (3-8) and lower aerosol depolarizations (0.5-2.5%). Water ice PSCs (Type 2) were observed to have high scattering ratios (>10) and high aerosol depolarizations (>10%) at temperatures {le}190 K.

Browell, E.V.; Ismail, S.; Carter, A.F.; Higdon, N.S. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Butler, C.F.; Robinette, P.A. (ST Systems Corporation, Hampton, VA (USA)); Toon, O.B. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA)); Schoeberl, M.R. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Tuck, A.F. (NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, CO (USA))

1990-03-01

378

Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs): Implications for the formation of type Ia PSCs  

SciTech Connect

DC-8 lidar observations of Type I PSCs obtained during AASE I on January 11, 1989 are presented. On this day, Type I PSCs were observed over a vast area in the altitude range of about 16 to 23 km between 73{degrees}N and the north pole. Three types of particles were seen by the DC-8 on January 11. The main body of the cloud was composed of large nonspherical particles classed as Type Ia PSCs (nitric acid trihydrate, NAT). The other two types, which occurred with about equal frequency, were composed of either small spherical particles classed as Type Ib PSCs (ternary solutions of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O) or small nonspherical particles classed as Type Ic PSCs (probably composed of a dilute solid solution of HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O). The relationship between the temperature histories of air parcels for the locations indicated above and the physical characteristics of the observed Type I PSCs are used to infer a plausible mechanism for the nucleation of NAT particles in the stratosphere. The significance of NAT particle formation to the denitrification process in the Arctic is also discussed.

Tabazadeh, A.; Toon, O.B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

379

Classification of Particle Shapes from Lidar Depolarization Ratios in Convective Ice Clouds Compared to in situ Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manuscript describes a method to class@ cirrus cloud ice particle shape using lidar depolarization measurements as a basis for segregating different particle shape regimes. Measurements from the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) system during CRYSTAL-FACE provide the basis for this work. While the CPL onboard the ER-2 aircraft was providing remote sensing measurements of cirrus clouds, the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) onboard the WB-57 aircraft was flying inside those same clouds to sample particle sizes. The results of classifying particle shapes using the CPL data are compared to the in situ measurements made using the CPI , and there is found to be good agreement between the particle shape inferred from the CPL data and that actually measured by the CPI. If proven practical, application of this technique to spaceborne observations could lead to large-scale classification of cirrus cloud particle shapes.

Noel, Vincent; Winker, David; McGill, Matthew; Lawson, Paul

2004-01-01

380

Simultaneous Observations of Tropical Cirrus Clouds by Lidar and Humidity by CFH Over Bandung and Biak, Indonesia During SOWER Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of cirrus cloud backscattering and of frost point temperature near the tropical tropopause region were observed simultaneously by ground-based lidar and balloon borne Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer (CFH) over Bandung (7S, 108E) and Biak (1S, 136E), Indonesia. SOWER (Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region) observation campaigns were conducted in December 2003 and 2004 at Bandung, and in January 2006 at Biak. Supersaturation up to several ten percent was observed just below the cold point tropopause at the altitude where a cirrus cloud was observed. The supersaturated water vapor humidity over ice observed over Bandung decreased slightly at the altitude of the cirrus cloud, suggesting that this decrease was caused by uptake in the cirrus cloud, and that the water vapor reduction corresponds to the lower limit of the cloud water content of the observed cirrus cloud. The humidity over Biak showed higher supersaturation at the altitude of cirrus cloud, but the decrease was not observed.

Shibata, T.; Voemel, H.; Hamdi, S.; Kaloka, S.; Hasebe, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Shiotani, M.

2006-12-01

381

Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2013-12-01

382

Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars  

SciTech Connect

Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars. In October 2008, an ARM workshop brought together approximately 30 climate research scientists to discuss the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's role in solving outstanding climate science issues. Through this discussion it was noted that one of ARM's primary contributions is to provide detailed information about cloud profiles and their impact on radiative fluxes. This work supports cloud parameterization development and improved understanding of cloud processes necessary for that development. A critical part of this work is measuring microphysical properties (cloud ice and liquid water content, cloud particle sizes, shapes, and distribution). ARM measurements and research have long included an emphasis on obtaining the best possible microphysical parameters with the available instrumentation. At the time of the workshop, this research was reaching the point where additional reduction in uncertainties in these critical parameters required new instrumentation for applications such as specifying radiative heating profiles, measuring vertical velocities, and studying the convective triggering and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) cloud fields. ARM was already operating a subset of the necessary instrumentation to make some progress on these problems; each of the ARM sites included (and still includes) a cloud radar (operating at 35 or 94 GHz), a cloud lidar, and balloon-borne temperature and humidity sensors. However, these measurements were inadequate for determining detailed microphysical properties in most cases. Additional instrumentation needed to improve retrievals of microphysical processes includes radars at two additional frequencies for a total of three at a single site (35 GHz, 94 GHz, and a precipitation radar) and a Doppler lidar. Evolving to a multi-frequency scanning radar is a medium-term goal to bridge our understanding of two-dimensional (2D) retrievals to the 3D cloud field. These additional microphysical measurements would allow detailed cloud properties to be derived even in the presence of light precipitation. It is important to couple these detailed measurements of cloud microphysics to vertical motion on the cloud scale to couple microphysics with meteorological processes. Vertically pointing Doppler radars provide the vertical motion of cloud particles but, to separate particle motion from air motion, a wind profiler is required. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided the means to address these needs and implement a multi-frequency suite of radars, including scanning radars, at each of the ARM sites. In addition, Doppler lidars have been deployed at several sites. With these new measurement capabilities, ARM has the measurement capabilities to tackle the problems of improving microphysical profile descriptions and evaluating the relationship between our current narrow-field-of view, zenith perspective on clouds to a description of the full 3D cloud field and its temporal evolution.

JH Mather

2012-05-29

383

a 33GHZ and 95GHZ Cloud Profiling Radar System (cprs): Preliminary Estimates of Particle Size in Precipitation and Clouds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) st the University of Massachusetts has developed a unique single antenna, dual-frequency polarimetric Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS). This project was funded by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, and was intended to help fill the void of ground-based remote sensors capable of characterizing cloud microphysical properties. CPRS is unique in that it can simultaneously measure the complex power backscattered from clouds at 33 GHz and 95 GHz through the same aperture. Both the 33 GHz and 95 GHz channels can transmit pulse-to-pulse selectable vertical or horizontal polarization, and simultaneously record both the copolarized and crosspolarized backscatter. CPRS Doppler, polarimetric and dual-wavelength reflectivity measurements combined with in situ cloud measurements should lead to the development of empirical models that can more accurately classify cloud-particle phase and habit, and make better quantitative estimates of particle size distribution parameters. This dissertation describes the CPRS hardware, and presents colocated 33 GHz and 95 GHz measurements that illustrate the use of dual-frequency measurements to estimate particle size when Mie scattering, is observed in backscatter from rain and ice-phase clouds. Polarimetric measurements are presented as a means of discriminating cloud phase (ice-water) and estimating crystal shape in cirrus clouds. Polarimetric and dual-wavelength observations of insects are also presented with a brief discussion of their impact on the interpretation of precipitation and liquid cloud measurements. In precipitation, Diermendjian's equations for Mie backscatter (1) and the Marshal-Palmer drop-size distribution are used to develop models relating differences in the reflectivity and mean velocity at 33 GHz and 95 GHz to the microphysical parameters of rain. These models are then used to estimate mean droplet size from CPRS measurements of drizzle, which were collected in July, 1993 during the system's first field test in Lincoln, NE. The dissertation also presents cirrus cloud and other measurements collected during the DOE-sponsored Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operations Period (RCS-IOP) experiment in April, 1994. Zenith-pointing cirrus measurements show small differences in 33 GHz and 95 GHz reflectivity, as models have predicted (2). Depolarization was also detected in a few cases when ice crystals precipitated from the base of a cloud. On May 29, 1994 CPRS observed a convective storm that produced a cirrus anvil cloud and hail. These storms are one 'engine' producing cirrus clouds and are currently a topic of intensive research by climatologists. Both zenith-pointing and range-height data formats are presented. Measurements of depolarization above the melting/layer are compared to in situ observations of particle size and shape. The RCS-IOP experiment also provided a first opportunity to verify our calibration with aircraft in situ measurements, and to compare our cloud measurements to those collected by other remote sensors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Sekelsky, Stephen Michael

1995-11-01

384

Three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements based on mobile LiDAR point cloud data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based LiDAR is one of the most effective city modeling tools at present, which has been widely used for three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor objects. However, as for indoor objects, there are some technical bottlenecks due to lack of GPS signal. In this paper, based on the high-precision indoor point cloud data which was obtained by LiDAR, an international advanced indoor mobile measuring equipment, high -precision model was fulfilled for all indoor ancillary facilities. The point cloud data we employed also contain color feature, which is extracted by fusion with CCD images. Thus, it has both space geometric feature and spectral information which can be used for constructing objects' surface and restoring color and texture of the geometric model. Based on Autodesk CAD platform and with help of PointSence plug, three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements was realized. Specifically, Pointools Edit Pro was adopted to edit the point cloud, then different types of indoor point cloud data was processed, including data format conversion, outline extracting and texture mapping of the point cloud model. Finally, three-dimensional visualization of the real-world indoor was completed. Experiment results showed that high-precision 3D point cloud data obtained by indoor mobile measuring equipment can be used for indoor whole elements' 3-d reconstruction and that methods proposed in this paper can efficiently realize the 3 -d construction of indoor whole elements. Moreover, the modeling precision could be controlled within 5 cm, which was proved to be a satisfactory result.

Gong, Yuejian; Mao, Wenbo; Bi, Jiantao; Ji, Wei; He, Zhanjun

2014-11-01

385

Breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and cloud-top entrainment as revealed by K-band Doppler radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radars have occasionally detected breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves under clear-air conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the free troposphere. However, very few direct measurements of such waves within clouds have previously been reported and those have not clearly documented wave breaking. In this article, we present some of the most detailed and striking radar observations to date of breaking KH waves within clouds and at cloud top and discuss their relevance to the issue of cloud-top entrainment, which is believed to be important in convective and stratiform clouds. Aircraft observations reported by Stith suggest that vortex-like circulations near cloud top are an entrainment mechanism in cumuliform clouds. Laboratory and modeling studies have examined possibility that KH instability may be responsible for mixing at cloud top, but direct observations have not yet been presented. Preliminary analyses shown here may help fill this gap. The data presented in this paper were obtained during two field projects in 1991 that included observations from the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory's K-band Doppler radar (wavelength = 8.7 mm) and special rawinsonde ascents. The sensitivity (-30 dBZ at 10 km range), fine spatial resolution (375-m pulse length and 0.5 degrees beamwidth), velocity measurement precision (5-10 cm s-1), scanning capability, and relative immunity to ground clutter make it sensitive to non-precipitating and weakly precipitating clouds, and make it an excellent instrument to study gravity waves in clouds. In particular, the narrow beam width and short pulse length create scattering volumes that are cylinders 37.5 m long and 45 m (90 m) in diamete