Science.gov

Sample records for cloudy days estimated

  1. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a

  2. Estimation of the influence of cloudiness on the Earth observation from space through a gap in a cloudy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, V. V.; Kirnos, I. V.; Tarasenkov, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    For atmospheric correction of satellite images, the problem is formulated to estimate the distance from a cloud at which its influence on the satellite image of the Earth surface can be neglected. The Monte Carlo method of conjugate trajectories is used. The gap radius in the field of continuous cloudiness at which the influence of the cloudy medium on the received signal intensity does not exceed 10 % is obtained. It is revealed that for the Lambert law of radiation reflection from the Earth surface, the curve of the dependence of the received signal intensity on the gap radius has a maximum caused by the opposite influence of light scattering by the cloudy medium and radiation reflection by the surface (adjacency effect). To further generalize the examined problem to a stochastic cloud field, the method of direct simulation of photon trajectories in a stochastic medium is compared with G. A. Titov's method of closed equations in the gap vicinity. A comparison is carried out with the model of the stochastic medium in the form of a cloud field of constant geometric thickness consisting of rectangular clouds whose boundaries are determined by the stationary Poisson flow of points. It is demonstrated that results of calculations can differ at most by 20‒30 %; however, in some cases (for some sets of initial data), the difference for the entire region of cloud cover indices is within 7 %.

  3. Quantitative Estimates of Cloudiness over the Gulf Stream Locale Using GOES VAS Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliss, Randall J.; Raman, Sethu

    1995-02-01

    Fields of cloudiness derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite VISSR (Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) Atmospheric Sounder are analyzed over the Gulf Stream locale (GSL) to investigate seasonal and geographical variations. The GSL in this study is defined as the region bounded from 31° to 38°N and 82° to 66°W. This region covers an area that includes the United States mid-Atlantic coast states, the Gulf Stream, and portions of the Sargasso Sea. Clouds over the GSL are found approximately three-quarters of the time between 1985 and 1993. However, large seasonal variations in the frequency of cloudiness exist. These seasonal variations show a distinct relationship to gradients in sea surface temperature (SST). For example, during winter when large SST gradients are present, large gradients in cloudiness are found. Clouds are observed least often during summer over the ocean portion of the GSL. This minimum coincides with an increase in atmospheric stability due to large-scale subsidence. Cloudiness is also found over the GSL in response to mesoscale convergence areas induced by sea surface temperature gradients. Geographical variations in cloudiness are found to be related to the meteorology of the region. During periods of cold-air advection, which are found most frequently in winter, clouds are found less often between the coastline and the core of the Gulf Stream and more often over the Sargasso Sea. During cyclogenesis, large cloud shields often develop and cover the entire domain.Satellite estimates of cloudiness are found to be least reliable over land at night during the cold months. In these situations, the cloud retrieval algorithm often mistakes clear sky for low clouds. Satellite-derived cloudiness over land is compared with daytime surface observations of cloudiness. Results indicate that retrieved cloudiness agrees well with surface observations. Relative humidity fields taken from global analyses are compared with

  4. Using Microwave Observations to Estimate Land Surface Temperature during Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. R.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and passive microwave observations (MW). TIR is the most commonly used approach and the method of choice to provide standard LST products for various satellite missions. MW-based LST retrievals on the other hand are not as widely adopted for land applications; currently their principle use is in soil moisture retrieval algorithms. MW and TIR technologies present two highly complementary and independent means of measuring LST. MW observations have a high tolerance to clouds but a low spatial resolution, and TIR has a high spatial resolution with temporal sampling restricted to clear skies. The nature of the temperature at the very surface layer of the land makes it difficult to combine temperature estimates between different methods. The skin temperature is characterized by a strong diurnal cycle that is dependant in timing and amplitude on the exact sensing depth and thermal properties of the vegetation. This paper builds on recent progress in characterizing the main structural components of the DTC that explain differences in TIR and MW estimates of LST. Spatial patterns in DTC timing (phase lag with solar noon) and DTC amplitude have been calculated for TIR, MW and compared to weather prediction estimates. Based on these comparisons MW LST can be matched to the TIR record. This paper will compare in situ measurements of LST with satellite estimates from (downscaled) TIR and (reconciled) MW products. By contrasting the validation results of clear sky days with those of cloudy days the expected tolerance to clouds of the MW observations will be tested. The goal of this study is to determine the weather conditions in which MW can supplement the TIR LST record.

  5. Estimating the UV diffuse fraction of solar radiation under partly cloudy skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Richard H.; Gao, Wei

    2002-01-01

    A major limitation in predicting the ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance on humans, plant leaves and flowers and aquatic organisms is the difficulty in determining the UVB under partly cloudy sky conditions. This study analyzes the UV diffuse fractions under partly cloudy and clear conditions for nine locations in the USA over a period of 1997 through 1999. Radiation measurements, made as part of the United States Department of Agriculture UVB Monitoring Program using multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometers, were paired with cloud cover and other atmospheric measurements made with National Weather Service Automated Surface Observation Systems within 30 km of the radiation measurement location to evaluate the accuracy of using a relatively simple model to describe the diffuse fraction of UV radiation under partly-cloudy skies. The diffuse fraction was modeled as the summation of clear and overcast sky diffuse fractions, weighted by the probability of the sun's direct beam being obstructed or not for a given cloud cover fraction. For the nine locations evaluated, the model had a mean bias error (MBE) of 0.0037 and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.0361. Simplifying the model by assuming a diffuse fraction of 1 for the overcast sky resulted in a slightly higher error (MBE error of -0.0045 and an RMSE of 0.0387). Model errors were greatest for low solar zenith angles and high cloud fractions. The greatest error, associated with overcast sky conditions, appeared to be a result of scattering off the clouds during the period of time where the sun's beam was unobstructed. Error analysis also showed that the diffuse fraction of partly cloudy skies when the sun's beam was not obstructed is well approximated by the clear sky condition to within approximately 0.1, supporting the use of aerosol optical thickness estimates by Langley plot under partly cloudy skies.

  6. Solar energy distribution over Egypt using cloudiness from Meteosat photos

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam Shaltout, M.A.; Hassen, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    In Egypt, there are 10 ground stations for measuring the global solar radiation, and five stations for measuring the diffuse solar radiation. Every day at noon, the Meteorological Authority in Cairo receives three photographs of cloudiness over Egypt from the Meteosat satellite, one in the visible, and two in the infra-red bands (10.5-12.5 {mu}m) and (5.7-7.1 {mu}m). The monthly average cloudiness for 24 sites over Egypt are measured and calculated from Meteosat observations during the period 1985-1986. Correlation analysis between the cloudiness observed by Meteosat and global solar radiation measured from the ground stations is carried out. It is found that, the correlation coefficients are about 0.90 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regressions. Also, the correlation coefficients for the cloudiness with the diffuse solar radiation are about 0.80 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regression. Models and empirical relations for estimating the global and diffuse solar radiation from Meteosat cloudiness data over Egypt are deduced and tested. Seasonal maps for the global and diffuse radiation over Egypt are carried out.

  7. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  8. Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

  9. pyCloudy: Tools to manage astronomical Cloudy photoionization code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    PyCloudy is a Python library that handles input and output files of the Cloudy photoionization code (Gary Ferland). It can also generate 3D nebula from various runs of the 1D Cloudy code. pyCloudy allows you to: define and write input file(s) for Cloudy code. As you can have it in a code, you may generate automatically sets of input files, changing parameters from one to the other.read the Cloudy output files and play with the data: you will be able to plot line emissivity ratio vs. the radius of the nebula, the electron temperature, or any Cloudy output.build pseudo-3D models, a la Cloudy_3D, by running a set of models, changing parameters (e.g. inner radius, density) following angular laws, reading the outputs of the set of models and interpolating the results (Te, ne, line emissivities) in a 3D cube.

  10. Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some

  11. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  12. Autumnal Mixed-Phase Cloudy Boundary Layers in the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, James O.

    1998-06-01

    Two mixed-phase cloudy boundary layer events observed over the Arctic ice pack in autumn are extensively analyzed. The local dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layers is determined from aircraft measurements including analysis of turbulence, longwave radiative transfer, and cloud microphysics. The large-scale forcing is determined from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields while mesoscale forcing is estimated from 40-km aircraft box patterns. The two cases differed somewhat in their local static stability, surface characteristics, and large-scale forcing. One case was characterized by a stably stratified cloudy boundary layer over a heterogeneous surface containing numerous open leads. The other case occurred over a fairly homogenous surface of multiyear ice and consisted of a surface-based stable layer surmounted by a low-level jet and a cloud-topped mixed layer. An important large-scale factor in the development of low clouds appears to have been water vapor advection. Low clouds formed irrespective of the sign of the large-scale vertical velocity. Observed flux profiles indicate that both cloudy boundary layers are cooled through turbulent eddies except at cloud top where entrainment of warm moist air aloft occurs. Maximum turbulent kinetic energy occurs near cloud top where turbulent motions are driven by strong radiative cooling (>70 K day1) and in the vicinity of the low-level jet where turbulence is shear induced. The presence of both liquid and ice in the cloud layers appears to be a nearly steady-state feature at temperatures between 13° and 20°C. Results of a simple condensed water budget indicate that these colloidally unstable mixed-phase clouds may be maintained through strong cloud-top radiative cooling. The isobaric cooling rate required to maintain the presence of both liquid and ice in a stratiform cloud is quite sensitive to variations in the highly uncertain concentration of ice-forming nuclei.

  13. A CLOUDY/XSPEC Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. L.; Ferland, G. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; Armentrout, B. K.; Arnaud, K. A.; Turner, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss new functionality of the spectral simulation code CLOUDY which allows the user to calculate grids with one or more initial parameters varied and formats the predicted spectra in the standard FITS format. These files can then be imported into the x-ray spectral analysis software XSPEC and used as theoretical models for observations. We present and verify a test case. Finally, we consider a few observations and discuss our results.

  14. Total gaseous mercury exchange between water and air during cloudy weather conditions over Hongfeng Reservoir, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; He, Tianrong; Li, Guanghui; Li, Zhonggen; Shang, Lihai

    2008-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and water surface were measured using a dynamic flux chamber (DFC) coupled with a gaseous mercury analyzer at two sampling sites of Hongfeng reservoir in cloudy and rainy weather conditions. The concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water were also measured and indicated that DGM was supersaturated at most time during the sampling periods, which implied that the water body acted primarily as a source of mercury to the atmosphere. In general, TGM fluxes displayed a consistent diurnal pattern with peak fluxes at noon and minimum levels at early morning or night. However, this diurnal pattern was not clear when the weather was heavily cloudy and rainy with the maximum solar radiation of less than 140 W m-2. At this specific weather condition, a significantly positive correlation between TGM flux and relative humidity was observed. The behaviors of TGM flux over Hongfeng reservoir observed at cloudy weather conditions were some what different from those observed during mostly sunny weather conditions in Northern America and Europe. The empirical model developed based on the correlation between TGM flux and solar radiation during sunny days in Northern America was not applicable for estimation of TGM flux at cloudy and rainy weather conditions.

  15. Cloudy Image of Cerberus Rupes Dark Lineation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Second Science Phasing Orbits (SPO-2) period of the Mars Global Surveyor mission began at the end of May 1998. These orbits are morning orbits. That is, the local time on the planet beneath Mars Global Surveyor is in the morning. During the first part of June 1998, the local time on the ground was approximately 9:30 a.m. The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has observed that this time of day is quite cloudy this year.

    Clouds have thus posed a real challenge for the MOC team, who are targeting high resolution images almost every day. Many of the high resolution images that were returned to Earth in early June 1998 were nearly white with clouds and haze. Very little detail could be seen on the ground.

    The above picture illustrates one of the better cloudy images obtained by MOC. The haze was too thick to show much detail on the surface in the raw image, but in this case at least a dark lineation could be seen in part of the image. The full frame was nearly white everywhere except in the vicinity of the dark lineation. The MOC image, #35003, was obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 350th orbit about the planet. The picture was taken around 4:00 a.m. PDT on June 7, 1998. The center of this subframe is at 8.03oN, 194.30oW. The dark lineation is one of the Cerberus Rupes--a set of dark lines (ridges or fractures) that cross the region southeast of the Elysium volcanic rise.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. Trade-Wind Cloudiness and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection (MCC) consists of mesoscale cloud patches separated by narrow clear regions. Strong radiative cooling occurs at the cloud top. A dry two-dimensional Bousinesq model is used to study the effects of cloud-top cooling on convection. Wide updrafts and narrow downdrafts are used to indicate the asymmetric circulations associated with the mesoscale cloud patches. Based on the numerical results, a conceptual model was constructed to suggest a mechanism for the formation of closed MCC over cool ocean surfaces. A new method to estimate the radioative and evaporative cooling in the entrainment layer of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer has been developed. The method was applied to a set of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) results and to a set of tethered-balloon data obtained during FIRE. We developed a statocumulus-capped marine mixed layer model which includes a parameterization of drizzle based on the use of a predicted Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) number concentration. We have developed, implemented, and tested a very elaborate new stratiform cloudiness parameterization for use in GCMs. Finally, we have developed a new, mechanistic parameterization of the effects of cloud-top cooling on the entrainment rate.

  17. Retrieval of Intensive Aerosol Properties from MFRSR observations: Partly Cloudy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-09-30

    An approach for the obtaining column intensive aerosol properties, namely the single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASP), from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) spectral observations under partly cloudy conditions is described. The approach involves the MFRSR-based aerosol retrieval for clear-sky periods and an interpolation of the retrieved column aerosol properties for cloudy periods. The observed weak diurnal variability of SSA and ASP at the surface and the close association of the surface intensive aerosol properties with their column counterparts form the basis of such interpolation. The approach is evaluated by calculating the corresponding clear-sky total, direct and diffuse fluxes at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870 nm) and compare them with the observed fluxes. The aerosol properties provided by this approach are applied for (i) an examination of the statistical relationship between spectral (visible spectral range) and broadband values of the total normalized cloud radiative forcing and (ii) an estimation of the fractional sky cover. Data collected during 13 days with single-layer cumulus clouds observed at U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during summer 2007 are applied to illustrate the performance and application of this approach.

  18. Retrieval of intensive aerosol properties from MFRSR observations: partly cloudy cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor; Long, Charles

    2010-10-01

    An approach for the obtaining column intensive aerosol properties, namely the single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASP), from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) spectral observations under partly cloudy conditions is described. The approach involves the MFRSR-based aerosol retrieval for clear-sky periods and an interpolation of the retrieved column aerosol properties for cloudy periods. The observed weak diurnal variability of SSA and ASP at the surface and the close association of the surface intensive aerosol properties with their column counterparts form the basis of such interpolation. The approach is evaluated by calculating the corresponding clear-sky total, direct and diffuse fluxes at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870 nm) and compare them with the observed fluxes. The aerosol properties provided by this approach are applied for (i) an examination of the statistical relationship between spectral (visible range) and broadband values of the total normalized cloud radiative forcing and (ii) an estimation of the fractional sky cover. Data collected during 13 days with single-layer cumulus clouds observed at U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during summer 2007 are applied to illustrate the performance and application of this approach.

  19. Bioactive compounds and quality parameters of natural cloudy lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Uçan, Filiz; Ağçam, Erdal; Akyildiz, Asiye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bioactive compounds (phenolic and carotenoid) and some quality parameters (color, browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) of natural cloudy lemon juice, pasteurized (90 °C/15 s) and storage stability of concentrated lemon juice (-25 °C/180 days) were carried out. Fifteen phenolic compounds were determined in the lemon juice and the most abounded phenolic compounds were hesperidin, eriocitrin, chlorogenic acid and neoeriocitrin. In generally, phenolic compound concentrations of lemon juice samples increased after the pasteurization treatment. Four carotenoid compounds (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) were detected in natural cloudy lemon juice. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were the most abounded carotenoid compounds in the lemon juice. Color values of the lemon juices were not affected by processing and storage periods. HMF and browning index of the lemon juices increased with concentration and storage. According to the results, storing at -25 °C was considered as sufficient for acceptable quality limits of natural cloudy lemon juice. PMID:27570271

  20. An evaluation of study design for estimating a time-of-day noise weighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The relative importance of daytime and nighttime noise of the same noise level is represented by a time-of-day weight in noise annoyance models. The high correlations between daytime and nighttime noise were regarded as a major reason that previous social surveys of noise annoyance could not accurately estimate the value of the time-of-day weight. Study designs which would reduce the correlation between daytime and nighttime noise are described. It is concluded that designs based on short term variations in nighttime noise levels would not be able to provide valid measures of response to nighttime noise. The accuracy of the estimate of the time-of-day weight is predicted for designs which are based on long term variations in nighttime noise levels. For these designs it is predicted that it is not possible to form satisfactorily precise estimates of the time-of-day weighting.

  1. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G S; Sahoo, S K; Dash, Soumya

    2016-06-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G. S.; Sahoo, S. K.; Dash, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  3. A GIS Tool To Estimate West Nile Virus Risk based On A Degree-Day Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West Nile virus(Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the North America continent. A spatial analysis tool was developed on the ARCMap 9.x platform to estimate potential West Nile virus activitiy using a spatially explicit degree-day model. The mdoel...

  4. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  5. Influences of the day-night differences of ionosphere on the GPS DCB estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Donghe; Zhang, Shunrong; Coster, Anthea; Hao, Yongqiang; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of differential code bias (DCB) of GPS system is one of the necessary steps for total electron content (TEC) derivation from GPS measurements. Usually, the method for estimating the GPS DCBs follows the assumption of the gentle temporal and spatial variation of the ionosphere, but this assumption is just an approximation because of the ionosphere's inherent variability. It has been indicated that the estimated GPS satellite DCBs are sometimes influenced by the ionospheric conditions. Here, we demonstrate a possible influence of ionospheric condition that differs between day and night on the estimated DCBs from measurements of a single GPS station. It is found that the average standard deviations (STDs) of the satellite DCBs estimated with daytime data are higher than that with the nighttime data. To reduce this day-night difference effect on GPS DCB determination, we use an improved estimation method based on the primary features of the ionospheric variability with local time. A local time dependent weighting function was introduced into the original least-squared DCBs estimation algorithm. A test with data for BJFS station (39.60°N, 115.89°E) in 2001 indicates that the STD of the DCBs decreases from 2.533 TECU to 2.308 TECU, or by 8.9%, after the improved method was applied. For comparison, another test for the same station in 2009 indicates that the STD decreases from 1.344TECU to 1.295 TECU. Reference Li, LX. DH. Zhang., SR. Zhang., et al. Influences of the day-night differences of ionospheric variability on the estimation of GPS differential code bias, Radio Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/2014RS005565 Zhang D H, Shi H, Jin Y Q, et al. The variation of the estimated GPS instrumental bias and its possible connection with ionospheric variability. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57: 67-79, doi: 10.1007/s11431-013-5419-7 Zhang D H, Zhang W,Li Q., Accuracy analysis of the GPS instrumental bias estimated from observations in middle and low latitudes

  6. A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Boers, Reinout

    1990-01-01

    Boundary layer cloudiness plays several important roles in the energy budget of the earth. Low level stratocumulus are highly reflective clouds which reduce the net incoming shortwave radiation at the earth's surface. Climatically, the transition to a small area fraction of scattered cumulus clouds occurs as the air flows over warmer water. Although these clouds reflect less sunlight, they still play an important role in the boundary layer equilibrium by transporting water vapor upwards, and enhancing the surface evaporation. The First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) included a marine stratocumulus experiment off the southern California coast from June 29 to July 19, 1987. The objectives of this experiment were to study the controls on fractional cloudiness, and to assess the role of cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) and mesoscale structure in determining cloud type. The focus is one research day, July 7, 1987, when coordinated aircraft missions were flown by four research aircraft, centered on a LANDSAT scene at 1830 UTC. The remarkable feature of this LANDSAT scene is the transition from a clear sky in the west through broken cumulus to solid stratocumulus in the east. The dynamic and thermodynamic structure of this transition in cloudiness is analyzed using data from the NCAR Electra. By averaging the aircraft data, the internal structure of the different cloud regimes is documented, and it is shown that the transition between broken cumulus and stratocumulus is associated with a change in structure with respect to the CTEI condition. However, this results not from sea surface temperature changes, but mostly from a transition in the air above the inversion, and the breakup appears to be at a structure on the unstable side of the wet virtual adiabat.

  7. Optimized fractional cloudiness determination from five ground-based remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Boers, R.; de Haij, M. J.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Baltink, Henk K.; van Ulft, L. H.; Savenije, M.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-12-23

    A one-year record of fractional cloudiness at 10 minute intervals was generated for the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research [CESAR] (51°58’N, 4° 55’E) using an integrated assessment of five different observational methods. The five methods are based on active as well as passive systems and use either a hemispheric or column remote sensing technique. The one-year instrumental cloudiness data were compared against a 30 year climatology of Observer data in the vicinity of CESAR [1971- 2000]. In the intermediate 2 - 6 octa range, most instruments, but especially the column methods, report lower frequency of occurrence of cloudiness than the absolute minimum values from the 30 year Observer climatology. At night, the Observer records less clouds in the 1, 2 octa range than during the day, while the instruments registered more clouds. During daytime the Observer also records much more 7 octa cloudiness than the instruments. One column method combining a radar with a lidar outstrips all other techniques in recording cloudiness, even up to height in excess of 9 km. This is mostly due to the high sensitivity of the radar that is used in the technique. A reference algorithm was designed to derive a continuous and optimized record of fractional cloudiness. Output from individual instruments were weighted according to the cloud base height reported at the observation time; the larger the height, the lower the weight. The algorithm was able to provide fractional cloudiness observations every 10 minutes for 98% of the total period of 12 months [15 May 2008 - 14 May 2009].

  8. Estimating Hourly All-Sky Solar Irradiation Components from Meteorological Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermel, F.

    1988-02-01

    A new method to calculate hourly direct beam and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface using 3-h standard meteorological data is described. Comparisons of computed and observed irradiations are made with hourly data obtained in Carpentras over the 10 yr period 1971-80.For cloudless days it is found that a good estimate of lower-layer aerosol extinction can be calculated using water-vapor pressure and half-daily sunshine duration. For cloudy days a good estimate of hourly atmospheric transmittance can be estimated from total cloudiness, cloud type and half daily sunshine duration.

  9. Stochastic Radiative transfer and real cloudiness

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, F.

    1995-09-01

    Plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling of clouds in GCMs is thought to be an inadequate representation of the effects of real cloudiness. A promising new approach for studying the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity is stochastic radiative transfer, which computes the radiative effects of ensembles of cloud structures described by probability distributions. This approach is appropriate because cloud information is inherently statistical, and it is the mean radiative effect of complex 3D cloud structure that is desired. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, B A

    1989-09-15

    Increases in aerosol concentrations over the oceans may increase the amount of low-level cloudiness through a reduction in drizzle-a process that regulates the liquid-water content and the energetics of shallow marine clouds. The resulting increase in the global albedo would be in addition to the increase due to enhancement in reflectivity associated with a decrease in droplet size and would contribute to a cooling of the earth's surface. PMID:17747885

  11. A New Algorithm for Detection of Cloudiness and Moon Affect Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, Murat; Helhel, Selcuk; Ünal Akdemir, Kemal

    2016-07-01

    Cloud detection is a crucial issue for observatories already operating and during phase of the site selection. Sky Quality Meter (SQM) devices mostly use to determine parameters of the quality of sky such as cloudiness, light flux. But, those parameters do not give us exact information about the cloudiness and moon affects. In this study we improved a new cloudiness and moon affects area detection algorithm. The algorithm is based on image processing methods and different approaches applied to both day time and night time images to calculate the sky coverage. The new algorithm also implemented with Matlab by using the images taken by all sky camera located at TÜBİTAK National Observatory and results were given.

  12. A new perspective on the relationship between cloud shade and point cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabec, Marek; Badescu, Viorel; Paulescu, Marius; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Several simple relationships between cloud shade and point cloudiness have been proposed in the last few decades. The present approach is fundamentally different in that it captures some of the hard restrictions dictated by the bounded range (0, 1)of the cloud shade. Three different models are proposed. The main aim is to produce estimates of the whole conditional distribution of the cloud shade for a given point cloudiness value. The beta-inflated model, which takes into account natural physical constraints of the cloud shade, provides the best results.

  13. View-angle-dependent AIRS Cloudiness and Radiance Variance: Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-01-01

    Upper tropospheric clouds play an important role in the global energy budget and hydrological cycle. Significant view-angle asymmetry has been observed in upper-level tropical clouds derived from eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) 15 um radiances. Here, we find that the asymmetry also exists in the extra-tropics. It is larger during day than that during night, more prominent near elevated terrain, and closely associated with deep convection and wind shear. The cloud radiance variance, a proxy for cloud inhomogeneity, has consistent characteristics of the asymmetry to those in the AIRS cloudiness. The leading causes of the view-dependent cloudiness asymmetry are the local time difference and small-scale organized cloud structures. The local time difference (1-1.5 hr) of upper-level (UL) clouds between two AIRS outermost views can create parts of the observed asymmetry. On the other hand, small-scale tilted and banded structures of the UL clouds can induce about half of the observed view-angle dependent differences in the AIRS cloud radiances and their variances. This estimate is inferred from analogous study using Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) radiances observed during the period of time when there were simultaneous measurements at two different view-angles from NOAA-18 and -19 satellites. The existence of tilted cloud structures and asymmetric 15 um and 6.7 um cloud radiances implies that cloud statistics would be view-angle dependent, and should be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations, measurement uncertainty evaluations and cloud climatology investigations. In addition, the momentum forcing in the upper troposphere from tilted clouds is also likely asymmetric, which can affect atmospheric circulation anisotropically.

  14. Variations in daylight as a contextual cue for estimating season, time of day, and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, 2009a). Here we investigate whether human observers use (rather than match) daylight for estimating ecologically important dimensions: time of year, time of day, and outdoor temperature. In the first three experiments we had our observers evaluate calibrated color images of an outdoor urban scene acquired throughout a year. Although some observers could estimate the month and the temperature, overall they were quite poor at judging the time of day. In particular, observers were not able to discriminate between morning and afternoon pictures even when they were allowed to compare multiple images captured on the same day (Experiment 3). However, observers could distinguish between midday and sunset and sunrise daylight. Classification analysis showed that, given a perfect knowledge of its variation, an ideal observer could have performed the task over chance only considering the average chromatic variation in the picture. Instead, our observers reported using shadows to detect the position of the sun in order to estimate the time of day. However, this information is highly unreliable without knowledge of the orientation of the scene. In Experiment 4 we used an LED chamber in order to present our observers with lights whose chromaticity and illuminance varied along the daylight locus, thus isolating the light cues from the sun position cue. We conclude that discriminating the slight variations in chromaticity and brightness, which potentially distinguish morning and afternoon illuminations, lies beyond the ability of human observers. PMID:24464161

  15. Estimation of duration and mental workload at differing times of day by males and females

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.; Rodenburg, G. J.; Mathews, W. D.; Vercruyssen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated whether male and female operator duration estimation and subjective workload followed conventional circadian fluctuation. In the first experiment, twenty-four subjects performed a filled time-estimation task in a constant blacked-out, noise-reduced environment at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 h. In the second experiment, twelve subjects performed an unfilled time estimation task in similar conditions at 0900, 1400, and 1900 h. At the termination of all experimental sessions, participants completed the NASA TLX workload assessment questionnaire as a measure of perceived mental workload. Results indicated that while physiological response followed an expected pattern, estimations of duration and subjective perception of workload showed no significant effects for time-of-day. In each of the experiments, however, there were significant differences in durational estimates and mental workload response depending upon the gender of the participant. Results are taken to support the assertion that subjective workload is responsive largely to task-related factors and indicates the important differences that may be expected due to operator gender.

  16. Number of accelerometer monitoring days needed for stable group-level estimates of activity.

    PubMed

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L; McClain, James J; Dodd, Kevin W; Berrigan, David; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    To determine the number and distribution of days required to produce stable group-level estimates of a 7 d mean for common accelerometer-derived activity measures. Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES were used in this analysis. The sample included 986 youth (6-19 year) and 2532 adults (⩾20 year) with 7 d of  ⩾10 h of wear. Accelerometer measures included minutes of inactive, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and total activity counts/d. Twenty-five alternative protocols were bootstrapped with 50 000 samples drawn for each protocol. Alternative protocols included: 1-6 random days, Saturday plus 1-5 random weekdays (WD), Sunday plus 1-5 random WD, 1 random weekend day (WE) plus 1-5 WD, and both WE plus 1-4 random WD. Relative difference was calculated between the 7 d mean and alternative protocol mean (((alternative protocol mean - 7 d mean)/7 d mean) (*) 100). Adult MVPA is used as an example; however, similar trends were observed across age groups and variables except adult inactive time, which was stable across protocols. The 7 d mean for adult MVPA was 44.1(0.9) min d(-1). The mean bias for any 1-6 random days ranged from  -0.0(0.3) to 0.0(0.2) min d(-1) with a relative difference of  -0.1 to 0.0%. For protocols with non-random components, bias ranged from  -1.4(0.2) to 0.6(0.1) min d(-1) with relative difference ranging from  -7.2 to 3.1%. Simulation data suggest that stable estimates of group-level means can be obtained from as few as one randomly selected monitoring day from a sampled week. On the other hand, estimates using non-random selection of weekend days may be significantly biased. Purposeful sampling that disproportionally forces inclusion of weekend data in analyses should be discouraged. PMID:27510765

  17. One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A.E.; Wemple, B.C.; Bailey, S.W.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of net nitrification rates in forest soils have usually been performed by extended sample incubation (2-8 weeks), either in the field or in the lab. Because of disturbance effects, these measurements are only estimates of nitrification potential and shorter incubations may suffice. In three separate studies of northeastern USA forest soil surface horizons, we found that laboratory nitrification rates measured over 1 day related well to those measured over 4 weeks. Soil samples of Oa or A horizons were mixed by hand and the initial extraction of subsamples, using 2 mol L-1 KCl, occurred in the field as soon as feasible after sampling. Soils were kept near field temperature and subsampled again the following day in the laboratory. Rates measured by this method were about three times higher than the 4-week rates. Variability in measured rates was similar over either incubation period. Because NO3- concentrations were usually quite low in the field, average rates from 10 research watersheds could be estimated with only a single, 1-day extraction. Methodological studies showed that the concentration of NH4+ increased slowly during contact time with the KCl extractant and, thus, this contact time should be kept similar during the procedure. This method allows a large number of samples to be rapidly assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  19. A pragmatic approach to estimate the number of days in exceedance of PM10 limit value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Maxime; Malherbe, Laure; de Fouquet, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    European legislation on ambient air quality requests that Member States report the annual number of exceedances of short-term concentration regulatory thresholds for PM10 and delimit the concerned areas. Measurements at the monitoring stations do not allow to fully describe those areas. We present a methodology to estimate the number of exceedances of the daily limit value over a year, that can be extended to any similar issue. This methodology is applied to PM10 concentrations in France for which the daily limit value is 50 μg m-3, not to be exceeded more that 35 days. A probabilistic model is built using preliminary mapping of daily mean concentrations. First, daily atmospheric concentration fields are estimated at 1 km resolution by external drift kriging, combining surface monitoring observations and outputs from the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. Setting a conventional Gaussian hypothesis for the estimation error, the kriging variance is used to compute the probability of exceeding the daily limit value and to identify three areas: those where we can suppose as certain that the concentrations exceed or not the daily limit value and those where the situation is indeterminate because of the estimation uncertainty. Then, from the set of 365 daily mappings of the probability to exceed the daily limit value, the parameters of a translated Poisson distribution is fitted on the annual number of exceedances of the daily limit value at each grid cell, which enables to compute the probability for this number to exceed 35. The methodology is tested for three years (2007, 2009 and 2011) which present numerous exceedances of the daily limit concentration at some monitoring stations. A cross-validation analysis is carried out to check the efficiency of the methodology. The way to interpret probability maps is discussed. A comparison is made with simpler kriging approaches using indicator kriging of exceedances. Lastly, estimation of the population exposed to PM10

  20. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  1. Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

    2007-04-01

    Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

  2. The cloudy state of interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    The expression 'cloudy state' is used to describe the state of the diffuse interstellar matter, with emphasis on its denser and more opaque regions. Questions of morphology with respect to the Galaxy are examined, taking into account neutral hydrogen, molecular regions, H II regions, infrared sources and masers, coronal gas in the Galaxy, and the major components of the interstellar medium. Aspects of dynamics are also considered, giving attention to the two-phase interstellar medium, the three-phase interstellar medium, the density-wave compression of clouds, and problems related to the concept of collapsing clouds. Developments concerning chemistry are explored. Radioactive chronologies are discussed along with isotopic anomalies and aspects of interstellar chemistry.

  3. Aerosol buffering of marine boundary layer cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, H.

    2010-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles in maintaining a cloudy boundary layer in the remote marine environment is explored. It has previously been shown that precipitation can result in the transition from a closed- to open-cellular state but that the boundary layer cannot maintain this open-cell state without a resupply of particles. Potential sources include wind-driven production of sea salt particles from the ocean, nucleation from the gas phase, and entrainment from the free troposphere. Here we investigate with model simulations how the interplay of cloud properties, aerosol production, and boundary layer dynamics results in aerosol sources acting as a buffer against processes that destabilize cloudiness and the dynamic state of the marine boundary layer. For example, at nighttime, cloud liquid water increases in the absence of solar heating, resulting in increased precipitation, stronger cloud top cooling, accelerated boundary layer turbulence, and faster surface wind speeds. Faster surface wind speeds drive an enhanced flux of sea salt aerosol, at a time when aerosol particles are scavenged more readily by enhanced precipitation. In contrast, absorption of solar radiation during daytime reduces cloud water, decelerates boundary layer turbulence, reduces surface wind speeds, and therefore slows surface emissions. This is compensated by nucleation of small aerosol particles from the gas phase in response to the nigh complete removal of cloud condensation nuclei in precipitating open cell walls. These newly formed particles need to grow to larger sizes before they can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but will likely contribute to the CCN population during the nighttime and, together with ocean emissions, buffer the system against precipitation removal.

  4. ATTENUATION OF VISIBLE SUNLIGHT BY LIMITED VISIBILITY AND CLOUDINESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in the irradiance measurements arises from systematic changes in the solar zenith angle (SZA), cloudiness and changing visibility. Measurements in the wavelength band centered on 612 nm serve as a reference for the initial characterization of the effects of cloudy ...

  5. Analysis of global cloudiness comparison of meteor, Nimbus 7, and international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E.

    1993-07-20

    In this first paper of a three-part series on cloudienss we intercompare the simultaneous cloudiness data obtained from Meteor satellites, Nimbus 7, and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for the one-year period, July 1983 to June 1984. Four versions of ISCCP cloudiness are obtained from analyses of the ISCCP-C1 data. These versions differ in their requirements for temporal and spectral sampling. ISCCPs 1 and 2 require for each 2.5{degree} x 2.5{degree} latitude-longitude cell that there be observations at least (N{sub d} = ) 20 of the 28-31 possible days per month and at least (N{sub h} = ) 5 of the 8 possible 3 hourly times each such day; ISCCPs 3 and 4 require only N{sub d} = 1 and N{sub h} = 1. The ISCCP 1-4 intercomparison shows that (1) the cloudiness differences due to the above temporal sampling are smaller than those due to the above spectral sampling; (2) both spectral and temporal sampling effects are larger for the northern hemisphere than for the southern hemisphere; and (3) the difference between zonal mean cloudiness with and without visible information generally increases with latitude from polar night to about 60{degree} latitude in the summer hemisphere. A special observational program in both the Arctic and the Antarctic is proposed to resolve the discrepancies among the satellite and ground-based cloudiness observations in polar latitudes.

  6. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  7. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

  8. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR FIRST LACTATION TEST-DAY YIELDS OF HOLSTEIN COWS WITH A CUBIC SPLINE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields with a cubic spline model. A total of 196,687 test-day records in the first 305-d of 38,172 first lactation Holstein cows that calved between 1994 and early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Ma...

  9. Spectral distribution of solar radiation on clear days - A comparison between measurements and model estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, V.

    1984-05-01

    The distribution of direct and scattered solar radiant energy in the UV (295-385-nm), blue (385-495-nm), green-orange (495-630-nm), red (630-695-nm), and IR (695-2800-nm) bands commonly used in precision spectral pyranometers is estimated for clear sky conditions as a function of solar height, using a plane-parallel atmosphere model and data on the seasonal variation of the UV component at latitude 59.7 deg N. Integrated daily fluxes are also calculated for selected days of the year, and the results are compared with experimental measurements in graphs and tables. The model is found to give reasonable agreement with the observations, but fails to account for a significant blue shift with increasing solar height at heights above 15 deg. The measured distribution for March is given as UV 4.2, blue 8.9, green-orange 21.8, red 12.4, and IR 52.9 percent; for July, the respective values are 4.6, 16.1, 18.0, 10.7, and 50.6 percent.

  10. Number of Days Required to Estimate Habitual Activity Using Wrist-Worn GENEActiv Accelerometer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Christina B.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.; Rennie, Kirsten L.; Kozarski, Robert; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Objective methods like accelerometers are feasible for large studies and may quantify variability in day-to-day physical activity better than self-report. The variability between days suggests that day of the week cannot be ignored in the design and analysis of physical activity studies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal number of days needed to obtain reliable estimates of weekly habitual physical activity using the wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometer. Methods Data are from a subsample of the Mitchelstown cohort; 475 (44.6% males; mean aged 59.6±5.5 years) middle-aged Irish adults. Participants wore the wrist GENEActiv accelerometer for 7-consecutive days. Data were collected at 100Hz and summarised into a signal magnitude vector using 60s epochs. Each time interval was categorised according to intensity based on validated cut-offs. Spearman pairwise correlations determined the association between days of the week. Repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in average minutes across days. Intraclass correlations examined the proportion of variability between days, and Spearman-Brown formula estimated intra-class reliability coefficient associated with combinations of 1–7 days. Results Three hundred and ninety-seven adults (59.7±5.5yrs) had valid accelerometer data. Overall, men were most sedentary on weekends while women spent more time in sedentary behaviour on Sunday through Tuesday. Post hoc analysis found sedentary behaviour and light activity levels on Sunday to differ to all other days in the week. Analysis revealed greater than 1 day monitoring is necessary to achieve acceptable reliability. Monitoring frame duration for reliable estimates varied across intensity categories, (sedentary (3 days), light (2 days), moderate (2 days) and vigorous activity (6 days) and MVPA (2 days)). Conclusion These findings provide knowledge into the behavioural variability in weekly activity patterns of middle-aged adults. Since Sunday

  11. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-11-06

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratification at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the tradewind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. As a result, these findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.

  12. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-11-06

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratificationmore » at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the tradewind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. As a result, these findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.« less

  13. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-12-01

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratification at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the trade-wind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. These findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.

  14. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  15. Winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia related to the Siberian High during 1966-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander; Mokhov, Igor I.; Nikitina, Natalia

    2013-12-01

    This letter presents an assessment of winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia regions related to the Siberian High intensity (SHI) variations during 1966-2010. An analysis of cloud fraction and the occurrence of different cloud types was carried out based on visual observations from almost 500 Russian meteorological stations. The moonlight criterion was implemented to reduce the uncertainty of night observations. The SHI was defined based on sea-level pressure fields from different reanalyses. We found a statistically significant negative correlation of cloud cover with the SHI over central and southern Siberia and the southern Urals with regression coefficients around 3% hPa-1 for total cloud fraction (TCF) for particular stations near the Siberian High center. Cross-wavelet analysis of TCF and SHI revealed a long-term relationship between cloudiness and the Siberian High. Generally, the Siberian High intensification by 1 hPa leads to a replacement of one overcast day with one day without clouds, which is associated mainly with a decrease in precipitating and stratiform clouds. These changes point to a positive feedback between cloudiness and the Siberian High.

  16. Estimating Activity Duration by Momentary Time-Sampling of Part or All of the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies of engagement in meaningful activity often focus on a short period during the afternoon. The question arises whether this produces different results from studies covering the whole day. Methods: Data collected for 18 individuals using a 20-s momentary time-sample from 08:00 to 19:00 over a number of days for each person were…

  17. Technical note: Large-eddy simulation of cloudy boundary layer with the Advanced Research WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Feingold, Graham

    2012-03-01

    A thorough evaluation of the large-eddy simulation (LES) mode of the Advanced Research WRF model is performed with use of three cloudy boundary layer cases developed as LES intercomparison cases by the GEWEX Cloud System Study. Our evaluation reveals two problems that must be recognized and carefully addressed before proceeding with production runs. These are (i) sensitivity of results to the prescribed number of acoustic time steps per physical time step; and (ii) the assumption of saturation adjustment in the initial cloudy state. A temporary, but effective method of how to cope with these issues is suggested. With the proper treatment, the simulation results are comparable to the ensemble mean of the other LES models, and sometimes closer to the observational estimate than the ensemble mean. In order to ease the burden for configuration and post-processing, two new packages are developed and implemented. A detailed description of each package is presented. These packages are freely available to the public.

  18. Estimating 11-year solar UV variations using 27-day response as a guide to isolate trends in total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Brasseur, G. P.; Chiou, L. S.; Hsu, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    The total column ozone response to 11-year solar ultraviolet (UV) variations is estimated here from the observed response to 27-day solar variations adjusted for the theoretical difference between the 27-day response and 11-year response. The estimate is tested by comparing two data sets where long-term drifts have been removed, the Nimbus 7 TOMS Version 6 total column ozone and the 280 nm core-to-wing ratio (a proxy for solar UV variations). The 365-day running means of data area-weighted between 40 deg N to 40 deg S latitude give a 1.9% ozone variation related to the 11-year solar cycle compared with the estimate of 1.8%. Estimates of linear trends were reduced by a factor of 2 by including solar effects. The standard deviation from the empirical model was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 Dobson Units, by including the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), but the QBO did not significantly alter trend estimates. Both the ozone responses to 27-day and 11-year solar variations were considerably stronger than predicted by a 2-D theoretical model.

  19. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU

  20. Assessment of clear and cloudy sky parameterizations for daily downwelling longwave radiation over different land surfaces in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clear sky downwelling longwave radiation and cloudy sky downwelling longwave radiation formulas were tested across eleven sites in Florida. The Sellers equation, using air vapor pressure and temperature measurements, provides the best estimates of clear sky downwelling longwave radiation with a roo...

  1. USE OF CLIMATIC DATA IN ESTIMATING STORAGE DAYS FOR SOILS TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer programs have been developed to estimate storage needs for Soil Treatment Systems from analyses of daily climatological data. One program uses a set of thresholds for temperature, precipitation and/or snow depth to estimate storage needs in colder regions. A second progr...

  2. A methodology to estimate the potential to move inpatient to one day surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilliard, Nicolas; Eggli, Yves; Halfon, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Background The proportion of surgery performed as a day case varies greatly between countries. Low rates suggest a large growth potential in many countries. Measuring the potential development of one day surgery should be grounded on a comprehensive list of eligible procedures, based on a priori criteria, independent of local practices. We propose an algorithmic method, using only routinely available hospital data to identify surgical hospitalizations that could have been performed as one day treatment. Methods Moving inpatient surgery to one day surgery was considered feasible if at least one surgical intervention was eligible for one day surgery and if none of the following criteria were present: intervention or affection requiring an inpatient stay, patient transferred or died, and length of stay greater than four days. The eligibility of a procedure to be treated as a day case was mainly established on three a priori criteria: surgical access (endoscopic or not), the invasiveness of the procedure and the size of the operated organ. Few overrides of these criteria occurred when procedures were associated with risk of immediate complications, slow physiological recovery or pain treatment requiring hospital infrastructure. The algorithm was applied to a random sample of one million inpatient US stays and more than 600 thousand Swiss inpatient stays, in the year 2002. Results The validity of our method was demonstrated by the few discrepancies between the a priori criteria based list of eligible procedures, and a state list used for reimbursement purposes, the low proportion of hospitalizations eligible for one day care found in the US sample (4.9 versus 19.4% in the Swiss sample), and the distribution of the elective procedures found eligible in Swiss hospitals, well supported by the literature. There were large variations of the proportion of candidates for one day surgery among elective surgical hospitalizations between Swiss hospitals (3 to 45.3%). Conclusion

  3. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (<200 mm/year), might be associated with unfavorable hydrogeologic conditions associated with cratonic provinces. Statistical analysis of inter-comparison between the three different recharge estimates show good matches in some of the areas. Recharge estimates indicate dynamic nature of groundwater recharge as a function of precipitation, land use pattern, and hydrogeologic parameters. On a first hand basis, the estimates will help policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  4. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of 1-, 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day flood-duration flows in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Regression equations, which allow predictions of n-day flood-duration flows for selected annual exceedance probabilities at ungaged sites, were developed using generalized least-squares regression and flood-duration flow frequency estimates at 56 streamgaging stations within a single, relatively uniform physiographic region in the central part of Arizona, between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range Province, called the Transition Zone. Drainage area explained most of the variation in the n-day flood-duration annual exceedance probabilities, but mean annual precipitation and mean elevation were also significant variables in the regression models. Standard error of prediction for the regression equations varies from 28 to 53 percent and generally decreases with increasing n-day duration. Outside the Transition Zone there are insufficient streamgaging stations to develop regression equations, but flood-duration flow frequency estimates are presented at select streamgaging stations.

  5. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  6. A neural network based intelligent predictive sensor for cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro M; Gomes, João M; Martins, Igor A C; Ruano, António E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature,as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  7. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  8. Evaluation of total cloudiness and its variability in the atmospheric model intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C.; Mokhov, I.I.

    1995-09-01

    Total cloudiness of 29 models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project is compared with the ISCCP C2 as well as the Nimbus-7 and Meteor observational estimates. The root-mean-square differences between the annual means of the model calculations and the C2 observations vary from about twice to nearly four times the difference between the C2 and Meteor observations. The large differences are in some cases due to the fact that although a model qualitatively has patterns of spatial variations similar to those of the observations, the magnitude of those variations is much too small. In other cases the models have produced the approximate magnitude of the spatial variability of the observations but display sizable errors in the pattern of that variability. Deficiencies with respect to the model simulations of the mean seasonal cycle are also pronounced. For instance, the differences between the zonal averages of total cloudiness for contrasting seasons suggest that near 60{degrees} most models predict minima in cloudiness in summer, whereas observations strongly suggest the opposite. Smoothed seasonal cycle analyses suggest that a portion of these deficiencies in some models is the result of a simulated seasonal cycle that lead that of the observations by about two months. However, some models, which appear to have the proper phase of the seasonal cycle, still show large root-mean-squared differences and small correlations when compared with the smoothed seasonal cycle of the C2 observations. The C2 and Meteor observations show a modest signal in total cloudiness for the only important interannual variation during the July 1983 through June 1988 observation period-the 1986/87 ENSO event. A few models reproduce this event about as well as do the Meteor observations, whereas many models fail to show any evidence of it. Overall, models that better reproduce the ENSO results also tend to do well with seasonal variations. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Variability of Cloudiness at Airline Cruise Altitudes from GASP Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasperson, William H.; Nastrom, Gregory D.; Davis, Richard E.; Holdeman, James D.

    1985-01-01

    A climatology of high-altitude cloud encounters using data obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is presented. The statistics are based on three different measures of cloudiness derived from the GASP data set. This climatology depicts the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in the cloudiness parameters, as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone- and convective cloud-generation mechanisms. A qualitative agreement was found between the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived from the GASP data and satellite-derived high-altitude cloud statistics available in the literature. Relationships between the three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes, stratified by season, latitude and distance from the tropopause are also presented. In midlatitudes, for example, the average cloudiness, when stratified by the sign of the relative vorticity, exhibits a seasonal cycle with the 1argest differences occurring in the layer 0-1.5 km below the tropopause. Seasonal and latitudinal patterns can also be seen in the other cloudiness parameters.

  10. Modelling Scalar Skewness in Cloudy Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Dmitrii; Machulskaya, Ekaterina; Naumann, Ann Kristin; Seifert, Axel; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Following the pioneering work of Sommeria and Deardorff (1977), statistical cloud schemes are widely used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models to parameterize the effect of shallow clouds on turbulent mixing and radiation fluxes. Statistical cloud schemes compute the cloud fraction, the amount of cloud condensate and the effect clouds on the buoyancy flux in a given atmospheric-model grid box. This is done with due regard for the sub-grid scale (SGS) fluctuations of temperature and humidity (and possibly the vertical velocity), thus providing an important coupling between cloudiness and the SGS mixing processes. The shape of the PDF of fluctuating fields is assumed, whereas the PDF moments should be provided to the cloud scheme as an input. For non-precipitation clouds, the mixing schemes are usually formulated in terms of quasi-conservative variable, e.g. the liquid (total) water potential temperature and the total water specific humidity. Then, the cloud schemes are conveniently cast in terms of the linearized saturation deficit, referred to as the "s" variable (Mellor 1977), that accounts for the combined effect of the two scalars. If a simple two-parameter single-Gaussian PDF is used, the only "turbulence" parameter to be provided to the cloud scheme is the variance of s. The single-Gaussian PDF ignores the skewed nature of SGS motions and fails to describe many important regimes, e.g. shallow cumuli. A number of more flexible skewed PDFs have been proposed to date. A three-parameter PDF, based on a double-Gaussian distribution and diagnostic relations between some PDF parameters derived from LES and observational data (Naumann et al. 2013), appears to be a good compromise between physical realism and computational economy. A crucial point is that the cloud schemes using non-Gaussian PDFs require the scalar skewness as an input. Using rather mild non-restrictive assumptions, we develop a transport equation for the s-variable triple

  11. Ultrafast High Accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR Model for Cloudy Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Ping; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    An ultrafast high accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR model is developed based on PCA compression and principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM). A fast algorithm for simulation of multi-scattering properties of cloud and/or aerosols is integrated into the fast infrared PCRTM. We completed radiance simulation and training for instruments, such as IASI, AIRS, CrIS, NASTI and SHIS, under diverse conditions. The new model is 5 orders faster than 52-stream DISORT with very high accuracy for cloudy sky radiative transfer simulation. It is suitable for hyperspectral remote data assimilation and cloudy sky retrievals.

  12. Variability of cloudiness at airline cruise altitudes from GASP measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.

  13. Influences of the day-night differences of ionospheric variability on the estimation of GPS differential code bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. X.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, S. R.; Coster, A. J.; Hao, Y. Q.; Xiao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of differential code bias (DCB) of GPS system is one of the necessary steps for total electron content (TEC) derivation from GPS measurements. Usually, the method for estimating the GPS DCBs follows the assumption of the gentle temporal and spatial variation of the ionosphere, but this assumption is just an approximation because of the ionosphere's inherent variability. It has been indicated that the estimated GPS satellite DCBs are sometimes influenced by the ionospheric conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate a possible influence of ionospheric variability that differs between day and night on the estimated DCBs from measurements of a single GPS station. It is found that the average standard deviations (STDs) of the satellite DCBs estimated with daytime data are higher than that with the nighttime data. To reduce this day-night difference effect on GPS DCB determination, we use an improved estimation method based on the primary features of the ionospheric variability with local time. A local time dependent weighting function was introduced into the original least squares DCBs estimation algorithm. A test with data for BJFS station (39.60°N, 115.89°E) in 2001 indicates that the STD of the DCBs decreases from 2.533 TECU (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) to 2.308 TECU, or by 8.9%, after the improved method was applied. For comparison, another test for the same station in 2009 indicates that the STD decreases from 1.344 TECU to 1.295 TECU. The amplitude of the 2009 improvement is very limited, only about 3.6%. The difference of the percentage improvements can probably be attributed to the different ionospheric conditions between 2001 and 2009.

  14. Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Duli; Wood, R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Rasch, Philip J.; Miller, Steven D.; Schichtel, Bret; Moore, Tom

    2012-09-14

    Remote sensing observations of aerosol from surface and satellite instruments are extensively used for atmospheric and climate research. From passive sensors, the apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds often appears to be brighter then further away from the clouds, leading to an enhancement in the retrieved aerosol optical depth. Mechanisms contributing to this enhancement, including contamination by undetected clouds, hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles, and meteorological conditions, have been debated in recent literature, but an extent to which each of these factors influence the observed enhancement is poorly known. Here we used 11 years of daily global observations at 10x10 km2 resolution from the MODIS on the NASA Terra satellite to quantify as a function of cloud fraction (CF). Our analysis reveals that, averaged over the globe, the clear sky is enhanced by ? = 0.05 which corresponds to relative enhancements of 25% in cloudy conditions (CF=0.8-0.9) compared with relatively clear conditions (CF=0.1-0.2). Unlike the absolute enhancement ?, the relative increase in ? is rather consistent in all seasons and is 25-35% in the subtropics and 15-25% at mid and higher latitudes. Using a simple Gaussian probability density function model to connect cloud cover and the distribution of relative humidity, we argue that much of the enhancement is consistent with aerosol hygroscopic growth in the humid environment surrounding clouds. Consideration of these cloud-dependent effects will facilitate understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing by global climate models.

  15. Estimating Sun Exposure of Children in Day Care Nurseries in South Oxfordshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Price, Luke L A; Higlett, Michael P; O'Hagan, John B

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation and sunburn during childhood and adolescence is linked to increased risks of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma later in life. Infants and toddlers are thought to be unusually vulnerable to UVR because of lower levels of melanin, a thinner stratum corneum and a higher surface area/body mass ratio. The aim of this study was to assess variations in the available erythema effective radiant doses to young children in day care nurseries in South Oxfordshire, UK over 7 years between 2008 and 2014. The data were analyzed in three distinct seasons according to a series of realistic exposure scenarios taking into account nursery routines. The results indicate the time of year when high doses are to be expected and provide strong support for arguments in favor of raising public awareness of sun protection earlier in the year. PMID:26452244

  16. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting. PMID:23601149

  17. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sesana, R C; Bignardi, A B; Borquis, R R A; El Faro, L; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, to obtain genetic parameters for buffalo's test-day milk production using random regression models on Legendre polynomials (LPs). A total of 17 935 test-day milk yield (TDMY) from 1433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, calving from 1985 to 2005 and belonging to 12 herds located in São Paulo state, Brazil, were analysed. Contemporary groups (CGs) were defined by herd, year and month of milk test. Residual variances were modelled through variance functions, from second to fourth order and also by a step function with 1, 4, 6, 22 and 42 classes. The model of analyses included the fixed effect of CGs, number of milking, age of cow at calving as a covariable (linear and quadratic) and the mean trend of the population. As random effects were included the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects were modelled by LP of days in milk from quadratic to seventh degree polynomial functions. The model with additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects adjusted by quintic and sixth order LP, respectively, and residual variance modelled through a step function with six classes was the most adequate model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates decreased from 0.44 (first week) to 0.18 (fourth week). Unexpected negative genetic correlation estimates were obtained between TDMY records at first weeks with records from middle to the end of lactation, being the values varied from -0.07 (second with eighth week) to -0.34 (1st with 42nd week). TDMY heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in milking buffaloes. PMID:20831561

  18. Cloudy's Journey from FORTRAN to C, Why and How

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.

    Cloudy is a large-scale plasma simulation code that is widely used across the astronomical community as an aid in the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The cover of the ADAS VI book featured predictions of the code. The FORTRAN 77 source code has always been freely available on the Internet, contributing to its widespread use. The coming of PCs and Linux has fundamentally changed the computing environment. Modern Fortran compilers (F90 and F95) are not freely available. A common-use code must be written in either FORTRAN 77 or C to be Open Source/GNU/Linux friendly. F77 has serious drawbacks - modern language constructs cannot be used, students do not have skills in this language, and it does not contribute to their future employability. It became clear that the code would have to be ported to C to have a viable future. I describe the approach I used to convert Cloudy from FORTRAN 77 with MILSPEC extensions to ANSI/ISO 89 C. Cloudy is now openly available as a C code, and will evolve to C++ as gcc and standard C++ mature. Cloudy looks to a bright future with a modern language.

  19. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  20. Dynamics of a supernova envelope in a cloudy interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Vasiliev, E. O.; Kovalenko, I. G.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor f leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as E t ~ t -2.3, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling factor is f ≳ 0.1, a layer with excess kinetic energy andmomentumforms far behind the global shock front from the supernova, which traps the hot gas of the cavity in the central part of the supernova remnant. Metals ejected by the supernova are also enclosed in the central region of the remnant, where the initial (high) metallicity is essentially preserved. Thus, the interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy interstellar medium appreciably changes the dynamics and structure of the distribution of the gas in the remnant. This affects the observational characteristics of the remnant, in particularly, leading to substantial fluctuations of the emissionmeasure of the gas with T > 105 K and the velocity dispersion of the ionized gas.

  1. Diurnal heating and cloudiness in the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Ruth S.; Leovy, Conway B.; Boville, Byron A.; Briegleb, Bruce P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the authors assess the suitability of the heating fileds in the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM2) for modeling the thermal forcing of atmospheric tides. Accordingly, diurnal variations of the surface pressure, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloudiness, and precipitation are examined in the CCM2. The fields of radiative, sensible, and latent heating are similarly analyzed. These results are subjectively compared with available data. Equatorial diurnal surface pressure tides are fairly well simulated by CCM2. The model successfully reproduces the semidiurnal surface pressure tides; however, this may result in part from reflection of wave energy at the upper boundary. The CCM2 large-scale diurnal OLR is generally consistent with observations. The moist-convective scheme in the model is able to reproduce the diurnally varying cloudiness and precipitation patterns associated with land-sea contrasts; however, the amplitudes of CCM2 diurnal continental convective cloudiness are weaker than observations. The CCM2 boundary-layer sensible heating is consistent with a very limited set of observations, and with estimates obtained from simple models of diffusive heating. Although the CCM2 tropospheric solar radiative heating is similar in magnitude to previous estimates, there are substantial differences in the vertical structures. A definitive assessment of the validity of the CCM2 diurnal cycle is precluded by the lack of detailed observations and the limitations of our CCM2 sample. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that the global-scale components of the CCM2 diurnal heating are useful proxies for the true diurnal forcing of the tides.

  2. Direction and movement angular velocity determining of cloudiness with panoramic images of the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galileiskii, Viktor P.; Elizarov, Alexey I.; Kokarev, Dmitrii V.; Morozov, Aleksandr M.

    2014-11-01

    This article gives a short overview to method of direction determining and visible angular velocity of movement determining of cloudiness based on set of panoramic images of cloudy sky, obtained by "Fisheye" wide-angle lens.

  3. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the

  4. Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Albrecht

    2004-09-15

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  5. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. PMID:25727642

  6. Genetic parameters for test-day yield of milk, fat and protein in buffaloes estimated by random regression models.

    PubMed

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rúsbel R; Araujo Neto, Francisco R; Baldi, Fernando; Santos, Daniel J A; Albuquerque, Lucia G; Tonhati, Humberto

    2012-08-01

    The test-day yields of milk, fat and protein were analysed from 1433 first lactations of buffaloes of the Murrah breed, daughters of 113 sires from 12 herds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, born between 1985 and 2007. For the test-day yields, 10 monthly classes of lactation days were considered. The contemporary groups were defined as the herd-year-month of the test day. Random additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included in the model. The fixed effects considered were the contemporary group, number of milkings (1 or 2 milkings), linear and quadratic effects of the covariable cow age at calving and the mean lactation curve of the population (modelled by third-order Legendre orthogonal polynomials). The random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were estimated by means of regression on third- to sixth-order Legendre orthogonal polynomials. The residual variances were modelled with a homogenous structure and various heterogeneous classes. According to the likelihood-ratio test, the best model for milk and fat production was that with four residual variance classes, while a third-order Legendre polynomial was best for the additive genetic effect for milk and fat yield, a fourth-order polynomial was best for the permanent environmental effect for milk production and a fifth-order polynomial was best for fat production. For protein yield, the best model was that with three residual variance classes and third- and fourth-order Legendre polynomials were best for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively. The heritability estimates for the characteristics analysed were moderate, varying from 0·16±0·05 to 0·29±0·05 for milk yield, 0·20±0·05 to 0·30±0·08 for fat yield and 0·18±0·06 to 0·27±0·08 for protein yield. The estimates of the genetic correlations between the tests varied from 0·18±0·120 to 0·99±0·002; from 0·44±0·080 to 0·99±0·004; and from 0·41±0·080 to

  7. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

  8. Aerosol Retrievals under Partly Cloudy Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2011-06-01

    There are lots of interesting and intriguing features of aerosols near clouds – many of which can be quite engaging, as well being useful and climate-related. Exploring aerosol with the aid of the remote sensing, in situ observations and numerical modeling has piqued our curiosity and led to improve insights into the nature of aerosol and clouds and their complex relationship. This chapter conveys the outstanding issues of cloudy-sky aerosol retrievals of important climate properties and outlines their fruitful connections to other research areas such as in situ measurements and model simulations. The chapter focuses mostly on treating the inverse problems in the context of the passive satellite remote sensing and how they can improve our understanding of the cloud-aerosol interactions. The presentation includes a basis in the inverse problem theory, reviews available approaches and discusses their applications to partly cloudy situations. Potential synergy of observations and model simulations is described as well.

  9. CLOUDY 90: Numerical Simulation of Plasmas and Their Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Korista, K. T.; Verner, D. A.; Ferguson, J. W.; Kingdon, J. B.; Verner, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    CLOUDY is a large-scale spectral synthesis code designed to simulate fully physical conditions within an astronomical plasma and then predict the emitted spectrum. Here we describe version 90 (C90) of the code, paying particular attention to changes in the atomic database and numerical methods that have affected predictions since the last publicly available version, C84. The computational methods and uncertainties are outlined together with the direction future development will take. The code is freely available and is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of emission-line spectra. Web access to the Fortran source for CLOUDY, its documentation Hazy, and an independent electronic form of the atomic database is also described.

  10. Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.

  11. Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R.; Leovy, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    Marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC)(stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) is widespread over subtropical oceans west of the continents and over midlatitude oceans during summer, the season when MSC has maximum influence on surface downward radiation and is most influenced by boundary-layer processes. Long-term datasets of cloudiness and sea surface teperature (SST) from surface observations from 1952 to 1981 are used to examine interannual variations in MSC and SST. Linear correlations of anomalies in seasonal MSC amount with seasonal SST anomalies are negative and significant in midlatitude and eastern subtropical oceans, especially during summer. Significant negative correlations between SST and nimbostratus and nonprecipitating midlevel cloudiness are also observed at midlatitudes during summer, suggesting that summer storm tracks shift from year to year following year-to-year meridional shifts in the SST gradient. Over the 30-yr period, there are significant upward trends in MSC amount over the northern midlatitude oceans and a significant downward trend off the coast of California. The highest correlations and trends occur where gradients in MSC and SST are strongest. During summer, correlations between SST and MSC anomalies peak at zero lag in midlatitudes where warm advection prevails, but SST lags MSC in subtropical regions where cold advection predominates. This difference is attributed to a tendency for anomalies in latent heat flux to compensate anomalies in surface downward radiation in warm advection regions but not in cold advection regions.

  12. Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Leovy, Conway B.

    1994-01-01

    Marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC)(stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) is widespread over subtropical oceans west of the continents and over midlatitude oceans during summer, the season when MSC has maximum influence on surface downward radiation and is most influenced by boundary-layer processes. Long-term datasets of cloudiness and sea surface teperature (SST) from surface observations from 1952 to 1981 are used to examine interannual variations in MSC and SST. Linear correlations of anomalies in seasonal MSC amount with seasonal SST anomalies are negative and significant in midlatitude and eastern subtropical oceans, especially during summer. Significant negative correlations between SST and nimbostratus and nonprecipitating midlevel cloudiness are also observed at midlatitudes during summer, suggesting that summer storm tracks shift from year to year following year-to-year meridional shifts in the SST gradient. Over the 30-yr period, there are significant upward trends in MSC amount over the northern midlatitude oceans and a significant downward trend off the coast of California. The highest correlations and trends occur where gradients in MSC and SST are strongest. During summer, correlations between SST and MSC anomalies peak at zero lag in midlatitudes where warm advection prevails, but SST lags MSC in subtropical regions where cold advection predominates. This difference is attributed to a tendency for anomalies in latent heat flux to compensate anomalies in surface downward radiation in warm advection regions but not in cold advection regions.

  13. Changes in Extratropical Storm Track Cloudiness 1983-2008: Observational Support for a Poleward Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Frida A-M.; Rananathan, V.; Tselioudis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate model simulations suggest that the extratropical storm tracks will shift poleward as a consequence of global warming. In this study the northern and southern hemisphere storm tracks over the Pacific and Atlantic ocean basins are studied using observational data, primarily from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP. Potential shifts in the storm tracks are examined using the observed cloud structures as proxies for cyclone activity. Different data analysis methods are employed, with the objective to address difficulties and uncertainties in using ISCCP data for regional trend analysis. In particular, three data filtering techniques are explored; excluding specific problematic regions from the analysis, regressing out a spurious viewing geometry effect, and excluding specific cloud types from the analysis. These adjustments all, to varying degree, moderate the cloud trends in the original data but leave the qualitative aspects of those trends largely unaffected. Therefore, our analysis suggests that ISCCP data can be used to interpret regional trends in cloudiness, provided that data and instrumental artefacts are recognized and accounted for. The variation in magnitude between trends emerging from application of different data correction methods, allows us to estimate possible ranges for the observational changes. It is found that the storm tracks, here represented by the extent of the midlatitude-centered band of maximum cloud cover over the studied ocean basins, experience a poleward shift as well as a narrowing over the 25 year period covered by ISCCP. The observed magnitudes of these effects are larger than in current generation climate models (CMIP3). The magnitude of the shift is particularly large in the northern hemisphere Atlantic. This is also the one of the four regions in which imperfect data primarily prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. The shifted path and reduced extent of the storm track cloudiness is accompanied

  14. Cardiovascular responses to noise: Effects of self-estimated sensitivity to noise, sex, and time of the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nisi, J.; Muzet, A.; Weber, L. D.

    1987-04-01

    Eighty subjects of both sexes were selected according to their self-estimated high or low sensitivity to noise. Noise exposure took place during a mental task ("sound" condition) or during a video film illustrating the noises ("sound and video" condition). The experiments were conducted between 0900 and 1100 hours or between 1500 and 1700 hours. Heart rate response and finger pulse response amplitudes were averaged separately for "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the average amplitude of the heart rate response differed significantly between noise-sensitivity groups: the low sensitivity group showed a lower average amplitude of heart rate response than the high sensitivity group. A significant interaction between sex and time of the day (morning or afternoon) was observed in both "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the percentage of noises inducing a finger pulse response appeared higher in female than in male subjects.

  15. Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Howard W.; Kato, Serji; Wehr, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main point of this study was to use realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 60 km wide by 13,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances for each (1 km)2 column where then produced by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and independent column approximation mode (i.e., a 1D model).

  16. An extended cumulative logit model for detecting a shift in frequencies of sky-cloudiness conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiqi; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2012-08-01

    In Canada, sky-cloudiness (or cloud cover) condition is reported in terms of tenths of the sky dome covered by clouds and hence has 11 categories (0/10 for clear sky, 1/10 for one tenth of the sky dome covered by clouds, …, and 10/10 for overcast). The cloud cover data often contain temporal discontinuities (changepoints) and present a large amount of observational uncertainty. Detecting changepoints in a sequence of continuous random variables has been extensively explored in both statistics and climatology literature. However, changepoint analyses of a multinomial sequence data with extra variabilities are relatively sparse. This study develops a likelihood ratio test for detecting a sudden change in parameters of the cumulative logit model for a multinomial sequence. The extra-multinomial variation is accounted for by allowing an overdispersion parameter in the model fitting. Moreover, the empirical distribution of the estimated changepoint is approximated by a bootstrap method. An application of this new technique to real sky cloudiness data in Canada is presented.

  17. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  18. Cloudy 94 and Applications to Quasar Emission Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2000-01-01

    This review discusses the most recent developments of the plasma simulation code Cloudy and its application to the, emission-line regions of quasars. The longterm goal is to develop the tools needed to determine the chemical composition of the emitting gas and the luminosity of the central engine for any emission line source. Emission lines and the underlying thermal continuum are formed in plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Their thermal and ionization states are the result of a balance of a vast set of microphysical processes. Once produced, radiation must, propagate out of the (usually) optically thick source. No analytic solutions are possible, and recourse to numerical simulations is necessary. I am developing the large-scale plasma simulation code Cloudy as an investigative tool for this work, much as an observer might build a spectrometer. This review describes the current version of Cloudy, version 94. It describes improvements made since the, release of the previous version, C90. The major recent, application has been the development of the "Locally Optimally-Emitting Cloud" (LOC) model of AGN emission line regions. Powerful selection effects, introduced by the atomic physics and line formation process, permit individual lines to form most efficiently only near certain selected parameters. These selection effects, together with the presence of gas with a wide range of conditions, are enough to reproduce the spectrum of a typical quasar with little dependence on details. The spectrum actually carries little information to the identity of the emitters. I view this as a major step forward since it provides a method to handle accidental details at the source, so that we can concentrate on essential information such as the luminosity or chemical composition of the quasar.

  19. Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial variability of sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface temperatures, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean temperature patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.

  20. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  1. Regime-based evaluation of cloudiness in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Daeho; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of cloud regimes (CRs) is used to develop a framework for evaluating the cloudiness of 12 fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. Reference CRs come from existing global International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states. The evaluation is made possible by the implementation in several CMIP5 models of the ISCCP simulator generating in each grid cell daily joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure. Model performance is assessed with several metrics such as CR global cloud fraction (CF), CR relative frequency of occurrence (RFO), their product [long-term average total cloud amount (TCA)], cross-correlations of CR RFO maps, and a metric of resemblance between model and ISCCP CRs. In terms of CR global RFO, arguably the most fundamental metric, the models perform unsatisfactorily overall, except for CRs representing thick storm clouds. Because model CR CF is internally constrained by our method, RFO discrepancies yield also substantial TCA errors. Our results support previous findings that CMIP5 models underestimate cloudiness. The multi-model mean performs well in matching observed RFO maps for many CRs, but is still not the best for this or other metrics. When overall performance across all CRs is assessed, some models, despite shortcomings, apparently outperform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud observations evaluated against ISCCP like another model output. Lastly, contrasting cloud simulation performance against each model's equilibrium climate sensitivity in order to gain insight on whether good cloud simulation pairs with particular values of this parameter, yields no clear conclusions.

  2. Gait, estimated net cost of transport and heat production at different speeds in three-day-event horses.

    PubMed

    Schroter, R C; Baylis, E; Marlin, D J

    1996-07-01

    Heart rate and gait characteristics (stride length and frequency) were studied in 6 horses subjected to a standardised incremental exercise test, involving moving at the trot and increasing speeds up to a fast gallop and subsequently during the steeplechase phase of a 3-day-event. The studies were performed in hot conditions. Appropriate scaling, based on hindleg length (hh), stride length (L), stride frequency (f) and speed (Sp) for nondimensional stride length (lambda = (L/hh), nondimensional stride frequency (phi = f(hh/g)1/2) and nondimensional velocity (û = Sp/(ghh)1/2), where g is the gravitational acceleration, demonstrated that there were no major differences in characteristics over the full range studied lambda = 2.3 û0.68. However, there were subtle differences in some horses that could endow a benefit in locomotory efficiency when compared to others exercising at the same absolute speed. There were clear changes in the relationship between nondimensional stride length and frequency with increasing speed, from trot to canter (at û approximately 1.4) and to full gallop (at û approximately 2.3); when trotting, lambda was less than 2.2 and the transition from canter to gallop took place at lambda approximately 3.2. The cost of transport/kg/m, estimated from the heart rates measured continuously during each study, decreased with increasing speed and bodyweight. In some animals, there appeared to be a weak minimum around the canter-gallop transition speed. When interpreted as oxygen cost, using published values for the oxygen consumption-heart rate relationship, the cost fell from an average of 0.201 ml/kg/m at the trot to 0.161 mlO2/kg/m when galloping during the incremental exercise tests. During the steeplechase, the cost was approximately 7.5% higher than at the same speed in the exercise tests; this was probably due to jumping effort. Estimated power consumption increased linearly with speed. In the steeplechase, power consumption was also 7.5% higher

  3. The Effect of Cloudiness on New Particle Formation: Investigation of Radiation Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    baranizadeh, E.; Arola, A. T.; Hamed, A.; Nieminen, T.; Virtanen, A.; Kulmala, M. T.; Laaksonen, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal cloud effects on NPF events (E) and the radiation levels during the nucleation have not been systematically investigated. In this research, we study the cloudiness effects on E using a relative radiation intensity parameter I/Imax as an indicator of cloudiness level. The I/Imax parameter has been defined as the ratio of measured global-radiation I (w m-2) at a given time of day divided by the modeled clear-sky global radiation Imax (w m-2) at the same time. The ratio data are provided for all days including E, non-event (NE) and undefined (i.e. neither E nor NE) days during 2002-2012 for SMEAR II located in Hyytiälä , Southern Finland and during March 2002- April 2005 for San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) measurement station, Po Vally, Italy. We analysed the ratio I/Imax only for the duration between nucleation start and end times for Es, and from one hour after sunrise until noon for NE and undefined days. We averaged the ratio I/Imax values of each day over the determined time windows (average ratio) for E and NEs, and calculated the fraction (%) of days which are E (ΔE) or NE (ΔNE) in the given ranges of average ratio with the interval widths of 0.05. The results show that the higher (lower) the average I/Imax ranges, the higher (lower) ΔE (ΔNE) values. The ΔE values in the ranges lower than 0.95 in particular low ranges (i.e. the presence of cloud) is much less than Hyytiälä, indicating that presence of cloud during the period when E is going on is much more probable in Hyytiälä than SPC. We have investigated the seasonal distribution of Δ values in Hyytiälä. Interestingly, ΔE statistics in the ranges with interval widths 0.05 limited to 0.5-0.9, in autumn and spring is much higher than summer. In addition, the ΔE values have plateaued in the ranges with the intervals 0.05 limited to [0.65-0.8] in summer (201 Es), in contrast to spring (442 Es) and autumn (164 Es) where an increasing trend is observed. A few Es in which Clouds are present

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of AlRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradely; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Parallel experiments using AIRS L1B and L2 retrieved profiles were run for 29 case study days for early Winter 2011. Forecasts over and downstream regions of low, opaque cloudy regions yield improved T and Z anomaly correlations when non-thinned set of profiles is assimilated instead of radiances. Initial results indicate that GSI does a good job on the whole of determining cloud-free radiances there are some areas coincident with areas of larger profile impact that are misrepresented (compared to MODIS) that may result in reduced analysis impact.

  5. Cloudy corneas as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Madi, Haifa A; Bonshek, Richard; Morgan, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a case of previously unsuspected myeloma, presenting with cornea verticillata due to intracorneal paraprotein deposition. History An 85-year-old female presented via her optician with a 4-month history of cloudy vision. She had undergone an uneventful bilateral phacoemulsification surgery 7 years earlier. Extensive spiraling corneal epithelial opacification was noted on slit-lamp examination. On further investigation, she was found to have a previously unsuspected low-grade multiple myeloma. We established the nature of the corneal deposits with corneal epithelial biopsy histopathology and electron microscopy. It is very rare for multiple myeloma to present in this fashion. Ophthalmologists should be aware that such a presentation may rarely be due to systemic multiple myeloma. PMID:24812487

  6. Deterministic and fuzzy verification of the cloudiness of High Resolution operational models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodei, M.; Sanchez, I.; Stein, J.

    2009-09-01

    The brightness temperature (BT) observed by the Infrared channel of SEVIRI, present in Meteosat 9 is used to verify the forecast qualities of 2 high resolution models Aladin (horizontal mesh 10 km) and Arome (2.5 km) operational in Meteo-France. The observed temperatures are directly related to the atmosphere cloudiness and their forecasted counterparts are obtained through the radiative transfer model RTTOV. The temporal period used for the comparison is summer and autumn 2008. 2x2 tables of contingences are built for different thresholds (defining the events) covering the range data and used to compute deterministic scores. A fuzzy approach is performed by transforming the deterministic forecast in frequencies of events in a neighbourhood around the observation point. Brier skill scores against the persistence forecast are obtained by comparing theses frequencies either to the local yes or no observation or to the observed frequency in the neighbourhood (Amodei and Stein 2009). The stratification of the results in function of BT allows to document the relative merits of the forecasts all along the troposphere. Thus, it is shown that both models under-estimate the real BT by lack of cloudiness and especially the Arome model for large scale perturbations. Moreover, the high-tropospheric clouds are quasi-absent in the Aladin forecasts and Arome bias is better for this category in convective situations but its clouds are often displaced leading to poor deterministic scores. This drawback is corrected by the fuzzy approach and its probabilistic scores beats the Aladin counterparts. This conclusion is in complete accordance with the verification of the precipitation performed over the same period.

  7. Atmospheric conditions governing anomalies of the summer and winter cloudiness in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Kaczmarek, Dominika; Dudlik, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The study is based on data concerning cloudiness for the years 1981-2010 from Svalbard Lufthavn. Atmospheric circulation was characterized using a catalogue of circulation types developed by Niedźwiedź (2013) and average daily values of atmospheric pressure. Intensive cyclogenesis taking place over the north Atlantic expressed by lower-than-normal sea level pressure (SLP), particularly over the Fram Strait and over the east coast of Greenland, enhances the meridional air transport from the southern sector which conveys positive anomalies of cloudiness, namely a very cloudy weather. Negative anomalies of cloudiness over Svalbard Lufthavn occur in the winter when the north Atlantic cyclone path is shifted to the south and goes along the northern Norwegian shore towards the south Barents Sea. In summer, the influence of pressure patterns on cloudiness is weaker than in winter and different circulation patterns induce negative extremes of cloudiness. In the warm season, sunny weather occurs when a distinct anticyclone spreads over the Svalbard Archipelago and to its west, over the Fram Strait and the northern outskirts of the Greenland Sea. Extremely cloudy weather occurs in summer when a weak anticyclone spreads over the Barents Sea, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago and the Kara Sea, while slightly lower-than-normal pressure is observed over Greenland. Such a pressure pattern enhances southerly and south-westerly flow of air masses, bringing humid air. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that cloudiness over Spitsbergen is strongly controlled by the air circulation arising from pressure patterns.

  8. PyCloudy: a new tool to model 3D nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, C.

    2014-04-01

    I present in this poster the python based library pyCloudy, allowing to run the Cloudy photoionization code and to: * Define and write input file(s) for Cloudy code. As one can have it in a code, one may generate automatically sets of input files, changing parameters from one to the other: easy to make grids * Read the Cloudy output files and play with the data: one will be able to plot line emissivity ratio vs. the radius of the nebula, the electron temperature, or any Cloudu output. * Build pseudo-3D models, a la Cloudy_3D. This means: run a set of models, changing parameters (e.g. inner radius, density) following angular laws, read the outputs of the set of models and interpolate the results (Te, ne, line emissivities) in a 3D cube. * PV-diagnrams and line profiles through any slit can also be computed

  9. On the assimilation of satellite sounder data in cloudy skies in numerical weather prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Pei; Han, Hyojin; Li, Jinlong; Zheng, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Satellite measurements are an important source of global observations in support of numerical weather prediction (NWP). The assimilation of satellite radiances under clear skies has greatly improved NWP forecast scores. However, the application of radiances in cloudy skies remains a significant challenge. In order to better assimilate radiances in cloudy skies, it is very important to detect any clear field-of-view (FOV) accurately and assimilate cloudy radiances appropriately. Research progress on both clear FOV detection methodologies and cloudy radiance assimilation techniques are reviewed in this paper. Overview on approaches being implemented in the operational centers and studied by the satellite data assimilation research community is presented. Challenges and future directions for satellite sounder radiance assimilation in cloudy skies in NWP models are also discussed.

  10. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  11. Estimations of historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from mercury refining and present-day soil concentrations of total mercury in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole; Halabi, Susan; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Richter, Daniel deB; Heine, Paul; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Vandenberg, John

    2012-06-01

    Detailed Spanish records of cinnabar mining and mercury production during the colonial period in Huancavelica, Peru were examined to estimate historical health risks to the community from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor resulting from cinnabar refining operations. Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of Hg were released to the atmosphere in Huancavelica from Hg production. AERMOD was used with estimated emissions and source characteristics to approximate historic atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor. Modeled 1-hour and long-term concentrations were compared with present-day inhalation reference values for elemental Hg. Estimated 1-hour maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values, while some areas closest to the smelters exceeded present-day emergency response guideline levels. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded the EPA Reference Concentration (RfC) by a factor of 30 to 100, with areas closest to the smelters exceeding the RfC by a factor of 300 to 1000. Based on the estimated historical concentrations of Hg vapor in the community, the study also measured the extent of present-day contamination throughout the community through soil sampling and analysis. Total Hg in soils sampled from 20 locations ranged from 1.75 to 698 mg/kg and three adobe brick samples ranging from 47.4 to 284 mg/kg, consistent with other sites of mercury mining and use. The results of the soil sampling indicate that the present-day population of Huancavelica is exposed to levels of mercury from legacy contamination which is currently among the highest worldwide, consequently placing them at potential risk of adverse health outcomes. PMID:22542225

  12. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  13. DayCent model simulations for estimating soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DayCent is a biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity used to simulate carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas fluxes for crop, grassland, forest, and savanna ecosystems. Model inputs include: soil texture and hydraulic properties, current and historical land use, vegetation cover, daily maximum...

  14. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Benno Meyer-Rochow, Victor

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sunstones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180° field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  15. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  16. What a Difference a Day Makes: Estimating Daily Learning Gains during Kindergarten and First Grade Using a Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Grissmer, David; Hastedt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Knowing whether time spent in formal schooling increases student achievement, and by how much, is important for policymakers interested in determining efficient use of resources. Using the ECLS-K, we exploit quasi-randomness in the timing of assessment dates to examine this question. Conservative estimates suggest a year of school results in gains…

  17. Retrieving Aerosol in a Cloudy Environment: Aerosol Availability as a Function of Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert C.; Heidinger, Andrew; Pierce, R. Bradley; Chin, Mian

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions, using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the technqiues used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5x0.5 km for MODIS and 1x1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1x1 km, 2x2 km, 4x4 km and 8x8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8x8 km. The results show that as pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8x8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km have been lost. The diurnal pattern of aerosol retrieval availability examined for one day in the summer suggests that coarse resolution sensors (i.e., 4x4 km or 8x8 km) may be able to retrieve aerosol early in the morning that would otherwise be missed at the time of current polar orbiting satellites, but not the diurnal aerosol properties due to cloud cover developed during the day. In contrast finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1x1 km or 2x2 km) have much better opportunity to retrieve aerosols in the partly cloudy scenes and better chance of returning the diurnal aerosol properties. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and that a generic cloud mask

  18. The albedo of snow for partially cloudy skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    The albedo of snow is defined as the ratio of reflected to incident solar energy, and it is an important parameter in the earth's radiation budget analysis and in the study of snowpack's thermal conditions. An approximate model for calculating the incident spectral flux for partially cloudy skies is presented. The input parameters for the calculation are atmospheric precipitable water, turbidity, ozone content, surface pressure, the optical thickness of clouds, and the grain size of snow crystals. The spectral snow reflectance model considers both specular surface reflection and volumetric multiple scattering. The surface reflection is calculated by using a crystal-shape-dependent bidirectional reflectance distribution function; the volumetric multiple scattering is calculated by using a crystal-size-dependent approximate solution in the radiative transfer equation. The model yields spectral and integrated solar flux and snow reflectance as a function of solar elevation and fractional cloud-cover. The illustrative insolation and albedo values were obtained from spectral reflectance and incident flux for representative parameters of Antarctic coastal regions. A simple relationship between grain size and the overcast albedo was obtained. For a set of grain size and shape, the albedo as a function of solar elevation and fractional cloud cover was tabulated.

  19. Variability of orographic cloudiness over the Western Ghats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, U. S.; Ray, D. K.; Manoharan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) ecosystems are characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion in orographic clouds. Topographical gradients and associated microclimatic variation leads to ecological niche differentiation and existence of unique species in such ecosystems. However, this also leads to TMCFs being sensitive to climate perturbations, especially those that alter orographic cloud formation. In this context, it is important to understand the variability of orographic cloudiness associated with TMCFs. Results from such an analysis conducted for Western Ghats, southwestern India is discussed. Note that this region is one of the 34 primary global biodiversity hotspots whose spatial extent has been considerably reduced due to land use pressure. Using remote sensing data from multiple satellites, cloud climatology is developed for Western Ghats and the following questions are addressed: (1) What are the diurnal and seasonal variations of orographic clouds?; (2) How does orographic cloud cover change as a function of large scale flow regimes?; (3) Where are TMCFs located and what is the variability of cloud immersion within these areas?. In addition, numerical simulation analysis will be used to address the impact of land cover and land use change on orographic cloud cover and precipitation over Western Ghats.

  20. Laser Experiments with ARTEMIS Satellite in Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Sodnik, Zoran; Kuzkov, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In July 2001, the ARTEMIS satellite with laser communication terminal OPALE on board was launched. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. In addition ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) performed laser communication experiments with OPALE in various atmospheric conditions. Since the launch of ARTEMIS, the amount of information handled by geostationary telecommunication satellites has increased dramatically and so has the demand for data rate that needs to be transmitted from ground. With limited bandwidth allocations in the radio frequency bands interest has grown for laser communication feeder link technology. In this respect there is interest to compare the influence of atmosphere conditions in different atmospheric regions with respect to laser transmission. Two locations are being compared, namely ESA's OGS (located in an altitude of 2400 m above sea level) and the Main Astronomical Observatory of Ukraine (MAO) (located at an altitude of 190 m above sea level). In 2002 MAO started the development of a ground laser communication system for the AZT-2 telescope. The MAO developed compact laser communication system is called LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication Experiments with Satellites) [1] and the work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA. The beacon laser from OPALE was occasionally detected even in cloudy conditions and an anomalous atmospheric refraction at low elevation angles was observed. The main results of laser experiments with ARTEMIS through clouds are presented in the paper.

  1. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  2. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  3. Estimation of ground heat flux from soil temperature over a bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kedong; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Yang, Zeyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Ground soil heat flux, G 0, is a difficult-to-measure but important component of the surface energy budget. Over the past years, many methods were proposed to estimate G 0; however, the application of these methods was seldom validated and assessed under different weather conditions. In this study, three popular models (force-restore, conduction-convection, and harmonic) and one widely used method (plate calorimetric), which had well performance in publications, were investigated using field data to estimate daily G 0 on clear, cloudy, and rainy days, while the gradient calorimetric method was regarded as the reference for assessing the accuracy. The results showed that harmonic model was well reproducing the G 0 curve for clear days, but it yielded large errors on cloudy and rainy days. The force-restore model worked well only under rainfall condition, but it was poor to estimate G 0 under rain-free conditions. On the contrary, the conduction-convection model was acceptable to determine G 0 under rain-free conditions, but it generated large errors on rainfall days. More importantly, the plate calorimetric method was the best to estimate G 0 under different weather conditions compared with the three models, but the performance of this method is affected by the placement depth of the heat flux plate. As a result, the heat flux plate was recommended to be buried as close as possible to the surface under clear condition. But under cloudy and rainy conditions, the plate placed at depth of around 0.075 m yielded G 0 well. Overall, the findings of this paper provide guidelines to acquire more accurate estimation of G 0 under different weather conditions, which could improve the surface energy balance in field.

  4. Absorption of Sunlight in Clear and Cloudy Atmospheres: A Solution to the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the origin of this mission absorption, a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) multiple scattering model was used to derive solar radiances, fluxes, and heating rates for realistic clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  5. Discriminating between Cloudy, Hazy, and Clear Sky Exoplanets Using Refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  6. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  7. Dependence of global radiation on cloudiness and surface albedo in Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooming, H.

    The dependence of global and diffuse radiation on surface albedo due to multiple reflection of radiation between the surface and the atmosphere (base of clouds) is found on the basis of data obtained at the Tartu-Tõravere Actinometric Station over the period 1955-2000. It is found that the monthly totals of global radiation increase by up to 1.38-1.88 times, particularly in the winter half-year between November and March, when snow cover albedo may be high. A semi-empirical formula is derived for calculating with sufficient accuracy the monthly totals of global radiation, considering the amount of cloudiness and the surface albedo. In the time series of the monthly total by global radiation a downward trend occurs in winter months. A decrease in global radiation by up to 20% in the past 46 years can be explained primarily by a relatively high negative trend in the snow cover duration and surface albedo (up to -0.24). As a result, days are growing darker, a new phenomenon associated with climate change, which undoubtedly affects human mood to some extent.

  8. Dynamic Trip Attraction Estimation with Location Based Social Network Data Balancing Between Time of Day Variations and Zonal Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N. W.; Jin, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of location based social network (LBSN) services make it accessible and affordable to study individuals' mobility patterns in a fine-grained level. Via mobile devices, LBSN enables the availability of large-scale location-sensitive data with spatial and temporal context dimensions, which is capable of the potential to provide traffic patterns with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution at a much lower cost than can be achieved by traditional methods. In this paper, the Foursquare LBSN data was applied to analyze the trip attraction for the urban area in Austin, Texas, USA. We explore one time-dependent function to validate the LBSN's data with the origin-destination matrix regarded as the ground truth data. The objective of this paper is to investigate one new validation method for trip distribution. The results illustrate the promising potential of studying the dynamic trip attraction estimation with LBSN data for urban trip pattern analysis and monitoring.

  9. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  10. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  11. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

    2011-12-01

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the

  12. Relationship between high daily erythemal UV doses, total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness: An analysis of 30 years of data from Switzerland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Weihs, P.; Vuilleumier, L.; Maeder, J. A.; Holawe, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Lindfors, A.; Peter, T.; Simic, S.; Spichtinger, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Walker, D.; Ribatet, M.

    2010-10-01

    This work investigates the occurrence frequency of days with high erythemal UV doses at three stations in Switzerland and Austria (Davos, Hoher Sonnblick and Vienna) for the time period 1974-2003. While several earlier studies have reported on increases in erythemal UV dose up to 10% during the last decades, this study focuses on days with high erythemal UV dose, which is defined as a daily dose at least 15% higher than for 1950s clear-sky conditions (which represent preindustrial conditions with respect to anthropogenic chlorine). Furthermore, the influence of low column ozone, clear-sky/partly cloudy conditions and surface albedo on UV irradiance has been analyzed on annual and seasonal basis. The results of this study show that in the Central Alpine Region the number of days with high UV dose increased strongly in the early 1990s. A large fraction of all days with high UV dose occurring in the period 1974-2003 was found especially during the years 1994-2003, namely 40% at Davos, 54% at Hoher Sonnblick and 65% at Vienna. The importance of total ozone, clear-sky/partly cloudy conditions and surface albedo (e.g. in dependence of snow cover) varies strongly among the seasons. However, overall the interplay of low total ozone and clear-sky/partly cloudy conditions led to the largest fraction of days showing high erythemal UV dose. Furthermore, an analysis of the synoptic weather situation showed that days with high erythemal UV dose, low total ozone and high relative sunshine duration occur at all three stations more frequently during situations with low pressure gradients or southerly advection.

  13. A Cloudiness Index for Transiting Exoplanets Based on the Sodium and Potassium Lines: Tentative Evidence for Hotter Atmospheres Being Less Cloudy at Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke & Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of seven hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloud-free at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have fewer clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ˜102 cm‑3 for WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

  14. A Cloudiness Index for Transiting Exoplanets Based on the Sodium and Potassium Lines: Tentative Evidence for Hotter Atmospheres Being Less Cloudy at Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke & Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of seven hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloud-free at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have fewer clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ∼102 cm‑3 for WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

  15. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of the 4-day annual low flow and regression equations for estimating the 4-day, 3-year low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2002-01-01

    Two regression equations were developed for estimating the 4- day, 3-year (4Q3) low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico. The first, a statewide equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency from drainage area and average basin mean winter precipitation, was developed from the data for 50 streamflow-gaging stations that had non-zero 4Q3 low-flow frequency. The 4Q3 low-flow frequency for the 50 gaging stations ranged from 0.08 to 18.7 cubic feet per second. For this statewide equation, the average standard error of estimate was 126 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.48. The second, an equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency in mountainous regions from drainage area, average basin mean winter precipitation, and average basin slope, was developed from the data for 40 gaging stations located above 7,500 feet in elevation. For this regression equation, the average standard error of estimate was 94 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.66. A U.S. Geological Survey computer-program interface for a geographical information system (GIS), called the GIS Weasel, was used to determine basin and climatic characteristics for 84 gaging stations that were not affected by regulation. Mean monthly precipitation estimates from 1961 to 1990 were used in the GIS Weasel to compute the climatic characteristics of average basin winter precipitation and annual mean precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, which currently consists of the 7.5-minute, 30-meter digital elevation model for each State, was used in the GIS Weasel to compute the basin characteristics of drainage area, average basin slope, average basin elevation, and average basin aspect. Basin and climatic characteristics that were statistically significant in the regression equation with the 4Q3 low-flow frequency were drainage area, which ranged from 1.62 to 5,900 square miles; average basin mean winter precipitation, which

  16. Cloudy - simulating the non-equilibrium microphysics of gas and dust, and its observed spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Cloudy is an open-source plasma/spectral simulation code, last described in the open-access journal Revista Mexicana (Ferland et al. 2013, 2013RMxAA..49..137F). The project goal is a complete simulation of the microphysics of gas and dust over the full range of density, temperature, and ionization that we encounter in astrophysics, together with a prediction of the observed spectrum. Cloudy is one of the more widely used theory codes in astrophysics with roughly 200 papers citing its documentation each year. It is developed by graduate students, postdocs, and an international network of collaborators. Cloudy is freely available on the web at trac.nublado.org, the user community can post questions on http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/cloudy_simulations/info, and summer schools are organized to learn more about Cloudy and its use (http://cloud9.pa.uky.edu gary/cloudy/CloudySummerSchool/). The code’s widespread use is possible because of extensive automatic testing. It is exercised over its full range of applicability whenever the source is changed. Changes in predicted quantities are automatically detected along with any newly introduced problems. The code is designed to be autonomous and self-aware. It generates a report at the end of a calculation that summarizes any problems encountered along with suggestions of potentially incorrect boundary conditions. This self-monitoring is a core feature since the code is now often used to generate large MPI grids of simulations, making it impossible for a user to verify each calculation by hand. I will describe some challenges in developing a large physics code, with its many interconnected physical processes, many at the frontier of research in atomic or molecular physics, all in an open environment.

  17. Validation of the Risk Estimator Decision aid for Atrial Fibrillation (RED-AF) for Predicting 30-Day Adverse Events in Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Self, Wesley H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nearly 70% of emergency departments (ED) visits for atrial fibrillation (AF) result in hospitalization. The incidence of serious 30-day adverse events following an ED evaluation for AF remains low. This study’s goal was to prospectively validate our previously reported Risk Estimator Decision aid for AF (RED-AF) model for estimating a patient’s risk of experiencing a 30-day adverse event. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, which enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with AF. RED-AF, previously derived from a retrospective cohort of 832 patients, assigns points based on age, sex, coexisting disease (heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), smoking, home medications (beta blocker, diuretic), physical examination findings (dyspnea, palpitations, peripheral edema), and adequacy of ED ventricular rate control. Primary outcome was occurrence of ≥1 AF-related adverse outcome (ED visits, rehospitalization, cardiovascular complications, death) within 30 days. We identified a clinically relevant threshold and measured RED-AF’s performance in this prospective cohort, assessing its calibration, discrimination, and diagnostic accuracy. Results The study enrolled 497 patients between June 2010 and February 2013. Of these, 120 (24%) had ≥1 adverse event within 30 days. A RED-AF score of 87 was identified as an optimal threshold, resulting in sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95%CI) of 96% (91–98) and 19% (15–23), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 27% (23–32) and 93% (85–97), respectively. The c-statistic for RED-AF was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.71). Conclusion In this separate validation cohort, RED-AF performed moderately well and similar to the original derivation cohort for identifying the risk of short-term AF-related adverse events in ED patients diagnosed with AF. PMID:25245277

  18. Analysis of global cloudiness. 2: Comparison of ground-based and satellite-based cloud climatologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E. |

    1994-08-01

    Cloud climatologies are developed and intercompared for International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCO) (1983-1988), Meteor I (1971-1980), Meteor II (1979-1988), and Nimbus 7 (1979-1985) satellite observations, and for Berlyand and Strokina (1975, 1980) and Warren et al. (1986, 1988) ground-based observations. The satellite annual-mean, global- mean cloudiness, 0.57 +/- 0.05, is less than the ground-based value, 0.61 +/- 0.01, predominantly because of the low value for Nimbus 7. There is agreement between the satellite means of ISCCP, 0.62, and Meteor II, 0.61, and the ground-based means of Warren et al., 0.62, and Berlyand and Strokina, 0.60. Each satellite- and ground-based climatology shows that the hemispheric- mean cloudiness is larger in summer than that in winter in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Excluding Nimbus 7 observations, the zonal- mean cloudiness distributions for January, July, and July minus January display reasonably good agreement between 60 deg S and 60 deg N. In polar latitudes there is significant disagreement among the different climatologies, even in the sign of cloudiness changes from winter to summer. This evinces the need for special cloudiness experiments in polar regions, particularly in winter and summer.

  19. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Mason, Matthew S.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of extreme water levels along low-lying, highly populated and/or developed coastlines can lead to considerable loss of life and billions of dollars of damage to coastal infrastructure. Therefore it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood management, engineering and future land-use planning. This ensures the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. This paper estimates for the first time present day extreme water level exceedence probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia. A high-resolution depth averaged hydrodynamic model has been configured for the Australian continental shelf region and has been forced with tidal levels from a global tidal model and meteorological fields from a global reanalysis to generate a 61-year hindcast of water levels. Output from this model has been successfully validated against measurements from 30 tide gauge sites. At each numeric coastal grid point, extreme value distributions have been fitted to the derived time series of annual maxima and the several largest water levels each year to estimate exceedence probabilities. This provides a reliable estimate of water level probabilities around southern Australia; a region mainly impacted by extra-tropical cyclones. However, as the meteorological forcing used only weakly includes the effects of tropical cyclones, extreme water level probabilities are underestimated around the western, northern and north-eastern Australian coastline. In a companion paper we build on the work presented here and more accurately include tropical cyclone-induced surges in the estimation of extreme water level. The multi-decadal hindcast generated here has been used primarily to estimate extreme water level exceedance probabilities but could be used more widely in the future for a variety of other research and practical

  20. Estimating heat stress from climate-based indicators: present-day biases and future spreads in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ducharne, A.; Sultan, B.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-08-01

    The increased exposure of human populations to heat stress is one of the likely consequences of global warming, and it has detrimental effects on health and labor capacity. Here, we consider the evolution of heat stress under climate change using 21 general circulation models (GCMs). Three heat stress indicators, based on both temperature and humidity conditions, are used to investigate present-day model biases and spreads in future climate projections. Present day estimates of heat stress indicators from observational data shows that humid tropical areas tend to experience more frequent heat stress than other regions do, with a total frequency of heat stress 250-300 d yr-1. The most severe heat stress is found in the Sahel and south India. Present-day GCM simulations tend to underestimate heat stress over the tropics due to dry and cold model biases. The model based estimates are in better agreement with observation in mid to high latitudes, but this is due to compensating errors in humidity and temperature. The severity of heat stress is projected to increase by the end of the century under climate change scenario RCP8.5, reaching unprecedented levels in some regions compared with observations. An analysis of the different factors contributing to the total spread of projected heat stress shows that spread is primarily driven by the choice of GCMs rather than the choice of indicators, even when the simulated indicators are bias-corrected. This supports the utility of the multi-model ensemble approach to assess the impacts of climate change on heat stress.

  1. Earth radiation budget and cloudiness simulations with a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN; Randall, David A.; Corsetti, Thomas G.; Dazlich, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A GCM with new parameterizations of solar and terrestrial radiation, parameterized cloud optical properties, and a simple representation of the cloud liquid water feedback is used with several observational data sets to analyze the effects of cloudiness on the earth's radiation budget. The January and July results from the model are in reasonable agreement with data from Nimbus-7. It is found that the simulated cloudiness overpredicts subtropical and midlatitude cloudiness. The simulated atmospheric cloud radiative forcing is examined. The clear-sky radiation fields obtained by two methods of Cess and Potter (1987) are compared. Also, a numerical experiment was performed to determine the effects of the water vapor continuum on the model results.

  2. Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating daily evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared temperature observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface temperature might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating daily evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy temperature measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point temperatures, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed daily evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.

  3. Prediction of high spatio-temporal resolution land surface temperature under cloudy conditions using microwave vegetation index and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, H. R.; Kumar, D. Nagesh

    2016-07-01

    limits. Under cloudy conditions, results of microwave derived LST were evaluated with air temperature (Ta) and indicate that the approach performed well with RMSE values lesser than the results obtained under clear sky conditions for land cover classes for both day and nighttimes.

  4. Estimation of daily average net radiation from MODIS data and DEM over the Baiyangdian watershed in North China for clear sky days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Di; Gao, Yanchun; Singh, Vijay P.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryDaily average net radiation (DANR) is a critical variable for estimation of daily evapotranspiration (ET) from remote sensing techniques at watershed or regional scales, and in turn for hydrological modeling and water resources management. This study attempts to comprehensively analyze physical mechanisms governing the variation of each component of DANR during a day, with the objective to improve parameterization schemes for daily average net shortwave radiation (DANSR) and daily average net longwave radiation (DANLR) using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data products, DEM, and minimum meteorological data in order to map spatially consistent and reasonably distributed DANR at watershed scales for clear sky days. First, a geometric model for simulating daily average direct solar radiation by accounting for the effects of terrain factors (slope, azimuth and elevation) on the availability of direct solar radiation for sloping land surfaces is adopted. Specifically, the magnitudes of sunrise and sunset angles, the frequencies of a sloping surface being illuminated as well as the potential sunshine duration for a given sloping surface are computed on a daily basis. The geometric model is applied to the Baiyangdian watershed in North China, with showing the capability to distinctly characterize the spatial pattern of daily average direct solar radiation for sloping land surfaces. DANSR can then be successfully derived from simulated daily average direct solar radiation by means of the geometric model and the characteristics of nearly invariant diffuse solar radiation during daytime in conjunction with MCD43A1 albedo products. Second, four observations of Terra-MODIS and Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and surface emissivities in band 31 and band 32 from MOD11A1, MYD11A1 and MOD11_L2 data products for six clear sky days from April to September in the year 2007, are utilized to simulate daily average LST to improve the accuracy of

  5. Parameterization of cloudiness as a function of temperature for use in a thermodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Garduno, R.; Adem, J.

    1993-06-01

    Based on a parameterization by Adem (1967), the authors developed a formula of balance among the horizontal fraction of cloudiness and the vertical profiles of temperature and relative humidity, in which the authors now apply the usual hypothesis that the atmospheric relative humidity remains fixed in a climate change. The result is a negative correlation between the increments of cloudiness and temperature. The authors have incorporated this negative feedback mechanism in the Adem thermodynamic model and used it in the computation of climate change due to the atmospheric CO[sub 2] increase.

  6. Radiative Susceptibility of Cloudy Atmospheres to Droplet Number Perturbations: 1. Theoretical Analysis and Examples from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical and satellite-based assessments of the sensitivity of broadband shortwave radiative fluxes in cloudy atmospheres to small perturbations in the cloud droplet number concentration (N) of liquid water clouds under constant water conditions are performed. Two approaches to study this sensitivity are adopted: absolute increases in N, for which the radiative response is referred to as absolute cloud susceptibility, and relative increases in N or relative cloud susceptibility. Estimating the former is more challenging as it requires an assumed value for either cloud liquid water content or geometrical thickness; both susceptibilities require an assumed relationship between the droplet volume and effective radius. Expanding upon previous susceptibility studies, present radiative calculations include the effect of AN perturbations on droplet asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo, in addition to extinction. Absolute cloud susceptibility has a strong nonlinear dependence on the droplet effective radius as expected, while relative cloud susceptibility is primarily dependent on optical thickness. Molecular absorption and reflecting surfaces both reduce the relative contribution of the cloud to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux and therefore also reduce the TOA albedo susceptibility. Transmittance susceptibilities are negative with absolute values similar to albedo susceptibility, while atmospheric absorptance susceptibilities are about an order of magnitude smaller than albedo susceptibilities and can be either positive or negative. Observation-based susceptibility calculations are derived from MODIS pixel-level retrievals of liquid water cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and cloud top temperature; two data granule examples are shown. Susceptibility quantifies the aerosol indirect effect sensitivity in a way that can be easily computed from model fields. As such, susceptibilities derived from MODIS observations provide a higher-order test of model

  7. The behavior of trade-wind cloudiness in observations and models: The major cloud components and their variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-06-01

    Guided by ground-based radar and lidar profiling at the Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO), this study evaluates trade-wind cloudiness in ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System (IFS) and nine CMIP5 models using their single-timestep output at selected grid points. The observed profile of cloudiness is relatively evenly distributed between two important height levels: the lifting condensation level (LCL) and the tops of the deepest cumuli near the trade-wind inversion (2-3 km). Cloudiness at the LCL dominates the total cloud cover, but is relatively invariant. Variance in cloudiness instead peaks at the inversion. The IFS reproduces the depth of the cloud field and its variability, but underestimates cloudiness at the LCL and the inversion. A few CMIP5 models produce a single stratocumulus-like layer near the LCL, but more than half of the CMIP5 models reproduce the observed cloud layer depth in long-term mean profiles. At single-time steps, however, half of the models do not produce cloudiness near cloud tops along with the (almost ever-present) cloudiness near the LCL. In seven models, cloudiness is zero at both levels 10 to 65% of the time, compared to 3% in the observations. Models therefore tend to overestimate variance in cloudiness near the LCL. This variance is associated with longer time scales than in observations, which suggests that modeled cloudiness is too sensitive to large-scale processes. To conclude, many models do not appear to capture the processes that underlie changes in cloudiness, which is relevant for cloud feedbacks and climate prediction.

  8. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  9. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  10. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  11. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  12. Changes in Cirrus Cloudiness and their Relationship to Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Doelling, David R.; Schumann, Ulrich; Gierens, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Condensation trails, or contrails, formed in the wake of high-altitude aircraft have long been suspected of causing the formation of additional cirrus cloud cover. More cirrus is possible because 10 - 20% of the atmosphere at typical commercial flight altitudes is clear but ice-saturated. Since they can affect the radiation budget like natural cirrus clouds of equivalent optical depth and microphysical properties, contrail -generated cirrus clouds are another potential source of anthropogenic influence on climate. Initial estimates of contrail radiative forcing (CRF) were based on linear contrail coverage and optical depths derived from a limited number of satellite observations. Assuming that such estimates are accurate, they can be considered as the minimum possible CRF because contrails often develop into cirrus clouds unrecognizable as contrails. These anthropogenic cirrus are not likely to be identified as contrails from satellites and would, therefore, not contribute to estimates of contrail coverage. The mean lifetime and coverage of spreading contrails relative to linear contrails are needed to fully assess the climatic effect of contrails, but are difficult to measure directly. However, the maximum possible impact can be estimated using the relative trends in cirrus coverage over regions with and without air traffic. In this paper, the upper bound of CRF is derived by first computing the change in cirrus coverage over areas with heavy air traffic relative to that over the remainder of the globe assuming that the difference between the two trends is due solely to contrails. This difference is normalized to the corresponding linear contrail coverage for the same regions to obtain an average spreading factor. The maximum contrail-cirrus coverage, estimated as the product of the spreading factor and the linear contrail coverage, is then used in the radiative model to estimate the maximum potential CRF for current air traffic.

  13. The use of partial cloudiness in a warm-rain parameterization: A subgrid-scale precipitation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, P.; Pinty, J.P.; Mascart, P.

    1993-12-01

    A method is proposed on how to handle the effects of partial cloudiness in a warm-rain microphysical scheme and how to generate subgrid-scale precipitation. The method is simple and concerns essentially two ideas: The use of the vertical distribution of the partial cloudiness and the use of environmental and cloud-scale values for the thermodynamic variables instead of their grid-mean values. It applies to any microphysical scheme. The method has been applied to a warm-rain parameterization scheme that has been implemented in a mesoscale model using a statistical partial cloudiness scheme. Numerical tests have been done for two one-dimensional cases of boundary-layer cloudiness: A cumulus case and a case of a decoupled stratocumulus layer. The results show that the correct coupling of a partial cloudiness scheme and a microphysical scheme allows for a better description of the actual cloudiness and precipitation fields by ensuring a consistent computation of partial cloudiness, cloud water, and rainwater in partly cloudy regions. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Effects of cloudy/clear air mixing and droplet pH on sulfate aerosol formation in a coupled chemistry/climate global model

    SciTech Connect

    Molenkamp, C.R.; Atherton, C.A.; Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we will briefly describe our coupled ECHAM/GRANTOUR model, provide a detailed description of our atmospheric chemistry parameterizations, and discuss a couple of numerical experiments in which we explore the influence of assumed pH and rate of mixing between cloudy and clear air on aqueous sulfate formation and concentration. We have used our tropospheric chemistry and transport model, GRANTOUR, to estimate the life cycle and global distributions of many trace species. Recently, we have coupled GRANTOUR with the ECHAM global climate model, which provides several enhanced capabilities in the representation of aerosol interactions.

  15. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  16. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  17. Fluid and mineral inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izraeli, Elad S.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Navon, Oded

    2004-06-01

    Silicates, carbonates and brine were detected in microinclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein. The silicates belong to either the eclogitic or the peridotitic paragenesis. They are similar in composition to the larger mineral inclusions found in other Koffiefontein diamonds and record similar pressures and temperatures of formation (1000-1200°C, 4-6 GPa). The clouds also carry additional mineral phases that were not detected before in Koffiefontein: phlogopite, high-Si mica, an Al-Mg-rich phase and carbonates. In many cases silicate minerals coexist together with brine in individual microinclusions. Brines associated with either eclogitic or peridotitic minerals have similar composition and both are rich in water, Cl, K and carbonates ( Izraeli et al., 2001). The above findings, together with the high proportion of cloudy diamonds in Koffiefontein, suggest that brine penetration into neighboring peridotitic and eclogitic rocks was pervasive. The high carbon content of the brine (as dissolved carbonates) initiated diamond growth in both rock types, most, on preexisting diamonds that now form inclusion-free cores. The low aggregation state of nitrogen in the cloudy diamonds, relative to other diamonds from Koffiefontein indicates either a somewhat lower temperature of storage in the mantle (which may be the reason for the presence of brine rather than melt) or a young event of cloudy diamond formation.

  18. Local effects of partly cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Solar radiation measurements are made on a routine basis. Global solar, atmospheric emitted, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar radiation measurement systems are fully operational with the first two in continuous operation. Fractional cloud cover measurements are made from GOES imagery or from ground based whole sky photographs. Normalized global solar irradiance values for partly cloudy skies were correlated to fractional cloud cover.

  19. Operational data fusion framework for building frequent Landsat-like imagery in a cloudy region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An operational data fusion framework is built to generate dense time-series Landsat-like images for a cloudy region by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products and Landsat imagery. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is integrated in ...

  20. Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar global irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on global irradiance measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward irradiance measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high irradiation values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving global irradiance are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar global irradiance was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar global downward irradiance measured at ground and the solar downward irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions

  1. Using microwave observations to estimate land surface temperature during cloudy conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and...

  2. Properties of marine stratocumulus obtained with partly cloudy pixel retrievals and found in the MODIS MOD06 cloud product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeke, Robyn C.; Allan, Andrea M.; Coakley, James A.

    2016-06-01

    Partly cloudy pixel retrievals (PCPRs) of cloud properties for marine stratocumulus were compared with those of the 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product (MOD06). In addition, the fractional cloud cover obtained from the PCPRs applied to 1 km MODIS radiances was compared with that derived from the 250 m cloud mask (MOD35). The comparisons were made for pixels that were overcast and pixels that were only partially covered by clouds. Accounting for failed retrievals in both the MOD06 cloud properties and those obtained with the PCPRs leads to the suggestion that regional cloud cover be estimated in terms of lower and upper limits. The average could serve as the best estimate of the cloud cover, and the difference between the average and an extreme could serve as the uncertainty. The comparisons reveal that the overcast assumption used in the MODIS cloud property retrievals leads to cloud cover, droplet effective radii, and cloud top temperatures that are overestimated and, shortwave optical depths, liquid water paths that are underestimated. These biases persist when the properties are averaged to form spatial and temporal means. Owing to significant horizontal variations of cloud liquid water within the 1 km MODIS pixels, visible optical depths, droplet effective radii, and liquid water paths derived from the PCPRs show similar biases. The trends of the biases with pixel-scale and regional-scale cloud cover suggest that estimates of the aerosol indirect radiative forcing derived from satellites have been overestimated.

  3. Application of remote sensing in estimating evapotranspiration in the Platte river basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, B. L.; Rosenberg, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A 'resistance model' and a mass transport model for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) were tested on large fields of naturally subirrigated alfalfa. Both models make use of crop canopy temperature data. Temperature data were obtained with an IR thermometer and with leaf thermocouples. A Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) model, adjusted to account for underestimation of ET during periods of strong sensible heat advection, was used as the standard against which the resistance and mass transport models were compared. Daily estimates by the resistance model were within 10% of estimates made by the BREB model. Daily estimates by the mass transport model did not agree quite as well. Performance was good on clear and cloudy days and also during periods of non-advection and strong advection of sensible heat. The performance of the mass transport and resistance models was less satisfactory for estimation of fluxes of latent heat for short term periods. Both models tended to overestimate at low LE fluxes.

  4. Kindergarten: All Day Every Day?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelerich, Marjorie L.

    This paper reports findings that all-day every-day educational programs have positive effects on kindergarten children. Also included is a Minnesota Association for Childhood Education (MACE) position paper which advocates the provision of full-day kindergarten programs and details seven criteria that a quality full-day program must meet. Efforts…

  5. Computation of averaged monthly zonal albedo utilizing the solar zenith angle, properties of clear and cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, H.

    1981-01-01

    The zonal temporal averages of albedos at the top of the atmosphere were considered as a function of the length of the day. The length of the day were used to determine the average daily values of mu sub 0(=Cos of the solar zenith angle, theta sub 0). Polynominal fits of the slope and intercept functions of A sub s (cloud-free albedo) and A sub c(cloud albedo) as function of Cos theta sub 0 were obtained by using the sample values of albedo corresponding to solar zenith angles from 0 to 90 deg with interval of 5 deg. The daily zonal values of mu sub 0 and the surface albedos were used to compute the daily zonal values of albedos at the top of the clear and cloudy atmosphere. The monthly zonal cloud fractions were used to compute planetary albedo A at the top of the atmosphere. The global values of monthly albedos A sub s, A sub c and A were computed by using the weighting function defined as the difference of the sins of zonal values of latitudes. The computer program implementation is also described.

  6. Estimation of seasonal and annual acidic deposition through aggregation of three-day episodic periods. Report for February 1989-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, P.J.; Brook, J.R.; Sillman, S.

    1990-08-01

    A method for aggregating episodic deposition estimates has been developed and used to identify which meteorological situations merit simulation by RADM based on their likelihood of producing sulfate (SO4(-2)) wet deposition at multiple locations across eastern North America, their frequency of occurrence, and their seasonality. The aggregation technique has been performed using four years (1982 - 1985) of precipitation chemistry data from the Utility Acid Precipitation Sampling Program (UAPSP). The method developed during the project improves upon random selection. It is based on the stratification of three-day periods into categories of similar 850 mb wind flow across eastern North America. The aggregation project has provided the RADM project with a list of simulation periods which represent the range of meteorological patterns over eastern North America. The selection of storm types was based on their likelihood of producing SO4(-2) wet deposition at multiple locations across eastern North America, their frequency of occurrence, and their seasonality. The project has also provided the RADM project with scaling factors for use in weighing episodic simulation results to seasonal and annual deposition.

  7. An Improved Method for Estimating Aerosol Optical Thickness from Artificial Light Sources Observed by the Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, Theodore Mitchell

    Using Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) data, a method, dubbed the "variance method", is developed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values based on the dispersion of radiance values above an artificial light source. An improvement of a previous algorithm, this updated method derives a semi-quantitative indicator of nighttime AOT using artificial light sources. Nighttime AOT retrievals from the newly developed method are inter-compared with an interpolated value from late afternoon and early morning ground observations from four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites as well as column-integrated Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from one High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) site at Huntsville, AL during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign, providing full diel coverage. This method does not account for lunar reflectance from either the surface or the aerosol layer. Sensitivity tests do no indicate large systematic or random errors associated with lunar illumination. VIIRS AOT retrievals yield a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.60 and a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of 0.18 when compared against straddling daytime-averaged AERONET AOT values. Preliminary results suggest that artificial light sources can be used for estimating regional and global nighttime aerosol distributions in the future.

  8. Regression equations to estimate seasonal flow duration, n-day high-flow frequency, and n-day low-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara; Gross, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal mean daily flow data from 119 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota; the surrounding states of Montana, Minnesota, and South Dakota; and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan with 10 or more years of unregulated flow record were used to develop regression equations for flow duration, n-day high flow and n-day low flow using ordinary least-squares and Tobit regression techniques. Regression equations were developed for seasonal flow durations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percent exceedances; the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean high flows for the 10-, 25-, and 50-year recurrence intervals; and the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean low flows for the 2-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Basin and climatic characteristics determined to be significant explanatory variables in one or more regression equations included drainage area, percentage of basin drainage area that drains to isolated lakes and ponds, ruggedness number, stream length, basin compactness ratio, minimum basin elevation, precipitation, slope ratio, stream slope, and soil permeability. The adjusted coefficient of determination for the n-day high-flow regression equations ranged from 55.87 to 94.53 percent. The Chi2 values for the duration regression equations ranged from 13.49 to 117.94, whereas the Chi2 values for the n-day low-flow regression equations ranged from 4.20 to 49.68.

  9. Bilateral cloudy cornea: is the usual suspect congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy or stromal dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Acar, Banu Torun; Bozkurt, Kansu Tahir; Duman, Erkan; Acar, Suphi

    2016-01-01

    We provide the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up period of a patient with cloudy cornea in both eyes from birth. A 4-year-old girl presented with blurring in both eyes. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) was performed with the preliminary diagnosis of congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy in June 2012. According to the pathology report for extracted host tissue, the Descemet's membrane (DM) and endothelium were healthy and diagnosis was reported to be congenital hereditary stromal dystrophy. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty was performed on the left eye. The DM was transparent at follow-up. Cornea transplantation is the only choice to provide visual rehabilitation in children with congenital cloudy cornea. However, it is known that the prognosis of traditional PK in the paediatric age group is not good. Therefore, when using alternative keratoplasty (deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty) options, pathological examination of the host tissue should be made. PMID:27107055

  10. Changepoint Detection in Multinomial Logistic Regression with Application to Sky-Cloudiness Conditions in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Wang, X. L.

    2009-04-01

    Detecting changepoints in a sequence of continuous random variables has been extensively explored in both statistics and climatology literature. There is little, however, for studying the case with multicategory random variables. For instance, the sky-cloudiness condition in Canada is reported in tenths of the sky dome and thus has 11 categories (from 0 for clear sky, to 10 tenths for overcast). This study develops an overall likelihood-ratio test statistic for detecting a sudden change in the parameters of the continuation-ratio logit random intercept model for a sequence of multinomial variables. A method of partitioning the overall test statistic is also proposed, which allows one to assess the significance of the effect of the detected change on individual categories. An application of this new technique to real sky cloudiness data is also presented.

  11. Limb Correction of Infrared Imagery in Cloudy Regions for the Improved Interpretation of RGB Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Nicholas J.; Berndt, Emily; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites (EUMETSAT User Services 2009) combine information from several channels into a single composite image. RGB composites contain the same information as the original channels, but presents the information in a more efficient manner. However, RGB composites derived from infrared imagery of both polar-orbiting and geostationary sensors are adversely affected by the limb effect, which interferes with the qualitative interpretation of RGB composites at large viewing zenith angles. The limb effect, or limb-cooling, is a result of an increase in optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere as viewing zenith angle increases (Goldberg et al. 2001; Joyce et al. 2001; Liu and Weng 2007). As a result, greater atmospheric absorption occurs at the limb, causing the sensor to observe anomalously cooler brightness temperatures. Figure 1 illustrates this effect. In general, limb-cooling results in a 4-11 K decrease in measured brightness temperature (Liu and Weng 2007) depending on the infrared band. For example, water vapor and ozone absorption channels display much larger limb-cooling than infrared window channels. Consequently, RGB composites created from infrared imagery not corrected for limb effects can only be reliably interpreted close to nadir, which reduces the spatial coverage of the available imagery. Elmer (2015) developed a reliable, operational limb correction technique for clear regions. However, many RGB composites are intended to be used and interpreted in cloudy regions, so a limb correction methodology valid for both clear and cloudy regions is needed. This paper presents a limb correction technique valid for both clear and cloudy regions, which is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents several RGB case studies demonstrating the improved functionality of limb-corrected RGBs in both clear and cloudy regions, and Section 4 summarizes and presents the key conclusions of this work.

  12. A Quality Control study of the distribution of NOAA MIRS Cloudy retrievals during Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Cloudy radiance present a difficult challenge to data assimilation (DA) systems, through both the radiative transfer system as well the hydrometers required to resolve the cloud and precipitation. In most DA systems the hydrometers are not control variables due to many limitations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is producing products from the NPP-ATMS satellite where the scene is cloud and precipitation affected. The test case that we present here is the life time of Hurricane and then Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. As a quality control study we shall compare the retrieved water vapor content during the lifetime of Sandy with the first guess and the analysis from the NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. The assessment involves the gross error check system against the first guess with different values for the observational error's variance to see if the difference is within three standard deviations. We shall also compare against the final analysis at the relevant cycles to see if the products which have been retrieved through a cloudy radiance are similar, given that the DA system does not assimilate cloudy radiances yet.

  13. Performance of greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation in cloudy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Emde, C.; Schweitzer, S.

    2012-12-01

    ACCURATE is a proposed future satellite mission enabling simultaneous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The measurement principle is a combination of LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) and microwave occultation (LMO), the LMIO method, where the LIO signals are very sensitive to clouds. The GHG retrieval will therefore be strongly influenced by clouds in parts of the troposphere. The IR-laser signals, at wavelengths within 2--2.5μ m, are chosen to measure six GHGs (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO; incl.~key isotopes 13CO2, C18OO, HDO). The LMO signals enable to co-measure the thermodynamic variables. In this presentation we introduce the algorithm to retrieve GHG profiles under cloudy-air conditions by using quasi-realistic forward simulations, including also influence of Rayleigh scattering, scintillations and aerosols. Data from CALIPSO--Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations--with highest vertical resolution of about 60 m and horizontal resolution of about 330 m were used for simulation of clouds. The IR-laser signals consist for each GHG of a GHG-sensitive and a close-by reference signal. The key process, ``differencing'' of these two signals, removes the atmospheric ``broadband'' effects, resulting in a pure GHG transmission profile. Very thin ice clouds, like sub-visible cirrus, are fairly transparent to the IR-laser signals, thicker and liquid water clouds block the signals. The reference signal is used to produce a cloud layering profile from zero to blocking clouds and is smoothed in a preprocess to suppress scintillations. Sufficiently small gaps, of width <2 km in the cloud layering profile, are found to enable a decent retrieval of entire GHG profiles over the UTLS under broken cloudiness and are therefore bridged by interpolation. Otherwise in case of essentially continuous cloudiness the profiles are found to terminate at cloud top level. The accuracy of

  14. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  15. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  16. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  17. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  18. Cloudy cornea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury to the eye, including chemical burns and welding injury Scarring Clouding may affect all or part ... examine your eyes and ask about your medical history. The two main questions will be if your ...

  19. Cloudy cornea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you wear contact lenses? Is there any history of injury to the eye? Has there been any discomfort? If so, is there anything that helps? Tests may include: Biopsy of lid tissue Computer mapping of the cornea (corneal topography) Schirmer's test ...

  20. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  1. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  2. A New Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth under Partly Cloudy Conditions with Multi-Spectral Measurements of Reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects may cause large uncertainties of satellite aerosol retrievals under partly cloudy conditions [1,2]. For example, analysis of multi-year aerosol statistics derived from the MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in clear patches of cloud fields suggests that aerosol product may be in a large error (up to 140%) as a result of 3D cloud-induced enhancement of clear sky reflectance [3]. Retrievals of AOD τa from satellite observations consist of two basic steps: (1) sampling, which includes detection of clear pixels and (2) and application of an algorithm, which estimates AOD in these pixels. The quality of the final product depends on both steps [4]. The largest errors occur for pixels located within areas of sunlight and shadows where the 3D radiative effects have the greatest impacts on the AOD retrievals [2]. To reduce the 3D radiative effects, clear pixels have to be selected far away (~1-2 km) from clouds and their shadows [3]. For selected clear pixels, the independent pixel approximation approach (IPA) [5] is used to estimate the AOD. Since the IPA ignores the 3D cloud-induced enhancement, the IPA-based retrievals can substantially overestimate AOD even for these clear pixels. To take into account such enhancement, a simple parameterization has been suggested [6]. Here we introduce an approach [7], that provides an effective way to avoid the 3D cloud effects, and illustrate with a model-output inverse problem its capability to detect clear pixels (outside of shadows) and estimate their AOD.

  3. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Daily global solar irradiation (R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  4. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  5. Inter-Calibration and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.

    2013-01-01

    A change in climate is not likely captured from any single instrument, since no single instrument can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many instruments on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of instrumental differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-calibration and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple instruments by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful instrument to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage instruments such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the instruments show calibration differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.

  6. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  7. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Norris, Peter M.

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be

  8. Intercalibration and concatenation of climate quality infrared cloudy radiances from multiple instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.

    2013-09-01

    A change in climate is not likely captured from any single instrument, since no single instrument can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many instruments on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of instrumental differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-calibration and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple instruments by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful instrument to make correction for observational differences in the local time and footprint sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage instruments such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the instruments show calibration differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differenceartmut h. Aumanns cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.

  9. An efficient routine for infrared radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Kouvaris, L.

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that calculates the atmospheric cooling rate and infrared fluxes for partly cloudy atmospheres is documented. The IR fluxes in the water bands and the 9.6 and 15 micron bands are calculated at 15 levels ranging from 1.39 mb to the surface. The program is generalized to accept any arbitrary atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and clouds as input and return the cooling rate and fluxes as output. Sample calculations for various atmospheric profiles and cloud situations are demonstrated.

  10. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Using Clear vs Cloudy Sky Diurnal Temperature Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayor, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Standard meteorological observations from local airports can provide a tangible example of how the greenhouse effect is a part of everyday life. In the exercise outlined here, students plot diurnal temperature observations to compare the relative magnitude of the greenhouse effect under clear and cloudy-sky conditions, gaining insight into the strength of the greenhouse effect. Contemplation of the relation of surface temperature and humidity with cloud cover leads to a further understading of important atmospheric processes involving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and terrestrial and solar radiation effects.

  11. Characteristics of a persistent "pool of inhibited cloudiness" and its genesis over the Bay of Bengal associated with the Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Anish Kumar M.; Rajeev, K.; Sijikumar, S.; Meenu, S.

    2011-07-01

    Using spatial and vertical distributions of clouds derived from multi-year spaceborne observations, this paper presents the characteristics of a significant "pool of inhibited cloudiness" covering an area of >106 km2 between 3-13° N and 77-90° E over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), persisting throughout the Asian summer monsoon season (ASM). Seasonal mean precipitation rate over the "pool" is <3 mm day-1 while that over the surrounding regions is mostly in the range of 6-14 mm day-1. Frequency of occurrence of clouds in this "pool" is ~20-40 % less than that over the surrounding deep convective regions. Zonal and meridional cross sections of the altitude distribution of clouds derived from CloudSat data reveal a vault-like structure at the "pool" with little cloudiness below ~7 km, indicating that this "pool" is almost fully contributed by the substantially reduced or near-absence of low- and middle-level clouds. This suggest the absence of convection in the "pool" region. Spaceborne scatterometer observations show divergence of surface wind at the "pool" and convergence at its surroundings, suggesting the existence of a mini-circulation embedded in the large-scale monsoon circulation. Reanalysis data shows a mini-circulation extending between the surface and ~3 km altitude, but its spatial structure does not match well with that inferred from the above observations. Sea surface at the south BoB during ASM is sufficiently warm to trigger convection, but is inhibited by the subsidence associated with the mini-circulation, resulting in the "pool". This mini-circulation might be a dynamical response of the atmosphere to the substantial spatial gradient of latent heating by large-scale cloudiness and precipitation at the vast and geographically fixed convective zones surrounding the "pool". Subsidence at the "pool" might contribute to the maintenance of convection at the above zones and be an important component of ASM that is overlooked hitherto.

  12. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING INGESTION EXPOSURE FROM DAY 4 COMPOSITE MEASUREMENTS, THE DIRECT METHOD OF EXPOSURE ESTIMATION (IIT-A-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken for calculating ingestion exposure from Day 4 composite measurements from duplicate diet using the direct method of exposure estimation. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropria...

  13. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  14. A Fast Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Simulator for Cloudy Atmopheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chao; Yang, Ping; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; Wang, Chen Xi; Ding, Shouguo

    2015-01-01

    A fast instrument simulator is developed to simulate the observations made in cloudy atmospheres by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The correlated k-distribution (CKD) technique is used to compute the transmissivity of absorbing atmospheric gases. The bulk scattering properties of ice clouds used in this study are based on the ice model used for the MODIS Collection 6 ice cloud products. Two fast radiative transfer models based on pre-computed ice cloud look-up-tables are used for the VIIRS solar and infrared channels. The accuracy and efficiency of the fast simulator are quantify in comparison with a combination of the rigorous line-by-line (LBLRTM) and discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) models. Relative errors are less than 2 for simulated TOA reflectances for the solar channels and the brightness temperature differences for the infrared channels are less than 0.2 K. The simulator is over three orders of magnitude faster than the benchmark LBLRTM+DISORT model. Furthermore, the cloudy atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures from the fast VIIRS simulator compare favorably with those from VIIRS observations.

  15. Wind Profile Retrieval Method for Incoherent Doppler LIDAR in Partly Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changzhong; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    After the launch of ESA’s spaceborne Doppler lidar ALADIN, Ocean University of China is going to perform the ground validation using a ground based Doppler wind lidar which utilizes an iodine absorption filter as frequency discriminator to derive Doppler frequency shift of atmospheric wind from combined molecular and aerosol backscatter. Under circumstance of non-uniform aerosol horizontal distribution, such as partly cloudy conditions, the accuracy of wind measurements is seriously influenced. Therefore, an improved VAD (Velocity-Azimuth Display) method for retrieving wind profiles is developed, which significantly increases the accuracy. With the atmospheric return signal obtained from the line-of-sight velocity PPI (Plan Position Indicator) measurements, the spatial distribution of aerosol optical parameters can be derived and considered as a reference for the quality control of line-of-sight velocity. Consequently, the wind profile in partly cloudy conditions can be retrieved by using the quality controlled line-of-sight velocity. As a result, the applicability of the ground based Doppler lidar is improved.

  16. Assimilation of thermodynamic information from advanced infrared sounders under partially cloudy skies for regional NWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Schmit, Timothy J.; Lim, Agnes H. N.; Li, Zhenglong; Han, Hyojin; Li, Jinlong; Ackerman, Steve A.

    2015-06-01

    Generally, only clear-infrared spectral radiances (not affected by clouds) are assimilated in weather analysis systems. This is due to difficulties in modeling cloudy radiances as well as in observing their vertical structure from space. To take full advantage of the thermodynamic information in advanced infrared (IR) sounder observations requires assimilating radiances from cloud-contaminated regions. An optimal imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique has been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This technique can be used to retrieve clear column radiances through combining collocated multiband imager IR clear radiances and the sounder cloudy radiances; no background information is needed in this method. The imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique is similar to that of the microwave/IR cloud clearing in the derivation of the clear-sky equivalent radiances. However, it retains the original IR sounder resolution, which is critical for regional numerical weather prediction applications. In this study, we have investigated the assimilation of cloud-cleared IR sounder radiances using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for three hurricanes, Sandy (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008). Results show that assimilating additional cloud-cleared AIRS radiances reduces the 48 and 72 h temperature forecast root-mean-square error by 0.1-0.3 K between 300 and 850 hPa. Substantial improvement in reducing track forecasts errors in the range of 10 km to 50 km was achieved.

  17. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign. PMID:15563212

  18. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Oncorhynchus spp. ; Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; O. tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C. ); Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past.

  19. Using a thermal-based two source energy balance model with time-differencing to estimate surface energy fluxes with day-night MODIS observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dual Temperature Difference (DTD) model, introduced by [Norman et al.(2000)], uses a two source energy balance modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of diurnal changes in land surface temperature (LST) to estimate surface energy fluxes. By using a time differential temperature ...

  20. Estimation of large scale daily evapotranspiration using geostationary meteorological satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L.; Daamen, M.

    2009-04-01

    reconstruct gap-filled time series of instantaneous ET along a day. In the end, daily evapotranspiration is calculated from the reconstructed gap-filled time series of instantaneous estimation of evapotranspiration. The algorithm validation was done using data from limited number of flux tower sites of CarboEurope project in Europe by comparing the energy balance flux components estimated by SEBS with tower flux measurements. Analyses of daily variation of estimated surface heat fluxes show that the proposed method is able to generate large scale net radiation, sensible, latent, and soil heat fluxes that follow closely daily variation of the courses of these flux components as observed by ground measurements. It was found that abnormal values in the estimated latent heat flux are observed near cloudy pixels. It indicates that pixels close to cloudy pixels may be affected by clouds but not masked in the MSG land surface temperature product. In general, reconstruction of evapotranspiration time-series using HANTS algorithm is demonstrated to be a promising technique to overcome the interference of clouds and preserve inherent trends of evapotranspiration process over a day when applied to a large-scale. HANTS reconstruction is capable to maintain daily variation of evapotranspiration on less cloudy days by keeping good correlation with the ground measurements. However, the technique has proven to be limited to areas with cloud cover less than 60% along a day course. Comparison of the daily total ET estimated from SEBS/MSG/HANTS technique with daily ET calculated using conventional method (using one-time measurements of a day and assuming clear sky throughout a day) has shown that the former is less affected by the intensity of cloud interference along the day.

  1. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  2. Surface-observed and satellite-retrieved cloudiness compared for the 1983 ISCCP Special Study Area in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; SéZe, G.; Drake, F.; Desbois, M.

    1987-04-01

    A comparison has been undertaken between surface-observed total low- and high-cloud amount and retrievals from METEOSAT radiance data made using the cluster technique of Desbois et al. (1982). The aim of the study was to establish whether surface-observed cloud information could be usefully exploited to benefit satellite-based cloud retrievals. Observations from 124 surface stations at 1200 UT for the 20-day period from July 22 to August 10, 1983, were compared with retrievals made from METEOSAT radiances measured at 1130 UT. The comparisons for total and low-cloud amount are made for France and southern Britain. The high-cloud amount comparison was limited to 34 stations in southern Britain. The location and time period were selected to coincide with one of the regions designated for special study in the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) (Schiffer, 1982). For total cloud amount, 29% of the retrievals were fully in agreement with the surface observations and 64% of differences were within ±1 okta (±1 eighth of sky cover). In the case of layer cloud amounts, 64% of the low-cloud amount differences and 50% of the high-cloud amount differences were within ±1 okta, although many of these successes (71% in the low-cloud amount) were for cases of totally clear or totally cloudy skies. Surface observations, which offer the only source of accurate low-cloud amount evaluation in any multilayered situation, were found to identify thin cirrus which was not detected by the satellite retrieval and to detect small gaps in cloud decks and small clouds missed by the satellite retrieval. In addition, cloud retrievals in coastal locations seemed to be more successfully accomplished by surface observers than by the satellite retrieval algorithm used here, which does not take into account land-sea partition.

  3. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  4. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Estimates of genetic parameters for 320-day pelvic measurements of males and females and calving ease of 2-year-old females.

    PubMed

    Kriese, L A; Van Vleck, L D; Gregory, K E; Boldman, K G; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1994-08-01

    Records from 12 breed groups collected from 1983 to 1991, included in the Germ Plasm Utilization project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, were analyzed separately by breed group and combined to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for 320-d male and female pelvic width, height, and area, and for 320-d male pelvic and female 2-yr-old calving ease. Calving ease was analyzed as a trait of the dam using 1) actual and 2) binary scale calving ease scores with a covariate of calf birth weight. A bivariate animal model and derivative-free REML incorporating sparse matrix techniques were used. When breed groups were analyzed separately, heritability estimates of male and female 320-d pelvic traits varied by breed group and sex. Average genetic correlations between male and female 320-d pelvic width, pelvic height, and pelvic area were large and positive. When breed groups were combined (n = 26,071), heritability estimates for 320-d pelvic traits were moderate in size. Genetic correlations of .68, .48, and .61, between male and female 320-d pelvic width, height, and area, respectively, suggest male and female pelvic traits are largely under the same genetic control but are correlated traits rather than the same trait. Heritability estimates for actual calving ease in 2-yr-olds ranged from .00 to .49 in separate breed group analyses, and from .00 to .37 for binary measures. When breed groups were combined, heritability was .11 for actual calving ease and was .09 on the binary scale.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7982822

  6. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  7. Validation and Improvement of CERES Surface Radiation Budget Algorithms: Extension of Dusty and Cloudy Scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Inamdar, Anand K.

    2005-01-01

    Our main task was to validate and improve the generation of surface long wave fluxes from the CERES TOA window channel flux measurements. We completed this task successfully for the clear sky fluxes in the presence of aerosols including dust during the first year of the project. The algorithm we developed for CERES was remarkably successful for clear sky fluxes and we have no further tasks that need to be performed past the requested termination date of December 31, 2004. We found that the information contained in the TOA fluxes was not sufficient to improve upon the current CERES algorithm for cloudy sky fluxes. Given this development and given our success in clear sky fluxes, we do not see any reason to continue our validation work beyond what we have completed. Specific details are given.

  8. Formation of spectral lines in planetary atmospheres. I - Theory for cloudy atmospheres: Application to Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of the formation of spectral lines in a cloudy planetary atmosphere is studied in detail. It is shown that models based upon homogeneous, isotropically scattering atmospheres cannot be used to reproduce observed spectroscopic features of phase effect and the shape of spectral lines for weak and strong bands. The theory must, therefore, be developed using an inhomogeneous (gravitational) model of a planetary atmosphere, accurately incorporating all the physical processes of radiative transfer. Such a model of the lower Venus atmosphere, consistent with our present knowledge, is constructed. The results discussed in this article demonstrate the effects of the parameters that describe the atmospheric model on the spectroscopic features of spectral line profile and phase effect, at visible and near infrared wavelengths. This information enables us to develop a comprehensive theory of line formation in a Venus atmosphere.

  9. Representation of Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers in Climate Models. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.; Shao, Q.; Branson, M.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation models which are being used as components of climate models rely on their boundary layer parameterizations to produce realistic simulations of the surface turbulent fluxes of sensible heat. moisture. and momentum: of the boundary-layer depth over which these fluxes converge: of boundary layer cloudiness: and of the interactions of the boundary layer with the deep convective clouds that grow upwards from it. Two current atmospheric general circulation models are used as examples to show how these requirements are being addressed: these are version 3 of the Community Climate Model. which has been developed at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. and the Colorado State University atmospheric general circulation model. The formulations and results of both models are discussed. Finally, areas for future research are suggested.

  10. Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Cloudy Atmosphere Interpretations of Collocated Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Minghua; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett; Vitko, John, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE), we have obtained and analyzed measurements made from collocated aircraft of the absorption of solar radiation within the atmospheric column between the two aircraft. The measurements were taken during October 1995 at the ARM site in Oklahoma. Relative to a theoretical radiative transfer model, we find no evidence for excess solar absorption in the clear atmosphere and significant evidence for its existence in the cloudy atmosphere. This excess cloud solar absorption appears to occur in both visible (0.224-0.68 microns) and near-infrared (0.68-3.30 microns) spectral regions, although not at 0.5 microns for the visible contribution, and it is shown to be true absorption rather than an artifact of sampling errors caused by measuring three-dimensional clouds.

  11. The northward march of summer low cloudiness along the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemesha, Rachel E. S.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Williams, A. Park; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2016-02-01

    A new satellite-derived low cloud retrieval reveals rich spatial texture and coherent space-time propagation in summertime California coastal low cloudiness (CLC). Throughout the region, CLC is greatest during May-September but has considerable monthly variability within this summer season. On average, June is cloudiest along the coast of southern California and northern Baja, Mexico, while July is cloudiest along northern California's coast. Over the course of the summer, the core of peak CLC migrates northward along coastal California, reaching its northernmost extent in late July/early August, then recedes while weakening. The timing and movement of the CLC climatological structure is related to the summer evolution of lower tropospheric stability and both its component parts, sea surface temperature and potential temperature at 700 hPa. The roughly coincident seasonal timing of peak CLC with peak summertime temperatures translates into the strongest heat-modulating capacity of CLC along California's north coast.

  12. Nucleon-nucleon potential calculated for the cloudy bag and related to effective OBE parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, Richard

    1995-05-01

    The nucleon nucleon potential is calculated in the context of the cloudy bag model. The one pion exchange diagram is used to determine the pion quark coupling. Two pion exchange diagrams, box and crossed box, including the delta isobar, produce additional central, spin-spin, and tensor couplings. Using non-relativistic approximations to the OBE model potentials, the two pion exchange contributions are related to the masses and couplings of σ, ω, δ, and ρ mesons. It is found that the two pion exchange generates essentially all of the σ contribution required by the OBE model, that there is a large δ contribution at a lower mass than expected, and that the ω and ρ contributions, while significant, are not able to provide what is required by the OBE model.

  13. Interpretation of satellite-measured bidirectional reflectance from Cirrus cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takano, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Minnis, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of the observed bidirectional reflectance from cirrus cloudy atmospheres is presented. A theoretical model was developed for the computation of the transfer of solar radiation in an anisotropic medium with particular applications to oriented ice crystals in cirrus clouds. In this model, the adding principle for radiative transfer was used with modifications to account for the anisotropy of scattering particles and the associated scattering phase matrix. The single-scattering properties, including the phase function, single-scattering albedo, and extinction cross sections, were used for randomly and horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals in radiative transfer computations. The radiative transfer model developed for the cirrus clouds was modified to account for the scattering contributions from the atmosphere and the surface. In order to test the relevance and significance of the ice crystal model for the interpretation of observed bidirectional reflectance from satellites, visible radiances collected on the half hour by the GOES series were selected. The data are calibrated and corrected with the proper filter functions, then navigated to match selected landmark data. A number of clear and cloudy cases during the cirrus IFO of the Fire experiment were chosen for theoretical analyses. The cloud particle shape and size distributions that were taken during satellite overpasses are used in radiative transfer calculations. The sensitivities of the shape, orientation, and size distribution of ice crystals on the reflected intensities at the top of the atmosphere are investigated. Finally, the relative importance of these cloud microphysical properties in the interpretation of satellite bidirectional reflectance are assessed and presented.

  14. Investigation of the environment around close-in transiting exoplanets using CLOUDY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake D.; Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Johnson, Robert E.; Schmidt, Carl

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that hot stellar wind gas in a bow shock around an exoplanet is sufficiently opaque to absorb stellar photons and give rise to an observable transit depth at optical and UV wavelengths. In the first part of this paper, we use the CLOUDY plasma simulation code to model the absorption from X-ray to radio wavelengths by 1D slabs of gas in coronal equilibrium with varying densities (104-108 cm-3) and temperatures (2000-106 K) illuminated by a solar spectrum. For slabs at coronal temperatures (106 K) and densities even orders of magnitude larger than expected for the compressed stellar wind (104-105 cm-3), we find optical depths orders of magnitude too small (>3 × 10-7) to explain the ˜3 per cent UV transit depths seen with Hubble. Using this result and our modelling of slabs with lower temperatures (2000-104K), the conclusion is that the UV transits of WASP-12b and HD 189733b are likely due to atoms originating in the planet, as the stellar wind is too highly ionized. A corollary of this result is that transport of neutral atoms from the denser planetary atmosphere outward must be a primary consideration when constructing physical models. In the second part of this paper, additional calculations using CLOUDY are carried out to model a slab of planetary gas in radiative and thermal equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. Promising sources of opacity from the X-ray to radio wavelengths are discussed, some of which are not yet observed.

  15. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  16. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  17. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  18. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  19. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  20. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explaination for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1996-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 Wm(sup -2)...Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while <1% of harmful compounds were misclassified as non-toxic. Since repeated dose toxicity studies can be performed in vivo until 2013, the proposed approach could have an immediate impact for the testing of cosmetic ingredients. PMID:18977273

  2. Nanopaleomagnetism of Meteoritic Fe-Ni: the Potential for Time-Resolved Remanence Records within the Cloudy Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. J.; Bryson, J. F.; Kasama, T.; Church, N. S.; Herrero Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Ghidini, M.; Redfern, S. A.; van der Laan, G.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2013-12-01

    Paleomagnetic signals recorded by meteorites provide compelling evidence that the liquid cores of differentiated asteroids generated magnetic dynamo fields. Here we argue that magnetic nanostructures unique to meteoritic Fe-Ni metal are capable of carrying a time-resolved record of asteroid dynamo activity, a prospect that could revolutionise our understanding of the thermochemical conditions of differentiated bodies in the early solar system. Using a combination of high-resolution magnetic imaging techniques (including electron holography, magnetic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy) we reveal the origins of the dramatic changes in magnetic properties that are associated with the transition from kamacite - tetrataenite rim - cloudy zone - plessite, typical of Fe-Ni intergrowths. The cloudy zone is comprised of nanoscale islands of tetrataenite (FeNi) coherently intergrown with a hitherto unobserved soft magnetic phase (Fe3Ni). The tetrataenite island diameter decreases with increasing lateral distance from the tetrataenite rim. Exchange coupling between the hard tetrataenite islands and the soft matrix phase leads to an exchange spring effect that lowers the tetrataenite switching field and causes a systematic variation in microcoercivity throughout the cloudy zone. The cloudy zone displays a complex interlocking magnetic domain pattern caused by uniaxial single domain tetrataenite islands with easy axes distributed along all three of the possible <100> crystallographic orientations. The coarse and intermediate cloudy zones contain a random distribution of all three easy axes. The fine cloudy zone, on the other hand, contains one dominant easy axis direction. This easy axis distribution suggests that strong interaction fields (either magnetic or stress) were present in this region at the time of tetrataenite formation, which likely originated from the neighbouring plessite. The easy axis

  3. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  4. Total cloudiness over the Arctic in winter: an intercomparison of different climatologies, an assessment of inter-annual variability and connection with surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander; Esau, Igor; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2013-04-01

    An increase of air temperature in the Arctic is accompanied with changes in other climate variables, particularly with a decrease of the Arctic sea ice extent and cloud cover changes. The sensitivity of the cloud radiative forcing is about 1 Watt per square meter per 1% of cloud cover in the Arctic. Thus, relatively small changes in cloud fraction could result in an sufficient climate forcing. Considering an importance of clouds in the Arctic, it is crucial to know exactly when and where clouds exist and how cloud cover is changing in time. Here, we analyze climatology of winter cloudiness over the entire Arctic (north of 60N), its interannual variability in the Norwegian Sea - Kara Sea region and its connection with surface air temperature. Based an intercomparison of 16 cloud climatologies (including satellite and surface observations as well as reanalyses data), we show significant distinctions among different cloud climatologies based on various observations and reanalyses. Clouds cover 55-72% of the Arctic according to surface and satellite observations and 47-93% according to reanalyses. Coefficient of spatial correlation of different observation-derived cloud climatologies varies from 0.7 to 0.95 over the ocean and from 0.3 to 0.75 over land and it is negative for particular reanalyses. In general, winter cloud climatologies from reanalyses are in a bad agreement with observational ones. We use long-term visual observations from Norwegian and Russian meteorological stations in the Norwegian Sea - Kara Sea region to assess cloud interannual variability during the last century and its connection with surface air temperature. We find that a number of warm and overcast winter days is higher in the recent warming than during the cooling of 60-80s years of the 20th century. However, the early 20th century warming was even more cloudy then the recent warming. In general, surface air temperature in the ice band regions and during the cold periods is more sensitive

  5. Solar activity cloudiness effect on NH warming for 1980-2095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Víctor M.; Mendoza, Blanca; Garduño, René; Villanueva, Elba E.; Adem, Julián

    2016-03-01

    We use a Thermodynamic Climate Model (TCM) to compute the Northern Hemisphere temperature anomaly for the period 1980-2095, corresponding to the global warming (GW) by the increase of the atmospheric CO2; the GW is in turn diminished as a consequence of the negative anomaly of the solar activity (SA), giving a warming reduction (WR). So the CO2 and the SA represent external climate forcings. The total solar irradiance (TSI) is the main manifestation of the SA and of course is the climate driver; the SA produces besides the solar wind that modulates the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which in turn modifies the low cloud cover, that by itself influences inversely the mid cloud cover; the combination of both cloudiness yields the so called relevant cloud cover. The GCR-cloudiness effect has a delay of ∼1 yr with respect to TSI effect, which is the time for a SA change to reach the heliopause carried by the solar wind. In order to incorporate this climate mechanism, the TCM now includes the warming due to the vapor condensation by GCR, which causes a decrease in the magnitude of the WR. The TCM was improved by incorporating it new parameterizations of three mechanisms, which are activated by the GW: the atmospheric lapse rate changes; the water vapor emissivity between 8 and 12.5μ is computed with the E-Trans/HITRAN calculator; and changes in this emissivity band according to the relative humidity changes. The 11-yr variability of the TSI time series is filtered to get the trend along 21st century. Two IPCC (2001, 2007) CO2 emission scenarios are used: the high A1FI and the low A1T. Emphasis is made on the results for two particular years: one corresponding to the deepest part of the TSI grand solar minimum in the year 2029, and the other to the end of the century, 2095. The main thermal feedbacks included in TCM are those due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect by water vapor, to the cryosphere-albedo and to cloudiness-albedo. By 2100 the GW from the TCM is 5

  6. Assimilation of hyperspectral infrared sounder radiances under cloudy skies in a regional NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei

    Satellite measurements are an important source of global observations in support of numerical weather prediction (NWP). The assimilation of satellite radiances under clear skies has greatly improved NWP forecast scores. Since most of the data assimilation models are used for the clear radiances assimilation, an important step for satellite radiances assimilation is the clear location detection. Good clear detection could effectively remove the cloud contamination and keep the clear observations for assimilation. In this dissertation, a new detection method uses collocated high spatial resolution imager data onboard the same platform as the satellite sounders to help IR sounders subpixel cloud detection, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The MODIS cloud mask provides a level of confidence for the observed skies to help AIRS Field-of-View (FOVs) cloud detection. By reducing the cloud contamination, a cold bias in the temperature field and a wet bias in the moisture field are corrected for the atmospheric analysis fields. These less cloud affected analysis fields further improve hurricane track and intensity forecast. The availability of satellite observations that can be assimilated in the model is limited if only the clear radiances are assimilation. An effective way to use the thermodynamic information under partially cloudy regions is to assimilate the "cloud-cleared" radiances (CCRs); CCRs are also called clear equivalent radiances. Because the CCRs are the equivalent clear radiances from the partially cloudy FOVs, they can be directly assimilated into the current data assimilation models without modifications. The AIRS CCRs are assimilated and compared with the AIRS using stand-alone cloud detection and collocated cloud detection. The assimilation of AIRS cloud-cleared radiances directly affects

  7. Using CLOUDY to investigate the physical characteristics in the vicinity of transiting hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake; Christie, Duncan; Johnson, Robert; Arras, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Detecting and studying the magnetic fields of exoplanets will allow for the investigation of their interior structure, rotation period, atmospheric retention, moons, and habitability. In this study we simulate the plasma, chemistry, radiation transport, and dynamics of the plasma characteristics in the vicinity of the exoplanet using the code CLOUDY. We previously observed the primary transits of 18 exoplanets in the near-UV photometric band in an attempt to detect their magnetic fields and to search for a wavelength dependence in their planetary radii in order to constrain their atmospheric compositions (Turner et al. 2013, Pearson et al. 2014). It was postulated by Vidotto et al. (2011) that the magnetic fields of all our targets could be constrained if their near-UV light curves show an early ingress compared to their optical light curves, while their egress remains unattenuated. The early near-UV ingress is caused by the presence of a bow shock in front of the planet formed by interactions between the stellar coronal material and the planet’s magnetosphere. If the shocked material is sufficiently optically thick, it will absorb starlight and cause an early ingress in the near-UV light curve. We do not observe an early ingress in any of our targets, but determine upper limits on their magnetic field strengths. All our magnetic field upper limits are well below the predicted magnetic field strengths for hot Jupiters. Vidotto et al. (2011) originally predicted 69 planets should exhibit near-UV asymmetries and currently 19 of those show non-detections. Our result implies that hot Jupiters and hot Neptunes may have abnormally low magnetic field strengths. It may also indicate that the techniques outlined by Vidotto et al. (2011) can only be used in narrow-band spectroscopy and not broad-band photometry or that there is no absorbing species in our wavelength range. Using CLOUDY we have investigated whether there is an absorption species in the bow shock to cause an

  8. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  9. How to distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and water/volatile-dominated super-Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Benneke, Björn; Seager, Sara

    2013-12-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H{sub 2}-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, or N{sub 2}. Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out cloud-free H{sub 2}-dominated scenarios, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on wing steepness and relative depths of absorption features in moderate-resolution near-infrared transmission spectra (R ∼ 100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H{sub 2}O atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be reduced by a factor of ∼3 compared to the published Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 and Very Large Telescope transit observations by Berta et al. and Bean et al. We argue that the required precision for the distinction may be achievable with currently available instrumentation by stacking 10-15 repeated transit observations. We provide a scaling law that scales our quantitative results to other transiting super-Earths and Neptunes such as HD 97658b, 55 Cnc e, GJ 3470b and GJ 436b. The analysis in this work is performed using an improved version of our Bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework. The new framework not only constrains the gas composition and cloud/haze parameters, but also determines our confidence in having detected molecules and cloud/haze species through Bayesian model comparison. Using the Bayesian tool, we demonstrate quantitatively that the subtle transit depth variation in the Berta et al. data is

  10. Coherent Cloudiness Variability from Sierra Nevada to the Sea in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud variability serves as the principal modulator of incoming solar radiation. These cloud effects are particularly important in mountain settings such as the Sierra Nevada in California, because the solar irradiance is a primary input to the snowpack energy balance. An important, unanswered question is whether the mountain clouds over the Sierra Nevada are only one part of a larger-scale system or whether they vary distinctly from cloud patterns upstream over the Central Valley and coastal areas. To address this question we investigate cloud variability over California using 19 years (1996-2014) of GOES visible albedo product with 4-km spatial and 30-minute temporal resolutions. Two domains are considered: high elevations in which only higher (>800m) elevations are included, thus excluding the coast and valley clouds, and all elevations which includes all elevations from the offshore North Pacific to Nevada. Our focus is on the spring and early summer period, which is crucial because it includes much of the snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Inter-annual variation of cloudiness, represented by the coefficient of variation of cloud albedo, reveals the highest relative variability from California coasts and lowlands in the winter and spring to highlands and mountains in the summer and autumn. This pattern also occurs across shorter to longer time-scales, with coefficient of variation ranging from 30-180% on daily scale to 5-40% on seasonal scale. Considering the spatial structure of anomalous cloudiness, rotated EOF (REOF) analyses of de-seasonalized daily cloud albedo in the high elevation domain yields patterns and temporal variations that are well correlated with those from the all elevation domain. This indicates that, to a large degree, the mountain clouds co-vary with those over the Central Valley and the California coast, even though the valley and coastal clouds include low stratus clouds. The monthly standard deviations of the amplitudes of the time

  11. Water ice clouds on Mars: a study of partial cloudiness with a global climate model and MARCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Alizée; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, François; Wolff, Mike; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Spiga, Aymeric; Bertrand, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    There is a large reservoir of water ice on Mars in the polar caps, that sublimates in summer and releases water vapor. Water is then advected in the atmospheric circulation that evolves seasonally. This vapor forms clouds, frost, and can also be adsorbed in the soil. In a global study of the water cycle, water ice clouds play a key part in the martian climate. There is a need to understand better their distribution and radiative effect. The tool used in this study is the global climate model (GCM) of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. It is made up of a core that computes fluid dynamics, and a physical part that gathers a number of parametrised processes. It includes tracers and the condensation and sublimation of water in the atmosphere and on the ground, allowing a study of the complete water cycle. To improve the representation of water ice clouds in the model, a new parametrisation of partial cloudiness has been implemented and will be presented. Indeed, model cells are hundreds of kilometers wide, and it is quite unrealistic to suppose that cloud coverage is always uniform in them. Furthermore, the model was quite unstable since the implementation of the radiative effect of clouds, and partial cloudiness had the effect of reducing this instability. In practice, a subgrid temperature distribution is supposed, and the temperature computed in the model is interpreted as its mean. The subgrid scale temperature distribution is simple, and its width is a free parameter. Using this distribution, the fraction of the grid cells under the water vapor condensation temperature is interpreted as the fraction of the cell in which clouds form (or cloud fraction). From these fractions at each height a total partial cloudiness (the clouds as seen from the orbit) is deduced. The radiative transfer is computed twice, for the clear area and for the cloudy one. Observing the water cycle with this new parametrisation, some differences are seen with standard runs. These

  12. The SunCloud project: worldwide compilation of long-term series of sunshine duration and cloudiness observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Pallé, Enric; Wild, Martin; Calbó, Josep; Brunetti, Michelle; Stanhill, Gerald; Brázdil, Rudolf; Barriendos, Mariano; Pereira, Paulo; Azorin-Molina, César

    2010-05-01

    homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Equally, we plan to calibrate sunshine duration measurements against planetary albedo estimations from the Earthshine measurements and other satellite radiation data. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this abstract we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. In the near future we will create a webpage with the main details of this project.

  13. Evaluation of the Impact of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  14. Light-pollution model for cloudy and cloudless night skies with ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2007-05-20

    The scalable theoretical model of light pollution for ground sources is presented. The model is successfully employed for simulation of angular behavior of the spectral and integral sky radiance and/or luminance during nighttime. There is no restriction on the number of ground-based light sources or on the spatial distribution of these sources in the vicinity of the measuring point (i.e., both distances and azimuth angles of the light sources are configurable). The model is applicable for real finite-dimensional surface sources with defined spectral and angular radiating properties contrary to frequently used point-source approximations. The influence of the atmosphere on the transmitted radiation is formulated in terms of aerosol and molecular optical properties. Altitude and spectral reflectance of a cloud layer are the main factors introduced for simulation of cloudy and/or overcast conditions. The derived equations are translated into numerically fast code, and it is possible to repeat the entire set of calculations in real time. The parametric character of the model enables its efficient usage by illuminating engineers and/or astronomers in the study of various light-pollution situations. Some examples of numerical runs in the form of graphical results are presented. PMID:17514252

  15. Two-dimensional radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres - The spherical harmonic spatial grid method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular part of the radiance field in a spherical harmonic series and representing the spatial part with a discrete grid. The resulting sparse coupled system of equations is solved iteratively with the conjugate gradient method. A Monte Carlo model is used for extensive verification of outgoing flux and radiance values from both smooth and highly variable (multifractal) media. The spherical harmonic expansion naturally allows for different levels of approximation, but tests show that the 2D equivalent of the two-stream approximation is poor at approximating variations in the outgoing flux. The model developed here is shown to be highly efficient so that media with tens of thousands of grid points can be computed in minutes. The large improvement in efficiency will permit quick, accurate radiative transfer calculations of realistic cloud fields and improve our understanding of the effect of inhomogeneity on radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres.

  16. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice. PMID:10888515

  17. Photon path length distributions for cloudy skies  oxygen A-Band measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, O.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2003-03-01

    This paper addresses the statistics underlying cloudy sky radiative transfer (RT) by inspection of the distribution of the path lengths of solar photons. Recent studies indicate that this approach is promising, since it might reveal characteristics about the diffusion process underlying atmospheric radiative transfer (Pfeilsticker, 1999). Moreover, it uses an observable that is directly related to the atmospheric absorption and, therefore, of climatic relevance. However, these studies are based largely on the accuracy of the measurement of the photon path length distribution (PPD). This paper presents a refined analysis method based on high resolution spectroscopy of the oxygen A-band. The method is validated by Monte Carlo simulation atmospheric spectra. Additionally, a new method to measure the effective optical thickness of cloud layers, based on fitting the measured differential transmissions with a 1-dimensional (discrete ordinate) RT model, is presented. These methods are applied to measurements conducted during the cloud radar inter-comparison campaign CLARE’98, which supplied detailed cloud structure information, required for the further analysis. For some exemplary cases, measured path length distributions and optical thicknesses are presented and backed by detailed RT model calculations. For all cases, reasonable PPDs can be retrieved and the effects of the vertical cloud structure are found. The inferred cloud optical thicknesses are in agreement with liquid water path measurements.

  18. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  19. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives. PMID:25466116

  20. Prevention of conglomerate formation in not-from-concentrate single-cultivar cloudy apple juice by using different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Monika; Vogl, Karl; Gössinger, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    Conglomerates may form at the bottom of bottles containing not-from-concentrate (NFC) cloudy apple juice obtained from a single apple cultivar. Since dissociation or dispersion of these conglomerates cannot be achieved by shaking, the juice appears unsightly, and consumers can mistake the product as being spoilt. Juice from Elstar and Braeburn apples was treated with selected enzymes (gluco-amylase, alpha-amylase, pectin lyase, polygalacturonase and protease) and by using bentonite and a separator. The effects of these treatments on the formation of conglomerates in cloudy apple juice have been studied, and the treatment effects on turbidity and cloud stability have been documented. Conglomerates were observed in juices treated with protease or bentonite and in control juices. However, no conglomerates were observed in the juice samples treated with gluco-amylase, alpha-amylase, pectin lyase or pectin lyase in combination with polygalacturonase. The results obtained after treatment with a separator were not consistent. It is supposed that carbohydrate fractions play a more important role in conglomerate formation than proteins and phenols. Gluco-amylase and alpha-amylase treatment also provides good cloud stability, and thus can be a suitable method for preventing conglomerate formation in single-cultivar NFC cloudy apple juice. PMID:23239759

  1. Radiative Susceptibility of Cloudy Atmospheres to Droplet Number Perturbations: 2. Global analysis from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Global distributions of albedo susceptibility for areas covered by liquid clouds are presented for 4 months in 2005. The susceptibility estimates are based on expanded definitions presented in a companion paper and include relative cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) changes, perturbations in cloud droplet asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo, atmospheric/surface effects, and incorporation of the full solar spectrum. The cloud properties (optical thickness and effective radius) used as input in the susceptibility calculations come from MODIS Terra and Aqua Collection 5 gridded data. Geographical distributions of susceptibility corresponding to absolute ( absolute cloud susceptibility ) and relative ( relative cloud susceptibility ) CDNC changes are markedly different indicating that the detailed nature of the cloud microphysical perturbation is important for determining the radiative forcing associated with the first indirect aerosol effect. However, both types of susceptibility exhibit common characteristics such as significant reductions when perturbations in single-scattering properties are omitted, significant increases when atmospheric absorption and surface albedo effects are ignored, and the tendency to decrease with latitude, to be higher over ocean than over land, and to be statistically similar between the morning and afternoon MODIS overpasses. The satellite-based susceptibility analysis helps elucidate the role of present-day cloud and land surface properties in indirect aerosol forcing responses. Our realistic yet moderate CDNC perturbations yield forcings on the order of 1-2 W/sq m for cloud optical property distributions and land surface spectral albedos observed by MODIS. Since susceptibilities can potentially be computed from model fields, these results have practical application in assessing the reasonableness of model-generated estimates of the aerosol indirect radiative forcing.

  2. Validation of Nimbus-7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer estimates of cloud type and amount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of clear and low, middle and high cloud amount in fixed geographical regions approximately (160 km) squared are being made routinely from 11.5 micron radiance measurements of the Nimbus-7 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR). The purpose of validation is to determine the accuracy of the THIR cloud estimates. Validation requires that a comparison be made between the THIR estimates of cloudiness and the 'true' cloudiness. The validation results reported in this paper use human analysis of concurrent but independent satellite images with surface meteorological and radiosonde observations to approximate the 'true' cloudiness. Regression and error analyses are used to estimate the systematic and random errors of THIR derived clear amount.

  3. Getting Students to Observe the Night Sky, Even When Your Sky is Cloudy Half the Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of introductory astronomy classes often wish to get our students to look at the night sky However, most educational institutions in America are located in regions where cloudy nights are relatively common. This paper describes a low cost way to integrate observations into a course which lacks a dedicated astronomy lab. Students in two large. general science classes in fall 2008 and spring 2009 were asked to participate in one of two global star-counting projects. The fall project was coordinated by UCAR and asked for observations of the constellation Cygnus (http://www.windows.ucar.edu/citizen_science/starcount/results.html). The spring project was run by Project Globe and asked for observations of the constellation Orion. (http://www.globe.gov/GaN/ ). In both cases, students simply find the constellation, match the star pattern to charts that go to different limiting magnitudes, and report the data to the coordinating organization. A copy of the report is sent to the course instructor. The instructor can ask for additional information. Did it work? The success of this project was evaluated by analyzing the e-mail messages that students returned in response to the assignment. In both courses, a very large majority of the students actually did the exercise and submitted a report. Students reported that observing the sky in this way was satisfying to them., and sometimes the reports were quite enthusiastic. In spring 2009, some preparatory activies were conducted during class that were designed to sensitize students to the beauty of the sky. Analysis of student reports indicated that these preparatory activities were helpful, but not as helpful as the instructor would like. This research is part of the Teacher Professional Continuum project at the University of Delaware, which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  4. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    PubMed

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures. PMID:26675732

  5. Consistency of ARESE II Cloud Absorption Estimates and Sampling Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Marshak, A.; Cahalan, R. F.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from three cloudy days (March 3, 21, 29, 2000) of the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment II (ARESE II) were analyzed. Grand averages of broadband absorptance among three sets of instruments were compared. Fractional solar absorptances were approx. 0.21-0.22 with the exception of March 3 when two sets of instruments gave values smaller by approx. 0.03-0.04. The robustness of these values was investigated by looking into possible sampling problems with the aid of 500 nm spectral fluxes. Grand averages of 500 nm apparent absorptance cover a wide range of values for these three days, namely from a large positive (approx. 0.011) average for March 3, to a small negative (approximately -0.03) for March 21, to near zero (approx. 0.01) for March 29. We present evidence suggesting that a large part of the discrepancies among the three days is due to the different nature of clouds and their non-uniform sampling. Hence, corrections to the grand average broadband absorptance values may be necessary. However, application of the known correction techniques may be precarious due to the sparsity of collocated flux measurements above and below the clouds. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that only March 29 fulfills all requirements for reliable estimates of cloud absorption, that is, the presence of thick, overcast, homogeneous clouds.

  6. CU AMAX-DOAS applications in cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres: innovative Scattered Sun Light observations of trace gases and aerosol extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Atmospeclab

    2011-12-01

    An innovative airborne scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument has been developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The instrument collects scattered sunlight spectra in a sequence of discrete viewing angles, and employs the DOAS method (inherently calibrated, and selective) to simultaneously retrieve multiple trace gases, e.g., nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), chlorine dioxide (OClO), water vapor (H2O), and oxygen dimers (O4, at 360nm, 477nm, and 632nm) differential slant column densities (dSCD). Vertical profiles of these gases and multi-spectral aerosol extinction are inferred by combining Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Modelling (RTM) and optimal estimation techniques to construct a model atmosphere that can in principle represent 3D clouds and aerosols. The atmospheric state of this model atmosphere is constrained by observations of O4 dSCDs, Raman Scattering Probability (RSP), and intensity ratios, i.e., quantities that depend solely on relative intensity changes, without need for a direct sun view, or absolute radiance calibration. We show results from ongoing validation efforts (NOAA TwinOtter aircraft during CalNex and CARES), and demonstrate vertical profile retrievals (NSF/NCAR GV over the tropical Pacific Ocean) in both cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres.

  7. A Fast Radiative Transfer Parameterization Under Cloudy Condition in Solar Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, X.; Yang, P.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) system, which is proposed and developed by NASA, will directly measure the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (IR), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (RS), and radio occultation (RO). IR, RS, and RO measurements provide information on the most critical but least understood climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks associated with the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor, broadband reflected and emitted radiative fluxes, cloud properties, surface albedo, and surface skin temperature. To perform Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for long term climate observations, accurate and fast radiative transfer models are needed. The principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) is one of the efforts devoted to the development of fast radiative transfer models for simulating radiances and reflecatance observed by various hyperspectral instruments. Retrieval algorithm based on PCRTM forward model has been developed for AIRS, NAST, IASI, and CrIS. It is very fast and very accurate relative to the training radiative transfer model. In this work, we are extending PCRTM to UV-VIS-near IR spectral region. To implement faster cloudy radiative transfer calculations, we carefully investigated the radiative transfer process under cloud condition. The cloud bidirectional reflectance was parameterized based on off-line 36-stream multiple scattering calculations while few other lookup tables were generated to describe the effective transmittance and reflectance of the cloud-clear-sky coupling system in solar spectral region. The bidirectional reflectance or the irradiance measured by satellite may be calculated using a simple fast radiative transfer model providing the type of cloud (ice or water), optical depth of the cloud, optical depth of both atmospheric trace gases above and below clouds, particle size of the cloud, as well

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide total column retrievals from cloudy GOSAT soundings over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, D.; Butz, A.; Hu, H.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Arnold, S. G.; Schneider, M.; Feist, D. G.; Morino, I.; Pollard, D.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel physics-based retrieval method to infer total column mixing ratios of methane (XCH4) and carbon dioxide (XCO2) from space-borne short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) Earth radiance observations over the cloud-covered ocean. In nadir observing geometry in the SWIR spectral range, backscattering at the ocean surface is negligible. Hence, space-borne radiance measurements of ocean scenes generally do not provide sufficient level to retrieve XCO2 and XCH4. Our approach specifically targets cloudy GOSAT ocean soundings to provide sufficient radiance signal in nadir soundings in ocean areas. Currently, exploiting space-borne SWIR soundings over oceans relies on soundings in Sun glint geometry, observing the specular solar reflection at the ocean surface. The glint observation mode requires cloud-free conditions and a suitable observation geometry, severely limiting their number and geographical coverage. The proposed method is based on the existing RemoTeC algorithm that is extensively used to retrieve CH4 and CO2 columns from GOSAT SWIR measurements over land. For ocean pixels, we describe light scattering by clouds and aerosols by a single-layer water cloud with Gaussian height distribution. We infer the height and the geometrical thickness of the cloud layer jointly with the droplet size and the number density and the column abundances of CO2, CH4, and H2O. The CO2 and CH4 column product is validated with ground-based total column measurements performed at eight stations from the TCCON network that are geographically close to an ocean coastline. For the TCCON site with the most robust statistics (Lauder, New Zealand), we find a retrieval bias of 0.36% for XCH4 combined with a standard deviation of retrieval errors of 1.12%. For XCO2, the bias is 0.51% combined with a standard deviation of 1.03%. Averaged over all TCCON sites, our retrievals are biased -0.01% for XCO2 and -0.32% for XCH4. The standard deviation of station biases amounts to 0.45% for XCO2

  9. Multi scale imaging of the Cloudy Zone in the Tazewell IIICD Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Blukis, R.; Midgley, P. A.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Bagot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of iron and stony iron meteorites suggest that many small planetary bodies possessed molten cores resulting in the generation of a magnetic field. As these bodies cooled, Fe-Ni metal trapped within their mantle underwent a series of low-temperature transitions, leading to the familiar Widmanstatten intergrowth of kamacite and taenite. Adjacent to the kamacite/taenite interface is the so-called "cloudy zone" (CZ): a nanoscale intergrowth of tetrataenite islands in an Fe-rich matrix phase formed via spinodal decomposition. It has recently been shown (Bryson et al. 2015, Nature) that the CZ encodes a time-series record of the evolution of the magnetic field generated by the molten core of the planetary body. Extracting meaningful paleomagnetic data from the CZ relies, on a thorough understanding of the 3D chemical and magnetic properties of the intergrowth focsusing on the interactions between the magnetically hard tetrataenite islands and the magnetically soft matrix. Here we present a multi scale study of the chemical and crystallographic make up of the CZ in the Tazewell IIICD meteorite, using a range of advanced microscopy techniques. The results provide unprecedented insight into the architecture of the CZ, with implications for how the CZ acquires chemical transformation remanance during cooling on the parent body. Previous 2D transmission electron microscope studies of the CZ suggested that the matrix is an ordered Fe3Ni phase with the L12 structure. Interpretation of the electron diffraction patterns and chemical maps in these studies was hindered by a failure to resolve signals from overlapping island and matrix phases. Here we obtain high resolution electron diffraction and 3D chemical maps with near atomic resolution using a combination of scanning precession electron diffraction, 3D STEM EDS and atom probe tomography. Using this combined methodology we reslove for the first time the phenomena of secondary precipitation in the

  10. A Cloudy Quark Bag Model of S, P, and D wave interactions for the coupled channel antikaon-nucleon system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Guangliang.

    1992-05-15

    The Cloudy Quark Bag Model is extended from S-wave to P- and D-wave. The parameters of the model are determined by K{sup {minus}}p scattering cross section data, K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Sigma}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data, K{sup {minus}}p threshold branching ratio data, and K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Lambda}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data. The resonance structure of the {Lambda}(1405), {Sigma}(1385), and {Lambda}(1520) are studied in the model. The shift and width of kaonic hydrogen are calculated using the model.

  11. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  12. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  13. Micrometer-scale cavities in fibrous and cloudy diamonds — A glance into diamond dissolution events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-BenDavid, Ofra; Wirth, Richard; Navon, Oded

    2007-12-01

    Micrometer sized internal cavities in diamonds preserve evidence of diamond dissolution events. Combining the methods of focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables these features to be studied in detail. Micrometer-scale cavities are found in the inner parts of fibrous and cloudy kimberlitic diamonds. Their filling consists of amorphous matrix, secondary nano-crystals, volatiles and in some cases larger resorbed crystals. Trapped minerals include corundum, Kappa-alumina, quartz, olivine, moissanite-6H and Ca-Mg carbonates. This is the first observation of Kappa-alumina in nature. Secondary nano-minerals are observed within the amorphous matrix and include carbonates, Al-oxide, fluorite, ilmenite and secondary diamond crystals. The amorphous matrix is spongy and its composition is dominated by amorphous carbon, nitrogen, chlorine and also contains water. When no crystalline phases are observed, the matrix is also enriched in alumina, silica and in some cases calcium. We propose that micrometer scale cavities in diamonds form during dissolution events induced by the introduction of oxidizing hydrous fluids into the diamond growth area. Hydrous fluids are the main dissolving agents for most kimberlitic diamonds [Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D., Semenets, E., 2007. Mechanisms of diamond oxidation and their bearing on the fluid composition in kimberlite magmas. Am. Mineral. 92, 1200-1212]. At diamond forming conditions silica and alumina are enriched in hydrous fluids that are in equilibrium with eclogites [Kessel, R., Ulmer, P., Pettke, T., Schmidt, M.W., Thompson, A.B., 2005. The water-basalt system at 4 to 6 GPa: Phase relations and second critical endpoint in a K-free eclogite at 700 to 1400 °C. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 873-892]; this is consistent with the increased solubility of alumina with increased pressure and temperature in the Na-Cl bearing fluids [Manning, C.E., 2006. Mobilizing aluminum in crustal and

  14. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  15. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  16. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  17. Solar absorption in the clear and cloudy skies - quantification and attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We estimate atmospheric solar absorption at 433 locations worldwide through combining ground-based measurements of surface solar radiation (SSR) with collocated satellite-derived surface albedo and top-of-atmosphere net irradiance under both, all-sky and clear-sky conditions. Using two ground-based SSR datasets (BSRN and GEBA) and the CERES EBAF data product, we estimate atmospheric absorption at around 23±2

  18. Estimation of Spatially Distributed Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing and a Relevance Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, I.; Bachour, R.; Walker, W. R.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the development of surface energy balance analyses, remote sensing has become a spatially explicit and quantitative methodology for understanding evapotranspiration (ET), a critical requirement for water resources planning and management. Limited temporal resolution of satellite images and cloudy skies present major limitations that impede continuous estimates of ET. This study introduces a practical approach that overcomes (in part) the previous limitations by implementing machine learning techniques that are accurate and robust. The analysis was applied to the Canal B service area of the Delta Canal Company in central Utah using data from the 2009-2011 growing seasons. Actual ET was calculated by an algorithm using data from satellite images. A relevance vector machine (RVM), which is a sparse Bayesian regression, was used to build a spatial model for ET. The RVM was trained with a set of inputs consisting of vegetation indexes, crops, and weather data. ET estimated via the algorithm was used as an output. The developed RVM model provided an accurate estimation of spatial ET based on a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) of 0.84 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.5 mmday-1. This methodology lays the groundwork for estimating ET at a spatial scale for the days when a satellite image is not available. It could also be used to forecast daily spatial ET if the vegetation indexes model inputs are extrapolated in time and the reference ET is forecasted accurately.

  19. Study on aerosol optical properties and radiative effect in cloudy weather in the Guangzhou region.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Deng, XueJiao; Li, Fei; Wang, ShiQiang; Wang, Gang

    2016-10-15

    Currently, Guangzhou region was facing the problem of severe air pollution. Large amount of aerosols in the polluted air dramatically attenuated solar radiation. This study investigated the vertical optical properties of aerosols and inverted the height of boundary layer in the Guangzhou region using the lidar. Simultaneously, evaluated the impact of different types of clouds on aerosol radiation effects using the SBDART. The results showed that the height of the boundary layer and the surface visibility changed consistently, the average height of the boundary layer on the hazy days was only 61% of that on clear days. At the height of 2km or lower, the aerosol extinction coefficient profile distribution decreased linearly along with height on clear days, but the haze days saw an exponential decrease. When there was haze, the changing of heating rate of atmosphere caused by the aerosol decreased from 3.72K/d to 0.9K/d below the height of 2km, and the attenuation of net radiation flux at the ground surface was 97.7W/m(2), and the attenuation amplitude was 11.4%; when there were high clouds, the attenuation was 125.2W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 14.6%; where there were medium cloud, the attenuation was 286.4W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 33.4%. Aerosol affected mainly shortwave radiation, and affected long wave radiation very slightly. PMID:27295588

  20. Cloudy Sounding and Cloud-Top Height Retrieval From AIRS Alone Single Field-of-View Radiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisz, Elisabeth; Li, Jun; Li, Jinlong; Zhou, Daniel K.; Huang, Hung-Lung; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Yang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    High-spectral resolution measurements from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite provide unique information about atmospheric state, surface and cloud properties. This paper presents an AIRS alone single field-of-view (SFOV) retrieval algorithm to simultaneously retrieve temperature, humidity and ozone profiles under all weather conditions, as well as cloud top pressure (CTP) and cloud optical thickness (COT) under cloudy skies. For optically thick cloud conditions the above-cloud soundings are derived, whereas for clear skies and optically thin cloud conditions the profiles are retrieved from 0.005 hPa down to the earth's surface. Initial validation has been conducted by using the operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) product, ECMWF (European Center of Medium range Weather Forecasts) analysis fields and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). These inter-comparisons clearly demonstrate the potential of this algorithm to process data from 38 high-spectral infrared (IR) sounder instruments.

  1. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  2. Family Day Care Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Robert

    This paper presents information on the organization and accomplishments of Family Day Care Associations, organized groups of individuals who provide day care services in their own homes. Although primarily based on experiences of day care mothers in New York State, the paper presents information relevant to day care providers in any area.…

  3. Exploiting UV lambertian equivalent reflectivity data to infer changes in cloudiness and sea-ice in southern middle and high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER) ultraviolet (UV) data are routinely retrieved from many satellite-based instruments. Besides their original primarily function related to the retrieval of the ozone data, they also demonstrated to be useful as a cloudiness proxy comparable with data recorded from ground-based instruments, as well as for tracking ice/snow changes at high latitudes. LER time series spanning more than three decades can be retrieved from TOMS/OMI instruments although concerns related to the EP TOMS scan mirror degradation exist. Therefore, recently additional multi-satellite-based LER datasets have been created from SBUV instruments in the frame of the NASA MEaSUREs Program (Herman et al. 2013). In this presentation we report some recent applications of both datasets over southern middle and high latitudes focusing on cloudiness, surface UV and sea-ice. LER data have been analyzed over eight locations spanning from about 18° (north of Chile) to 62° S (Antarctic peninsula) covering years 1978-2011. Generally the distribution of the reflectivity of both TOMS datasets is similar. On the other hand, OMI LER data differ from TOMS ones in almost all locations. Daily CMF values from ground-based global solar irradiance measurements have been compared with OMI LER-based CMF data. The northernmost and southernmost locations characterized by prevalent clear sky and winter snow conditions, respectively, showed the worse agreement while the other stations showed a better correlation. For one location clear sky ground UV index values for have been estimated for years 1979-2011 by means of an empirical reconstruction model based on data recorded by a multichannel radiometer. Then, we exploit satellite LER data for computing actual surface UV by correcting clear sky UV with LER-based CMF data. Besides we also evaluated the cloud cover and the sea ice influence on the reflectivity in the Southern Ocean by comparing the MEaSUREs LER dataset with satellite

  4. Turbulence structure in clear and cloudy regions of the 7 July 1987 Electra mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh

    1990-01-01

    The 7 July mission of the 1987 FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations was chosen for analysis because of a well-defined transition from stratocumulus to clear conditions sampled by the aircraft on this day. It is hoped that by studying this case something can be learned about the processes responsible for the maintenance and breakup of stratocumulus layers, a primary objective of FIRE. The preliminary analysis is based on data from the Electra flight of this day. The properties of turbulence elements, i.e., updrafts and downdrafts, are examined to gain information on the nature of the turbulent exchanges through the boundary layer and across the inversion. Since such exchanges in large measure determine the stability and structure of cloud layers, a study of draft properties should be informative. The results will also be useful in the development of boundary layer models that are based on draft circulations (e.g., Randall, 1988; Hanson, 1988).

  5. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  6. Estimation of Greenland's Ice Cover Melting Area Using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbiriba, B.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Hannon, S.; Strow, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), we are able to detect the melting of Greenland's ice cover for the July 12, 2012 warming event and estimate the corresponding fractional melted area. We collect all of AIRS' overpasses above Greenland, using the reflected solar radiation to avoid cloudy scenes. We perform a retrieval of the skin surface temperature in order to classify a scene as likely frozen (skin temperature well below the freezing point), likely melted (skin temperature well above freezing point), or thawing. Using empirical snow and water emissivity data we retrieve an effective scene snow/water fraction. For this day we estimate that 90% of the ice cover exhibits some thawing and that 53% of the ice cover area was effectivelly covered with liquid water. For contrast we also look at July 8, 2012, and verify that most of the island, 68%, was frozen at that date. We also see a correlation of the thawing area with the solar angle as the day progresses.

  7. Cost Implications of the FIDCR: The Derivation of the Estimates in the Report to the Congress Entitled "The Appropriateness of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements..." and an Analysis of Alternative Assumptions. Technical Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conly, Sonia Rempel

    This volume contains the technical paper prepared by DHEW to give additional data and a more detailed analysis of materials used to study the cost implications of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). This study was part of a larger project to investigate two questions: is the Federal regulation of day care financed under Title XX…

  8. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  9. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  10. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001387.htm Riley-Day syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves ...

  11. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  12. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  13. Simple approximations for estimating quickly the motion and timing of salt diapir rise, overhang development, and associated thermal anomalies using present-day observations: Case history from the Gulf of Mexico and Danish North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I. ); Thomsen, R.O. )

    1993-09-01

    Estimates of the upward motion of salt, due solely to buoyancy forces, through deposited and depositing sedimentary cover can be split into several parts: the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary to cause an underlying salt to become buoyant; the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary for a salt diapir to reach the sediment mudline in the absence of an impeding pressure of competent sediments opposing salt rise and in the absence of significant overpressure (both differential impedance and differential overpressure will slow the rise of the salt to the mudline); the effective speed of motion of the salt through the nonimpeding sediments during the salt's buoyant-ascent phase; current observed salt-top depth below mudline versus nonimpeded predicted salt-top depth leading to (a) minimum estimate of mechanical strength of competent resistive layers, and (b) an approximate estimate of buoyancy pressure of salt attempting to penetrate the resistive cover layer; uplift estimate of the overlying competent sediments because of the buoyancy pressure, in relation to observed uplift, leading to an estimate of salt-diapir rise speed since reaching the impeding formation; timing estimates of [open quotes]mushroom cap[close quotes] development of salt since emplacement of the resistive overlying layer and an estimate of the lateral competence of sedimentary beds ahead of the mushroom-salt sheet cap as a consequence of the observed mushroom extent; an estimate of evolving thermal anomalies around the dynamic salt/sediment system as a consequence of high-salt thermal conductivity. Such simple rough estimation methods are important in assessing the local and regional factors influencing the dynamic, thermal, and hydrocarbon retention factors in basinal sediments influenced by salt. Examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Danish North Sea illustrate how to use both seismic and/or downhole data to perform the simple estimates.

  14. Improving forecast skill by assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals under partially cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2008-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite is now recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  15. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  16. Precise estimation of hourly global solar radiation for micrometeorological analysis by using data classification and hourly sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Ishigooka, Yasushi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a method for estimating hourly global solar radiation (GSR) from hourly sunshine duration data. This procedure requires only hourly sunshine duration as the input data and utilizes hourly precipitation and daily snow cover as auxiliary data to classify time intervals into six cases according to weather conditions. To obtain hourly GSR using a simple algebraic form, a quadratic function of the solar elevation angle and the sunshine duration ratio is used. Daily GSR is given by a sum of hourly GSRs. We evaluated the performance of the newly developed method using data obtained at 67 meteorological stations and found that the estimated GSR is highly consistent with that observed. Hourly and daily root-mean-square misfits are approximately 0.2 MJ/m2/h (~55 W/m2) and 1.4 to 1.5 MJ/m2/day (~16 to 17 W/m2), respectively. Our classification of weather conditions is effective for reducing estimation errors, especially under cloudy skies. Since the sunshine duration is observed at more meteorological stations than GSR, the proposed new method is a powerful tool for obtaining solar radiation with hourly resolution and a dense geographical distribution. One of the proposed methods, GSRgrn, can be applicable to hourly GSR estimations at different observation sites by setting local parameters (the precipitable water, surface albedo, and atmospheric turbidity) suitable to the sites. The hourly GSR can be applied for various micrometeorological studies, such as the heat budget of crop fields.

  17. Shortwave absorptance in a tropical cloudy atmosphere: Reconciling calculations and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Parding, Kajsa; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2011-10-04

    The absorption of shortwave (SW) by clouds is a topic surrounded by contradictory reports and controversy. Some studies have shown large discrepancies between observed SW absorption and absorption predicted by models, while others have found no significant dfference. In this study, values of column SW absorptance obtained by combining collocated top-of atmosphere (TOA) and surface observations at an island site in the Tropical Western Pacific are compared to radiative transfer model (RTM) output. To compensate for the field of view difference between satellite and surface instruments, the surface data are averaged over time. Scatterplots and statistical measures show that there is a signficant discrepancy between models and observations with the RTMs apparently underestimating SW absorptance. In previous observational studies showing highly enhanced absorption compared to models, the slope of a linear fit to d*TOA/dT (the derivative of TOA albedo with respect to transmittance) was used to quantify cloud SW absorption while non-linearity of d*TOA/dT was interpreted as a sign of sampling issues. Here, the models produce a steeper slope (about -0.9) than observations (-0.6 to -0.8), indicating that models predict too little cloud SW absorption. However, when the surface observations are averaged over a longer period, their slope grows steeper and the root mean square di*erence between linear and quadratic fits to d*TOA/dT is reduced. This implies that insufficient averaging of surface data contributes to the observed SW absorption discrepancy. Reexamination of the observational data using the difference between cloud fraction estimated from satellite and surface measurements as an estimate of field of view mismatch supports this hypothesis. High mea sured absorptance values are shown to correspond to occasions of large field of view mismatch. When such data are excluded, the difference between the linear and quadratic fits is reduced and the slope of the best fit line

  18. THE YOUNG PLANET-MASS OBJECT 2M1207b: A COOL, CLOUDY, AND METHANE-POOR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, Travis S.; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian

    2011-07-10

    The properties of 2M1207b, a young ({approx}8 Myr) planet-mass companion, have lacked a satisfactory explanation for some time. The combination of low luminosity, red near-IR colors, and L-type near-IR spectrum (previously consistent with T{sub eff} {approx} 1600 K) implies an abnormally small radius. Early explanations for the apparent underluminosity of 2M1207b invoked an edge-on disk or the remnant of a recent protoplanetary collision. The discovery of a second planet-mass object (HR8799b) with similar luminosity and colors as 2M1207b indicates that a third explanation, one of a purely atmospheric nature, is more likely. By including clouds, non-equilibrium chemistry, and low gravity, an atmosphere with effective temperature consistent with evolution cooling-track predictions is revealed. Consequently, 2M1207b, and others like it, requires no new physics to explain nor do they belong to a new class of objects. Instead they most likely represent the natural extension of cloudy substellar atmospheres down to low T{sub eff} and log (g). If this atmosphere only explanation for 2M1207b is correct, then very young planet-mass objects with near-IR spectra similar to field T dwarfs may be rare.

  19. Multi-waveband solar irradiance on tree-shaded vertical and horizontal surfaces: cloud-free and partly cloudy skies.

    PubMed

    Grant, R H; Heisler, G M

    2001-01-01

    Irradiance measurements of short wave (SW), photosynthetically active (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UVA) and ultraviolet-B (UVB) solar radiations were made on horizontal and vertical surfaces in the shade of trees under cloud-free and partly cloudy skies. All measurements were referenced to the irradiance of a horizontal surface above the canopy. For horizontal shaded surfaces under cloud-free skies, the values of the ratio (Rh) of below- to above-canopy horizontal irradiance were similar for the UVA and UVB wavebands and for the SW and PAR wavebands. However, Rh for the UV wavebands differed from that for the PAR and SW wavebands. Overall, values of Rh in the shade typically varied as PAR < SW < UVA < UVB. The irradiance ratios for vertical surface in the shade typically varied as UVB > UVA = SW > PAR. In absolute terms, UVB irradiance (Ih) on tree-shaded horizontal surfaces increased relative to a cloud-free sky when a translucent cirroform cloud was in front of the sun, but decreased when the cloud was in a region of sky away from the sun. Translucent cirroform cloud cover also tended to decrease the UVB irradiance (Iv) for a shaded vertical surface (either facing the sun or south) relative to that under cloud-free skies, regardless of where the clouds were in the sky. In all other wavebands the shaded Ih and Iv increased under translucent cirroform cloud cover relative to cloud-free skies, regardless of where the clouds were in the sky. PMID:11202362

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of 6 weeks of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii. PMID:20600039

  2. How Many Days Are Enough? A Study of 365 Days of Pedometer Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Bassett, David R.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara; Reis, Jared P.; Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the number of days of pedometer monitoring necessary to achieve reliable and valid estimates of a 1-year average of step counts in adults based on either consecutive days (CD) or random days (RD) of data collection. Twenty-three participants (16 women; M age = 38 years, SD = 9.9) wore a Yamax SW 200 pedometer…

  3. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  4. Multi-Sensor Investigation of a Regional High-Arctic Cloudy Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanescu, L.; O'Neill, N. T.; Blanchet, J. P.; Baibakov, K.; Chaubey, J. P.; Perro, C. W.; Duck, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    A regional high-Arctic cloud event observed in March, 2011 at the PEARL Observatory, near the Eureka Weather Station (80°N, 86°W), was investigated with a view to better understanding cloud formation mechanisms during the Polar night. We analysed the temporal cloud evolution with a suite of nighttime, ground-based remote sensing (RS) instruments, supplemented by radiosonde profiles and surface weather measurements. The RS suite included Raman lidar, cloud radar, a star-photometer and microwave-radiometers. In order to estimate the spatial extent and vertical variability of the cloud mass, we employed satellite-based lidar (CALIPSO) and radar (CloudSat) profiles in the regional neighbourhood of Eureka (at a latitude of 80°N, Eureka benefits from a high frequency of CALIPSO and CloudSat overpasses). The ground-based and satellite-based observations provide quantitative measurements of extensive (bulk) properties (cloud and aerosol optical depths), and intensive (per particle properties) such as aerosol and cloud particle size as well as shape, density and aggregation phase of the cloud particulates. All observations were then compared with the upper atmosphere NCEP/NCAR reanalyses in order to understand better the synoptic context of the cloud mass dynamics as a function of key meteorological parameters such as upper air temperature and water vapor circulation. Preliminary results indicated the presence of a particular type of thin ice cloud (TIC-2) associated with a deep and stable atmospheric low. A classification into small and large ice crystal size (< 40 μm and > 40 μm, respectively), identifies the clouds as TIC-1 or TIC-2. This classification is hypothesized to be associated with the nature of the aerosols (non-anthropogenic versus anthropogenic) serving as ice nuclei in their formation. Such a distinction has important implications on the initiation of precipitation, removal rate of the cloud particles and, in consequence, the radiative forcing

  5. A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.

  6. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  7. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  8. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  9. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  10. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  11. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  12. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  13. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  14. Formation of spectral lines in planetary atmospheres. III - The use of analytic scattering diagrams in computations of synthetic spectra for cloudy atmospheres.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of some comparisons that have been made of line profiles and equivalent widths computed from atmospheric models where the scattering has been represented by the Mie theory and a simple analytic expression, the Heyney-Greenstein function. These results show that the spectroscopic features for these models are indistinguishable and demonstrate the value of using this simple analytic function in terms of the great saving in computer time when computing synthetic spectra for any cloudy planetary atmosphere.

  15. Hubble's Look at Mars Shows Canyon Dust Storm, Cloudy Conditions for Pathfinder Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars, taken on June 27, 1997, reveal a significant dust storm which fills much of the Valles Marineris canyon system and extends into Xanthe Terra, about 600 miles (1000 kilometers) south of the landing site.

    It is difficult to predict the evolution of this storm and whether it will affect the Pathfinder observations.

    The pictures were taken in order to monitor the site in Ares Vallis where the Pathfinder spacecraft will land on July 4.

    The two images of Mars at the top of the figure are Hubble observations from June 27 (right) and May 17 (left). Visual comparison of these two images clearly shows the dust storm between 5 and 7 o'clock and about 2/3 of the way from the center of the planet's disk to the southern edge of the June image.

    The digital data were projected to form the map of the equatorial portion of the planet which is shown in the bottom portion of the figure. The green cross marks the location of the Pathfinder landing site, and the yellowish ribbon of dust which runs horizontally across the bottom of the map traces the location of Valles Marineris, a system of canyons which would stretch from Los Angeles to New York if placed on Earth.

    Most of the dust is confined within the canyons, which are up to 5-8 kilometers deep. The thickness of the dust cloud near the eastern end of the storm is similar to that observed by Viking lander 1 during the first of the two 1977 global dust storms which it studied.

    Other interesting features appear in this image. The northwestern portions of the planet are enveloped in unusually thick water ice clouds, similar to cirrus clouds on Earth; some clouds extend as far as Lunae Planum, the slightly darker region about halfway from the center to the left side of the map. The dark spot near the terminator (boundary between day and night) at about 9:00 in the June 27 planet image is Ascraeus Mons, a 27 kilometer high volcano, protruding through the clouds.

    The remnant

  16. Characterization of bubble core and cloudiness in Yb3+:Sr5(PO4)3F crystals using Micro-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y; Roy, U N; Bai, L; Burger, A; Qiu, S R; Schaffers, K

    2006-11-15

    Ytterbium doped strontium fluoroapatite Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F (Yb: S-FAP) crystals have been used in High Average Power Laser systems as gain medium. Growth induced defects associated with the crystal often affect their performance. In order to improve the crystal quality and its optical applications, it is imperative to understand the nature of these defects. In this study, we utilize Micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize two common growth-induced defects: bubble core and cloudiness. We find the bubble core consist of voids and microcrystals of Yb: S-FAP. These microcrystals have very different orientation from that of the pure crystal outside the bubble core. In contrast to a previous report, neither Sr{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} nor Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed in the bubble core regions. On the other hand, the cloudy regions are made up of the host materials blended with a structural deformation along with impurities which include CaCO{sub 3}, YbPO{sub 4}, SrHPO{sub 4} and Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The impurities are randomly distributed in the cloudy regions. This analysis is necessary for understanding and eliminating these growth defects in Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  17. The use of polar-orbiting satellite sounding data to estimate rural maximum and minimum temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.L. ); Davis, J.M.; Bloomfield, P. ); Karl, T.R.; McNab, A.L. ); Tarpley, J.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with surface data from over 5,300 cooperative weather stations in the continental United States to develop multiple linear regression equations. Separate equations were developed for both maximum and minimum temperature, using the three types of sounding retrievals (clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy). Clear retrieval models outperformed others, and maximum temperatures were more accurately predicted than minimums. Average standard deviations of observed rural shelter temperatures within sounding search areas were of similar magnitude to root-mean-square errors from satellite estimates for most clear and partly cloudy cases, but were significantly less for cloudy retrieval cases. Model validation for surrogate polar and tropical climatic regions showed success in application of the four clear retrieval models (maximum and minimum temperature, for both winter and summer). This indicates the potential adaptability of these models to estimates of rural shelter temperature in areas outside of the United States. 26 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. The use of polar-orbiting satellite sounding data to estimate rural maximum and minimum temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gregory L.; Davis, Jerry M.; Karl, Thomas R.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Tarpley, J. D.; Bloomfield, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with surface data from over 5300 cooperative weather stations in the continental United States to develop multiple linear regression equations. Separate equations were developed for both maximum and minimum temperature, using the three types of sounding retrievals (clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy). Clear retrieval models outperformed others, and maximum temperatures were more accurately predicted than minimums. Average standard deviations of observed rural shelter temperatures within sounding search areas were of similar magnitude to root-mean-square errors from satellite estimates for most clear and partly cloudy cases, but were significantly less for cloudy retrieval cases. Model validation for surrogate polar and tropical climatic regions showed success in application of the four clear retrieval models (maximum and minimum temperature, for both winter and summer). This indicates the potential adaptability of these models to estimates of rural shelter temperature in areas outside of the United States.

  19. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  20. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  1. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  2. Career Day 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  3. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  4. 3D pyCloudy modelling of bipolar planetary nebulae: Evidence for fast fading of the lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Morisset, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The origin and evolution of the shapes of bipolar planetary nebulae are poorly understood. We postulate that their history can be traced through their internal velocity fields in a procedure similar to the one well established for spherical objects. Such an analysis requires 3D photoionization and kinematical modelling that is computationally very time consuming. We apply an axially symmetric pseudo-3D photoionization model, pyCloudy, to derive the structures of six bipolar nebulae and two suggested post-bipolars in an attempt to constrain the bipolar planetary nebulae evolution. Methods: HST images and VLT/UVES spectroscopy are used for the modelling. The targets are located in the direction of the Galactic bulge. A 3D model structure is used as input to the photoionization code in order to fit the HST images. Line profiles of different ions constrain the velocity field. The model and associated velocity fields allow us to derive masses, velocities, and ages. Results: The 3D models find much lower ionized masses than required in 1D models: ionized masses are reduced by factors of 2-7. The selected bi-lobed planetary nebulae show a narrow range of ages: the averaged radii and velocities result in values between 1300 and 2000 yr. The lobes are fitted well with velocities that increase linearly with radius. These Hubble-type flows have been found before, and suggest that the lobes form at a defined point in time. The lobes appear to be slightly younger, by ~500 yr, than the main (host) nebulae; they seem to form at an early phase of PN evolution and fade after 1-2 kyr. We find that 30-35% of bulge PNe pass through a bipolar phase. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 075.D-0104) and HST (program 9356).

  5. Toward a Unified Parameterization of the Boundary Layer and Moist Convection. Part 3; Simulations of Clear and Cloudy Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lappen, Cara-Lyn; Randall, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A model that employs a new form of mass-flux closure (described in Part I of this paper) is applied to a variety of clear and cloudy planetary boundary layers (PBLs) including dry convection from the Wangara Experiment, trade wind cumulus from the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX), and marine stratocumulus from the Atlantic Stratocumulus Experiment (ASTEX). For Wangara, the simulated variances and fluxes match that expected from similarity arguments, while the mean state is a little less mixed than the observations. In the BOMEX simulation. the shape and magnitude of the fluxes and the turbulence kinetic energy budget agree with LES results and observations. However, the liquid water mixing ratio is too large. This is attributed to an underprediction of the skewness. In agreement with observations from the ASTEX experiment, many of the model-simulated fields distinctly reflect a regime in transition between the trade wind cumulus and the classic stratocumulus-topped boundary layers. In general, the simulated entrainment rate tends to be a little underpredicted in regimes where there is little cloud-top radiative cooling (Wangara and BOMEX), while it is overpredicted in regimes where this process is more critical (e.g., ASTEX). Prior work suggests that this may be related to the manner in which the pressure terms are parameterized in the model. Overall, the model is able to capture some key physical features of these PBL regimes, and appears to have the potential to represent both cloud and boundary layer processes. Thus, this approach is a first step toward unifying these processes in large-scale models.

  6. Moisture dynamics in the cloudy and polluted tropical atmosphere: The Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment (CARDEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Thomas, R. M.; Praveen, P. S.; Pistone, K.; Bender, F.; Feng, Y.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols are well known to modify the microphysical properties of clouds. This modification is expected to yield brighter clouds that cover a greater area. However, observations from satellites show little inter-hemispheric difference in cloud optical thickness and liquid water path in spite of the clear inter-hemispheric difference in aerosol optical thickness. Furthermore, comparisons of observations with global atmospheric models suggest that models that parameterize the mechanisms of aerosol nucleation of cloud drops but do not resolve cloud-scale dynamics may be overestimating the magnitude of aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. Resolving these discrepancies requires a deeper understanding of the factors determining the transport of moisture to the cloud layer and the effects of aerosols on that transport. Towards this goal, we have conducted a new field experiment to study the moisture dynamics in the boundary layer and lower troposphere of the polluted and cloudy tropical atmosphere. The Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment (CARDEX) was conducted during the winter of 2012 at the Maldives Climate Observatory - Hanimaadhoo in the tropical northern Indian Ocean during the period of extensive outflow of the South Asian pollution. Pollution in the CARDEX region has been well documented to both modify the microphysical properties of low clouds and strongly absorb solar radiation with significant consequences for the lower atmosphere and surface radiative energy budgets. Three unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flew nearly 60 research flights instrumented to measure turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes, aerosol concentrations, and cloud microphysical properties. Airborne measurements were enhanced with continuous surface monitoring of surface turbulent heat fluxes, aerosol concentrations and physical properties, surface remote sensing of cloud water amount and aerosol profiles, and model analyses of aerosols and dynamics with WRFchem. This

  7. Decrease of cloudiness in the Mediterranean region since the 1970s: consistency between observations and climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; González, Josep-Abel; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Norris, Joel

    2015-04-01

    One the main limitations when studying clouds and their associated radiative effects is related to the difficulties in obtaining temporal homogeneous observations of clouds. In this study, total cloud cover trends from surface observations over land (EECRA) for the Mediterranean area since 1971 have been examined. Then, the observed changes have been compared with different global databases for a common period 1984-2005. Specifically, several satellite projects (ISCCP, CLARA, PATMOS-x) and reanalysis products (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR) have been chosen. Finally, simulations from 44 climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) corresponding to the historical scenario have been compared against the observations. The observations show a widespread decrease of total cloud cover over the Mediterranean since the 1970s, especially during the winter and spring. There is a relatively good agreement between this time evolution of cloud cover provided by surface observations and reanalyses, as well as with PATMOS-x and corrected ISCCP data (Norris and Evan, 2015), whereas raw ISCCP, CLARA and ERA-Interim provide unrealistic trends. Historical climate model simulations from the CMIP5 also indicate a decrease of cloud cover over the Mediterranean since the 1970s, although with a lower magnitude as compared with observations. Overall, the observed decrease in cloudiness over the Mediterranean could explain a fraction of the increase in downward shortwave surface radiation detected since the 1970s (i.e. brightening period) by using direct and indirect (e.g. sunshine duration data) measurements. Norris, J. R. and A. T. Evan (2015) Empirical Removal of Artifacts from the ISCCP and PATMOS-x Satellite Cloud Records, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, in press.

  8. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  9. Thunder day increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Steven D.

    1984-04-01

    A report issued by the Illinois State Water Survey concludes that annual values of thunder days for North America exhibited a general increase of about 15% from 1901 to 1945, followed by a general decrease of 10% from 1945 to 1980. A study of the variability of thunder days across North America showed a general decrease with time, particularly after 1940. A major finding of this study is that frequencies of thunderstorms over areas as large as the North American continent show major long-term trends.The report, “Temporal Distribution of Global Thunder Days,” summarizes the results of a 1-year study by Stanley A. Changnon, Jr., and Chin-Fei Hsu of the temporal variations of thunder-day records during 1901-1980 using quality weather records from weather stations scattered around the globe. A thunder day is recorded when one or more peals of thunder are heard anytime during the 24-hour period from midnight to midnight, which is consistent with the definition of a thunderstorm used at first-order weather stations since 1897. They found most stations in the northern hemisphere north of 45° latitude exhibited a general increase in thunder activity from 1901 to 1980. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation.

  10. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  11. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children. PMID:22938437

  12. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  13. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  14. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  15. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  16. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,…

  17. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  18. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  19. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  20. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  1. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  2. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of extracurricular science…

  3. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  4. International School Library Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an International School Library Day and discusses activities in Australian school libraries. Highlights include the development of Web pages; sponsorship by national, state, or provincial associations; publicity materials; joint activities with other countries; student involvement; and activities with public libraries.…

  5. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  6. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  7. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  8. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  9. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  10. Day One Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead…

  11. Estimating risk.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A free mobile phone app has been launched providing nurses and other hospital clinicians with a simple way to identify high-risk surgical patients. The app is a phone version of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), originally developed for online use with computers by researchers from the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death and the University College London Hospital Surgical Outcomes Research Centre. SORT uses information about patients' health and planned surgical procedures to estimate the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages are only estimates, taking into account the general risks of the procedures and some information about patients, and should not be confused with patient-specific estimates in individual cases. PMID:27369709

  12. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  13. How well does the Rayleigh model describe the E-vector distribution of skylight in clear and cloudy conditions? A full-sky polarimetric study.

    PubMed

    Suhai, Bence; Horváth, Gábor

    2004-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution maps of Rayleigh behavior in clear and cloudy sky conditions measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry at the wavelengths of 650 nm (red), 550 nm (green), and 450 nm (blue) versus the solar elevation angle thetas. Our maps display those celestial areas at which the deviation deltaalpha = /alphameas - alphaRyleigh/ is below the threshold alphathres = 5 degrees, where alphameas is the angle of polarization of skylight measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry, and alphaRayleigh is the celestial angle of polarization calculated on the basis of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. From these maps we derived the proportion r of the full sky for which the single-scattering Rayleigh model describes well (with an accuracy of deltaalpha = 5 degrees) the E-vector alignment of skylight. Depending on thetas, r is high for clear skies, especially for low solar elevations (40% < r < 70% for thetas < or = 13 degrees). Depending on the cloud cover and the solar illumination, r decreases more or less under cloudy conditions, but sometimes its value remains remarkably high, especially at low solar elevations (rmax = 69% for thetas = 0 degrees). The proportion r of the sky that follows the Rayleigh model is usually higher for shorter wavelengths under clear as well as cloudy sky conditions. This partly explains why the shorter wavelengths are generally preferred by animals navigating by means of the celestial polarization. We found that the celestial E-vector pattern generally follows the Rayleigh pattern well, which is a fundamental hypothesis in the studies of animal orientation and human navigation (e.g., in aircraft flying near the geomagnetic poles and using a polarization sky compass) with the use of the celestial alpha pattern. PMID:15384432

  14. Links between extreme UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness: An analysis of 30 years of data from Switzerland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Weihs, P.; Vuilleumier, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Holawe, F.; Lindfors, A.; Maeder, J. A.; Simic, S.; Wagner, J. E.; Walker, D.; Ribatet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion in the early 1970s (e.g. Molina and Rowland, 1974; Farman et al., 1985) the interest in stratospheric ozone trends and solar UV-B increased within the scientific community and the general public because of the link between reduced total column ozone and increased UV-radiation doses. Stratospheric ozone (e.g. Koch et al., 2005) and erythemal UV-radiation (e.g. Rieder et al., 2008) in the northern mid-latitudes are characterized by strong temporal variability. Long-term measurements of UV-B radiation are rare and datasets are only available for few locations and most of these measurements do not provide spectral information on the UV part of the spectra. During strong efforts in the reconstruction of erythemal UV, datasets of past UV-radiation doses became available for several measurement sites all over the globe. For Switzerland and Austria reconstructed UV datasets are available for 3 measurement sites (Davos, Sonnblick and Vienna) (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005; Rieder et al., 2008). The world's longest ozone time series dating back to 1926 is available from Arosa, Switzerland, and is discussed in detail by Staehelin et al. (1998a,b). Recently new tools from extreme value theory have been applied to the Arosa time series to describe extreme events in low and high total ozone (Rieder et al., 2009). In our study we address the question of how much of the extremes in UV-radiation can be attributed to extremes in total ozone, high surface albedo and cloudiness. An analysis of the frequency distributions of such extreme events for the last decades is presented to gain a better understanding of the links between extreme erythemal UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and clouds. References: Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985. Koch, G., Wernli, H., Schwierz, C., Staehelin, J., and Peter, T

  15. Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column in Cloudy Weather Conditions using An IM-CW Lidar at 1.57 Micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Bryon; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan; Ismail, Syed

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-m CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively.

  16. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings. PMID:26836078

  17. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  18. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  19. Three-day fever.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J

    2015-08-01

    Three-day fever is a viral disease caused by an Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, transmitted by arthropod vectors. It is common in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it affects mainly domestic cattle and buffaloes, especially in intensive dairy or fattening production systems. It is of economic importance because it reduces milk production and fertility and causes abortion. The disease is generally benign. It manifests in several susceptible subjects simultaneously, with a sudden episode of fever accompanied by muscle involvement with arthritis, stiffness of the limbs, and lameness, followed by rapid recovery. The presence of a serofibrinous exudate in the joints is indicative of the disease. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of pathognomonic signs. Epidemiological factors (proliferation of arthropod vectors), associated with a short-lived fever and the presence of many immature neutrophils, point strongly to three-day fever. In the absence of any specific treatment, the symptoms are treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Medical prophylaxis currently uses live attenuated vaccines, pending the development of recombinant vaccines, which are giving promising results. PMID:26601454

  20. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    One problem encountered when establishing the causes of global dimming and brightening is the limited number of long-term solar radiation series with accurate and calibrated measurements. For this reason, the analysis is often supported and extended with the use of other climatic variables such as sunshine duration and cloud cover. Specifically, sunshine duration is defined as the amount of time usually expressed in hours that direct solar radiation exceeds a certain threshold (usually taken at 120 W m-2). Consequently, this variable can be considered as an excellent proxy measure of solar radiation at interannual and decadal time scales, with the advantage that measurements of this variable were initiated in the late 19th century in different, worldwide, main meteorological stations. Nevertheless, detailed and up-to-date analysis of sunshine duration behavior on global or hemispheric scales are still missing. Thus, starting on September 2010 in the framework of different research projects, we will engage a worldwide compilation of the longest daily or monthly sunshine duration series from the late 19th century until present. Several quality control checks and homogenization methods will be applied to the generated sunshine dataset. The relationship between the more precise downward solar radiation series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this presentation we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. The SunCloud Team: M. Wild, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  1. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  2. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  3. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning…

  4. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  5. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  6. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  7. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  8. The triple day.

    PubMed

    Smith, V

    1980-08-01

    The risks are high and the returns low when Peruvian women work outside the home, but they have few other options. Most have large families, and their husbands scramble to earn a few dollars. For some women the day begins at 3:30 a.m. when they go to Lima to peddle fish, combs, or whatever commodity is available. The poor women who live in the pueblos jovenes of Lima, the newly formed outskirts, have banded together in a Christian group called Luz y Esperanza, or Light and Hope. The group has a 10-year history of coping with unsanitary water and resultant health problems, child care, and lack of electricity. The women began with neighborhood issues but have also developed an interest in trade unions and other less local concerns. Members have also started to attend union meetings in Lima and involved themselves in recent trade union struggles. The development of the women's political consciousness is closely intertwined with their Christian faith. They believe Christ is the source of the energy they need to persevere. PMID:12262074

  9. Cloud cover estimation using bispectral satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M.-D.; Childs, J.; Dorian, P.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for cloud cover estimation using bispectral satellite measurements. Based on the distribution of pixels in albedo-brightness temperature space, a number of threshold values are applied to identify those pixels which are most likely totally cloud filled. Mean cloudy-column albedo in a region much larger than a single pixel is then estimated and cloud cover computed. The algorithm has been applied to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Geostationary Meteorological Satellite B2 data. Locations of tropical convective cells and the passage of fronts in higher latitudes are identified. Since these features represent the states of large-scale atmospheric circulations, it is concluded that the algorithm can yield consistent cloud data sets useful for climate studies.

  10. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  11. Day one sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-05-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead the UK through such adaptations. This paper discusses the importance of interdisciplinary teaching to produce multi-faceted team approaches to sustainable design solutions. Methods for measuring success in education are often not fit for purpose, producing good students but poor engineers. Real-world failures to apply sustainable design present a serious, difficult to detect, and ultimately economically negative situation. Techniques to replace summative examinations are presented and discussed, with the aim of enhancing core technical skills alongside those required for sustainable design. Finally, the role of our future engineers in policy-making is discussed. In addition to carbon, the provision of water and food will heavily influence the work of civil engineers in the coming decades. Leadership from civil engineers with the technical knowledge and social awareness to tackle these issues will be required. This provides both opportunities and challenges for engineering education in the UK.

  12. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  13. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  14. Day to day variability in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess day to day variability in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.05). No difference was found in FatOx between fat-rich diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.01) after the CHO-rich diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results. PMID:26960444

  15. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  17. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  18. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  19. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  20. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  1. Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day Room Mantel Shelf, Northeast Elevation - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Ward 4, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  2. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  3. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  4. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  5. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  6. Evapotranspiration estimated by using datasets from the Chinese FengYun-2D geostationary meteorological satellite over the Yellow River source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Wen, Jun; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we developed algorithms to estimate hourly evapotranspiration (ET) during a day under clear and cloud cover conditions using data from the Chinese FengYun-2D (FY-2D) geostationary meteorological satellite over the Yellow River source area. For cloud-free conditions, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) methodology and FY-2D data were used to derive the hourly ET. For cloudy cover conditions, the transmission coefficient was calculated using top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Heat fluxes and ET under different atmospheric and cloud cover conditions were then calculated. Compared with ground-based measurements from eddy covariance systems deployed in the Maqu Climate and Environment Comprehensive Observation Station, the average relative error was 15.20% during the experimental period. The proposed methodology can rely exclusively on remote sensing data in the absence of ancillary ground observations. Thus, the proposed method can potentially estimate the regional surface energy budget.

  7. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for more information. Symptoms During the Final Months, Weeks, and Days of Life Key Points Delirium Delirium ... may get worse during the final days or weeks of life. Shortness of breath or not being ...

  8. Impact of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask interpretation on cloud amount estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotarba, Andrzej Z.

    2015-09-01

    Cloud masks serve as a basis for estimates of cloud amount, which is an essential parameter for studying the Earth's radiation budget. The most commonly used cloud mask is a simple thematic classification, which includes qualitative information on the presence of clouds in the satellite's instantaneous field of view (IFOV). Cloud mask classes have to be "translated" into a quantitative measure, in order to be used for cloud amount calculations. The assignment of cloud fractions to cloud mask classes is a subjective process and increases uncertainty in cloud amount estimates. We evaluated this degree of uncertainty using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask product. Together with the operational MODIS cloud mask interpretation, we investigated two extreme alternatives: "rigorous" (only "confident cloudy" IFOVs were 100% cloudy) and "tolerant" (only "confident clear" IFOVs were 0% cloudy). Results showed that the range of uncertainty was 14.3% in Europe and controlled by the frequency of small convective clouds. Comparison with surface-based observations suggests that the rigorous interpretation of the cloud mask is more accurate than that used operationally for MODIS level 3 product generation. The rigorous approach resulted in the smallest bias (-0.7%), the smallest root-mean-square error (4.6%), the small standard deviation (6%), and the strongest correlation (0.935). These results suggest that for climatological applications the rigorous scenario should be considered as a more accurate "best guess" over land.

  9. 2010 Stennis Day of Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Rich Delgado, commanding officer of the Fleet Survey Team located at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, visits with Kertrina Watson Lewis, executive director of the HandsOn volunteer organization in New Orleans, during Day of Service activities Jan. 12. The Day of Service was part of the annual Martin Luther King Jr. Day observance at Stennis. During the day, Mississippi and Louisiana organizations visited the center to encourage employees to register and serve as volunteers for various community activities.

  10. 2010 Stennis Day of Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center visit exhibits of volunteer organizations during their observance of Martin Luther King Jr. Day with a Day of Service on Jan. 12. During the day, Mississippi and Louisiana organizations visited the center to encourage employees to register and serve as volunteers for various community activities. The day's focus was emphasized again and again - great things can happen when individuals work together toward a common goal.

  11. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  12. The 4 Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Ai

    2006-01-01

    Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1080 hours per year of instructional time for secondary schools and 990 instructional hours for elementary schools. The 1080 hours equate to six hours per day for 180 days. The 990 hours equate to five and one-half hours per day. Up to 24 hours may be counted for parent-teacher conferences, staff…

  13. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  14. National Trails Day. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mark

    This paper describes how a school district in Maine implemented an outdoor education program centered around National Trails Day (a day of awareness of outdoor recreational areas in the United States). The program combined classroom learning with an all-day hike on the Appalachian Trail by 240 seventh-grade students. Numerous teachers, school…

  15. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  16. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. L.; Stoffel, T. L.; Whitaker, S. D.

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 (0) C (65(0)F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis.

  17. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  18. Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Shalapyonok, Alexi; Reynolds, Rick A.

    1995-01-01

    The optical properties of the ocenanic cyanobacterium Synechococcus (clone WH8103) were examined in a nutrient-replete laboratory culture grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance. Measurements of the spectral absorption and beam attenuation coefficients, the size distribution of cells in suspension, and microscopic analysis of samples were made at intervals of 2-4 hours for 2 days. These measurements were used to calculate the optical properties at the level of a single 'mean' cell representative of the acutal population, specifically, the optical cross sections for spectral absorption bar-(sigma(sub a)), scattering bar-sigma(sub b))(lambda), and attentuation bar-(sigma(sub c))(lambda). In addition, concurrent determinations of chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon allowed calculation of the Chl a- and C-specific optical coefficients. The refractive index of cells was derived from the observed data using a theory of light absorption and scattering by homogeneous spheres. Low irradiance because of cloudy skies resulted in slow division rates of cells in the culture. The percentage of dividing cells was unusually high (greater than 30%) throughout the experiment. The optical cross sections varied greatly over a day-night cycle, with a minimum near dawn or midmorning and maximum near dusk. During daylight hours, bar-(sigma(sub b)) and bar-(sigma(sub c)) can increase more than twofold and bar-(sigma(sub a) by as much as 45%. The real part of the refractive index n increaed during the day; changes in n had equal or greater effect than the varying size distribution on changes in bar-(sigma(sub c)) and bar-(sigma(sub b)). The contribution of changes in n to the increase of bar-(sigma(sub c))(660) during daylight hours was 65.7% and 45.1% on day 1 and 2, respectively. During the dark period, when bar-(sigma(sub c))(660) decreased by a factor of 2.9, the effect of decreasing n was dominant (86.3%). With the exception of a few hours during the second light

  19. Combining shipboard in situ data with satellite data to estimate daily primary production in a coastal upwelling system: A data mining approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Robert I.; Field, John G.; Shillington, Frank A.; Jarre, Astrid; Potgieter, Anet

    2015-11-01

    This study classifies coastal time-series data according to subsurface phytoplankton vertical distributions to be able to capture the variability of primary production at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our method uses algorithms developed to extract patterns in large datasets of time-sequential data. We use short time-series of QuikSCAT surface winds, MODIS sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll a associated with each in situ chlorophyll a profile, as well as the season and bottom depth of the in situ station to discover patterns that can be used to classify new data into 12 profile classes. We first fill in missing MODIS data using a conditional random field model so that cloudy days are not excluded. The most likely profile is then predicted using all the available data. We apply our method to the St Helena Bay area, a region within the productive Benguela Current upwelling system. A profile is predicted for each day and each pixel of 4 km resolution satellite image for 16 consecutive months. Each profile is used in a broad-band photosynthesis model to produce a daily three-dimensional estimate of gross primary production. An average production rate of 3.2 g C m-2 day-1 was obtained for the area, which shows very good agreement with other estimates from the region. The results show persistent high productivity near the surface throughout the year with the exception of the winter months. Deeper in the water column productivity is more seasonal. The 16 month time-series highlights the interannual, seasonal and daily variability of the system. By linking physical processes to the distribution of phytoplankton at appropriate spatio-temporal scales, we can now more rigorously investigate bottom-up driven impacts on ecosystems characterised by short-term variability.

  20. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  1. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

  2. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  3. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 4 of 4; Flight Days 8 - 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video, Part 4 of 4, shows footage of crew activities from flight days 8 through 12 of STS-109. The crew included: Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, Richard Linnehan, James Newman, Michael Massimino, Mission Speicalists. The activities from other flights days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139476). The primary activity on flight day 8 was an EVA (extravehicular activity) by Grunsfeld and Linnehan to install a cryocooler and radiator for the NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) on the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Before returning to Columbia's airlock, the astronauts, with a cloudy background, hold onto the orbiter and offer their thoughts on the significance of their mission, the HST, and spaceflight. Footage from flight day 9 includes the grappling, unbearthing, and deployment of the HST from Columbia, and the crew coordinating and videotaping Columbia's departure. Flight day 10 was a relatively inactive day, and flight day 11 includes a checkout of Columbia's aerodynamic surfaces. Columbia landed on flight day 12, which is covered by footage of the crew members speaking during reentry, and their night landing, primarily shown through the orbiter's head-up display. The video includes numerous views of the HST, as well as views of the the Galapagos Islands, Madagascar, and Southern Africa with parts of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and part of the coast of Chile. The pistol grip space tool is shown in use, and the crew answers two messages from the public, including a message to Massimino from the Fire Department of New York.

  4. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  5. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  6. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  7. Day Care for America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert

    High quality day care is a pressing social need for the 1970's. Factors responsible for the strong interest in day care include pressures for welfare reform, the growing number of women in the labor force, minority pressures for equal opportunities, and research findings stressing the importance of development during the early years of a child's…

  8. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into…

  9. Montessori All Day, All Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  10. Day Care and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1981-01-01

    Although it has always been considered the "poor relation" of early childhood education, day care in the public schools is the most effective way of establishing a continuity between the preschool and the elementary school. The Kramer Model of "extended day school" is a cooperative venture between a college and a public school. (JN)

  11. The consequence of day-to-day stochastic dose deviation from the planned dose in fractionated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Paul, Subhadip; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the important treatment procedures of cancer. The day-to-day delivered dose to the tissue in radiation therapy often deviates from the planned fixed dose per fraction. This day-to-day variation of radiation dose is stochastic. Here, we have developed the mathematical formulation to represent the day-to-day stochastic dose variation effect in radiation therapy. Our analysis shows that that the fixed dose delivery approximation under-estimates the biological effective dose, even if the average delivered dose per fraction is equal to the planned dose per fraction. The magnitude of the under-estimation effect relies upon the day-to-day stochastic dose variation level, the dose fraction size and the values of the radiobiological parameters of the tissue. We have further explored the application of our mathematical formulation for adaptive dose calculation. Our analysis implies that, compared to the premise of the Linear Quadratic Linear (LQL) framework, the Linear Quadratic framework based analytical formulation under-estimates the required dose per fraction necessary to produce the same biological effective dose as originally planned. Our study provides analytical formulation to calculate iso-effect in adaptive radiation therapy considering day-to-day stochastic dose deviation from planned dose and also indicates the potential utility of LQL framework in this context. PMID:26776265

  12. World Health Day is a day for safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Every year, April 7 is kept as World Health Day. This year [1998] marks the 50th anniversary of the foundation of WHO. However, the day has a double significance because the theme of this year's World Health Day is safe motherhood. All around the world people will mark this day and remind communities and leaders that there is still much work to be done to make pregnancy and childbirth safer. World leaders in Washington will be doing their part on this day, for without high-level political commitment it is hard to get things done. However, this effort is not just for a day. The whole year is dedicated to the theme of safe motherhood. Please let us know about the initiatives taking place in your country, and do send photographs] We can all do something this year to make things better for women and their newborns. Please send your stories and photos to the Editor, Safe Motherhood (address on back page). As well as the 10 action messages that were developed at the technical consultation to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, fact sheets and slides are also available either by writing to WHO or on the Internet. PMID:12293570

  13. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Moloney, Joshua; Michael Shull, J. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ≤ z ≤ 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ≤ z ≤ 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV λ765, O II λ833, and O III λ834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ≥ 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (Φ{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}).

  14. Day-to-day Variability in Nap Duration Predicts Medical Morbidity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; Kay, Daniel B.; Perlis, Michael L.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives for the present study were to: 1) examine within-person variability of nap duration and 2) assess how variability in nap duration is related to the number of health conditions in a sample of older adults. For highly variable behaviors such as sleep, it is important to consider fluctuations within the person instead of solely comparing averages of behaviors across persons. Methods Data were drawn from a previous study examining sleep in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Subjective estimates of napping behavior were obtained from sleep diaries and objective estimates of napping behavior were obtained using actigraphy. Both measures were collected for 14 consecutive days. The sampled data were aggregated in terms of: 1) average daily time spent napping and 2) average within-person fluctuations in daily nap duration. The health measure consisted of the number of self-reported health conditions. Results Both the objective and subjective measures revealed that there was considerable day-to-day fluctuation in nap duration and that variability in nap duration, not mean duration, uniquely predicted the number of health conditions, [b=.03, b*=.26, t(100)= 2.71, p = .01]. Conclusions Duration of napping in the elderly is a highly variable behavior, fluctuating as much within- as between-person. Further, variability in nap duration from day-to-day is predictive of greater medical morbidity, suggesting that clinicians should assess for inconsistencies in nap behavior in addition to duration, frequency, and timing. PMID:22369491

  15. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  16. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  17. World AIDS Day focuses on children.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The focus of the 1997 World AIDS Day was children. An estimated 1600 children become infected with HIV each day and, by the end of 1997, 1 million children--95% of them in developing countries--are expected to be HIV-infected. Another 8 million children have lost their mothers to AIDS. Although most HIV-positive children become infected as a result of maternal-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, and breast feeding, other risk factors such as child sex abuse, exploitation in the commercial sex trade, blood transfusions, and intravenous drug use are also significant in later years. Because of its devastating impact on social and economic life, the fight against AIDS is one of the most important challenges in the world today. The UNAIDS program, a joint venture of 6 UN agencies with expertise ranging from reproductive health care to economic development, is at the center of this effort. PMID:12321305

  18. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  19. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  20. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  1. Go-To-Blazes Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ross

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Last year, the Bruce Trail Association held its first annual Go-To-Blazes Day in which a record number of volunteers gave the 700 kilometres of Trail from Queenston to Tobermory a spring-cleaning. One key section of Trail near Dyer's Bay had been closed for over a year. On this day, over four miles…

  2. Workers' Memorial Day - April 28, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Workers' Memorial Day, observed annually on April 28, recognizes workers who suffered or died because of exposures to hazards at work. In 2014, 4,679 U.S. workers died from work-related injuries. Although deaths from work-related injuries are captured by surveillance systems, most deaths from work-related illness are not. In 2007, an estimated 53,445 deaths from work-related illness occurred. In 2014, employers reported approximately 3 million nonfatal injuries and illnesses to private industry workers and 722,000 to state and local government workers; an estimated 2.7 million work-related injuries were treated in emergency departments, resulting in 113,000 hospitalizations (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (CDC-NIOSH), unpublished data, 2016). PMID:27563708

  3. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  4. Impacts of Reprojection and Sampling of MODIS Satellite Images on Estimating Crop Evapotranspiration Using METRIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, M.; Kilic, A.; Allen, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat satellite images have been used frequently to map evapotranspiration (ET) andbiophysical variables at the field scale with surface energy balance algorithms. Although Landsat images have high spatial resolution with 30m cell size, it has limitations for real time monitoring of crop ET by providing only two to four images per month for an area, which, when encountered with cloudy days, further deteriorates the availability of images and snapshots of ET behavior. Therefore real time monitoring essentially has to include near-daily thermal satellites such as MODIS/VIIRS into the time series. However, the challenge with field scale monitoring with these systems is the large size of the thermal band which is 375 m with VIIRS and 1000 meter with MODIS. To maximize the accuracy of ET estimates during infusion of MODIS products into land surface models for monitoring field scale ET, it is important to assess the geometric accuracy of the various MODIS products, for example, spatial correspondence among the 250 m red and near-infrared bands, the 500 m reflectance bands; and the 1000 m thermal bands and associated products. METRIC model was used with MODIS images to estimate ET from irrigated and rainfed fields in Nebraska. Our objective was to assess geometric accuracy of MODIS image layers and how to correctly handle these data for highest accuracy of estimated ET at the individual field scale during the extensive drought of 2012. For example, the particular tool used to subset and reproject MODIS swath images from level-1 and level-2 products (e.g., using the MRTSwath and other tools), the initial starting location (upper left hand corner), and the projection system all effect how pixel corners of the various resolution bands align. Depending on the approach used, origin of pixel corners can vary from image to image date and therefore impacts the pairing of ET information from multiple dates the consistency and accuracy of sampling ET from within field interiors

  5. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  6. Estimating photosynthetically available radiation at the ocean surface from GOCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; McPherson, John

    2012-09-01

    A technique is presented to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the ocean surface from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data. The sensor is adapted to the problem, since it measures at visible wavelengths and does not saturate over clouds, and the hourly data provides adequate temporal sampling to describe diurnal variability of clouds. Instantaneous surface PAR is computed as the difference between the solar irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) and the solar irradiance reflected back to space (derived from GOCI radiance), taking into account absorption and scattering by the clear atmosphere (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required. Apart from planetary albedo and sun zenith angle, the model parameters are fixed at their climatological values. The instantaneous PAR estimates at hourly intervals are integrated over time to provide daily values. The technique is applied to GOCI imagery acquired on 5 April 2011, and the GOCI daily PAR estimates are compared with those obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. Agreement is good between the two types of estimates, with a coefficient of determination ( r 2) of 0.778, a bias of 0.23 Em-2d-1 (0.5% with higher GOCI values), and a root-mean-squared difference of 5.00 Em-2d-1 (11.2%). Differences in cloudy conditions are attributed to daily cloudiness changes not captured by the MODIS observations. The comparison statistics indicate that GOCI PAR estimates have acceptable accuracy for regional studies of aquatic photosynthesis.

  7. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  8. Atmospheric CO(2) column measurements in cloudy conditions using intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar at 1.57 micron.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R; Harrison, F Wallace; Browell, Edward V; Ismail, Syed; Obland, Michael D; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-μm CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively. For the case of intervening thin cirrus clouds with an average cloud optical depth of about 0.16 over an arid/semi-arid area, the CO2 column measurements from 12.2 km altitude were found to be consistent with the cloud free conditions with a lower precision due to the additional optical attenuation of the thin clouds. The clear sky precision for this flight campaign case was about 0.72% for a 0.1-s integration, which was close to previously reported flight campaign results. For a vegetated area and lidar path lengths of 8 to 12 km, the precision of the measured differential absorption optical depths to the surface was 1.3 - 2.2% for 0.1-s integration. The precision of the CO2 column measurements to thick clouds with reflectance about 1/10 of that of the surface was about a factor of 2 to 3 lower than that to the surface owing to weaker lidar returns from clouds and a smaller CO2 differential absorption optical depth compared to that for the entire column. PMID:26072883

  9. STS-90 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk are back on the job full-time as they begin the day six of on-orbit research on the human nervous system. Additional work with the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) equipment which is collecting data on the crew's breathing patterns and blood concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide also takes place.

  10. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  11. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  12. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  13. A New Day for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Martin Luther King School in Boston and nine other Massachusetts public schools used a grant from the Massachusetts Department of Education to expand their school days by at least two hours. Each school lengthened the time students spent in reading and math instruction. Farbman focuses on the Martin Luther King School's foray into an extended…

  14. School's in Session: Visitation Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Barbara T.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a parent program at Dryden Middle School in New York in which parents attend school for the entire day with their children. Includes information on parent orientation, structure of the visit, and students' reactions to parental visitation. Notes the importance of publicity, preparation, organization, and follow-up activities for program…

  15. From Five Days to Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Rachel; Gilman, David Alan

    2006-01-01

    Facing financial difficulties, the Webster County Public School System in rural Kentucky implemented a four-day school week to save money on transportation and staffing. The district's research in the experience of other rural districts had indicated that such a calendar change could increase efficiency and also yield some unexpected benefits.…

  16. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  17. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  18. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  19. United Nations Day, 24 October.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Serving as the journal of the Manitoba Social Science Teachers' Association, this issue commemorates United Nations Day with the editorial, "Teaching about the United Nations" (Ken Osborne). Another article devoted to the international organization is "The United Nations and International Peace and Security" (Ken Osborne). The article is intended…

  20. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  1. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or…

  2. Earth Day Changes in Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Betty; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes recycling related activities associated with the Earth Day celebration at the University School of East Tennessee State University. Activities involve tree planting, campus clean-up, student posters, assemblies, a schoolwide rally, and displays of recyclable items. A study examining attitude change revealed that hands-on activities…

  3. Day Care Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Janet

    A curriculum was developed and a pilot project was conducted to train 20 day care center directors at Lake Washington Vocational Technical Institute. This document summarizes the curriculum development project and provides the curriculum that was developed. The report contains a summary and outline of the course, a skills assessment, pretests and…

  4. A Model Disability Awareness Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Emily Strauss

    1984-01-01

    Describes an all-day conciousness raising program designed to teach elementary school students about the disabled. The program described consisted of oral presentations and a theater performance by disabled individuals; it was presented to 270 students at Mary A. Hubbard School in Ramsey, New Jersey. (GC)

  5. Music in Our Schools Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Article focused attention on the first national Music in Our Schools Day, whose purpose is to stress educational goals and processes of music education in the schools so that community understanding of and support for music education will be increased. (Author/RK)

  6. Giving Students Their School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watchorn, Vince; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities, not obligations. That is how Providence Country Day School (Rhode Island) characterizes its daily one-hour "Community Time." The block, from 9:25 to 10:25 a.m., is used chiefly for students to partake in activities of their own making--as a daily lesson in the value of students taking charge of their own education. On any…

  7. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  8. Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with Day to Day Operational Realities

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P

    2016-01-01

    Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of day to day operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture.

  9. Description of Day-to-Day Variability in IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Boding; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2013-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) describes the monthly average behavior of Earth's ionosphere based on most of the accessible and reliable ground and space observations of ionospheric parameters. IRI is doing an excellent job in accurately representing these average conditions as countless comparisons with additional data have shown and as acknowledged by the fact that international organizations (COSPAR, URSI, ISO, ECSS) have accepted IRI as their ionosphere standard. However, with our ever-increasing dependence on space technology it has become important to go beyond the monthly averages and to provide a description of the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere. We will review past and ongoing efforts to provide IRI users with a quantitative description of ionospheric variability depending on altitude, time of day, time of year, latitude and solar and magnetic activity. We will present new results from an analysis of ISIS and Alouette topside sounder data. The IRI team is also pursuing the development of an IRI Real-Time (IRI-RT) that uses assimilative algorithms or updating procedures to combine IRI with real-time data for a more accurate picture of current ionospheric conditions. We will review the status of these activities and report on latest results.

  10. How many days are enough? A study of 365 days of pedometer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsoo; Bassett, David R; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara; Reis, Jared P; Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the number of days of pedometer monitoring necessary to achieve reliable and valid estimates of a 1-year average of step counts in adults based on either consecutive days (CD) or random days (RD) of data collection. Twenty-three participants (16 women; M age = 38 years, SD = 9.9) wore a Yamax SW 200 pedometer and recorded their step counts for 365 consecutive days. Nine measurement periods of various lengths were selected (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days). Each measurement period was randomly selected 10 times each for CD and RD from the larger database. For reliability and validity, two-way intraclass correlation coefficients and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were calculated, respectively. The year-round average was considered the criterion measure of the "true" habitual physical activity. Data were analyzed separately by CD and RD. At least 5 CD or 6 RD were necessary to achieve an ICC of .80. A minimum of 30 CD or 14 RD were necessary to achieve an MAPE lower than 10%. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with useful information to determine appropriate measurement length and the method of data selection based on a desired level of reliability and validity. PMID:19791630

  11. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  12. A Profile of Federally Supported Day Care in Region X. Volume 3. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Lawrence E.

    This report, the third in a three-volume study evaluating day care in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, contains a profile of various day care characteristics and an estimate of the potential impact of the proposed federal day care requirements on current day care costs in the four states. The profile includes data describing the definitions…

  13. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  14. Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea M.; Salmun, H.; Dempsey, M

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourly archived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughout the central United States. Unlike previous studies, the present algorithm has been applied to a long record of publicly available wind profiler signal backscatter data. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heights compare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourly temperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky reanalysis based estimates show that the wind profiler PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m. The geographical distribution of daily maximum PBL heights corresponds well with the expected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Wind profiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, and are generally higher than both the Richardson number based and reanalysis PBL heights, resulting in a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference. The algorithm presented here was shown to provide a reliable summertime climatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States.

  15. Solar Absorption in Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan; Ridgway, William; Ramaswamy, V.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Batey, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical computations used to compute spectral absorption of solar radiation are discussed. Radiative properties relevant to the cloud absorption problem are presented and placed in the context of radiative forcing. Implications for future measuring programs and the effect of horizontal inhomogeneities are discussed.

  16. Cloudiness and the radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The problem of obtaining data for quantification of the effects of clouds on radiation budget measurements is discussed. Areas considered include the relationship between observed cloud characteristics and model predicted characteristics and selection of an angular distribution function for conversion of scanning radiometer radiance to irradiance. Storage of meteorological satellite data related to cloud-radiation interactions is discussed.

  17. A Cloudy View of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    2010-01-01

    The lack of absorption features in the transmission spectrum of exoplanet GJ1214b rules out a hydrogen-rich atmosphere for the planet. It is consistent with an atmosphere rich in water vapour or abundant in clouds.

  18. STS-73 flight day 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment, and an experiment on fuel combustion and combustion products. Bowersox, Sacco, Thornton, and Rominger (the red team) were interviewed by high school students from Worcester, Massachusetts, who asked questions regarding the mission's experiments and general questions about living in space. Earth views included a black and white image of the Earth's atmospheric boundary layers.

  19. STS-70 flight: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    The first day of the STS-70 flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery is contained on this video. This mission highlights the deploy of NASA's communications satellite, the sixth and last such satellite to be deployed from a space shuttle. The STS-70 crew consists of Commander Tom Henricke, Pilot Kevin Kregel, and Mission Specialists Don Thomas, Nancy Currie, and Mary Ellen Weber. Flight footage contains prelaunch and launch activities.

  20. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  1. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  2. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  3. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  4. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  5. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  6. Macrocognition in Day-To-Day Police Incident Response

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117

  7. Day Camp Manual: Administration. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    The first book in a 5-book manual on day camping focuses on summer day camp administration. The book defines day camps as organized group experiences in outdoor living on a day-by-day basis and under trained leadership. It includes a philosophy of day camping, noting benefits to the campers. The book is divided into further chapters that describe…

  8. Secondary organic aerosol: a comparison between foggy and nonfoggy days.

    PubMed

    Kaul, D S; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N; Tare, V; Collett, J L

    2011-09-01

    Carbonaceous species, meteorological parameters, trace gases, and fogwater chemistry were measured during winter in the Indian city of Kanpur to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during foggy and clear (nonfoggy) days. Enhanced SOA production was observed during fog episodes. It is hypothesized that aqueous phase chemistry in fog drops is responsible for increasing SOA production. SOA concentrations on foggy days exceeded those on clear days at all times of day; peak foggy day SOA concentrations were observed in the evening vs peak clear day SOA concentrations which occurred in the afternoon. Changes in biomass burning emissions on foggy days were examined because of their potential to confound estimates of SOA production based on analysis of organic to elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratios. No evidence of biomass burning influence on SOA during foggy days was found. Enhanced oxidation of SO(2) to sulfate during foggy days was observed, possibly causing the regional aerosol to become more acidic. No evidence was found in this study, either, for effects of temperature or relative humidity on SOA production. In addition to SOA production, fogs can also play an important role in cleaning the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosols. Preferential scavenging of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by fog droplets was observed. OC was found to be enriched in smaller droplets, limiting the rate of OC deposition by droplet sedimentation. Lower EC concentrations were observed on foggy days, despite greater stagnation and lower mixing heights, suggesting fog scavenging and removal of EC was active as well. PMID:21790145

  9. FTIR Limb-Sounding in the Arctic UTLS under Cloudy Conditions: The MIPAS-STR PSC Flights during RECONCILE and ESSenCe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Oelhaf, H.; Gulde, T.; Piesch, C.; Ebersoldt, A.; Orphal, J.

    2012-04-01

    The FTIR Limb-Sounder MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric Aircraft) was operated onboard the high-flying (~19 km) research aircraft M55-Geophysica during the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) and the ESSenCe (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) campaigns in arctic spring 2010 and early arctic winter 2011/2012. From the MIPAS-STR measurements, vertical profiles and spatially resolved vertical cross-sections of temperature, trace-gases (e.g. HNO3, O3, ClONO2, ClO, CFCs) and cloud-coverage are derived in the vertical range between 4 and 20 km. During some RECONCILE and ESSenCe flights, MIPAS-STR probed air-masses below and inside Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). This region is hardly accessible by satellite-borne and balloon-borne IR remote-sensing, since vertically extended and optical thick PSC clouds complicate or even hamper IR measurements in this altitude-range. In contrast, MIPAS-STR onboard the Geophysica aircraft sampled the lower boundary of extended PSC clouds and the area below, allowing for spatially resolved insights into the chemical properties of this region. We discuss our retrieval approach for spectra with low cloud indices (i.e. increased optical thickness in the IR) and show current results from cloud-affected measurements at tropospheric and stratospheric altitudes, with emphasis on denitrification processes and chlorine chemistry. The results support the candidate Earth Explorer 7 mission PREMIER (PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation) with regard to the probing of the UTLS region under cloud-free and cloudy conditions with high spatial resolution, and gives a perspective of the capabilities of the new GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere) instrument, which has been developed at the KIT (Karlsruhe

  10. Effects of climate change on daily minimum and maximum temperatures and cloudiness in the Shikoku region: a statistical downscaling model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Kenichi; Oizumi, Tsutao; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the effect of changes in cloudiness (CLD) between a future period (2071-2099) and the base period (1961-1990) on daily minimum temperature (TMIN) and maximum temperature (TMAX) in the same period for the Shikoku region, Japan. This analysis was performed using climate data obtained with the use of the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). We calibrated the SDSM using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset for the SDSM input and daily time series of temperature and CLD from 10 surface data points (SDP) in Shikoku. Subsequently, we validated the SDSM outputs, specifically, TMIN, TMAX, and CLD, obtained with the use of the NCEP reanalysis dataset and general circulation model (GCM) data against the SDP. The GCM data used in the validation procedure were those from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios and from the third generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios. Finally, the validated SDSM was run to study the effect of future changes in CLD on TMIN and TMAX. Our analysis showed that (1) the negative linear fit between changes in TMAX and those in CLD was statistically significant in winter while the relationship between the two changes was not evident in summer, (2) the dependency of future changes in TMAX and TMIN on future changes in CLD were more evident in winter than in other seasons with the present SDSM, (3) the diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreased in the southern part of Shikoku in summer in all the SDSM projections while DTR increased in the northern part of Shikoku in the same season in these projections, (4) the dependencies of changes in DTR on changes in CLD were unclear in summer and winter. Results of the SDSM simulations performed for climate change scenarios such as those from this study contribute to local-scale agricultural and

  11. STS-88 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened by Dwight Yokum's "Streets of Bakersfield," requested by the wife of Pilot Rick Sturckow, a California native. Cabana and Sturckow fire Endeavour's primary reaction control jets to raise the altitude of the International Space Station by about 5-1/2 statute miles. Later on Cabana, Sturckow and Currie are interviewed by the ABC News/Discovery Channel and MSNBC.

  12. [Anaphylactic shock lasting 4 days].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fariñas, P; González-Arévalo, A; Martínez-Hurtado, E D; Chacón, M; García del Valle, S

    2014-11-01

    We present a case of a 62 year-old male scheduled for radical cystectomy, who, ten minutes into the surgery, presented with severe hypotension, tachycardia and increased airway pressure. There was no response to the administration of vasoactive drugs such as, ephedrine, phenylephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine. After ruling out several causes, we evaluated the possibility of an anaphylactic reaction. Adrenaline was given, and the patient stabilized. An adrenaline infusion and mechanical ventilation was required for four days in the critical care unit. PMID:24246959

  13. STS-90 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue to conduct both human and animal research experiments in the Spacelab module. During the morning, the payload crew members Linnehan, Williams, Buckey and Pawelczyk performs transfer activities with the Animal Enclosure Module, setting up the General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and operations with the ball catch experiment. In the afternoon, their attention will be on injections and dissections of some of the research animals and an objects recognition test.

  14. STS-88 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the "white room" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  15. STS-95 Day 02 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen preparing a glovebox device in the middeck area of Discovery, an enclosed research facility that will support numerous science investigations throughout the mission. Payload Specialist John Glenn, activates the Microgravity Encapsulation Process experiment (MEPS). This experiment will study the formation of capsules containing two kinds of anti-tumor drugs that could be delivered directly to solid tumors with applications for future chemotherapy treatments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  17. Cassini Scientist for a Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.

    2007-10-01

    The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

  18. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  19. Earth Day 25 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of Earth Day 1970 was to have a national demonstration of environmental concern big enough to shake up the political establishment--get its attention, get some action, force environmental issues onto the political agenda of national priorities. The idea worked, thanks to the spontaneous response of millions of concerned Americans, and the event served as a wake-up call to the political establishment. Suddenly, the environment became a national political priority. Since Earth Day 1970, Congress has enacted nearly 40 major federal environmental laws addressing a wide range of issues, including clean air, clean water, energy conservation, hazardous wastes, and herbicides and other pesticides. Dozens of individual public land bills have been enacted since 1970 to designate or expand wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, national parks, and wildlife refuges. Perhaps most important, more than 80 percent of Americans now regard themselves as environmentalists. Since 1970 man has come a long way. After 25 years of researching, debating, and learning, increasing numbers of people recognize that the state of the environment is the key factor in determining this way of life and the quality of it.

  20. On the Estimation of Clear-Sky Upwelling Shortwave and Longwave

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.N.

    2005-03-18

    Previous work (Long and Ackerman 2000; Long 2004) has concentrated on estimation of the downwelling clear-sky irradiances and the calculation of the effect of clouds on the downwelling radiative energy budget. However, cloud forcing is defined for the difference between clear- and cloudy-sky net radiation, which includes the upwelling components. Thus, if we are to estimate the surface radiative cloud forcing, the means must be developed to estimate what the upwelling shortwave and longwave irradiance would be if the clouds were not present. Estimation of the upwelling longwave (LW) is particularly troublesome in that the emitted upwelling LW is a function of the total surface energy exchange including latent and sensible heat, which is related to but not necessarily always totally driven by the radiative exchange alone, but also involves the evolving soil and vegetation properties and changes in soil moisture amounts.

  1. STS-90 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk once again take part in an experiment aimed at exploring the influence of gravity on blood pressure. The lower body negative pressure test places a stress on the cardiovascular system similar to that experienced when standing in Earth's gravity. Pawelczyk also takes part in the Valsalva test, which stimulates the pressure receptors in the neck and chest and measures those responses. Both Buckey and Pawelzyk participate as subjects and as operators in tests of the autonomic nervous system. All four science crew members conduct tests of their pulmonary systems as well as additional runs in a rotating chair to measure the response of their eyes and inner ears in maintaining balance in a weightless environment.

  2. STS-79 Flight Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen in activating the double Spacehab module in the shuttle's payload bay, packing materials and supplies and filling the first four containers of water which will be delivered to the Mir Space Station. Apt and Walz set up the Active Rack Isolation System experiment in the Spacehab, a prototype of an International Space Station payload system designed to eliminate vibrations or disturbances caused by crew activity or engine firings. The double-rack which houses ARIS also contains almost 400 pounds of Russian food which is being used to simulate the weight and mass of a scientific investigation for this first test.

  3. STS-88 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev check out the various tools they will use during the three scheduled spacewalks to be conducted later in the flight. They then begin an early set-up of the Shuttle's airlock in preparation for that first spacewalk. Newman and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev take part in an on-line interview by the New York Times. Currie is seen placing Unity just inches above the extended outer ring on Endeavour's docking mechanism, enabling Commander Bob Cabana to fire downward maneuvering jets to lock the shuttle's docking system to one of two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMA's) attached to Unity.

  4. STS-88 Day 04 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei are awakened to the sounds of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow," requested by Commander Bob Cabana's daughter, Sarah. With the three-story-high Unity connecting module latched upright in the shuttle's payload bay, Cabana takes manual control of the shuttle as it moves to within about a half-mile of Zarya. Cabana and Sturckow execute a sequence of maneuvers that will bring Endeavour directly above the module. Currie uses the robotic arm to capture the module. She then positions Zarya above Unity's docking mechanism.

  5. STS-95 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  6. STS-95 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, continue to perform microgravity experiments. Specialist John Glenn completes a back-pain questionnaire as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change due to microgravity. The results will then be compared with data provided by astronauts during previous missions. Glenn continues blood sample analysis and blood processing that are part of the Protein Turnover (PTO) experiment, which is studying the muscle loss that occurs during space flight.

  7. STS-95 Day 07 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, again test the Orbiter Space Vision System. OSVS uses special markings on Spartan and the shuttle cargo bay to provide an alignment aid for the arm's operator using shuttle television images. It will be used extensively on the next Space Shuttle flight in December as an aid in using the arm to join together the first two modules of the International Space Station. Specialist John Glenn will complete a daily back-pain questionnaire by as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change after exposure to microgravity.

  8. Child Development: Day Care. Administration, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Malcolm S.; Heller, Pearl B.

    The organizing and administering of day care services are the focus of this handbook. The three parts of the handbook are: (1) Organizing Day Care Services (Starting a Day Care Program, The Board of Directors, and The Staff); (2) Components of Day Care Services (Purpose, Objectives and Evaluation of Day Care Programs; Health and Medical Program;…

  9. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  10. Present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, J. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    A data set comprising 110 spreading rates, 78 transform fault azimuths and 142 earthquake slip vectors was inverted to yield a new instantaneous plate motion model, designated RM2. The mean averaging interval for the relative motion data was reduced to less than 3 My. A detailed comparison of RM2 with angular velocity vectors which best fit the data along individual plate boundaries indicates that RM2 performs close to optimally in most regions, with several notable exceptions. On the other hand, a previous estimate (RM1) failed to satisfy an extensive set of new data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that RM1 incorrectly predicts the plate kinematics in the South Atlantic because the presently available data are inconsistent with the plate geometry assumed in deriving RM1. It is demonstrated that this inconsistency can be remedied by postulating the existence of internal deformation with the Indian plate, although alternate explanations are possible.

  11. The day of surgery for your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000579.htm The day of surgery for your child To use the ... and test results What to Expect on the Day of Surgery Be prepared for the day. Help ...

  12. Dental Care Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide Dental Care Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide Main Content Getting Started Three ... regularly. Back to Top Step 1. Brush Every Day Angle the brush at the gumline and brush ...

  13. Day Fire in Ventura County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Day fire has been burning in Ventura County in Southern California since Labor Day, and has consumed more than 160,000 acres. As of September 29, it was 63 percent contained. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite flew over the fire at 10 p.m. Pacific Time on September 28, and imaged the fire with its infrared camera. The hottest areas of active burning appear as red spots on the image. The blue-green background is a daytime image acquired in June, used as a background to allow firefighters to localize the hot spots.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission directorate.

    Size: 22.5 by 31.0 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 34

  14. STS-88 Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened by the sounds of Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog". Today's activities are devoted mostly to tasks that ready the station for future assembly work. The crew's first job is to release some cable ties on four cables connected on an earlier space walk, three located on Unity's upper mating adapter and one on its lower adapter, to relieve tension on the lines. The space walkers also will check an insulation cover on one cable connection on the lower Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA 2) to make sure it is fully installed. Near the end of the space walk, the astronauts conduct a detailed photographic survey of the space station from top to bottom. Finally, each astronaut test fires the Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity Rescue (SAFER) jet backpacks they are wearing, a type of space "lifejacket," that would allow an astronaut to fly back to the station if they should ever become untethered.

  15. STS-88 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened with the song "Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight". Pilot Rick Sturckow undocks Endeavour from the station and backs the shuttle away to a distance of 450 feet above the station before beginning a nose-forward fly-around. Later Cabana, Sturckow and Ross deploy the SAC-A satellite from Endeavour's payload bay. SAC-A is a small, self-contained, non-recoverable satellite built by the Argentinean National Commission of Space Activities. The cube-shaped, 590-pound satellite will test and characterize the performance of new equipment and technologies that may be used in future scientific or operational missions. The payload includes a differential global positioning system, a magnetometer, silicon solar cells, a charge-coupled device Earth camera and a whale tracker experiment.

  16. Remote Sensing-based Estimates of Potential Evapotranspiration for Hydrologic Modeling in the Upper Colorado River Basin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Muhammad Ghulam

    Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) is used as a common input to calculate evaporative demand in hydrological, ecological and biological modeling. Dynamic and distributed measurement of PET is important for improved hydrologic predictions at the watershed scale since PET varies with time and space. In this work, an advanced dynamic PET estimation is proposed by integrating geostationary satellite products into a currently existing remote sensing-based PET algorithm and evaluated in the framework of operational hydrologic forecasting modeling. The development work is approached through a series of studies. At first, a previously developed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based PET (MODIS-PET) product applied over several flux towers and basins in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) to determine its applicability and predictive ability in comparison to other ground based distributed PET methods. Results from this primary study indicate the MODIS-PET is an improved PET estimation method compared to the other two contemporary distributed PET products that were tested over this geographically complex study region. In addition to elevation and cloud cover, uncertainties are associated with the MODIS-PET algorithm pertaining from three model variables; land surface temperature, air temperature and surface emissivity. The crude hypothetical sinusoidal curve considered in the conversion of instantaneous MODIS-PET to the daily PET estimation can potentially be replaced with satellite data with improved temporal resolution. Hence, integration of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), a series of geostationary satellites with frequent observations, data in the MODIS-PET algorithm is performed in the second part. The coupling of GOES within the MODIS-PET algorithm shows significant improvement over the previously developed stand-alone MODIS-PET product, especially for cloudy days and high temperature pixels. Finally, evaluation of these

  17. Development of estimation method for crop yield using MODIS satellite imagery data and process-based model for corn and soybean in US Corn-Belt region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Ko, J.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Crop productivity is associated with the food security and hence, several models have been developed to estimate crop yield by combining remote sensing data with carbon cycle processes. In present study, we attempted to estimate crop GPP and NPP using algorithm based on the LUE model and a simplified respiration model. The state of Iowa and Illinois was chosen as the study site for estimating the crop yield for a period covering the 5 years (2006-2010), as it is the main Corn-Belt area in US. Present study focuses on developing crop-specific parameters for corn and soybean to estimate crop productivity and yield mapping using satellite remote sensing data. We utilized a 10 km spatial resolution daily meteorological data from WRF to provide cloudy-day meteorological variables but in clear-say days, MODIS-based meteorological data were utilized to estimate daily GPP, NPP, and biomass. County-level statistics on yield, area harvested, and productions were used to test model predicted crop yield. The estimated input meteorological variables from MODIS and WRF showed with good agreements with the ground observations from 6 Ameriflux tower sites in 2006. For examples, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 for Tmin and Tavg ; from 0.68 to 0.85 for daytime mean VPD; from 0.85 to 0.96 for daily shortwave radiation, respectively. We developed county-specific crop conversion coefficient, i.e. ratio of yield to biomass on 260 DOY and then, validated the estimated county-level crop yield with the statistical yield data. The estimated corn and soybean yields at the county level ranged from 671 gm-2 y-1 to 1393 gm-2 y-1 and from 213 gm-2 y-1 to 421 gm-2 y-1, respectively. The county-specific yield estimation mostly showed errors less than 10%. Furthermore, we estimated crop yields at the state level which were validated against the statistics data and showed errors less than 1%. Further analysis for crop conversion coefficient was conducted for 200 DOY and 280 DOY

  18. World Population Day special symposium.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    This article describes Japan's celebration of World Population Day, and provides excerpts from speeches at the symposium held on July 8, 1998. The symposium, in Tokyo, was attended by about 300 people. The Chairman of JOICFP gave the opening address. The executive director of UNFPA congratulated Japan for its efforts in the field of population awareness and noted Japan's self-sufficiency despite its importation of 40% of its food and most of its raw materials. A keynote address was delivered by the president of CPE and the former UN Secretary General, who stressed income inequities in the 66% of developing countries within the 185 UN member states. The UN has been promoting sustainable development, but is facing the issue of limited arable land and population growth. The Tutsi and Hutus are fighting due to population based issues. The emphasis should be on women's reproductive rights and protection of women's human rights. 1998 is the 50th year of human rights; progress has been made. The UNFPA Goodwill Ambassador spoke about the disparity between the rich and poor in the Philippines. A small donation reaps incredible progress. Manila has high levels of adolescent childbearing. Men appear to be unaware of the disadvantages of childbearing too early. Rural areas are dominated by strict Roman Catholic beliefs. Manila has commercial sex workers who provide services to Japanese men. The 1998 Kato Award was given to women who raised awareness about coercion in the sex trade and female genital mutilation. The economic situation in Japan creates even greater need to promote family planning and reproductive health. PMID:12321788

  19. Huge Increase in Day-Care Workers: A Result of Multiple Societal Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Using Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates of employment in day-care establishments, this study analyzes changes in day care over the past 20 years. Growth in day-care employment has been much stronger than that of other industries. Since 1972, employment has increased by nearly 250 per cent. Causes of growth includes changing trends in enrollment…

  20. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Saide, Pablo E.; Peterson, David A.; de Silva, Arlindo; Anderson, Bruce; Ziemba, Luke D.; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Hair, Jonathan; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Streets, David G.; Yan, Fang; Dibb, Jack; Yokelson, Robert; Toon, O. Brian; Hyer, Edward; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2015-05-16

    We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrained with multiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2–4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and day-to-day variability when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting that top-down emission estimates for these events could be underestimated and a multiplatform approach is required to resolve them. Predictions driven by emissions constrained with multiplatform data present significant variations in downwind air quality and in aerosol feedback on meteorology, emphasizing the need for improved emissions estimates during exceptional events.

  1. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Peterson, David A.; Silva, Arlindo; Anderson, Bruce; Ziemba, Luke D.; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Hair, Johnathan; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Streets, David G.; Yan, Fang; Dibb, Jack; Yokelson, Robert; Toon, O. Brian; Hyer, Edward; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2015-05-01

    We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrained with multiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2-4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and day-to-day variability when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting that top-down emission estimates for these events could be underestimated and a multiplatform approach is required to resolve them. Predictions driven by emissions constrained with multiplatform data present significant variations in downwind air quality and in aerosol feedback on meteorology, emphasizing the need for improved emissions estimates during exceptional events.

  2. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  3. The day of the yam.

    PubMed

    Rosser, A

    Yam, the staple food in several tropical countries, is a good source of the steroid used in the manufacture of the pill and other sex hormone preparations -- saponin diosgenin. In the early days of production of oral contraceptives (OCs), most yams were gathered from the wild in Mexico. The type richest in steroids takes 3 years to mature and its cultivation has become something of an art. Yams grow best in light, well-drained soil, and for this reason are grown in mounds which have been heavily manured. Propagation is by planting the tops or heads or by small portions of the tuber which is a swollen shoot. Other varieties are planted before the onset of the rains and the crop harvested about 8 months later. In 1970 the Mexican government nationalized the yam industry as a safeguard. This pushed up prices and the drug companies looked elsewhere for a cheap source. Although Mexico still remains the principal grower, India, South Africa, and the Far East supply the industry with plant origin steroids. As more than 90% of the hefty yam tubers consist of water, well over 100,000 tons have to be harvested every year to provide the 600-700 tons of the saponin diosgenin used by the drug companies. In China, where Western corticosteroids are regarded as too expensive for the barefoot doctors, several species of yam are used. Research has been going on to find another source of diosgenin and the most promising seems to be fenugreek, Trigonella foenumgraecum. "Foenum graecum" is Latin for Greek hay and was used by the early Greeks as a culinary and medicinal herb throughout the Mediterranean area. The richness of fenugreek was used to improve the roundness of women's breasts and to stimulate the flow of milk. Bath University has spent 10 years researching the development of a species of fenugreek which will yield large amounts of diosgenin. A certain amount of steroids come from animal sources. Such steroids are given when there is an adverse reaction from the

  4. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  5. The Four-Day School Week. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This paper provides an overview of the 4-day school week being utilized by 36 school districts in Colorado. These districts, which tend to be rural and sparsely populated, schedule 7.5 hours per day for 144 days of school instead of the normal 6 hours for 180 days. Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1,080 hours per year of…

  6. Family Day Care Training Curriculum (Lao).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train, in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  7. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  10. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  11. Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

  12. Estimation of Missing Daily Temperatures: Can a Weather Categorization Improve Its Accuracy?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Nemeová, Ivana

    1995-07-01

    A method of estimating missing daily temperatures is proposed. The procedure is based on a weather classification consisting of two steps: principal component analysis and cluster analysis. At each time of observation @0700, 1400, and 2100 local time) the weather is characterized by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloudiness. The coefficients of regression equations, enabling the missing temperatures to be determined from the known temperatures at nearby stations, are computed within each weather class. The influence of various parameters @input variables, number of weather classes, number of principal components, their rotation, type of regression equation) on the accuracy of estimated temperatures is discussed. The method yields better results than ordinary regression methods that do not utilize a weather classification. An examination of statistical properties of the estimated temperatures confirms the applicability of the completed temperature series in climate studies.

  13. The Four Day School Week. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

  14. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  15. GnRH analogue treatment on LH surge day 0 followed by single transvaginal artificial insemination with frozen semen on day 5 in bitches.

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Koga, Yasuna; Ono, Mamiko; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parameters were evaluated in 19 and 14 estrous beagles that received 100 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and saline treatment, respectively, on the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Day 0; estimated by serial progesterone assay) and balloon catheter-aided single transvaginal artificial insemination of frozen semen on Day 5. Although the conception rate and litter size were similar between the GnRH and saline groups, the concentration of LH peak was significantly higher in GnRH-treated bitches (P<0.01). In addition, the actual LH surge did not occur on the estimated Day 0 in one saline-treated bitch. In clinical practice that daily progesterone assay is difficult, administration of GnRH on estimated Day 0 would be recommended to induce or enhance the LH surge for timely and successful insemination. PMID:25311914

  16. GnRH analogue treatment on LH surge day 0 followed by single transvaginal artificial insemination with frozen semen on day 5 in bitches

    PubMed Central

    OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KOGA, Yasuna; ONO, Mamiko; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive parameters were evaluated in 19 and 14 estrous beagles that received 100 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and saline treatment, respectively, on the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Day 0; estimated by serial progesterone assay) and balloon catheter-aided single transvaginal artificial insemination of frozen semen on Day 5. Although the conception rate and litter size were similar between the GnRH and saline groups, the concentration of LH peak was significantly higher in GnRH-treated bitches (P<0.01). In addition, the actual LH surge did not occur on the estimated Day 0 in one saline-treated bitch. In clinical practice that daily progesterone assay is difficult, administration of GnRH on estimated Day 0 would be recommended to induce or enhance the LH surge for timely and successful insemination. PMID:25311914

  17. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  18. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  19. Adaptation to capsaicin within and across days.

    PubMed

    McBurney, D H; Balaban, C D; Christopher, D E; Harvey, C

    1997-02-01

    Subjects judged the time-course of the burn caused by 100 ppm capsaicin applied to the tongue on Day 1 and Day 5. On Days 2-4, they tasted hard candy containing capsaicin. Most subjects did not show adaptation within Day 1, but either plateaued after about 16 min or rose monotonically for the entire 34 min. Intensity was less on Day 5 and levelled off or declined for most subjects. Data were fit to a mathematical model of adaptation. Adaptation across days was accounted for by changes in the gains of the three processes. PMID:9035246

  20. Is Full-Day Kindergarten Worth It? an Academic Comparison of Full-Day and Half-Day Kindergarten Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romines, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer this question: Which is academically superior for young children, full-or half-day kindergarten? This inquiry-oriented case study was designed to compare and contrast students who attended half-day versus full-day kindergarten programs in a suburban public school district. The study is necessary because the…