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Sample records for clue ii cohort

  1. Interleukin-6 and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the CLUE II cohort and a meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Kakourou, Artemisia; Koutsioumpa, Charalampia; Lopez, David S.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between prediagnostic inter-leukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case–control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Methods Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26–4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00–1.49; I2 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54–0.88; I2 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02). Conclusion Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk. PMID:26220152

  2. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. PMID:23505255

  3. The planetary nebulae and H II regions in NGC 6822 revisited. Clues to AGB nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Peña, Miriam; Flores-Durán, Sheila; Hernández-Martínez, Liliana

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The chemical behaviour of an ample sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) in NGC 6822 is analysed. Methods: Spectrophotometric data of 11 PNe and two H ii regions were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Data for other 13 PNe and three H ii regions were retrieved from the literature. Physical conditions and chemical abundances of O, N, Ne, Ar, and S were derived in a consistent way for 19 PNe and 4 H ii regions. Results: Abundances in the PNe sample are widely distributed showing 12 + log (O/H) from 7.4 to 8.2 and 12 + log (Ar/H) from 4.97 to 5.80. Two groups of PNe can be differentiated: one old with low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) <8.0 and 12 + log (Ar/H) < 5.7) and another younger one with metallicities similar to the values for H ii regions. The old objects are distributed in a larger volume than the young ones. An important fraction of PNe (over 30%) was found to be highly N-rich (Peimbert Type I PNe). Such PNe occur at any metallicity. In addition, about 60% of the sample presents high ionization (He++/He ≥ 0.1), possessing a central star with effective temperature higher than 100 000 K. Possible biases in the sample are discussed. From comparison with stellar evolution models by Karakas (2010) and Fishlock et al. (2014) of the observed N/O abundance ratios, our PNe should have had initial masses that are lower than 4 M⊙, although if the comparison is made with Ne vs. O abundances, the initial masses should have been lower than 2 M⊙. It appears that these models of stars of 2-3 M⊙ are producing too much 22Ne in the stellar surface at the end of the AGB. On the other hand, the comparison with another set of stellar evolution models with a different treatment of convection and on the assumptions about the overshoot of the convective core during the core H-burning phase, provided there is reasonable agreement between the observed and predicted N/O and Ne/H ratios if initial masses of more massive stars are

  4. 'Tennessee' Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows the area within 'Endurance Crater,' currently being investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover is inspecting a hole it drilled into a flat rock (center) dubbed 'Tennessee,' which scientists believe may be made up of the same evaporite-rich materials as those found in 'Eagle Crater.'

    The overall geography inside Endurance is more complex than scientists anticipated, with at least three distinct bands of rock visible in front of the rover. Scientists hope to investigate the second and third layers of rock for more clues to Mars' history. This image was taken on sol 133 (June 8, 2004) with the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  5. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  6. Planetary Nebula Spectrograph survey of S0 galaxy kinematics - II. Clues to the origins of S0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Coccato, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Bamford, S.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Capaccioli, M.; Freeman, K. C.; Saha, K.; Chies-Santos, A. L.

    2013-06-01

    The stellar kinematics of the spheroids and discs of S0 galaxies contain clues to their formation histories. Unfortunately, it is difficult to disentangle the two components and to recover their stellar kinematics in the faint outer parts of the galaxies using conventional absorption line spectroscopy. This paper therefore presents the stellar kinematics of six S0 galaxies derived from observations of planetary nebulae, obtained using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. To separate the kinematics of the two components, we use a maximum-likelihood method that combines the discrete kinematic data with a photometric component decomposition. The results of this analysis reveal that: the discs of S0 galaxies are rotationally supported; however, the amount of random motion in these discs is systematically higher than in comparable spiral galaxies; and the S0s lie around one magnitude below the Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies, while their spheroids lie nearly one magnitude above the Faber-Jackson relation for ellipticals. All of these findings are consistent with a scenario in which spirals are converted into S0s through a process of mild harassment or `pestering,' with their discs somewhat heated and their spheroid somewhat enhanced by the conversion process. In such a scenario, one might expect the properties of S0s to depend on environment. We do not see such an effect in this fairly small sample, although any differences would be diluted by the fact that the current location does not necessarily reflect the environment in which the transformation occurred. Similar observations of larger samples probing a broader range of environments, coupled with more detailed modelling of the transformation process to match the wide range of parameters that we have shown can now be measured, should take us from these first steps to the definitive answer as to how S0 galaxies form.

  7. Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease / Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues / Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Summer 2006 ...

  8. Clues to tRNA Evolution from the Distribution of Class II tRNAs and Serine Codons in the Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Harold S.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously proposed that tRNAGly was the first tRNA and glycine was the first amino acid incorporated into the genetic code. The next two amino acids incorporated would have been the other two small hydrophilic amino acids serine and aspartic acid, which occurred through the duplication of the tRNAGly sequence, followed by mutation of its anticodon by single C to U transition mutations, possibly through spontaneous deamination. Interestingly, however, tRNASer has a different structure than most other tRNAs, possessing a long variable arm; because of this tRNASer is classified as a class II tRNA. Also, serine codons are found not only in the bottom right-hand corner of the genetic code table next to those for glycine and aspartic acid, but also in the top row of the table, next to those for two of the most hydrophobic amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. In the following, I propose that the class II tRNA structure of tRNASer and the arrangement of serine codons in the genetic code provide clues to the early evolution of tRNA and the genetic code. In addition, I address Di Giulio’s recent criticism of our proposal that tRNAGly was the first tRNA, and discuss how early peptides produced from a restricted amino acid alphabet of glycine, serine and aspartic acid might have possessed proteolytic activity, which is possibly important for the early recycling of amino acid monomers. PMID:26927183

  9. Clues to tRNA Evolution from the Distribution of Class II tRNAs and Serine Codons in the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Harold S

    2016-01-01

    We have previously proposed that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA and glycine was the first amino acid incorporated into the genetic code. The next two amino acids incorporated would have been the other two small hydrophilic amino acids serine and aspartic acid, which occurred through the duplication of the tRNA(Gly) sequence, followed by mutation of its anticodon by single C to U transition mutations, possibly through spontaneous deamination. Interestingly, however, tRNA(Ser) has a different structure than most other tRNAs, possessing a long variable arm; because of this tRNA(Ser) is classified as a class II tRNA. Also, serine codons are found not only in the bottom right-hand corner of the genetic code table next to those for glycine and aspartic acid, but also in the top row of the table, next to those for two of the most hydrophobic amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. In the following, I propose that the class II tRNA structure of tRNA(Ser) and the arrangement of serine codons in the genetic code provide clues to the early evolution of tRNA and the genetic code. In addition, I address Di Giulio's recent criticism of our proposal that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA, and discuss how early peptides produced from a restricted amino acid alphabet of glycine, serine and aspartic acid might have possessed proteolytic activity, which is possibly important for the early recycling of amino acid monomers. PMID:26927183

  10. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Background This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010. Results Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01) and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05) were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted. PMID:26316807

  11. Eligibility for the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II Study in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Woo, Daniel; Haverbusch, Mary; Tao, Haiyang; Sekar, Padmini; Moomaw, Charles J.; Shutter, Lori; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Kissela, Brett; Broderick, Joseph; Flaherty, Matthew L

    2009-01-01

    Introduction No proven treatments exist for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Carefully selected patients may benefit from surgery, and an international multicenter trial is ongoing. We sought to determine how many patients in a population-based ICH cohort would have been eligible for surgery using the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II (STICH II) criteria. Methods We identified all patients aged ≥ 18 years residing in the five-county Greater Cincinnati region who were hospitalized with first-ever nontraumatic ICH in 2005. STICH II trial criteria were used to determine eligibility for treatment and reasons for exclusion. Results During 2005, 286 ICH patients were identified (103 lobar, 126 deep cerebral, 23 brainstem, 28 cerebellar, and 6 IVH). Non-lobar hemorrhages are not eligible for STICH II. Among patients with lobar hemorrhage, 22 had no exclusions. The most common (not mutually exclusive) reasons for exclusion were volume < 10cc or > 100cc (n=46) and presence of IVH (n=27). No significant age, gender, or racial differences existed between eligible and ineligible patients with lobar ICH. Only one (4.5%) of the 22 STICH II eligible patients in our population had surgery, compared with 8 of 81 (9.9%) ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.43). Mortality at 180 days in STICH II eligible patients was 36% versus 49% for ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.19). Conclusions In this population-based ICH cohort, 7.7% (22 of 286) of ICH patients would have qualified for STICH II enrollment. Other treatment options need to be explored for most ICH patients. PMID:18183500

  12. Comparison of food and nutrient intakes between cohorts of the HAPIEE and Whitehall II studies

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bobak, Martin; Brunner, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary habits have been suggested as an important reason for the large health gap between Eastern and Western European populations. Few studies have compared individual-level nutritional data directly between the two regions. This study addresses this hypothesis by comparing food, drink and nutrient intakes in four large population samples. Methods: Czech, Polish and Russian participants of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study, and British participants in the Whitehall II study, altogether 29 972 individuals aged 45–73 years, were surveyed in 2002–2005. Dietary data were collected by customised food frequency questionnaires. Reported food, drink and nutrient intake data were harmonised and compared between cohorts using multivariable adjusted quantile regression models. Results: Median fruit and vegetable intakes were lower in the pooled Eastern European sample, but not in all country cohorts, compared with British subjects. Median daily consumption of fruits were 275, 213, 130 and 256 g in the Czech, Polish, Russian and Whitehall II cohort, respectively. The respective median daily intakes of vegetables were 185, 197, 292 and 246 g. Median intakes of animal fat foods and saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol nutrients were significantly higher in the Czech, Polish and Russian cohorts compared with the British; for example, median daily intakes of saturated fatty acids were 31.3, 32.5, 29.2 and 25.4 g, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there are important differences in dietary habits between and within Eastern and Western European populations which may have contributed to the health gap between the two regions. PMID:26637342

  13. Metalworking exposures and persistent skin symptoms in the ECRHS II and SAPALDIA 2 cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Bircher, Andreas J.; Jarvis, Debbie; Keidel, Dirk; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Olivieri, Mario; Plana, Estel; Radon, Katja; Schindler, Christian; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Torén, Kjell; Villani, Simona; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2009-01-01

    Background Diseases of the skin are important and often preventable conditions occurring among workers with dermal exposures to irritant and sensitizing agents. Objective We conducted this analysis to assess the associations between metalworking exposures and current, persistent skin symptoms among male and female participants in two population-based epidemiologic studies. Methods We pooled data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II) and the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults 2 (SAPALDIA 2), two prospective cohort studies in Europe. Participants each completed interviewer-administered questionnaires to provide information about symptoms and exposures related to selected occupations, including metalworking, during the follow-up periods. We assessed associations between skin symptoms and the frequency of metalworking exposures among 676 ECRHS II/SAPALDIA 2 respondents. Results Current skin symptoms were reported by 10% of metalworkers and were associated with frequent use, defined as 4+days/week, of oil-based metalworking fluids (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.49) and organic solvent degreasing agents (PR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.50). Conclusions Skin symptom prevalence is associated with increasing frequency of oil-based metalworking fluid and degreasing agent use. Our findings justify assessing strategies for reducing the frequency of metal-related exposures. PMID:19397617

  14. Clues to the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    Students love a mystery. So what do America's most majestic bird, a bag of habitat clues, and a soft-shelled egg have in common? This easy-to-do inquiry activity engages students as they connect clues to problem-solve how the bald eagle reached the brink of extinction in the 1960s in the lower 48 states. It was designed to give students an…

  15. Clues from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents (1) background information explaining how paleontologists solve dinosaur mysteries using fossil clues; (2) activities on this topic; and (3) ready-to-copy student materials. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  16. Looking for clues.

    PubMed

    Kempster, P A

    2006-02-01

    At certain moments in clinical practice, one can seem to possess the powers of a Sherlock Holmes to search out clues and deduce the diagnosis. Many neurologists are aware of links between the workings of detective fiction and the methods of problem-solving in neurological cases. One similarity concerns the professional counterpart of the conventional detective story, the single case report. PMID:16459091

  17. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns, Future Diabetes, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. Objective: The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. Design: This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002–2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 minutes, +2.5 hours, +8 hours, +12 hours, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycemic in 2002–2004 (phase 7) were reexamined in 2012–2013 (phase 11). Setting: The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985–1988. Participants: A total of 3270 men and women with an average age of 60.85 years at phase 7 (2002–2004). Outcome Measures: Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose in 2012–2013 were measured. Results: Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new-onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99–1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future impaired fasting glucose or T2D at phase 11 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02–1.22), as was high bedtime cortisol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.20). Conclusions: In this nonclinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance. PMID:26647151

  18. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  19. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  20. Patterns of Obesity Development before the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes: The Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel R.; Tabák, Adam G.; Herder, Christian; Brunner, Eric J.; Kivimäki, Mika; Færch, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes vary greatly with respect to degree of obesity at time of diagnosis. To address the heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes, we characterised patterns of change in body mass index (BMI) and other cardiometabolic risk factors before type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Methods and Findings We studied 6,705 participants from the Whitehall II study, an observational prospective cohort study of civil servants based in London. White men and women, initially free of diabetes, were followed with 5-yearly clinical examinations from 1991–2009 for a median of 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.7–16.2 years). Type 2 diabetes developed in 645 (1,209 person-examinations) and 6,060 remained free of diabetes during follow-up (14,060 person-examinations). Latent class trajectory analysis of incident diabetes cases was used to identify patterns of pre-disease BMI. Associated trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors were studied using adjusted mixed-effects models. Three patterns of BMI changes were identified. Most participants belonged to the “stable overweight” group (n = 604, 94%) with a relatively constant BMI level within the overweight category throughout follow-up. They experienced slightly worsening of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity from 5 years prior to diagnosis. A small group of “progressive weight gainers” (n = 15) exhibited a pattern of consistent weight gain before diagnosis. Linear increases in blood pressure and an exponential increase in insulin resistance a few years before diagnosis accompanied the weight gain. The “persistently obese” (n = 26) were severely obese throughout the whole 18 years before diabetes diagnosis. They experienced an initial beta cell compensation followed by loss of beta cell function, whereas insulin sensitivity was relatively stable. Since the generalizability of these findings is limited, the results need confirmation in other study populations. Conclusions Three

  1. The Characteristics and Utilization Pattern of an Admission Cohort of Nursing Home Patients (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Korbin; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1984-01-01

    Projects utilization history of a synthetic cohort of nursing home admissions in 1976 by normalizing length of stay (LOS) specific discharge rates derived from life tables to an estimated 1.1 million persons. Results focus on the LOS distribution, discharge status, and total days of nursing home care used. (Author/JAC)

  2. Classifying the Context Clues in Children's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowds, Susan J. Parault; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Parkinson, Meghan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which types of context clues exist in children's texts and whether it is possible for experts to identify reliably those clues. Three experienced coders used Ames' clue set as a foundation for a system to classify context clues in children's text. Findings showed that the adjustments to Ames' system resulted in 15…

  3. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the pliofilm cohort. II. Risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Paxton, M B; Chinchilli, V M; Brett, S M; Rodricks, J V

    1994-04-01

    The detailed work histories of the individual workers composing the Pliofilm cohort represent a unique resource for estimating the dose-response for leukemia that may follow occupational exposure to benzene. In this paper, we report the results of analyzing the updated Pliofilm cohort using the proportional hazards model, a more sophisticated technique that uses more of the available exposure data than the conditional logistic model used by Rinsky et al. The more rigorously defined exposure estimates derived by Paustenbach et al. are consistent with those of Crump and Allen in giving estimates of the slope of the leukemogenic dose-response that are not as steep as the slope resulting from the exposure estimates of Rinsky et al. We consider estimates of 0.3-0.5 additional leukemia deaths per thousand workers with 45 ppm-years of cumulative benzene exposure to be the best estimates currently available of leukemia risk from occupational exposure to benzene. These risks were estimated in the proportional hazards model when the exposure estimates of Crump and Allen or of Paustenbach et al. were used to derive a cumulative concentration-by-time metric. PMID:8008924

  4. The influence of hormone therapies on type I and II endometrial cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina S; Kjaer, Susanne K; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2016-03-15

    The influence of hormone therapy (HT) on risk for endometrial cancer is still casting which type of HT the clinicians recommend. It is unrevealed if HT has a differential influence on Type I versus Type II endometrial tumors, and little is known about the influence of, e.g., different routes of administration and about the influence of tibolone. We followed all Danish women aged 50-79 years without previous cancer or hysterectomy (n = 914,595) during 1995-2009. From the National Prescription Register, we computed HT exposures as time-dependent covariates. Incident endometrial cancers (n = 6,202) were identified from the National Cancer Registry: 4,972 Type I tumors and 500 Type II tumors. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with women never on HT, the RR of endometrial cancer was increased with conjugated estrogen: 4.27 (1.92-9.52), nonconjugated estrogen: 2.00 (1.87-2.13), long cycle combined therapy: 2.89 (2.27-3.67), cyclic combined therapy: 2.06 (1.88-2.27), tibolone 3.56 (2.94-4.32), transdermal estrogen: 2.77 (2.12-3.62) and vaginal estrogen: 1.96 (1.77-2.17), but not with continuous combined therapy: 1.02 (0.87-1.20). In contrast, the risk of Type II tumors appeared decreased with continuous combined therapy: 0.45 (0.20-1.01), and estrogen therapy implied a nonsignificantly altered risk of 1.43 (0.85-2.41). Our findings support that continuous combined therapy is risk free for Type I tumors, while all other hormone therapies increase risk. In contrast, Type II endometrial cancer was less convincingly associated with hormone use, and continuous combined therapy appeared to decrease the risk. PMID:26421912

  5. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot reactivity in a cohort of patients with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Soldan, S S; Graf, M D; Waziri, A; Flerlage, A N; Robinson, S M; Kawanishi, T; Leist, T P; Lehky, T J; Levin, M C; Jacobson, S

    1999-09-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with a chronic, progressive neurological disease known as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Screening for HTLV-I involves the detection of virus-specific serum antibodies by EIA and confirmation by Western blot. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot patterns have been described worldwide. However, the significance of this blot pattern is unclear. We identified 8 patients with neurological disease and an HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot pattern, none of whom demonstrated increased spontaneous proliferation and HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. However, HTLV-I tax sequence was amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 4 of them. These data suggest that patients with chronic progressive neurological disease and HTLV-I/II Western blot seroindeterminate reactivity may harbor either defective HTLV-I, novel retrovirus with partial homology to HTLV-I, or HTLV-I in low copy number. PMID:10438355

  6. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27015563

  7. Prediction of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence in the Japanese population: the JPHC study cohort II.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-15

    Gastric cancer is a particularly important issue in Japan, where incidence rates are among the highest observed. In this work, we provide a risk prediction model allowing the estimation of the 10-year cumulative probability of gastric cancer occurrence. The study population consisted of 19,028 individuals from the Japanese Public Health Center cohort II who were followed-up from 1993 to 2009. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact on the probability of gastric cancer of clinical and lifestyle-related risk factors in combination with serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels. Based on the resulting model, cumulative probability estimates were calculated and a simple risk scoring system was developed. A total of 412 cases of gastric cancer occurred during 270,854 person-years of follow-up. The final model included (besides the biological markers) age, gender, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer and consumption of highly salted food. The developed prediction model showed good predictive performance in terms of discrimination (optimism-corrected c-index: 0.768) and calibration (Nam and d'Agostino's χ(2) test: 14.78; p values = 0.06). Estimates of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence ranged from 0.04% (0.02, 0.1) to 14.87% (8.96, 24.14) for men and from 0.03% (0.02, 0.07) to 4.91% (2.71, 8.81) for women. In conclusion, we developed a risk prediction model for gastric cancer that combines clinical and biological markers. It might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programmes. PMID:26219435

  8. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  9. Validating a widely used measure of frailty: are all sub-components necessary? Evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Kim; Sabia, Severine; Jokela, Markus; Gale, Catharine R; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David

    2013-08-01

    There is growing interest in the measurement of frailty in older age. The most widely used measure (Fried) characterizes this syndrome using five components: exhaustion, physical activity, walking speed, grip strength, and weight loss. These components overlap, raising the possibility of using fewer, and therefore making the device more time- and cost-efficient. The analytic sample was 5,169 individuals (1,419 women) from the British Whitehall II cohort study, aged 55 to 79 years in 2007-2009. Hospitalization data were accessed through English national records (mean follow-up 15.2 months). Age- and sex-adjusted Cox models showed that all components were significantly associated with hospitalization, the hazard ratios (HR) ranging from 1.18 (95 % confidence interval = 0.98, 1.41) for grip strength to 1.60 (1.35, 1.90) for usual walking speed. Some attenuation of these effects was apparent following mutual adjustment for frailty components, but the rank order of the strength of association remained unchanged. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of frailty components and the risk for hospitalization [1 component-HR = 1.10 (0.96, 1.26); 2-HR = 1.52 (1.26, 1.83); 3-5-HR = 2.41 (1.84, 3.16), P trend <0.0001]. A concordance index used to evaluate the predictive power for hospital admissions of individual components and the full scale was modest in magnitude (range 0.57 to 0.58). Our results support the validity of the multi-component frailty measure, but the predictive performance of the measure is poor. PMID:22772579

  10. Differences in cortisol awakening response on work days and weekends in women and men from the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Kunz-Ebrecht, Sabine R; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    It is thought that the salivary cortisol awakening response can serve as a reliable marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. Response magnitude might be influenced by stress, but results of studies on work-related stress have been inconclusive. Non-compliance with the sampling schedule is a potential confounding factor that has rarely been controlled. The objective of the study was to determine whether the cortisol awakening response is greater on a work day than on a weekend day, and whether responses vary with gender and socioeconomic position. Compliance was controlled by excluding participants who reported a delay of more than 10 min between waking up and taking the first saliva sample. Data were collected from 196 men and women aged 47 to 59 years drawn from the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants, with free salivary cortisol sampled immediately after waking up and 30 min later on 2 days. Data on stress, perceived control and happiness over the remainder of the day, and on sleep quality, time of waking, and health behaviour were also obtained. The awakening response was lower in non-compliant participants than in compliant ones, so non-compliant participants were excluded from further analyses. Salivary cortisol levels on waking did not differ by gender or socioeconomic position, or between work and weekend days. However, the cortisol awakening response (defined as the difference between waking and 30 min later) was greater on work than weekend days (mean increases 10.5 and 3.7 nmol/l, P < 0.001). On the work day, women showed larger increases than men (P = 0.011), but there were no gender differences on the weekend day. Across both days, lower socioeconomic position was associated with a larger cortisol awakening response (P = 0.014). Time of waking up was not related to the cortisol awakening response on either day. Participants rated themselves as more stressed, less in control, and less happy over the remainder of the work than

  11. Postoperative radiotherapy and tumor recurrence after complete resection of stage II/III thymic tumor: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jietao; Sun, Xin; Huang, Letian; Xiong, Zhicheng; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Shuling; Han, Cheng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is effective for reducing the recurrence risk in patients who received complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors has not been determined. A meta-analysis was performed by combining the results of all available controlled trials. Methods PubMed, Cochrane’s Library, and the Embase databases were searched for studies which compared the recurrence data for patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors assigned to an observing group, or a PORT group. A random effect model was applied to combine the results. Results Nineteen studies, all designed as retrospective cohort studies were included. These studies included 663 patients of PORT group and 617 patients of observing group. The recurrence rate for the patients in PORT group and observing group were 12.4% and 11.5%, respectively. Results of our study indicated that PORT has no significant influence on recurrent risk in patients with stage II or III thymic tumor after complete resection (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.55–1.90, P=0.96). When stratified by stages, our meta-analyses did not indicate any significant effects of PORT on recurrent outcomes in either the stage II or the stage III patients. Moreover, subsequent analysis limited to studies only including patients with thymoma or thymic carcinoma also did not support the benefits of PORT on recurrent outcomes. Conclusion Although derived from retrospective cohort studies, current evidence did not support any benefit of PORT on recurrent risk in patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors. PMID:27524907

  12. Seeking Clues for the Next Sakata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassler, M. J.

    Sakata-sensei had more clues to work with than do hissuccessors. The Large Hadron Collider may offer the clues that are needed for significant progress. One clue may arise from the unexpectedly large forward-backward asymmetry for top quarks; I discuss various related issues at the Tevatron and LHC. I also discuss how Hidden Valleys can cause new phenomena to be missed in standard searches for new physics at the LHC, and how this must be kept in mind as we head into 2012.

  13. Genetic Clues to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Genetic Clues to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak Scientists sequenced ... of Ebola as the outbreak continues. Understanding the genetics of the virus will also help scientists develop ...

  14. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  15. Cohort mortality study of roofing granule mine and mill workers. Part II. Epidemiologic analysis, 1945-2004.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Geary W; Andres, Kara L; Johnson, Rebecca A; Buehrer, Betsy D; Holen, Brian M; Morey, Sandy Z; Logan, Perry W; Hewett, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The mortality of 2650 employees (93.4% males) in the mine and mill production of roofing granules at four plants was examined between 1945 and 2004. Hypotheses focused on diseases associated with exposure to silica: nonmalignant respiratory disease, lung cancer, and nonmalignant renal disease. Study eligibility required ≥ 1 year of employment by 2000. Work history and vital status were followed through 2004 with < 1% lost to follow-up. Industrial hygiene sampling data (1871 sampling measurements over a 32-year period) and professional judgment were used to construct 15 respirable crystalline silica exposure categories. A category was assigned to all plant-, department-, and time-dependent standard job titles. Cumulative respirable crystalline silica exposure (mg/m(3)-years) was calculated as the sum of the product of time spent and the average exposure for each plant-, department-, job-, and calendar-year combination. The cohort geometric mean was 0.17 mg/m(3)-years (geometric standard deviation 4.01) and differed by plant. Expected deaths were calculated using U.S. (entire cohort) and regional (each plant) mortality rates. Poisson regression was used for internal comparisons. For the entire cohort, 772 deaths (97.4% males) were identified (standardized mortality ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02). There were 50 deaths from nonmalignant respiratory diseases (1.14, 95% CI 0.85-1.51). Lagging exposure 15 years among the male cohort, the relative risks for nonmalignant respiratory disease were 1.00 (reference), 0.80, 1.94, and 2.03 (p value trend = 0.03) when cumulative exposure was categorized < 0.1, 0.1- < 0.5, 0.5- < 1.0, and ≥ 1.0 mg/m(3)-years, respectively. There was a total of 77 lung cancer deaths (1.11, 95% CI 0.88-1.39). Lagging exposure 15 years, the relative risks for males were 1.00 (reference), 1.83, 1.83, and 1.05 (p value trend = 0.9). There were 16 deaths from nonmalignant renal disease (1.76, 95% CI 1.01-2.86). This exposure-response trend was

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution before, during, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Hart, Jaime E.; Just, Allan C.; Laden, Francine; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with increasing prevalence worldwide, yet has unclear etiology. Objective We explored the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and odds of ASD in her child. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study of participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), a prospective cohort of 116,430 U.S. female nurses recruited in 1989, followed by biennial mailed questionnaires. Subjects were NHS II participants’ children born 1990–2002 with ASD (n = 245), and children without ASD (n = 1,522) randomly selected using frequency matching for birth years. Diagnosis of ASD was based on maternal report, which was validated against the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a subset. Monthly averages of PM with diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 2.5–10 μm (PM10–2.5) were predicted from a spatiotemporal model for the continental United States and linked to residential addresses. Results PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of ASD, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for ASD per interquartile range (IQR) higher PM2.5 (4.42 μg/m3) of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.03) among women with the same address before and after pregnancy (160 cases, 986 controls). Associations with PM2.5 exposure 9 months before or after the pregnancy were weaker in independent models and null when all three time periods were included, whereas the association with the 9 months of pregnancy remained (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.47). The association between ASD and PM2.5 was stronger for exposure during the third trimester (OR = 1.42 per IQR increase in PM2.5; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.86) than during the first two trimesters (ORs = 1.06 and 1.00) when mutually adjusted. There was little association between PM10–2.5 and ASD. Conclusions Higher maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy, particularly the third trimester, was associated with greater odds of a child having ASD

  17. THE GLUTAMATE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE GENE II (C>T) POLYMORPHISM DOES NOT AFFECT FOLATE STATUS IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING COHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring folates are comprised mostly of reduced polyglutamyl derivatives and require hydrolysis to monoglutamyl derivatives before they are absorbed by the small intestine. This hydrolysis is catalyzed by glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). Recently, a 1561 C>T polymorphism in the GCP...

  18. High School and Beyond 1980 Sophomore Cohort Third Follow-Up (1986). Data File User's Manual, Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebring, Penny; And Others

    This manual, which includes Volume I and Volume II, was produced to familiarize data users and others with the procedures followed for data collection and processing of the High School and Beyond (HS&B) base year through third follow-up surveys, and to provide necessary documentation for use of the data files. Volume I, chapter 1 begins with the…

  19. Allicin as a possible adjunctive therapeutic drug for stage II oral submucous fibrosis: a preliminary clinical trial in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Zhang, Y; Li, F; Zhu, Y; Chen, Y; Yang, S; Sun, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of allicin in the treatment of stage II oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) in a Chinese patient cohort. A randomized clinical trial was performed. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) or allicin was injected intralesionally weekly for 16 weeks. Improvements in mouth opening, burning sensation, and oral health-related quality of life were evaluated. Forty-eight subjects completed the study without obvious adverse reactions. At 40 weeks, the net gain in mouth opening was 2.27 ± 0.84 mm in the TA group and 5.16 ± 1.04 mm in the allicin group. Burning sensation improved by 2.79 ± 0.87 in the TA group and by 4.33 ± 1.04 in the allicin group. The OHIP-14 score improved by 4.67 ± 2.94 in the TA group and by 12.58 ± 9.82 in the allicin group. Allicin intralesional injections improved mouth opening, burning sensation, and oral health-related quality of life in these stage II OSF patients. Allicin appears to be a potential adjunctive therapeutic drug. PMID:26165773

  20. Nested Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  1. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:26830232

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case control study in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Stevens, Victoria L; Patel, Roshni; Jacobs, Eric J; Bain, Elizabeth B; Horst, Ronald L; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D status measured during adulthood has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk in some, but not all, studies. Vitamin D has been hypothesized to prevent breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic actions in cell-cycle regulation. Methods A subset (n = 21,965) of female participants from the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort provided a blood sample from 1998-2001 and were followed through 2005. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 516 verified incident cases and 516 controls, matched on birth date (± 6 months), date of blood draw (± 6 months) and race. Information on medical history, risk factors and lifestyle was available from repeated questionnaires. We computed multi-variable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between 25(OH)D quintile and breast cancer risk using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for matching factors and additional confounders. Results We observed no association between 25(OH)D and breast cancer (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.70-1.68, P = 0.60) for the top vs bottom quintile. Using a priori cut-points, the OR was 0.86 (95% CI 0.59-1.26), for ≥75 vs <50 nmol/L. Results were not different when the first two years of follow-up were excluded, or in analyses stratified by season, latitude, BMI, postmenopausal hormone use, or by tumor grade or estrogen receptor status. Conclusions These results do not support an association between adulthood serum 25(OH)D and postmenopausal breast cancer. We cannot rule out an association with 25(OH)D status earlier in life. PMID:19715600

  3. Determinants of high pesticide exposure events in the agricultural health cohort study from enrollment (1993-1997) through phase II (1999-2003).

    PubMed

    Payne, K; Andreotti, G; Bell, E; Blair, A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an analysis of the determinants of high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs), which are defined as self-reported incidents of high exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals in the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of private applicators and their spouses residing in North Carolina or Iowa, and commercial applicators residing in Iowa. We examined the risk of HPEEs occurring between enrollment (phase 1: 1993-1997) and follow-up (phase II: 1999-2003) among participants who completed the phase II questionnaire (n=43,149) by calculating hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional-hazard regression. During the followup period, 1,582 HPEEs were reported (3.8%). HPEE risk was significantly higher among Iowa residents, younger participants, those with a hearing deficit, a risk-taking personality, and an HPEE prior to enrollment. Among private applicators (n=30,102), larger farm size, higher frequency and duration of pesticide use, spraying pesticides with open cab windows, using a tractor cab without a charcoal filter, repairing spray equipment, wearing work clothing more than two days without changing, not removing work boots before entering the home, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with significantly higher HPEE risk. Among commercial applicators (n=2326), higher frequency of pesticide use was associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Among spouses (n=10,721), higher frequency of pesticide use, using an application vehicle with a cab, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Our findings indicate that HPEEs were associated with several modifiable pesticide handling procedures that can be targeted in safety training and education. PMID:22900431

  4. Analysis of HLA class I-II haplotype frequency and segregation in a cohort of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gamzatova, Z; Villabona, L; van der Zanden, H; Haasnoot, G W; Andersson, E; Kiessling, R; Seliger, B; Kanter, L; Dalianis, T; Bergfeldt, K; Masucci, G V

    2007-09-01

    In solid tumors, human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 has been suggested to be a risk factor and a negative prognostic factor. The HLA-A2 allele in Scandinavia has a high prevalence; it decreases with latitude and also with ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. Furthermore, an association of the HLA-A2 allele with severe prognosis in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary in stages III-IV was found. Thirty-two unrelated Swedish women with relapsing or progressive ovarian cancer were analysed for the genotypes at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, and HLA-DRB1 loci by the polymerase chain reaction/sequence-specific primer method. The frequencies of HLA alleles of healthy Swedish bone marrow donors provided by the coordinating centre of the Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide Registries, Leiden, the Netherlands were used as controls. When this cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients was compared with healthy Swedish donors, the frequency of HLA-A1 and HLA-A2 gene/phenotype appears, although not statistically significant, to be increased in patients with ovarian carcinoma, while HLA-A3 was decreased. HLA-A2 homozygotes were twofold higher in patients. The A2-B8 haplotype was significantly increased (corrected P value). A2-B5, A2-B15, A2-DRB1*03, A2-DRB1*04, A2-B15-Cw3, and A2-B8-DRB1*03 had odds ratio as well as the level of the lower confidence interval above 1 and significant P value only when considered as single, non-corrected analysis. HLA-B15 and HLA-Cw3 were only present in HLA-A2-positive patients showing that the HLA-A2-HLA-Cw3 and HLA-B15 haplotypes were segregated. In this selected cohort with advanced disease, there are indications of an unusual overrepresentation of HLA class I and II genes/haplotypes as well as segregation for the HLA-A2-HLA-Cw3 and HLA-B15 haplotypes. These findings are presented as a descriptive analysis and need further investigations on a larger series of ovarian cancer patients to establish prognostic associations. PMID:17661908

  5. Recreational physical activity, leisure sitting time and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Birmann, Brenda M; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-10-15

    Results of studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (NHL) are inconsistent, and only one study to date examined time spent sitting in relation to NHL. We examined recreational physical activity and leisure-time sitting in relation to risk of NHL in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Between 1992 and 2007, 2,002 incident cases were identified among 146,850 participants who were cancer-free at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. Women who sat for at least 6 hr/day were at 28% higher risk of NHL compared to women who sat for fewer than 3 hr/day. In analyses of specific subtypes, sitting time was associated with risk of multiple myeloma only (6+ vs. 3 hr/day sitting: HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.45-3.97). Women who engaged in any recreational physical activity had a nonsignificant 20%-30% lower risk of NHL (p-trend = 0.05) compared to women who reported no recreational physical activity. Neither leisure-time sitting nor recreational physical activity was associated with risk of NHL or major NHL subtype in men. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between physical activity and sitting time, or between body mass index and physical activity or sitting time. Further research is needed to confirm an association between sitting time and multiple myeloma and explore a possible association between physical activity and NHL. PMID:22275172

  6. The Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II): a retrospective cohort study of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of high-plasma-volume human leukocyte antigen antibody–positive or –negative components

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven H.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Roback, John D.; Carrick, Danielle; Mathew, Sunitha; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard; Ness, Paul; Gajic, Ognjen; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Looney, Mark R.; Kakaiya, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We used a multicenter retrospective cohort study design to evaluate whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody donor screening would reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or possible TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II), we evaluated pulmonary outcomes in recipients of 2596 plasma-rich blood components (transfusable plasma and plateletpheresis) sent to participating hospitals; half of the components were collected from anti-HLA–positive donors (study arm) and half from anti-HLA–negative donors (control arm) matched by sex, parity, and blood center. A staged medical record review process was used. Final recipient diagnosis was based on case review by a blinded expert panel of pulmonary or critical care physicians. RESULTS TRALI incidence was 0.59% (seven cases) in study arm recipients versus 0.16% (two cases) in control arm recipients for an odds ratio (OR) of 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–17.4; p = 0.10). For possible TRALI cases (nine study arm, eight control arm), the OR was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4–3.0; p = 0.81), and for TRALI and possible TRALI aggregated together, it was 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7–3.7; p = 0.24). Transfusion-associated circulatory overload incidence was identical in the two arms (1.17 and 1.22%, respectively; OR, 1.0; p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS TRALI incidence in recipients of anti-HLA–positive components was relatively low for a look-back study (1 in 170) and was higher than in the control arm, but did not reach significance. Based on this trend, the data are consistent with the likelihood that TRALI risk is decreased by selecting high-volume plasma components for transfusion from donors at low risk of having HLA antibodies. PMID:21446938

  7. The Effect of Tricuspid Regurgitation and the Right Heart on Survival after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights from the PARTNER II Inoperable Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Jaber, Wael A.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Mack, Michael J.; Suri, Rakesh M.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Kereiakes, Dean J.; Whisenant, Brian; Miller, D. Craig; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Svensson, Lars G.; Xu, Ke; Doshi, Darshan; Leon, Martin B.; Zajarias, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction adversely affect outcomes in patients with heart failure or mitral valve disease, but their impact on outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well characterized. Methods and Results Among 542 patients with symptomatic AS treated in the PARTNER II trial (inoperable cohort) with a SAPIEN or SAPIEN XT valve via a transfemoral approach, baseline TR severity, right atrial (RA) and RV size, and RV function were evaluated by echocardiography according to established guidelines. One-year mortality was 16.9%, 17.2%, 32.6%, and 61.1% for patients with no/trace (n=167), mild (n=205), moderate (n=117), and severe (n=18) TR, respectively (p<0.001). Increasing severity of RV dysfunction as well as RA and RV enlargement were also associated with increased mortality (p<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, severe TR (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.50–6.82, p=0.003) and moderate TR (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.52, p=0.042) remained associated with increased mortality as did RA and RV enlargement, but not RV dysfunction. There was an interaction between TR and mitral regurgitation severity (p=0.04); the increased hazard of death associated with moderate/severe TR only occurred in those with no/trace/mild mitral regurgitation. Conclusions In inoperable patients treated with TAVR, moderate or severe TR and right heart enlargement are independently associated with increased 1-year mortality, however the association between moderate or severe TR and an increased hazard of death was only found in those with minimal MR at baseline. These findings may improve our assessment of anticipated benefit from TAVR and support the need for future studies on TR and the right heart, including whether concomitant treatment of TR in operable but high risk patients with AS is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  8. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry. PMID:1461180

  9. Correlates of the Ability to Use Context Clues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulin, Kenneth L.

    Results of two studies of the ability to use specific context clues and possible academic correlates of this ability are reported. In the first study, a five-form data-gathering instrument, using categories of context clues derived from Artley, Betts, and McCullough, was administered to 315 tenth-grade students in Seattle, Washington. Simulated…

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST BURDEN, EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES - VOLUME I - FINAL REPORT AND VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue f...

  11. Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy and the Risk of Vascular Complications in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide, Retrospective, Taiwanese-Registry, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ai-Lin; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), evidence of long-term benefit with adjunctive TCM treatment is limited. This study investigated whether the concurrent TCM treatment reduces the risk of vascular complications in T2DM patients by using a large population from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).We identified 33,457 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2DM using anti-diabetic agents from a random sample of one million beneficiaries in the NHIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. We recruited 1049 TCM users (received TCM over 30 days with a diagnosis of T2DM) and randomly selected 4092 controls as the non-TCM cohort at a ratio of 1:4 frequency-matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and index year. We investigated the prescription pattern of TCM and conducted a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and diabetic foot between the 2 cohorts.In the TCM cohort, the prescription pattern of TCM was different between insulin and noninsulin patients. The most common herbs were Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) in noninsulin group and Da-Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) in insulin group. The most common formulae were Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in noninsulin group and Yu-Quan-Wan in insulin group. Although no significant reduction in the hazard ratio of CKD and diabetic foot, the incidence rate of stroke was 7.19 per 1000 person-years in the TCM cohort and 10.66 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, respectively. After adjustment of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and antidiabetes agent use (including sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase, metformin, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and insulin), TCM cohorts were found to have a 33% decreased risk of stroke (95% CI = 0.46-0.97; P < 0.05).This population-based retrospective study showed that the complementary TCM therapy might associate with

  12. Clues to Zika Virus' Structure May Point to Weaknesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158073.html Clues to Zika Virus' Structure May Point to Weaknesses Scientists say insights ... HealthDay News) -- With the emergence of the Zika virus' devastating effect on newborns, the race for a ...

  13. Brain Scans Give Clues to Stress-Heart Attack Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157945.html Brain Scans Give Clues to Stress-Heart Attack Link Fear appears to increase inflammation in the ... stress is linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Increased activity in the amygdala -- the ...

  14. Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika Researchers think vaginal fluid may be ideal breeding ... in mice may offer insight into how the Zika virus is transmitted sexually and affects a fetus. ...

  15. Research Offers Clues to Dementia with Language Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157752.html Research Offers Clues to Dementia With Language Loss In this rarer form of ... centers may help drive a rare form of dementia that causes people to lose their ability to ...

  16. Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159905.html Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Intestinal ... doctors -- may be influenced by a person's intestinal bacteria -- sometimes called gut microbiome, new research finds. "Patients ...

  17. Diagnostic clues to megaloblastic anaemia without macrocytosis.

    PubMed

    Chan, C W J; Liu, S Y H; Kho, C S B; Lau, K H T; Liang, Y S; Chu, W R; Ma, S K E

    2007-06-01

    Masking of the macrocytic expression of megaloblastic anaemia (MA) by coexisting thalassaemia, iron deficiency and chronic illness has been widely reported. We described the haematological and clinical features of 20 Chinese patients with MA presenting with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) < or =99 fl, and analysed the steps leading to the final diagnosis of MA with concomitant thalassaemia trait (n = 11), thalassaemia trait and iron deficiency (n = 3), iron deficiency (n = 4) and chronic illness (n = 2). We also compared the haematological characteristics of this group of patients with a group of normocytic anaemic patients without vitamin B(12)/folate deficiency, and identified certain laboratory information useful for differentiating the two groups. Statistically significant parameters included the mean values of haemoglobin, MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW), reticulocyte index, platelet count and serum bilirubin. All provided clues to maturation disorders within the marrow. A decision flowchart for the diagnosis of MA without macrocytosis was proposed. In the studied population, by using the parameters of haemoglobin <10 g/dl, MCV 80-99 fl, RDW > or = 16% and reticulocyte index < or = 2% as indicators, there was a 58% chance that a patient had MA without macrocytosis if he/she had all the four indicators, and a 2.2% chance of having it if he/she did not have these indicators. We emphasized the importance of including peripheral blood smear examination in the diagnostic procedures for such patients, as well as the importance of paying attention to patients' medical history, racial background and previous MCV value. PMID:17474892

  18. CLUES TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF TREATED LEPROSY

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current recommendations for multidrug therapy (MDT) of leprosy follow a fixed duration of treatment regardless of clearance of skin lesions or presence or absence of acid-fast bacilli in the skin. A fairly high percentage of patients with leprosy who complete recommended duration of multi-drug therapy are left with residual skin lesions which are a great source of anxiety to the patient and the family. A small percentage of patients go on to develop new lesions after completion of treatment which may be either late reactions or relapse. Many such patients undergo skin biopsy to assess ‘activity’ of the disease. Hardly any literature exists on the histological findings in biopsies taken from patients who have completed MDT. Materials and Methods: This article describes histomorphological findings in patients with treated leprosy who underwent skin biopsies after completion of MDT because they either had persistent lesions or developed new lesions on follow-up. Results: Histology of treated leprosy may show findings that are diagnostic for leprosy (histology active) or findings that by themselves are not diagnostic for leprosy (histology inactive) but may be used as clues in confirming that the persistent skin lesions are histologically inactive and need no further treatment. These findings may be divided into 1. Epidermal findings, 2. Alterations in dermal stroma, and 3. Morphological characteristics of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion: Awareness of histomorphological changes that occur in skin lesions of leprosy after completion of treatment can aid the pathologist to determine whether the lesions are active or inactive histologically and assist the clinician to convince the patient that his disease is inactive and does not need further treatment. PMID:22121264

  19. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of Regional Land Use: The CLUE-S Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Soepboer, Welmoed; Veldkamp, A.; Limpiada, Ramil; Espaldon, Victoria; Mastura, Sharifah S. A.

    2002-09-01

    Land-use change models are important tools for integrated environmental management. Through scenario analysis they can help to identify near-future critical locations in the face of environmental change. A dynamic, spatially explicit, land-use change model is presented for the regional scale: CLUE-S. The model is specifically developed for the analysis of land use in small regions (e.g., a watershed or province) at a fine spatial resolution. The model structure is based on systems theory to allow the integrated analysis of land-use change in relation to socio-economic and biophysical driving factors. The model explicitly addresses the hierarchical organization of land use systems, spatial connectivity between locations and stability. Stability is incorporated by a set of variables that define the relative elasticity of the actual land-use type to conversion. The user can specify these settings based on expert knowledge or survey data. Two applications of the model in the Philippines and Malaysia are used to illustrate the functioning of the model and its validation.

  20. Singular Clues to Causality and Their Use in Human Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that causal understanding originates in experiences of acting on objects. Such experiences have consistent features that can be used as clues to causal identification and judgment. These are singular clues, meaning that they can be detected in single instances. A catalog of 14 singular clues is proposed. The clues function as…

  1. Maghemite on Mars: Possible Clues from Titanomaghemite in Icelandic Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Weyer, G.; Helgason, Ö.

    2000-08-01

    The Viking landers and the Pathfinder lander carried instrument packages to investigate the magnetic properties of the soil and dust on Mars. The instruments consisted of small permanent magnets that accumulated magnetic dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere. From the results we now know that there is a strongly magnetic mineral in the Martian soil and dust. The SNC meteorites (Shergottites-Nakhlites-Chassignite), assumed to be Martian surface rocks, are not magnetic enough to explain the high magnetization of the soil/dust on Mars observed by the Viking and Pathfinder landers. It is therefore indicated that some (oxidative) mechanism has enhanced the magnetisation of the surface material. Based on the magnetic and optical properties of the accumulated dust, the magnetic phase has tentatively been identified as maghemite, gamma-Fe2O3 present as cement in or stain on silicate agglomerates. It is, however, not possible to exclude that the magnetic phase is titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTix)O4 or titanomaghemite (gamma-Fe2-xTix)O3 having been inherited directly from the bedrock. The properties and the formation of this magnetic material are of considerable interest. It may give invaluable clues to answer questions about the role of water in the soil forming processes on Mars. Has the formation of the red soil on Mars taken place predominantly via oxidation of Fe(II) in aqueous solution eons ago when Mars was warmer and wetter? Or is the soil forming process an ongoing process of breakdown and oxidation of surface rocks? The material can be studied by separating it from the soil/dust with magnets offering a unique opportunity to make comparative studies on robotic Mars missions. Finding terrestrial analogues is essential to gain insight into how to answer the above questions. Additional information is obtained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Prior Clues of Internal Activity on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    New Horizons scientists Kelsi Singer and Alan Stern predicted that Pluto may have subsurface activity, in this study published even before New Horizon's recent observations of Pluto's strangely uncratered surface areas. Where Does the Nitrogen Come From? Pluto's surface and atmosphere contain a significant amount of nitrogen, but the gas leaks out of Pluto's atmosphere at an tremendous rate -- estimated at about 1.5 × 1012-13 grams per year (roughly 200-2000 tons/hr!). But if the nitrogen has been escaping at this rate since the solar system was formed, the entire atmospheric reservoir of would have been lost long before now. So what is resupplying Pluto's nitrogen? Singer and Stern explore several possible sources: Delivery by comet impact: The authors calculate that over the 4-billion-year span since Pluto's formation, it has been impacted by a total of 600 million comets of varying sizes, all likely containing nitrogen. But their estimates show that the amount of nitrogen this would supply falls several orders of magnitude shy of explaining the escape rate. Excavation by cratering: Could comet impacts simply expose nitrogen buried in reservoirs just beneath Pluto's surface? That method, too, falls short of resupplying atmospheric nitrogen escape by at least an order of magnitude, even using the most generous estimates. Internal activity: Unless the believed atmospheric loss rate of Pluto is overestimated, the authors conclude that Pluto must experience some sort of internal activity such as cryovolcanism that brings nitrogen from below its surface up and into the atmosphere. The Study in Context of Current Events. Singer and Stern wrote and submitted this paper before the New Horizons spacecraft's recent flyby of Pluto. Data from this mission has recently provided surprise after surprise -- from images of smooth, crater-free regions on Pluto's surface to evidence of sheets of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen ices flowing like glaciers. These clues support

  3. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  4. Eribulin mesylate (halichondrin B Analog E7389) in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: a two-cohort, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Martee L.; Kravetz, Sara; Jia, Xiaoyu; Iasonos, Alexia; Tew, William; Pereira, Lauren; Sabbatini, Paul; Whalen, Christin; Aghajanian, Carol A.; Zarwan, Corinne; Berlin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Eribulin mesylate is a tubulin inhibitor with activity superior to paclitaxel in NIH:OVCAR-3 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenograft models. We sought to assess the efficacy of eribulin in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with recurrent measurable epithelial ovarian cancer, ≤2 prior cytotoxic regimens, and adequate organ function were enrolled into two separate cohorts: 1) Platinum resistant (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy <6 months); and 2) Platinum sensitive (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy ≥6 months). Treatment: Eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 over 15 minutes by vein on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Efficacy was determined by objective response by computed tomography. Results Platinum-resistant cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled. Thirty-six patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. Two patients achieved partial response (PR, 5.5%). Sixteen (44%) had a best response of stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.4–2.8 months). Platinum-sensitive cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled, and all were evaluable for response. Seven patients achieved partial response (PR, 19%). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8–5.8 months). The major toxicity was grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (42% in platinum-resistant patients; 54% in platinum-sensitive patients). Conclusions Eribulin achieved objective response in 5.5% of women with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer and in 19% of women with platinum-sensitive disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months in the platinum-resistant group and 4.1 months in the platinum-sensitive group. PMID:21935916

  5. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein)-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757) were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C) (rs2073342), ECP562(G>C) (rs2233860) and ECP c.-38(A>C) (rs2233859) were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C) and ECP562(G>C) genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C) genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma. PMID:20534163

  6. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, Michael C.; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. Methods The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Results Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users’ subjective experiences with contact lenses. Conclusions The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties. PMID:27383257

  7. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  8. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  9. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas

  10. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  11. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants.A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases.A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171-11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365-27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors for stage II NEC progressing to

  12. Diagnostic clues and more from photographs.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Asao; Wate, Reika

    2007-02-01

    During over 50 years of the first author's career in neuropathology at Montefiore Medical Center in New York, we have come across certain interesting neuropathological findings. In this communication, some photographs showing macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic significant findings are selected to illustrate usefulness not only for the diagnosis but also for understanding of the nervous system. The six topics presented in this paper are: (i) unattached presynaptic terminals in cerebellar neuroblastoma; (ii) neurofibrillary tangle formation in the nucleus basalis of Meynert ipsilateral to a massive cerebral infarct; (iii) orderly arrangement of tumor cells in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis; (iv) interface between craniopharyngioma and brain tissue; (v) neurofibrillary tangles and Lewy bodies in a single neuron; and (vi) Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase positive Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions in anterior horn cells in familial motor neuron diseases. Analyses of these findings are presented for an educational purpose. PMID:17319278

  13. Sex Behavior as a Clue to Mental Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzanowski, Gerard

    1971-01-01

    While certain forms of sex behavior may serve as a clue to the existence of mental illness, care must be taken not to view such behavior outside the overall context of a person's particular life situation, since sex behavior is a reflection of the totality of human existence. (Author)

  14. CSI: Immigrant Children--Clues for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larke, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The metaphor of the popular television shows "CSI: New York," "CSI: Miami," and "CSI: Las Vegas" (CSI stands for "crime scene investigation") is applicable to investigating issues of immigrant children in teacher preparation programs (TPP). One of the fundamental principles of CSI is to solve the crime by critically examining clues as evidence…

  15. Use of β-Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, and Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Gitte Vrelits; Ganz, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven W.; Pedersen, Lars A.; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Peter Garne, Jens; Christiansen, Peer M.; Lash, Timothy L.; Ahern, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate associations between use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and breast cancer recurrence in a large Danish cohort. Patients and Methods We enrolled 18,733 women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer between 1996 and 2003. Patient, treatment, and 10-year recurrence data were ascertained from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry. Prescription and medical histories were ascertained by linkage to the National Prescription Registry and Registry of Patients, respectively. β-Blocker exposure was defined in aggregate and according to solubility, receptor selectivity, and individual drugs. ACE inhibitor and ARB exposures were defined in aggregate. Recurrence associations were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models in which time-varying drug exposures were lagged by 1 year. Results Compared with never users, users of any β-blocker had a lower recurrence hazard in unadjusted models (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.0) and a slightly higher recurrence hazard in adjusted models (adjusted HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.5). Associations were similar for exposures defined by receptor selectivity and solubility. Although most individual β-blockers showed no association with recurrence, metoprolol and sotalol were associated with increased recurrence rates (adjusted metoprolol HR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; adjusted sotalol HR = 2.0, 95% CI, 0.99 to 4.0). ACE inhibitors were associated with a slightly increased recurrence hazard, whereas ARBs were not associated with recurrence (adjusted ACE inhibitor HR = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.4; adjusted ARBs HR = 1.1, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.3). Conclusion Our data do not support the hypothesis that β-blockers attenuate breast cancer recurrence risk. PMID:23650417

  16. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement. PMID:27190647

  17. The benefit of microsatellite instability is attenuated by chemotherapy in stage II and stage III gastric cancer: Results from a large cohort with subgroup analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Shin, Hyun Beak; Jo, Ara; Choi, Hyeji; Seo, Sang Hyuk; Bang, Hui-Jae; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2015-08-15

    We previously reported that the prognosis of microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) gastric cancer is similar to that of MSI-low/microsatellite stable (MSI-L/MSS) gastric cancer. The reason for this seemed to be related to the effects of chemotherapy. To verify this hypothesis, we expanded the study population and reanalyzed the prognosis of MSI-H gastric cancer. Data from 1,276 patients with Stage II and III gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy with curative intent between January 2005 and June 2010 were reviewed. The prognosis of MSI-H tumors in comparison with MSI-L/MSS tumors was analyzed, according to the administration of chemotherapy and other clinicopathologic features. A total of 361 (28.3%) patients did not receive chemotherapy (MSI-H = 47 and MSI-L/MSS = 314), whereas 915 (71.7%) patients did receive chemotherapy (MSI-H = 58 and MSI-L/MSS = 857). The hazard ratio of MSI-H versus MSI-L/MSS was 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.94, p = 0.031) when chemotherapy was not received and 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.71, p = 0.466) when chemotherapy was received. In subgroup analyses, the prognosis of MSI-H was better in Stage III, women, with lymph node metastasis, and undifferentiated histology subgroups when chemotherapy was not received. However, in patients treated with chemotherapy, prognosis was worse for MSI-H tumors in Stage III, undifferentiated histology, and diffuse type subgroups of gastric cancer. In conclusion, MSI-H tumors were associated with a good prognosis in Stage II and III gastric cancer when patients were treated by surgery alone, and the benefits of MSI-H status were attenuated by chemotherapy. PMID:25614197

  18. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g., "fail", "mail",…

  19. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality. PMID:20553076

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Chang, Howard H; Christo, Dana K; Thuita, Lucy; Huang, Han Yao; Strickland, Paul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Clipp, Sandra; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the associations between 16 specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 obesity-related genes and overall and cause-specific mortality. We also examined the associations between the SNPs and body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI over time. Methods Data were analyzed from 9,919 individuals who participated in two large community-based cohort studies conducted in Washington County, Maryland in 1974 (CLUE I) and 1989 (CLUE II). DNA from blood collected in 1989 was genotyped for 16 SNPs in 8 obesity-related genes: monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), paraoxonase 1 and 2 (PON1 and PON2), leptin receptor (LEPR), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ and -δ (PPARG and PPARD). Data on height and weight in 1989 (CLUE II baseline) and at age 21 were collected from participants at the time of blood collection. All participants were followed from 1989 to the date of death or the end of follow-up in 2005. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain the relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP and mortality outcomes. Results The results showed no patterns of association for the selected SNPs and the all-cause and cause-specific mortality outcomes, although statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) were observed between PPARG rs4684847 and all-cause mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.11; TT: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.93) and cancer-related mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82, 1.25; TT: RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06, 0.90) and TNFα rs1799964 and cancer-related mortality (TT: reference; CT: RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47; CC: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.54, 1.28). Additional analyses showed significant associations between SNPs in LEPR with BMI (rs1137101) and change in BMI over time (rs1045895 and rs1137101). Conclusion Findings from this cohort study suggest that the selected SNPs are not

  1. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  2. Infer the Meaning of Unknown Words by Sheer Guess or by Clues?--An Exploration on the Clue Use in Chinese EFL Learner's Lexical Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Zhaochun

    2013-01-01

    Lexical inferencing is referred to as guessing the meaning of an unknown word using available linguistic and other clues. It is a primary lexical processing strategy to tackle unknown words while reading. This study aims to explore the clue use of Chinese EFL learners in inferring the meaning of unknown word in reading. Two types of introspective…

  3. Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: clues from environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H.; Collins, James W.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite advances in medical care, preterm birth and its associated racial/ethnic disparities remain major public health issues. Environmental exposures may contribute to racial disparities in preterm birth. Recent findings Recent work in Iran demonstrated lead levels <10 μg/dl to be associated with preterm birth and premature rupture of membranes. Data on air pollution are mixed. A study in California found exposure to nitric oxide species to be associated with preterm birth. However, results from large birth cohorts in the Netherlands found no association. Interestingly, a study in South Korea recently demonstrated that socioeconomic status modifies the association between air pollution and preterm birth. A recent promising study randomized minority pregnant women in Washington DC to cognitive behavioral therapy vs. usual care to decrease exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The investigators reported reductions in ETS exposure and the risk of very preterm birth. Summary Clues about potential mechanisms underlying disparities in preterm birth can be gained from exploring differences in environmental exposures. Investigators should include environmental variables when studying birth outcomes. Such efforts should result in targeted interventions to decrease the incidence of preterm birth and its disparities. PMID:21301340

  4. Data mining of VDJ genes reveals interesting clues.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajani R; Gupta, Vinay K

    2006-01-01

    Hypervariability of the complementary determining regions in characteristic structure of Immunoglobulins and the distinct, cell-specific expressions of the genes coding for this important class of proteins pose intriguing problems in experimental and computational/informatics research requiring a special approach different from those for the other proteins. We present here an Average Linkage Hierarchical Clustering of the Homosapien VDJ genes and the Immunoglobulin polypeptides generated by them using special kind of data structures and correlation matrices in place of the microarray data. The results reveal interesting clues on the heterogeneity of exon - intron locations in these gene-families and its possible role in hypervariability of the Immunoglobulins. PMID:16842114

  5. Fossils harbor climate clues and fuel debate over glacier stability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    At the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station in Antarctica, scientists have discovered fossils of well preserved wood and a mixture of microscopic marine organisms, dating from the Eocene epoch. This discovery promises significant clues to the onset of glaciation in Antarctica. Geologists believe that this discovery may shed light on Antarctica's link to world climate and help predict future climatic change. Debate centers around when glaciation first became extensive, 15 or 20 million years ago, and whether or not the ice sheet was dynamic and responsive to small fluctuations in climate or stable and able to lock up massive amounts of the world's water. 7 refs.

  6. Natural history of chronic HBV infection: a cohort study with up to 12 years follow-up in North Greece (part of the Interreg I-II/EC-project).

    PubMed

    Zacharakis, G H; Koskinas, J; Kotsiou, S; Papoutselis, M; Tzara, F; Vafeiadis, N; Archimandritis, A J; Papoutselis, K

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers in the general population in North Greece (Thrace), an area with an intermediate endemicity. This was a part of the Interreg I-II EC project. Two hundred sixty three chronic HBsAg+ carriers, median age 34 years (20-65), were evaluated prospectively for a median follow-up of 5 years (2-12). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers and ALT were examined every 6 months and serum HBV-DNA every 12 months. Liver biopsy was undertaken at presentation and every 2-4 years. Fourteen of 263 (5.3%) subjects were HBeAg+ and 249/263 (94.7%) HBeAg(-)/anti-HBe+ of whom 48 (19.3%) had elevated ALT, and HBV-DNA levels ranging from 1.4 x 10(5)-4 x 10(7) copies/ml. Inactive carriers (98/195 (50.3%)) had detectable HBV-DNA (median 2.6 x 10(3) range 0.042 x 10(4)-1.9 x 10(4) copies/ml); 4/195 (2%) exhibited HBV reactivation during the observation period (all had HBV-DNA >10(4) copies/ml at presentation). Patients (7/14 (50%) HBeAg+) developed anti-HBe+, annual rate 10%. Subjects (16/195 (8%)) lost HBsAg, all were inactive carriers; 10 developed anti-HBs (annual rate 1%). Liver biopsy was normal or with minimal changes in 92/95 (97%) inactive carriers and remained so at 4 years follow-up. In contrast, 4/48 (8.3%) HBeAg(-)/anti-HBe+ patients with active disease had deterioration of liver histology. In this cohort study: (a) the annual seroconversion rate was 1% for the HBsAg and 10% for the HBeAg, (b) 23.6% of the HBsAg+ carriers had active liver disease and 39% moderate fibrosis at presentation of whom a small proportion deteriorated over the observation period, (c) HBsAg carriers with HBV-DNA level <10(4) copies/ml had persistently normal ALT and unchanged liver histology over the follow-up period of up to 12 years. PMID:16121378

  7. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  8. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  9. Observations give us CLUES to Cosmic Flows' origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Jenny; Courtois, H.; Gottloeber, S.; Hoffman, Y.; Pomarede, D.; Tully, R. B.; Flows, Cosmic; CLUES

    2014-01-01

    In an era where the wealth of telescope-data and the development of computer superclusters keep increasing, the knowledge of Large Scale Structures' formation and evolution constitutes a tremendous challenge. Within this context the project Cosmic Flows has recently produced a catalog of peculiar velocities up to 150 Mpc. These velocities, obtained from direct distance measurements, are ideal markers of the underlying gravitational potential. They form a fantastic input to perform constrained simulations of the Local Universe within the CLUES project. A new method has recently been elaborated to achieve these simulations which prove to be excellent replicas of our neighborhood. The Wiener-Filter, the Reverse Zel'dovich Approximation and the Constrained Realization techniques are combined to build Initial Conditions. The resulting second generation of constrained simulations presents us the formidable history of the Great Attractor's and nearby supercluster's formation.

  10. Developing CLUE: A Formative Evaluation System for Computer Network Learning Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design and development of the Computer Logging of User Entries (CLUE) system for evaluating computer network-based learning courseware, or Web-based distance-education courseware. CLUE is an innovative evaluation system that combines computer-logging techniques with self-reporting methods used widely in the field of formative…

  11. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  12. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  13. Saturn's small inner satellites: clues to their origins.

    PubMed

    Porco, C C; Thomas, P C; Weiss, J W; Richardson, D C

    2007-12-01

    Cassini images of Saturn's small inner satellites (radii of less than approximately 100 kilometers) have yielded their sizes, shapes, and in some cases, topographies and mean densities. This information and numerical N-body simulations of accretionary growth have provided clues to their internal structures and origins. The innermost ring-region satellites have likely grown to the maximum sizes possible by accreting material around a dense core about one-third to one-half the present size of the moon. The other small satellites outside the ring region either may be close to monolithic collisional shards, modified to varying degrees by accretion, or may have grown by accretion without the aid of a core. We derived viscosity values of 87 and 20 square centimeters per second, respectively, for the ring material surrounding ring-embedded Pan and Daphnis. These moons almost certainly opened their respective gaps and then grew to their present size early on, when the local ring environment was thicker than it is today. PMID:18063794

  14. New vision based navigation clue for a regular colonoscope's tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaouar, Anouar; Ben Amar, Chokri; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2009-02-01

    Regular colonoscopy has always been regarded as a complicated procedure requiring a tremendous amount of skill to be safely performed. In deed, the practitioner needs to contend with both the tortuousness of the colon and the mastering of a colonoscope. So, he has to take the visual data acquired by the scope's tip into account and rely mostly on his common sense and skill to steer it in a fashion promoting a safe insertion of the device's shaft. In that context, we do propose a new navigation clue for the tip of regular colonoscope in order to assist surgeons over a colonoscopic examination. Firstly, we consider a patch of the inner colon depicted in a regular colonoscopy frame. Then we perform a sketchy 3D reconstruction of the corresponding 2D data. Furthermore, a suggested navigation trajectory ensued on the basis of the obtained relief. The visible and invisible lumen cases are considered. Due to its low cost reckoning, such strategy would allow for the intraoperative configuration changes and thus cut back the non-rigidity effect of the colon. Besides, it would have the trend to provide a safe navigation trajectory through the whole colon, since this approach is aiming at keeping the extremity of the instrument as far as possible from the colon wall during navigation. In order to make effective the considered process, we replaced the original manual control system of a regular colonoscope by a motorized one allowing automatic pan and tilt motions of the device's tip.

  15. Observational Clues to the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan; Mannucci, Filippo; Nelemans, Gijs

    2014-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important distance indicators, element factories, cosmic-ray accelerators, kinetic-energy sources in galaxy evolution, and end points of stellar binary evolution. It has long been clear that a SN Ia must be the runaway thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon-oxygen stellar core, most likely a white dwarf (WD). However, the specific progenitor systems of SNe Ia, and the processes that lead to their ignition, have not been identified. Two broad classes of progenitor binary systems have long been considered: single-degenerate (SD), in which a WD gains mass from a nondegenerate star; and double-degenerate (DD), involving the merger of two WDs. New theoretical work has enriched these possibilities with some interesting updates and variants. We review the significant recent observational progress in addressing the progenitor problem. We consider clues that have emerged from the observed properties of the various proposed progenitor populations, from studies of SN Ia sites—pre- and postexplosion—from analysis of the explosions themselves and from the measurement of event rates. The recent nearby and well-studied event, SN 2011fe, has been particularly revealing. The observational results are not yet conclusive and sometimes prone to competing theoretical interpretations. Nevertheless, it appears that DD progenitors, long considered the underdog option, could be behind some, if not all, SNe Ia. We point to some directions that may lead to future progress.

  16. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units. PMID:23764684

  17. TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues Spring 2016 Table of Contents ... heart attack at the age of 36. A crime reporter for WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., ...

  18. TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues Past Issues / Spring 2016 ... age of 36. A crime reporter for WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., her life revolved around ...

  19. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  20. Search for clues to Mesozoic graben on Long Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, W.B.; Aparisi, M.; Sirkin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The position of Long Island between the Hartford Basin of Connecticut and graben structures reported from seismic reflection studies offshore to the south of the island suggests the possibility that other grabens associated with the early Mesozoic rifting might be buried beneath central Long Island. The hypothesis that post-rift tectonic activity would be related to the rift grabens and that such activity would be expressed in the post-rift sedimentary deposits led to a study of the Cretaceous and Pleistocene section to seek clues for buried grabens on Long Island. The Pleistocene glacial deposits in central and eastern Long Island have been mapped and a pollen zonation in the Upper Cretaceous section in the central part established. This work, combined with literature research, suggests the following: 1. (1) In central Long Island, the spacing of wells which reach basement enables a NE- striking zone free of basement samples to be defined where a buried graben could occur. This zone is referred to as the "permissible zone" because within it the data permit the existence of a hidden graben. 2. (2) The abrupt changes in the thickness of some pollen zones in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of central Long Island may be related to Cretaceous faulting. 3. (3) Buried preglacial valleys, the confluence of glacial lobes and major glacial outwash channels seem concentrated in west central and central Long Island. The loci of these drainage features may reflect structural control by a basement depression. 4. (4) The "permissible zone" is aligned with the zone of structures in an offshore zone south of central Long Island and with the Hartford Basin in Connecticut. Geophysical anomalies also fit into this pattern. 5. (5) A definitive answer to the question of a buried graben on Long Island will require a seismic line across the "permissible zone", or further drilling. ?? 1989.

  1. Cohort Profile: The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study

    PubMed Central

    Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC3 brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC3 was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody–negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC3 PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695

  2. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  3. Can Structural Features of Kinase Receptors Provide Clues on Selectivity and Inhibition?: A Molecular Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Sarangan; Luke, Brian T.; Collins, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease resulting from the uncontrolled proliferation of cell signaling events. Protein kinases have been identified as central molecules that participate overwhelmingly in oncogenic events, thus becoming key targets for anticancer drugs. A majority of studies converged on the idea that ligand-binding pockets of kinases retain clues to the inhibiting abilities and cross-reacting tendencies of inhibitor drugs. Even though these ideas are critical for drug discovery, validating them using experiments is not only difficult, but in some cases infeasible. To overcome these limitations and to test these ideas at the molecular level, we present here the results of receptor-focused in-silico docking of nine marketed drugs to 19 different wild-type and mutated kinases chosen from a wide range of families. This investigation highlights the need for using relevant models to explain the correct inhibition trends and the results are used to make predictions that might be able to influence future experiments. Our simulation studies are able to correctly predict the primary targets for each drug studied in majority of cases and our results agree with the existing findings. Our study shows that the conformations a given receptor acquires during kinase activation, and their micro-environment, defines the ligand partners. Type II drugs display high compatibility and selectivity for DFG-out kinase conformations. On the other hand Type I drugs are less selective and show binding preferences for both the open and closed forms of selected kinases. Using this receptor-focused approach, it is possible to capture the observed fold change in binding affinities between the wild-type and disease-centric mutations in ABL kinase for Imatinib and the second-generation ABL drugs. The effects of mutation are also investigated for two other systems, EGFR and B-Raf. Finally, by including pathway information in the design it is possible to model kinase inhibitors with potentially

  4. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  5. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  6. Clues to (Radio) Galaxy Formation from Deep HST Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.

    We review recent clues from deep HST images on the formation and evolution of galaxies, and of μJy and mJy radio sources in particular. Constraints from the radio source counts over 7 dex in flux and 1 dex in frequency are discussed. We review recent results from deep HST primary and parallel surveys relevant to (radio) galaxy formation. The WFPC2 galaxy counts as a function of morphological type for B < ~ 27 mag show that E/S0's and Sabc's are only marginally above the non-evolving predictions. The faint blue galaxy counts are dominated by Sd/Irr's, and are explained by a combination of a moderately steep local luminosity function undergoing strong luminosity evolution plus low-luminosity lower-redshift dwarf galaxies. Deep WFPC2 images in the medium-band filter F410M yielded 18 faint, compact Lyα emitting candidates at z ≃ 2.4 surrounding the radio galaxy 53W002 at z𢐲.390, as well as 18 more z ≃ 2.4 candidates in three random parallel fields. These objects appear to be star-forming spheroids smaller (rhl ≍ 0''.1 or 0.5-1 kpc) and fainter (MV (z=0)=-17--> -21) than the bulges of typical galaxies seen today. They may the building blocks from which many of the luminous nearby galaxies were formed through repeated hierarchical mergers. HST/PC images in BV I - as well as in redshifted Lyα - of 53W002 show several morphological components: (1) a blue AGN with < ~ 20-25% of the total continuum light; (2) an r1/4-like light distribution with colors indicating a stellar population age ~0.4 Gyr; and (3) two small blue clouds roughly aligned with the radio axis and the main stellar population. We show that both reflected AGN light and jet-induced starformation likely play a role in explaining its "alignment effect". We discuss a possible formation and evolution scenario of 53W002 in context of its surrounding sub-galactic objects, and argue that it will end up like a giant elliptical today.

  7. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  8. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  9. Astronomers Discover Clue to Origin of Milky Way Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A surprising discovery that hydrogen gas clouds found in abundance in and above our Milky Way Galaxy have preferred locations has given astronomers a key clue about the origin of such clouds, which play an important part in galaxy evolution. We've concluded that these clouds are gas that has been blown away from the Galaxy's plane by supernova explosions and the fierce winds from young stars in areas of intense star formation," said H. Alyson Ford of the University of Michigan, whose Ph.D thesis research from Swinburne University formed the basis for this result. The team, consisting of Ford and collaborators Felix J. Lockman, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Naomi Mclure-Griffiths of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The astronomers studied gas clouds in two distinct regions of the Galaxy. The clouds they studied are between 400 and 15,000 light-years outside the disk-like plane of the Galaxy. The disk contains most of the Galaxy's stars and gas, and is surrounded by a "halo" of gas more distant than the clouds the astronomers studied. "These clouds were first detected with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and are quite puzzling. They are in a transitional area between the disk and the halo, and their origin has been uncertain," Lockman explained. The research team used data from the Galactic All-Sky Survey, made with CSIRO's Parkes radio telescope in Australia. When the astronomers compared the observations of the two regions, they saw that one region contained three times as many hydrogen clouds as the other. In addition, that region's clouds are, on average, twice as far above the Galaxy's plane. The dramatic difference, they believe, is because the region with more clouds lies near the tip of the Galaxy's central "bar," where the bar merges with a major spiral arm. This is an area of intense star formation

  10. CRITICAL DIFFERENCES AND CLUES IN ETA CAR'S 2009 EVENT ,

    SciTech Connect

    Mehner, Andrea; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Martin, John C.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ferland, Gary J.

    2011-10-20

    We monitored Eta Carinae with the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and Gemini GMOS throughout the 2009 spectroscopic event, which was expected to differ from its predecessor in 2003. Here we report major observed differences between events and their implications. Some of these results were quite unexpected. (1) The UV brightness minimum was much deeper in 2009. This suggests that physical conditions in the early stages of an event depend on different parameters than the 'normal' inter-event wind. Extra mass ejection from the primary star is one possible cause. (2) The expected He II {lambda}4687 brightness maximum was followed several weeks later by another. We explain why this fact and the timing of the {lambda}4687 maxima strongly support a 'shock breakup' hypothesis for X-ray and {lambda}4687 behavior as proposed 5-10 years ago. (3) We observed a polar view of the star via light reflected by dust in the Homunculus nebula. Surprisingly, at that location, the variations of emission-line brightness and Doppler velocities closely resembled a direct view of the star, which should not have been true for any phenomena related to the orbit. This result casts very serious doubt on all the proposed velocity interpretations that depend on the secondary star's orbital motion. (4) Latitude-dependent variations of H I, He I, and Fe II features reveal aspects of wind behavior during the event. In addition, we discuss implications of the observations for several crucial unsolved problems.

  11. 'Wake sign': an important clue for the diagnosis of scabies.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, J; Harada, T

    2009-08-01

    Japan is currently experiencing many outbreaks of scabies, occurring mainly in long-term care facilities. Scabies burrows, the only pathognomonic lesion for scabies, often occur on the creases of the palms, and are followed by a pattern of scale reminiscent of the 'wake' left on the surface of water by a moving bird or a ship (wake sign).(1-4) The wake sign is useful because (i) it is specific for scabies, (ii) it is sufficiently large to be found by the naked eye and (iii) it points towards the location of the mite and its products. Examination of patients' palms to look for this sign is a simple and efficient way to make a diagnosis of scabies throughout the course of an infestation. PMID:19077100

  12. Critical Differences and Clues in Eta Car's 2009 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, Andrea; Davidson, Kris; Martin, John C.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ferland, Gary J.

    2011-10-01

    We monitored Eta Carinae with the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and Gemini GMOS throughout the 2009 spectroscopic event, which was expected to differ from its predecessor in 2003. Here we report major observed differences between events and their implications. Some of these results were quite unexpected. (1) The UV brightness minimum was much deeper in 2009. This suggests that physical conditions in the early stages of an event depend on different parameters than the "normal" inter-event wind. Extra mass ejection from the primary star is one possible cause. (2) The expected He II λ4687 brightness maximum was followed several weeks later by another. We explain why this fact and the timing of the λ4687 maxima strongly support a "shock breakup" hypothesis for X-ray and λ4687 behavior as proposed 5-10 years ago. (3) We observed a polar view of the star via light reflected by dust in the Homunculus nebula. Surprisingly, at that location, the variations of emission-line brightness and Doppler velocities closely resembled a direct view of the star, which should not have been true for any phenomena related to the orbit. This result casts very serious doubt on all the proposed velocity interpretations that depend on the secondary star's orbital motion. (4) Latitude-dependent variations of H I, He I, and Fe II features reveal aspects of wind behavior during the event. In addition, we discuss implications of the observations for several crucial unsolved problems. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

  14. The Ability of Sixth Grade Pupils to Use Certain Verbal Context Clues in Listening and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lynette Yun Chau Char

    This study was designed to examine the ability of 256 above-average sixth-grade pupils to use six categories of verbal context clues in listening and reading. The extent to which success in determining deleted words was associated with the word form class membership of deleted words was also examined. A hierarchy of difficulty was established for…

  15. New Literacies and Multimediacy: The Immersive Universe of "The 39 Clues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Watson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    "The 39 Clues" (2009) is a multimedia series produced by Scholastic for readers 7-14 years old that includes printed texts released periodically; trading cards also published periodically in print and virtually; and a complex, intriguing, and entertaining website. To fully experience the multimedia series, the publishers expect that readers can…

  16. A suborbital experiment to study Circumgalactic Lines in Ultraviolet Emission (CLUE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Timothy; Wakker, Bart P.; Finn, Susanna; Martel, Jason F.

    2016-06-01

    We present the design and expected performance of CLUE, a new suborbital mission designed to image OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium of nearby galaxies. CLUE will act as a scientific pathfinder for future far ultraviolet emission missions. It will establish, on three nearby galaxies, the brightness, extent, and morphology of the OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium. These results will be essential in planning and evaluating any future FUV emission mission.The experiment will demonstrate an instrument design, called the monochromatic imager, which provides an all-reflective solution to the "narrow band imaging problem". Narrowband imaging is a staple astronomical technique. It allows observers to map the spatial distribution of ionic, atomic, and molecular features, and to determine the temperature, density, etc. of the emitting gas. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be applied in the far-ultraviolet band where transmissive materials are unavailable and ionic features are closely spaced, requiring a quickly varying spectral response.The monochromatic imager uses a conventional telescope with a grating monochromator to select the wavelength of interest. After passing through the monochromator an image of the target (now monochromatic) is focused on the detector. Unlike a push broom imaging system, CLUE produces a full image in a single emission line. CLUE is able to efficiently devote its observing time and detector area to collecting photons of interest while NOT devoting time and collecting area to recording uninteresting spectral regions.

  17. Cohort Profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up visits in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria CF; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana MB

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. PMID:24729426

  18. Fresh Clues in Eta Carinae's 2009.0 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Kris; Martin, J. C.; Humphreys, R. M.; Mehner, A.; Ishibashi, K.; Ferland, G.; Hamann, F.

    2009-05-01

    Eta Carinae's most recent spectroscopic event climaxed in January 2009 and revealed significant new information. We obtained UV images with the HST/WFPC2, and violet-to-red spectroscopy with GMOS on the Gemini South telescope. The new NICI instrument on Gemini South obtained a remarkable set of near-IR images shortly after the peak of the event. Improved temporal coverage proves to be critical. With both HST/WFPC2 and Gemini/GMOS, the time intervals between observations were substantially smaller than we had achieved with HST/STIS and HST/ACS during the preceding event in mid-2003. Thus we find, for example, that the UV brightness of the central wind changed much faster than previous data could show or even hint. Meanwhile the behavior of the strange He II 4686 emission is greatly clarified, and a number of other features differed from the 2003 event. Regarding pre-event developments, Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy in 2007--2008 can be used to derive fresh constraints on the orbit of eta Car's hypothetical hot companion star. The high-spatial-resolution near-IR images obtained with Gemini/NICI show a dramatic new view of eta Car's Homunculus ejecta-nebula. Because of lesser extinction, these show deeper structure than the familiar HST images; some of the most conspicuous large near-IR structures have no UV-to-red counterparts. This program is partially funded by grants from STScI.

  19. CLUE-TIPS, clustering methods for pattern analysis of LC-MS data.

    PubMed

    Akella, Lakshmi Manohar; Rejtar, Tomas; Orazine, Christina; Hincapie, Marina; Hancock, William S

    2009-10-01

    Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics is an important tool in detecting changes in peptide/protein abundances in samples potentially leading to the discovery of disease biomarker candidates. We present CLUE-TIPS (Clustering Using Euclidean distance in Tanimoto Inter-Point Space), an approach that compares complex proteomic samples for similarity/dissimilarity analysis. In CLUE-TIPS, an intersample distance feature map is generated from filtered, aligned and binarized raw LC-MS data by applying the Tanimoto distance metric to obtain normalized similarity scores between all sample pairs for each m/z value. We developed clustering and visualization methods for the intersample distance map to analyze various samples for differences at the sample level as well as the individual m/z level. An approach to query for specific m/z values that are associated with similarity/dissimilarity patterns in a set of samples was also briefly described. CLUE-TIPS can also be used as a tool in assessing the quality of LC-MS runs. The presented approach does not rely on tandem mass-spectrometry (MS/MS), isotopic labels or gels and also does not rely on feature extraction methods. CLUE-TIPS suite was applied to LC-MS data obtained from plasma samples collected at various time points and treatment conditions from immunosuppressed mice implanted with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The generated raw LC-MS data was used for pattern analysis and similarity/dissimilarity detection. CLUE-TIPS successfully detected the differences/similarities in samples at various time points taken during the progression of tumor, and also recognized differences/similarities in samples representing various treatment conditions. PMID:19725534

  20. Cohort Size Effects and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.

    1983-01-01

    Explores whether changes in the size of cohorts entering the labor force affected the propensity within the U.S. labor force to migrate and socioeconomic circumstances of migrants at destination within 1965-76. Suggests that a significant reduction in the volume of migration among members of the baby boom cohort was the primary adjustment…

  1. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids: fishing for clues for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 intake ratio of 1:10 favoring inflammation. Cohort and/or case control studies suggest EPA and DHA are promising for breast, colon, and prostate cancer risk reduction. Mechanistic studies largely in preclinical models suggest EPA and DHA reduce synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and other inflammatory cytokines, decrease aromatase activity and proliferation, promote differentiation and apoptosis, and enhance insulin sensitivity. Animal models using 7% to 20% omega-3 added to chow are promising; however, this amount of omega-3 in a diet is unlikely to be acceptable to humans. The optimal EPA:DHA ratio or the lowest effective dose of EPA and DHA for cancer prevention is unclear, but it is likely to be more than 600 mg/day, which is six times the average American intake. Most phase II prevention trials use 1 to 3.3 g of EPA and DHA, which is safe and well tolerated. Two grams of EPA was associated with fewer polyps in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Identification of serum risk biomarkers modulated by EPA and DHA in healthy humans has remained elusive, but phase II prevention trials with tissue obtained for risk and response biomarkers are ongoing. PMID:23714467

  2. Multiple sclerosis in time and space--geographic clues to cause.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    2000-05-01

    Geographically MS describes three frequency zones. High frequency areas (prevalence 30+ per 100 000) now comprise most of Europe, Israel, Canada, northern US, southeastern Australia, New Zealand, and easternmost Russia. Medium frequency areas include southern US, most of Australia, South Africa, the southern Mediterranean basin, Russia into Siberia, the Ukraine and parts of Latin America. Prevalence rates under 5 per 100 000 are found in the rest of Asia, Africa and northern South America. Migrants from high to lower risk areas retain the MS risk of their birth place only if they are at least age 15 at migration. Those from low to high increase their risk even beyond that of the natives, with susceptibility extending from about age 11 to 45. Thus MS is ordinarily acquired in early adolescence with a lengthy latency before symptom onset. MS occurred in epidemic form in North Atlantic islands: probably in Iceland and the Shetland-Orkneys; clearly in the Faroe Islands. In the Faroes first symptom onset was in 1943, heralding the first of four successive epidemics at 13 year intervals. The disease was presumably introduced by occupying British troops during World War II, with the postwar occurrences representing later transmissions to and from consecutive cohorts of Faroese. What was transmitted is thought to be a specific, widespread, persistent infection called PMSA (the primary multiple sclerosis affection) which only rarely leads years later to clinical MS. Search for PMSA is best attempted on the Faroes where there are regions still free of MS after 50 years. PMID:10871801

  3. Birth cohort effects and gender differences in alcohol epidemiology: a review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has demonstrated substantial temporal trends, with some evidence suggesting strong birth cohort effects. The identification of at-risk birth cohorts can inform the interpretation of alcohol trends across age, time, and demographic characteristics such as gender. The present literature review has two objectives. First, we conduct a cross-national review of the literature on birth cohort differences in alcohol consumption, disorder, and mortality. Second, we determine the consistency of evidence for birth cohort effects on gender differences. Methods A search was conducted and key data on population characteristics, presence and direction of cohort effects, and interactions with gender compiled. Thirty-one articles were included. Results Evidence suggests that younger birth cohorts in North America, especially those born after World War II, are more likely than older cohorts to engage in heavy episodic drinking and develop alcohol disorders, but this cohort effect is not found in Australia and Western Europe. Cross-nationally, substantial evidence indicates that women in younger cohorts are at especially high risk for heavy episodic drinking and alcohol disorders. Discussion Younger birth cohorts in North America and Europe are engaging in more episodic and problem drinking. The gender gap in alcohol problems is narrowing in many countries, suggesting shifting social norms surrounding gender and alcohol consumption. These trends suggest that public health efforts to specifically target heavy drinking in women are necessary. PMID:21919918

  4. A Cohort, Is a Cohort, Is a Cohort...or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Akkary, Rima Karami

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a multi-year qualitative study based upon life-history narratives of women pursuing doctoral degrees in Educational Leadership. This paper focuses on findings specific to educational cohort models, and suggests that perhaps, at least for women, naturally emergent cohorts--born of relationships of choice--may be…

  5. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B

    1994-02-01

    With the application of molecular techniques the aetiopathogenesis of skeletal dysplasias is gradually elucidated. Recent advances show that some bone dysplasias result from defects in the biosynthesis of type II (cartilage) collagen. Clinical entities caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene coding for type II collagen comprise achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler arthroophthalmopathy and mild dominant spondyloarthropathy. The mutations are expressed in the heterozygous state, and inheritance of type II collagenopathies is autosomal dominant. The wide range of clinical manifestations is not well understood but characterization of the basic defect may provide clues to establish specific genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:8157027

  6. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  7. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  8. Cohort: critical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned vehicle systems is an attractive technology for the military, but whose promises have remained largely undelivered. There currently exist fielded remote controlled UGVs and high altitude UAV whose benefits are based on standoff in low complexity environments with sufficiently low control reaction time requirements to allow for teleoperation. While effective within there limited operational niche such systems do not meet with the vision of future military UxV scenarios. Such scenarios envision unmanned vehicles operating effectively in complex environments and situations with high levels of independence and effective coordination with other machines and humans pursing high level, changing and sometimes conflicting goals. While these aims are clearly ambitious they do provide necessary targets and inspiration with hopes of fielding near term useful semi-autonomous unmanned systems. Autonomy involves many fields of research including machine vision, artificial intelligence, control theory, machine learning and distributed systems all of which are intertwined and have goals of creating more versatile broadly applicable algorithms. Cohort is a major Applied Research Program (ARP) led by Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Suffield and its aim is to develop coordinated teams of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) for urban environments. This paper will discuss the critical science being addressed by DRDC developing semi-autonomous systems.

  9. Career clue: an interactive teaching strategy to introduce beginning students to the nursing profession.

    PubMed

    Lever, Kathryn Ann

    2010-02-01

    An assignment incorporating active learning, computerized technology, and contact with RNs or Real Nurses was created to educate, enthuse, and heighten the awareness of nursing students about the world of nursing that exists beyond the classroom walls. Students gather information about an assigned field of nursing and share findings with classmates by giving clues about their mystery careers related to educational background, practice location, clientele, responsibilities, rewards, and challenges associated with the area of practice. Access to Web sites, RN e-mails, and guidelines are provided via an online Blackboard(®) learning system. Students benefit by gaining experience in the use of different types of computerized technology while being educated about the extensive career options available in nursing. The Career Clue assignment is a creative teaching strategy that has been used since 2003 and has consistently received positive feedback from students. PMID:19877569

  10. Boerhaave's syndrome - tension hydropneumothorax and rapidly developing hydropneumothorax: two radiographic clues in one case.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Ho, Lam; Tran Van, Ngoc; Le, Thuong Vu

    2016-07-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome is a rare and severe condition with high mortality partly because of its atypical presentation resulting in delayed diagnosis and management. Diagnostic clues play an important role in the approach to this syndrome. Here, we report a 48 year-old male patient hospitalized with fever and left chest pain radiating into the interscapular area. Two chest radiographs undertaken 22 h apart showed a rapidly developing tension hydropneumothorax. The amylase level in the pleural fluid was high. The fluid in the chest tube turned bluish after the patient drank methylene blue. The diagnosis of Boerhaave's syndrome was suspected based on the aforementioned clinical clues and confirmed at the operation. The patient recovered completely with the use of antibiotics and surgical treatment. In this case, we describe key findings on chest radiographs that are useful in diagnosing Boerhaave's syndrome. PMID:27512563

  11. Boerhaave's syndrome – tension hydropneumothorax and rapidly developing hydropneumothorax: two radiographic clues in one case

    PubMed Central

    Tran Van, Ngoc; Le, Thuong Vu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Boerhaave's syndrome is a rare and severe condition with high mortality partly because of its atypical presentation resulting in delayed diagnosis and management. Diagnostic clues play an important role in the approach to this syndrome. Here, we report a 48 year‐old male patient hospitalized with fever and left chest pain radiating into the interscapular area. Two chest radiographs undertaken 22 h apart showed a rapidly developing tension hydropneumothorax. The amylase level in the pleural fluid was high. The fluid in the chest tube turned bluish after the patient drank methylene blue. The diagnosis of Boerhaave's syndrome was suspected based on the aforementioned clinical clues and confirmed at the operation. The patient recovered completely with the use of antibiotics and surgical treatment. In this case, we describe key findings on chest radiographs that are useful in diagnosing Boerhaave's syndrome. PMID:27512563

  12. The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Musumi-Rokkaku, Satoko; Satake, Kenji; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Kazue; Yamaguchi, David K.

    2005-01-01

    The Orphan Tsunami of 1700, now in its second edition, tells this scientific detective story through its North American and Japanese clues. The discoveries underpin many of today’s precautions against earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region of northwestern North America. The Japanese tsunami of March 2011 called attention to those hazards as a mirror image of the transpacific waves of January 1700.

  13. Image projection clues for improved real-time vehicle tracking in tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaca, Vedran; Niño Castaneda, Jorge Oswaldo; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle tracking is of great importance for tunnel safety. To detect incidents or disturbances in traffic flow it is necessary to reliably track vehicles in real-time. The tracking is a challenging task due to poor lighting conditions in tunnels and frequent light reflections from tunnel walls, the road and the vehicles themselves. In this paper we propose a multi-clue tracking approach combining foreground blobs, optical flow of Shi-Tomasi features and image projection profiles in a Kalman filter with a constant velocity model. The main novelty of our approach lies in using vertical and horizontal image projection profiles (so-called vehicle signatures) as additional measurements to overcome the problems of inconsistent foreground and optical flow clues in cases of severe lighting changes. These signatures consist of Radon-transform like projections along each image column and row. We compare the signatures from two successive video frames to align them and to correct the predicted vehicle position and size. We tested our approach on a real tunnel video sequence. The results show an improvement in the accuracy of the tracker and less target losses when image projection clues are used. Furthermore, calculation and comparison of image projections is computationally efficient so the tracker keeps real-time performance (25 fps, on a single 1.86 GHz processor).

  14. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  15. Improving Music Appreciation Class Using Cohort Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buel, Dona L.; Welch, Samuel C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a college level music appreciation course that combines cohort analysis, action research methods, and distance learning. Students identify generational cohorts and use research methods to determine the preferred musical forms of the cohort. Describes a "cohort," a music appreciation Web site, the course structure, and benefits of the…

  16. Blindness Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults, yet researchers are still in the dark about many of the factors that cause this incurable disease. But new insight from University of Florida (UF) and German researchers about a genetic link between rhesus monkeys with macular degeneration and humans could unlock…

  17. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  18. Seeking new mutation clues from Bacillus licheniformis amylase by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Amylase is one of the most important industrial enzymes in the world. Researchers have been searching for a highly thermal stable mutant for many years, but most focus on point mutations of one or few nitrogenous bases. According to this molecular dynamic simulation of amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), the deletion of some nitrogenous bases would be more efficacious than point mutations. The simulation reveals strong fluctuation of the BLA structure at optimum temperature. The fluctuation of the outer domains of BLA is stronger than that of the core domain. Molecular simulation provides a clue to design thermal stable amylases through deletion mutations in the outer domain.

  19. Giant axonal neuropathy: a rare inherited neuropathy with simple clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Kamate, Mahesh; Ramakrishna, Shashikala; Kambali, Shweta; Mahadevan, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterised by accumulation of excess neurofilaments in the axons of peripheral and central nervous systems, which hampers signal transmission. It usually manifests in infancy and early childhood and is slowly progressive. Those affected with GAN have characteristic curly kinky hair, everted feet and a crouched gait, which suggest the diagnosis in most cases. We describe twin children who presented with difficulty in walking and an abnormal gait since they began walking; clinical clues such as hair changes led us to the final diagnosis. PMID:25216920

  20. Structure and morphology of submarine slab slides: clues to origin and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Geologic features suggest that some slab slides probably result from long-term strength degradation of weak layers deep in the homoclinal section. Time-dependent strain in clay-rich layers can create potential slide surfaces of low frictional strength. Competent layers are weak in tension and probably fragment in the first instance of, or even prior to, translation, and the allochthonous mass is readily transformed into a high-momentum debris flow. The structure and geomorphology of slab slides provide important clues to their origin and behavior. -from Author

  1. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies. PMID:26955090

  2. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  3. The "Umbrella Sign": A Useful Clue in the Diagnosis of Melanocytic Lesions in Sun Damaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Wood, Benjamin A; Harvey, Nathan T

    2016-07-01

    As ultraviolet radiation is an important aetiological agent in melanoma development, the presence of solar elastosis is an important factor in the assessment of any melanocytic lesion. However, melanocytic naevi are also seen in chronically sun damaged skin, particularly in regions with high levels of ultraviolet exposure and fair skinned populations. It has previously been noted that the relationship of a melanocytic proliferation to elastic fibers in the dermis can be of discriminatory value in the separation of melanoma from melanocytic naevus, in particular, it has been proposed that naevi act as a "sunscreen," which may result in a histological clue that the authors colloquially refer to in practice as "the umbrella sign." The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of solar elastosis within and beneath melanocytic proliferations developing in sun damaged skin and to determine the utility of the "umbrella sign" in diagnostic practice. We assessed 81 melanocytic proliferations in sun damaged skin for the presence of an umbrella sign, that was present in 49/53 melanocytic naevi (92%) compared with only 2/28 melanomas (7%, P < 0.05). In addition, entrapped elastotic fibers displaying distinct purple discolouration were identified in 16 melanocytic naevi. This finding was not identified in any of the melanomas. The umbrella sign appears to be a useful clue in the distinction of melanoma from melanocytic naevus in sun damaged skin, although as with all histological features in melanocytic pathology, it requires interpretation within a multifactorial assessment cognizant of potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26909586

  4. 'I knew before I was told': Breaches, cues and clues in the diagnostic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Locock, Louise; Nettleton, Sarah; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Ryan, Sara; Ziebland, Sue

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis can be both a 'diagnostic moment', but also a process over time. This paper uses secondary analysis of narrative interviews on ovarian cancer, antenatal screening and motor neurone disease to explore how people relate assembling procedural, spatial and interactional evidence before the formal diagnostic moment. We offer the idea of a diagnostic assemblage to capture the ways in which individuals connect to and re-order signs and events that come to be associated with their bodies. Building on the empirical work of Poole and Lyne (2000) in the field of breast cancer diagnosis, we identify how patients describe being alerted to their diagnosis, either through 'clues' they report picking up (often inadvertently) or through 'cues', perceived as a more intentional prompt given by a health professional, or an organisational process. For patients, these clues frequently represent a breach in the expected order of their encounter with healthcare. Even seemingly mundane episodes or behaviours take on meanings which health professionals may not themselves anticipate. Our findings speak to an emergent body of work demonstrating that experiences of formal healthcare during the lead-up to diagnosis shape patients' expectations, degree of trust in professionals, and even health outcomes. PMID:26945546

  5. Herschel Observations of the W3 GMC (II): Clues to the Formation of Clusters of High-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Martin, P. G.; Polychroni, D.; Schneider, N.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Zavagno, A.; André, Ph.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Di Francesco, J.; Fallscheer, C.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Pezzuto, S.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    The W3 giant molecular cloud is a prime target for investigating the formation of high-mass stars and clusters. This second study of W3 within the HOBYS Key Program provides a comparative analysis of subfields within W3 to further constrain the processes leading to the observed structures and stellar population. Probability density functions (PDFs) and cumulative mass distributions (CMDs) were created from dust column density maps, quantified as extinction {A}{{V}}. The shape of the PDF, typically represented with a lognormal function at low {A}{{V}} “breaking” to a power-law tail at high {A}{{V}}, is influenced by various processes including turbulence and self-gravity. The breaks can also be identified, often more readily, in the CMDs. The PDF break from lognormal ({A}{{V}}(SF) ≈ \\6-10 mag) appears to shift to higher {A}{{V}} by stellar feedback, so that high-mass star-forming regions tend to have higher PDF breaks. A second break at {A}{{V}}\\gt 50 mag traces structures formed or influenced by a dynamic process. Because such a process has been suggested to drive high-mass star formation in W3, this second break might then identify regions with potential for hosting high-mass stars/clusters. Stellar feedback appears to be a major mechanism driving the local evolution and state of regions within W3. A high initial star formation efficiency in a dense medium could result in a self-enhancing process, leading to more compression and favorable star formation conditions (e.g., colliding flows), a richer stellar content, and massive stars. This scenario would be compatible with the “convergent constructive feedback” model introduced in our previous Herschel study.

  6. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  7. Subtle clues to the diagnosis of the herpesvirus by light microscopy. Herpetic syringitis.

    PubMed

    Sangueza, O P; Gordon, M D; White, C R

    1995-04-01

    Among the numerous infections to which AIDS patients are susceptible, those caused by herpesvirus (simplex and varicella/zoster) are among the most common. Because herpetic infections may be the first manifestations of AIDS and often are associated with poor prognosis, rapid and accurate diagnosis of them is imperative. Herpesvirus infection may be diagnosed histopathologically by the presence of ballooned, acantholytic, and multinucleated keratinocytes; intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions; steel gray color of affected keratinocytic cytoplasm and nuclei, chromatin margination, and necrotic acantholytic keratinocytes in older lesions. These changes are often limited to the epidermis, but there may frequently be involvement of epithelia of follicles (herpetic folliculitis) and sebaceous glands as well. Similar changes, although seldom noted, may be present in eccrine ducts and glands (herpetic syringitis). Recognition of subtle histologic clues concerning the secretory and ductal components of sweat glands in an unusual case of herpes infection facilitated rapid diagnosis in an AIDS patient, allowing appropriate treatment. PMID:8600782

  8. Age at onset of Alzheimer's disease: clue to the relative importance of etiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    Clues to the relative importance of possible etiologic factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type may be gained by examining the fit of case series to Sartwell's model of the distribution of incubation periods. If age at disease onset is used as the incubation period of this disease, a genetic or environmental factor acting during the prenatal period is suggested if the distribution of these ages fits the lognormal curve; otherwise, environmental factors acting after birth are implicated. Case series were identified from the literature. Four case series were found which contained sufficiently detailed data to permit this secondary analysis; only one case series was population-based. The distribution of age at disease onset for each series was graphically and statistically assessed for fit to the logarithmic normal distribution. Each case series fit the lognormal curve well. This suggests that research into the etiology of dementia of the Alzheimer type should focus on the prenatal experiences of patients with this disease.

  9. Solar irradiances measured using SPN1 radiometers: uncertainties and clues for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, J.; Wood, J.; Blanc, P.; Long, C. N.; Vuilleumier, L.; Demengel, D.; Haeffelin, M.

    2014-08-01

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also for the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping low capital, maintenance and operating costs. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the art measurements.

  10. Solar irradiances measured using SPN1 radiometers: uncertainties and clues for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, J.; Wood, J.; Blanc, P.; Long, C. N.; Vuilleumier, L.; Demengel, D.; Haeffelin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, for not only the global but also the diffuse and direct components. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping low capital, maintenance and operating costs. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, drawing on laboratory experiments, numerical modelling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the art measurements.

  11. CHILD syndrome with mild skin lesions: histopathologic clues for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Susanne; Rütten, Arno; Requena, Luis; Gassenmaier, Gerhard; Landthaler, Michael; Hafner, Christian

    2014-10-01

    CHILD syndrome is an acronym signifying congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects. A 27-year-old woman presented with chronic verrucous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions involving the left genital area, left hand and left foot since childhood. The histopathologic findings were consistent with verruciform xanthoma. In correlation with the clinical picture of a linear lesion, the diagnosis of CHILD nevus was made. Subsequent genetic analysis identified a germline c.324C>T (p.A105V) NSDHL mutation and confirmed a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome. This syndrome can be associated with only minimal clinical symptoms. The anatomical distribution of the lesions, a static clinical course and the typical histopathologic features of a CHILD nevus can serve as the clue to a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome in such cases. PMID:25093865

  12. Some clues to understand MOND and the accelerated expansion of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Hasmukh K.

    2011-12-01

    This letter points out that the values of `critical-acceleration' of MOND, and the `accelerated-expansion' of the universe are just two of the fourteen strikingly equal values of accelerations recurring in different physical situations. Some of them could be explained by a new law of equality of potential-energy and energy-of-mass of reasonably-independent systems (Tank in Astrophys. Space Sci. 330:203-205, 2010; Tank in Adv. Stud. Theor. Phys. 5:45-55, 2011). This new conservation-law, of equality of potential-energy, energy-of-mass and `kinetic-energy' may be a clue to understand MOND, and the `accelerated-expansion' of the universe. Alternative expressions for the cosmological red-shift, the `critical-acceleration' of MOND and Newton's law of universal gravitation are also presented for comparison of three different accelerations.

  13. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  14. 34 CFR 668.183 - Calculating and applying cohort default rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Program (as defined in 34 CFR 685.102) that is used to repay those loans. (2) A borrower may be included...) Rehabilitated under 34 CFR 682.405 or 34 CFR 685.211(e); or (ii) Repurchased by a lender because the claim for... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating and applying cohort default rates....

  15. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  16. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499

  17. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed. PMID:25064641

  18. A cohort model of fertility postponement.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Cassidy, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces "fertility momentum," with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  19. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  20. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  1. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  2. The leaf annals. [Fossil leaves provide clues about ancient carbon dioxide levels

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-08-28

    Knowing what ancient variations in the concentration of carbon dioxide, indicative of climatic change, in the earth's atmosphere have occurred, can help scientists predict what lies in store for the next century as pollution drives carbon dioxide levels up. A new technique offers hope for tracing carbon dioxide levels back in time. Paleobotanists report that morphological studies of fossil leaves can offer a clue. Research on vegetation growing in greenhouse has shown that the density of stomata depends on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, a relationship found also outside the greenhouse. Palobotanists have developed a stomatal index to evaluate ancient leaves, and then have gone further by devising an equation relating stomata indexes to carbon dioxide concentrations of ancient times. This technique suggests that gas levels 10 million years ago averaged around 370 ppm, then dropped to 280 ppm during a cool spell, later rising back to 370 ppm. As with other techniques, this has some critisms, mentioned in the article, but it does add to the information available for evaluating future climatic change.

  3. Central Metabolic Pathways of Hyperthermophiles: Important Clues on how Metabolism Gives Rise to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronimus, R. S.; Morgan, H. W.

    2004-06-01

    Vital clues on life's origins within the galaxy exist here on present day Earth. Life is currently divided into the three domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya based on the phylogeny of small ribosomal subunit RNA (16S/18S) gene sequences. The domains are presumed to share a ``last universal common ancestor'' (LUCA). Hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea, which are able to thrive at 80^{circ}C or higher, dominate the bottom of the tree of life and are thus suggested to be the least evolved, or most ``ancient''. Geochemical data indicates that life first appeared on Earth approximately 3.8 billion years ago in a hot environment. Due to these considerations, hyperthermophiles represent the most appropriate microorganisms to investigate the origins of metabolism. The central biochemical pathway of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis (the Embden-Meyerhof pathway) which produces six carbon sugars from three carbon compounds is present in all organisms and can provide important hints concerning the early development of metabolism. Significantly, there are a number of striking deviations from the textbook canonical reaction sequence that are found, particularly in hyperthermophilic archaea. In this paper the phylogenetic istribution of enzymes of the pathway is detailed; overall, the distribution pattern provides strong evidence for the pathway to have developed from the bottom-up.

  4. Does Variation in Genome Sizes Reflect Adaptive or Neutral Processes? New Clues from Passiflora

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Tamara C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the long-standing paradoxes in genomic evolution is the observation that much of the genome is composed of repetitive DNA which has been typically regarded as superfluous to the function of the genome in generating phenotypes. In this work, we used comparative phylogenetic approaches to investigate if the variations in genome sizes (GS) should be considered as adaptive or neutral processes by the comparison between GS and flower diameters (FD) of 50 Passiflora species, more specifically, within its two most species-rich subgenera, Passiflora and Decaloba. For this, we have constructed a phylogenetic tree of these species, estimated GS and FD of them, inferred the tempo and mode of evolution of these traits and their correlations, using both current and phylogenetically independent contrasted values. We found significant correlations among the traits, when considering the complete set of data or only the subgenus Passiflora, whereas no correlations were observed within Decaloba. Herein, we present convincing evidence of adaptive evolution of GS, as well as clues that this pattern is limited by a minimum genome size, which could reduce both the possibilities of changes in GS and the possibility of phenotypic responses to environment changes. PMID:21464897

  5. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

  6. Biological clues on neuronal degeneration based on theoretical fits of decay patterns: towards a mathematical neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2010-01-01

    The application of the best mathematical fit to quantitative data on cell death over time in models of nervous abiotrophies can yield useful clues as to the cellular properties of degenerative processes. We review data obtained in two neurogenetic models of movement disorders in the laboratory mouse, the 'Purkinje cell degeneration' (pcd) mutant, a model of cerebellar ataxia, and the 'weaver' (wv) mutant, a combined degeneration of multiple systems including the mesostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In the cerebellum of pcd mice, analyses of transsynaptic granule cell death subsequent to the genetically-determined degeneration of Purkinje cells show that granule neuron fallout follows a typical pattern of exponential decay. In the midbrain of weaver mice, regression fits show that dopaminergic neuron fallout combines two independent components, an initial exponential decay, superceded by a linear regression, with a threshold around 100 days. The biological connotations of such analyses are discussed in light of the empirical observations and the theoretical simulation models. The theoretical connotations may link neuron loss to specific cellular idiosyncracies in elucidating the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. PMID:20383806

  7. Clues for a Tortonian reconstruction of the Gibraltar Arc: Structural pattern, deformation diachronism and block rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    We proposed a reconstruction of one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth: the Gibraltar Arc System. This reconstruction, which includes onshore and offshore data, is completed for approximately 9 Ma. The clues that lead us to draw it are based on a review in terms of structures and age of the superposed deformational events that took place during Miocene, with special attention to the external zones. This review and new structural data presented in this paper permit us to constrain the timing of vertical axis-rotations evidenced by previously published paleomagnetic data, and to identify homogeneous domains in terms of relationships between timing of deformation events, (re)magnetization and rotations. In particular, remagnetization in the Betics took place after the main shortening which produced the external fold-and-thrust belts (pre-upper Miocene), but was mostly previous to a contractive reorganization that affected the whole area; it should have occurred during lower Tortonian (between 9.9 and 11 Ma). From Tortonian to Present, block-rotations as high as 53° took place. Together with plate convergence, they accommodated a tightening and lengthening of the Gibraltar Arc System and drastically altered its geometry. As the orientation and position of any pre-9 Ma kinematic indicator or structural element is also modified, our reconstruction should be used as starting point for any pre-Tortonian model of the westernmost orogenic segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean system.

  8. Angiotensin A/Alamandine/MrgD Axis: Another Clue to Understanding Cardiovascular Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular regulations and its modulation is a challenging target for the vast majority of cardioprotective strategies. However, many biological effects of these drugs cannot be explained by the known mode of action. Our comprehension of the RAS is thus far from complete. The RAS represents an ingenious system of “checks and balances”. It incorporates vasoconstrictive, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory compounds on one hand and molecules with opposing action on the other hand. The list of these molecules is still not definitive because new biological properties can be achieved by minor alteration of the molecular structure. The angiotensin A/alamandine-MrgD cascade associates the deleterious and protective branches of the RAS. Its identification provided a novel clue to the understanding of the RAS. Angiotensin A (Ang A) is positioned at the “crossroad” in this system since it either elicits direct vasoconstrictive and pro-proliferative actions or it is further metabolized to alamandine, triggering opposing effects. Alamandine, the central molecule of this cascade, can be generated both from the “deleterious” Ang A as well as from the “protective” angiotensin 1–7. This pathway modulates peripheral and central blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. Further research will elucidate its interactions in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its possible therapeutic implications. PMID:27447621

  9. Systematic chemical variations in large 3AB iron meteorites: Clues to core crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.; Rubio, G. S.; Gutierrez, D. F.; Lewis, C. F.; Wasson, J. T.; Brooks, R. R.; Guo, X.; Ryan, D. E.; Holzbecher, J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of numerous individual iron meteorites have shown that fractional crystallization of iron cores result in variations in chemical concentration of the solid core which span several orders of magnitude. The magnitude and direction of the resulting spatial gradients in the core can provide clues to the physical nature of the core crystallization process. We have analyzed suites of samples from three large 3AB irons (Cape York, 58t; Chupaderos, 24t; Morito, 10t) in order to estimate local chemical gradients. Initial results for the concentrations of Ge, Pd, Pt (Massey group), Ir, Au, As, Co, Os, and Rh (Dalhouse group), and P (Arizona group) show significant ranges among the Cape York and Chupaderos samples and marginally significant ranges among the Morito samples. Measurements of Au, Ir, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, W, Re (from UCLA) and Ni and Co (Arizona group) are in progress. We find a spatial Ir gradient in Chupaderos with a magnitude similar to the one reported for Agpalilik (Cape York iron) by Esbensen et al.

  10. Clues to the Formation of Lenticular Galaxies Using Spectroscopic Bulge-Disk Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, E. J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies have long been thought of as evolved spirals, but the processes involved to quench the star formation are still unclear. By studying the individual star formation histories of the bulges and disks of lenticulars, it is possible to look for clues to the processes that triggered their transformation from spirals. To accomplish this feat, we present a new method for spectroscopic bulge-disk decomposition, in which a long-slit spectrum is decomposed into two one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disk light. We present preliminary results from applying this method to lenticular galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, in which we show that the most recent star formation activity in these galaxies occurred within the bulges. We also find that the star formation timescales of the bulges are longer than the disks, and that more massive galaxies take longer to lose their gas during the transformation. These results point towards slow processes, such as ram-pressure stripping or harassment, being the mechanism responsible for the quenching of star formation in spirals, followed by a burst of star formation in the central regions from the gas that has been funnelled inwards through the disk.

  11. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. PMID:25870250

  12. Autoinflammatory bone disorders: update on immunologic abnormalities and clues about possible triggers

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Ferguson, Polly J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review To provide an update on the genetics and immunologic basis of autoinflammatory bone disorders including chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis including the monogenic forms of the disease. Recent findings Ongoing research in murine, canine and human models of sterile bone inflammation has solidified the hypothesis that sterile bone inflammation can be genetically driven. Mutations in Pstpip2, LPIN2 and IL1RN have been identified in monogenic autoinflammatory bone disorders that have allowed more detailed dissection of the immunologic defects that can produce sterile osteomyelitis. Recent studies in murine chronic multifocal osteomyelitis, deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), Majeed syndrome and SAPHO syndrome reveal abnormalities in innate immune system function. IL-1 pathway dysregulation is present in several of these disorders and blocking IL-1 therapeutically has resulted in control of disease in DIRA, Majeed syndrome and in some cases of SAPHO and CRMO. Basic research demonstrates the importance of the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis and offer clues about potential disease triggers. Summary Research and clinical data produced over the last several years support the important role of innate immunity in sterile osteomyelitis. Based on what has been learned in the monogenic autoinflammatory bone disorders, IL-1 is emerging as an important pathway in the development of sterile bone inflammation. PMID:23917160

  13. The Clinical Clues of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A Report of 11 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoqiong

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterized by the abnormal alveolar accumulation of surfactant components. The diagnosis of PAP can be easily missed since it is rare and lacks specific clinical symptoms. It is of great importance to have a better understanding of the crucial clue to clinically diagnose PAP and take PAP into consideration in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pulmonary diseases or other diseases with similar manifestations. Here, we analyze the clinical characteristics of 11 cases of PAP patients in local hospital and review the relevant literature in order to provide more information in diagnosis and management of PAP. In our observation, cyfra21-1 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) known as tumor markers probably can be useful serum markers for diagnosis of PAP. As for the method of pathologic diagnosis, open-lung biopsy was the gold standard but now it is less required because findings on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can help to make the diagnosis. We also have deep experience about when and how to carry out lung lavage. PMID:27445535

  14. The Clinical Clues of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A Report of 11 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qiongya; Wang, Bingbin; Dong, Nian; Bao, Lianmin; Su, Xiaoqiong; Li, Yuping; Chen, Chengshui

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterized by the abnormal alveolar accumulation of surfactant components. The diagnosis of PAP can be easily missed since it is rare and lacks specific clinical symptoms. It is of great importance to have a better understanding of the crucial clue to clinically diagnose PAP and take PAP into consideration in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pulmonary diseases or other diseases with similar manifestations. Here, we analyze the clinical characteristics of 11 cases of PAP patients in local hospital and review the relevant literature in order to provide more information in diagnosis and management of PAP. In our observation, cyfra21-1 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) known as tumor markers probably can be useful serum markers for diagnosis of PAP. As for the method of pathologic diagnosis, open-lung biopsy was the gold standard but now it is less required because findings on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can help to make the diagnosis. We also have deep experience about when and how to carry out lung lavage. PMID:27445535

  15. Angiotensin A/Alamandine/MrgD Axis: Another Clue to Understanding Cardiovascular Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular regulations and its modulation is a challenging target for the vast majority of cardioprotective strategies. However, many biological effects of these drugs cannot be explained by the known mode of action. Our comprehension of the RAS is thus far from complete. The RAS represents an ingenious system of "checks and balances". It incorporates vasoconstrictive, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory compounds on one hand and molecules with opposing action on the other hand. The list of these molecules is still not definitive because new biological properties can be achieved by minor alteration of the molecular structure. The angiotensin A/alamandine-MrgD cascade associates the deleterious and protective branches of the RAS. Its identification provided a novel clue to the understanding of the RAS. Angiotensin A (Ang A) is positioned at the "crossroad" in this system since it either elicits direct vasoconstrictive and pro-proliferative actions or it is further metabolized to alamandine, triggering opposing effects. Alamandine, the central molecule of this cascade, can be generated both from the "deleterious" Ang A as well as from the "protective" angiotensin 1-7. This pathway modulates peripheral and central blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. Further research will elucidate its interactions in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its possible therapeutic implications. PMID:27447621

  16. Terror from the sky: unconventional linguistic clues to the negrito past.

    PubMed

    Blust, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Within recorded history, most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way. PMID:24297235

  17. Controlling Laser-Driven Hohlraums-Clues from Experiments with Earlier Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruer, William; Thomas, Cliff

    2015-11-01

    Better characterized and controlled hohlraums are very important for both implosion and science experiments on NIF. A brief review of some hohlraum and related experiments with earlier lasers is given to search for lessons learned and clues for better understanding NIF hohlraums. For example, surprises associated with heat transport inhibition and improved models for radiation generation have been a recurring theme in indirect drive experiments. In Shiva experiments, the hohlraum filling with plasma with density near quarter-critical was only calculated after inhibited heat transport and improved radiation models were adopted in the design code. Early NIF experiments also led to a change in the heat transport and radiation models. In this case, the heat transport model was changed from one with modest inhibition (which had been used to model Nova experiments) to near classical transport. Most recently, a design model invoking very inhibited transport (at various times and locations) has been proposed by C. Thomas for NIF hohlraums. Other recurring themes will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. DARK MATTER DECAY AND ANNIHILATION IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: CLUES FROM FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, A. J.; Zandanel, F.; Prada, F.; Jeltema, T. E.; Yepes, G.; Klypin, A.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottloeber, S.; Sanchez-Conde, M. A.; Pfrommer, C. E-mail: fabio@iaa.es

    2011-01-01

    We present all-sky simulated Fermi maps of {gamma}-rays from dark matter (DM) decay and annihilation in the local universe. The DM distribution is obtained from a constrained cosmological simulation of the neighboring large-scale structure provided by the CLUES project. The DM fields of density and density squared are then taken as an input for the Fermi observation simulation tool to predict the {gamma}-ray photon counts that Fermi would detect in 5 years of an all-sky survey for given DM models. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) sky maps have also been obtained by adopting the current Galactic and isotropic diffuse background models released by the Fermi Collaboration. We point out the possibility for Fermi to detect a DM {gamma}-ray signal in local extragalactic structures. In particular, we conclude here that Fermi observations of nearby clusters (e.g., Virgo and Coma) and filaments are expected to give stronger constraints on decaying DM compared to previous studies. As an example, we find a significant S/N in DM models with a decay rate fitting the positron excess as measured by PAMELA. This is the first time that DM filaments are shown to be promising targets for indirect detection of DM. On the other hand, the prospects for detectability of annihilating DM in local extragalactic structures are less optimistic even with extreme cross-sections. We make the DM density and density squared maps publicly available online.

  19. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time. PMID:26523690

  20. REGRESSION MODELS FOR COHORT MORTALITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cohort studies evaluate suspect health hazards from occupational or environmental exposures by recording tile facts and causes of deaths in the exposed group as they occur over an extended time period. his article reviews several methods for analyzing cohort: mortality data and s...

  1. Cohort Crowding and Nonresident College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a fixed effects panel data framework to examine the effects of cohort crowding and other variables on nonresident enrollment at four-year public colleges and universities. The results suggest that larger cohorts of resident students crowd out nonresident students at flagship universities, but there is inconsistent evidence of crowd…

  2. 2011 Cohort Graduation and Dropout Rate Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    To align with new federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) regulations for graduation rate calculations, the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) is reporting a new graduation rate beginning with the 2011 graduating class (also known as the 2011 cohort). The four-year cohort rate (includes all students who started 9th grade in 2007-2008 plus…

  3. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  4. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  5. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  6. The cometary blue compact dwarf galaxies Mkn 59 and Mkn 71. A clue to dwarf galaxy evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noeske, K. G.; Guseva, N. G.; Fricke, K. J.; Izotov, Y. I.; Papaderos, P.; Thuan, T. X.

    2000-09-01

    ``Cometary'' Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (iI,C BCDs) are characterized by an off-center starburst close to the end of their elongated stellar bodies. This rare phenomenon may carry some clues on how collective star formation ignites and propagates in gas-rich low-mass stellar systems. This off-center burst may be a fortuitous enhancement of the otherwise moderate star-forming activity of a dwarf irregular (dI), or may be caused by a set of special properties of such systems or their environment. We attempt here a first investigation of this issue by analysing two prototypical examples of cometary dwarf galaxies, the nearby iI,C BCDs Markarian 59 and Markarian 71, both containing an extraordinarily luminous H Ii region in the outskirts of a dI-like host. Using deep ground-based spectrophotometric data and HST images, we study the physical state of the starburst regions and the structural properties of the underlying irregular galaxies. We find that the average metallicities show small scatter in the vicinity of the star-forming regions and along the major axis of Mkn 59 which suggests that mixing of heavy elements must have been efficient on scales of several kpc. The azimuthally averaged radial intensity distributions of the underlying host galaxies in either iI,C BCD can be approximated by an exponential law with a central surface brightness and scale length that is intermediate between typical iE/nE BCDs and dwarf irregulars. Spectral population synthesis models in combination with colour magnitude diagrams and colour profiles yield a most probable formation age of ~ 2 Gyr for the low surface brightness (LSB) host galaxies in both iI,C BCDs, with upper age limits of ~ 4 Gyr for Mkn 59 and ~ 3 Gyr for Mkn 71, i.e. significantly lower than the typical age of several Gyr derived for the LSB component of iE/nE BCDs. These findings raise the question whether iI,C systems form a distinct physical class within BCDs with respect to the age and structural properties of

  7. Cohort Learning for Graduate Students at the Dissertation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara D.; Birds, Kimberly; Seay, Angela D.; Smith, Debra B.; Wilson, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral students discuss the power of collaborative cohort learning in transforming the dissertation phase of doctoral study. Innovative components of doctoral cohort learning and dissertation preparation are detailed.

  8. The cohort effect in childhood disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Earn, David J D

    2016-07-01

    The structure of school terms is well known to influence seasonality of transmission rates of childhood infectious diseases in industrialized countries. A less well-studied aspect of school calendars that influences disease dynamics is that all children enter school on the same day each year. Rather than a continuous inflow, there is a sudden increase in the number of susceptible individuals in schools at the start of the school year. Based on the standard susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, we show that school cohort entry alone is sufficient to generate a biennial epidemic pattern, similar to many observed time series of measles incidence. In addition, cohort entry causes an annual decline in the effective transmission that is evident in observed time series, but not in models without the cohort effect. Including both cohort entry and school terms yields a model fit that is significantly closer to observed measles data than is obtained with either cohort entry or school terms alone (and just as good as that obtained with Schenzle's realistic age-structured model). Nevertheless, we find that the bifurcation structure of the periodically forced SEIR model is nearly identical, regardless of whether forcing arises from cohort entry, school terms and any combination of the two. Thus, while detailed time-series fits are substantially improved by including both cohort entry and school terms, the overall qualitative dynamic structure of the SEIR model appears to be insensitive to the origin of periodic forcing. PMID:27440254

  9. Dating thrust systems on Mercury: new clues on the thermal evolution of the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Ferrari, Sabrina; Zagato, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The global tectonic scenario of Mercury is dominated by contractional features mainly represented by lobate scarps. These structures are the expression of surface-breaking thrust faults and are linear or arcuate features widely distributed on Mercury. Since they display a broad distribution of orientations, lobate scarps are thought to be related to a global contractional strain, associated to planetary cooling (Watters et al., 1998, Geology, 26, 991-994). The age determination of these features will contribute to better constrain whether limits could be placed on when the contraction occurred. For these reasons we dated two thrust systems, located in different regions of Mercury. The first system is located at the edge between Kuiper and Beethoven quadrangle (latitude 9°20'N-23°42'S and longitude 72°73'-59°52'W). These 1500-long thrust system is constituted by several lobate scarps with a NNE-SSW orientation. The second thrust system considered in this work is the Enterprise Rupes, a 820 km-long scarp system that cuts the Rembrandt basin. We dated the activity of these systems through the buffered crater counting technique, which is used to derive absolute model ages of linear landforms (e.g. Fassett and Head, 2008, Icarus, 198, 37-56; Giacomini, et al, 2015, GSL, 401, 291-311). The results gave comparable ages for the two systems and suggest that the activity along major rupes all around planet Mercury have most probably begun before 3.5 Ga. This will give us new clues to better understanding the thermal evolution of the planet.

  10. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Williams-Hernandez, Ashley; Hunter, Anan L; Liddy, Caroline; Peffley, Dennis M; Umesiri, Francis E; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola

    2015-05-01

    The treatment and prevention of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in stroke patients remain a severe and global medical issue. Numerous clinical studies have resulted in a failure to develop chemical neuroprotection for acute, ischemic stroke. Over 150 estimated clinical trials of ischemic stroke treatments have been done, and more than 200 drugs and combinations of drugs for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have been developed. Billions of dollars have been invested for new scientific breakthroughs with only limited success. The revascularization of occluded cerebral arteries such as anti-clot treatments of thrombolysis has proven effective, but it can only be used in a 3-4.5h time frame after the onset of a stroke, and not for every patient. This review is about novel insights on how to resist tissue hypoxia from unconventional animal models. Ability to resist tissue hypoxia is an extraordinary ability that is not common in many laboratory animals such as rat and mouse models. For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and acute bouts of oxidative stress following the onset of a stroke. Additionally, a euthermic arctic ground squirrel can teach us how the brain of a stroke patient can remain well oxygenated during tissue hypoxia with no evidence of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss how these animals provide us with a system to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of tissue hypoxia/ischemia. This issue is of clinical significance to stroke patients. We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. PMID

  11. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  12. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life

    PubMed Central

    Faddeeva, A.; Studer, R. A.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Mariën, J.; op den Camp, H. J. M.; Datema, E.; den Dunnen, J. T.; van Straalen, N. M.; Roelofs, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor. Method We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade. Results Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response), ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development). Conclusions We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land. PMID:26075903

  13. Can central hexagon peak latency provide a clue to fixation within the mfERG.

    PubMed

    Hagan, R P; Small, A; Fisher, A C; Brown, M C

    2010-04-01

    The mfERG has proven to be a useful tool in determining central retinal and macular function. It is, however, reliant on good subject co-operation and fixation. This cannot always be guaranteed due to visual impairment or poor co-operation. Whilst a change in fixation is easy to identify with camera monitoring of the subject, a small eccentric fixation can be difficult to notice or quantify. Whilst the problem of fixation can be obviated by stimulating the retina directly with SLO (Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope), this is expensive and a certain amount of expertize in optics is required to properly stimulate the retina. In this study, peak latency of response was investigated to see whether it changed across the retina and whether this measure could be used to help assess fixation. Eighteen normal eyes were stimulated using a 60 Hz CRT monitor with only 2 hexagons, one central and one peripheral. These hexagons were presented at three stimulation rates, fast (no filler frames between steps of the m-sequence) and slow (4 and 7 black filler frames between each step of the m-sequence), under all conditions significantly increased central hexagon latencies were noted. In a smaller experiment with 19 hexagons and only 4 subjects, it was noted a significant delay in latency was observed in ring 1 compared to ring 2 and 3 with central fixation, but not when the subjects fixed mid-peripheral and in the periphery to slow stimulation, showing that the central hexagon response was only delayed in the central hexagon when there was adequate fixation. This study suggests that latency could provide a clue to fixation particular at slow rates thereby improving the quality and confidence of recordings made clinically. PMID:19949833

  14. Dating tectonic structures on Mercury: new clues to understand the planet's thermal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Marchi, Simone; Fassett, Caleb I.; Di Achille, Gaetano; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The global tectonic scenario of Mercury is dominated by contractional features mainly represented by lobate scarps and related to planetary cooling (Watters et al., 1998, Geology, 26, 991-994). Topography of lobate scarps on Mercury: New constraints on the planet's contraction. These structures are the expression of surface-breaking thrust faults and are linear or arcuate features widely distributed on Mercury. Since they display a broad distribution of orientations, lobate scarps are thought to be related to a global contractional strain. The MESSENGER MDIS camera (with a wide-angle and a narrow-angle channels), acquired images of new regions of the Mercury surface that allowed us to detect several new lobate scarps especially where the illumination geometry is more favorable for structural analysis. Among them a 2000-km long thrust system, located between 80° and 100°E of longitude, has been detected. This system consists of several lobate scarps all exhibiting a N-S orientation and a westward vergence. Due to its considerable extension, this feature can give clues to the stress field affecting the surface in a wide sector of the planet. Dating these features and comparing the results with independent age determinations, and structural and stratigraphic evidences might concur to further constrain the age of tectonic deformation on Mercury and possibly increase our knowledge on the thermal evolution of the planet. The dating of the system was performed with different methods. Indeed, traditional stratigraphic study was accompanied by crater counts of geological units overlapping the thrust and the buffered crater counting technique, allowing us to determine an absolute model age determination for the tectonic feature. The employment of these different methods gave consistent results suggesting that thrust activity ended between 3.7-3.8 Ga, with Neukum Production Function (NPF), and 3.5-3.7 Ga, with Model Production Function (MPF), respectively.

  15. Genetics and Genomics of Sjogren's Syndrome: Research provides Clues to Pathogenesis and Novel Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Barbara M.; Nazmul-Hossain, Abu N. M.; Patel, Ketan; Hughes, Pamela; Moser, Kathy L.; Rhodus, Nelson L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While the key inciting events that drive the progression from autoantibodies to clinical disease remain to be clarified, new light has been shed on the factors contributing to disease susceptibility and the role of genetic factors in determining Sjogren's syndrome (SS) disease phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of genetic markers in the susceptibility to and pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome. This paper also discusses how genomic and proteomic technology can help in the design of specific therapeutics. Key Findings Recent evidence suggests that inflammatory genes associated with interferon pathways, and specific regulatory genes that control the maturation and proliferation of B cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome. Both gene expression profiling technology and gene association studies have been used to identify these key biologic pathways. Molecularly defined subsets of pSS patients are also being revealed by these studies. Previously identified gene loci which predispose to multiple autoimmune disorders have been confirmed supporting the paradigm of “general” autoimmune disease genes. Association of SS with many additional susceptibility loci are likely to be established through ongoing genome-wide association scans (GWAS). Clues from genetic studies suggest that targeting B cells will prove to be an effective way of reducing the systemic manifestations of pSS and are supported by early clinical trials. Summary Genome-wide technologies are likely to identify new genes and molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of SS that will be useful not only to identify patients at risk for SS, but also to identify subsets of patients at risk for variable levels of disease severity. In the future, these studies could identify novel biomarkers that will lead to significant advances in management by providing the means to tailor therapeutic strategies to individual patients. PMID:21497524

  16. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  17. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  18. Breast Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of U.S. Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Anderson, Jeri L.; Hein, Misty J.; Little, Mark P.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Flight attendants may have elevated breast cancer incidence (BCI). We evaluated BCI’s association with cosmic radiation dose and circadian rhythm disruption among 6,093 female former U.S. flight attendants. Methods We collected questionnaire data on BCI and risk factors for breast cancer from 2002–2005. We conducted analyses to evaluate (i) BCI in the cohort compared to the U.S. population; and (ii) exposure-response relations. We applied an indirect adjustment to estimate whether parity and age at first birth (AFB) differences between the cohort and U.S. population could explain BCI that differed from expectation. Results BCI was elevated but may be explained by lower parity and older AFB in the cohort than among U.S. women. BCI was not associated with exposure metrics in the cohort overall. Significant positive associations with both were observed only among women with parity of three or more. Conclusions Future cohort analyses may be informative on the role of these occupational exposures and non-occupational risk factors. PMID:25678455

  19. Birth cohort effects on incidence of lung cancers: a population-based study in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Soda, H; Oka, M; Soda, M; Nakatomi, K; Kawabata, S; Suenaga, M; Kasai, T; Yamada, Y; Kamihira, S; Kohno, S

    2000-10-01

    Smoking prevalence remains high (around 60%) among Japanese males, but smoking initiation among males born in the 1930s decreased by approximately 10% due to economic difficulties following World War II. The present study was designed to examine whether this temporary decline in smoking initiation influenced the subsequent incidence of lung cancers, especially adenocarcinoma. Trends of lung cancer incidence by histological type in both sexes were investigated using data from the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki, Japan, from 1986 through 1995. During this period, 5668 males and 2309 females were diagnosed as having lung cancer, and the overall incidence of lung cancers among both sexes remained stable. However, males aged 55 - 59 years showed a decrease in the age-specific incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In birth cohort analyses, the incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma was lower in the 1935 - 1939 birth male cohort than in the successive cohorts. The incidence of lung cancers among females with low smoking prevalence did not change with birth cohort. The low smoking initiation among the 1935 - 1939 birth male cohort appeared to have resulted in a decreased incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma among middle-aged Japanese males. The present study suggests that smoking prevention has an effect in reducing the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma, as well as squamous-cell carcinoma, among smokers. PMID:11050464

  20. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-10-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  1. Acclimation of leaf cohorts expanded under light and water stresses: an adaptive mechanism of Eucryphia cordifolia to face changes in climatic conditions?

    PubMed

    Morales, Loreto V; Coopman, Rafael E; Rojas, Roke; Escandón, Antonio B; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; García-Plazaola, José I; Gago, Jorge; Cabrera, Hernán M; Corcuera, Luis J

    2014-12-01

    Eucryphia cordifolia Cav. is a long-lived evergreen tree species, commonly found as a canopy emergent tree in the Chilean temperate rain forest. This species displays successive leaf cohorts throughout the entire growing season. Thus, full leaf expansion occurs under different environmental conditions during growing such as air temperature, vapor pressure deficit and the progress of moderate water stress (WS). These climate variations can be reflected as differences in anatomical and physiological characteristics among leaf cohorts. Thus, we investigated the potential adaptive role of different co-existing leaf cohorts in seedlings grown under shade, drought stress or a combination of the two. Photosynthetic and anatomical traits were measured in the first displayed leaf cohort and in a subsequent leaf cohort generated during the mid-season. Although most anatomical and photosynthetic pigments did not vary between cohorts, photosynthetic acclimation did occur in the leaf cohort and was mainly driven by biochemical processes such as leaf nitrogen content, Rubisco carboxylation capacity and maximal Photosystem II electron transport rather than CO2 diffusion conductance. Cohort acclimation could be relevant in the context of climate change, as this temperate rainforest will likely face some degree of summer WS even under low light conditions. We suggest that the acclimation of the photosynthetic capacity among current leaf cohorts represents a well-tuned mechanism helping E. cordifolia seedlings to face a single stress like shade or drought stress, but is insufficient to cope with simultaneous stresses. PMID:25398632

  2. Factors Controlling the Evolution of Anatolia: Clues from Teleseismic Finite-Frequency Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Ozacar, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The complex and sinusoidal pattern of subduction zones of the Mediterranenan region plays an important role in controlling the current tectonic framework of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The Anatolian region is part of this belt and it displays the complex characteristics of the interplay between continent collision in the east and subduction-rollback related backarc extension in the west. The ongoing northward subduction of the African Plate beneath the Anatolian Plate contributes significantly to the emergence of the current tectonic setting of this region. Despite its crucial effect on the tectonics of Anatolia, there are only a few studies that focus on the deeper extent of this zone. In this study we provide higher resolution tomographic images of the subducting African lithosphere beneath Anatolia. Our approach is based on analysis of teleseismic body-wave travel-time data using a finite-frequency seismic tomography algorithm. The data for our analysis comes from multiple permanent and temporary networks deployed in the region. A major part of our dataset is formed by the multiple frequency-band picks of P-wave arrival times recorded at more than 100 broadband and short-period seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center and 39 broadband seismic stations of the North Anatolian Passive Seismic Experiment network. The results of our analysis indicates the presence of large and smaller scale gaps in the subducting African Lithosphere, that are interpreted as slab tears. The most significant tear is located beneath western Anatolia with a maximum width of ~250 km. This tear is marked by lack of intermediate to deep seismicity and is associated with slow seismic speed perturbations that we interpret as ascending hot, buoyant asthenosphere. The configuration of the edges of this gap at depths between 50 to 200 km provides clues about how the impediments on the subducting seafloor could have an influence on rates of roll-back on both sides

  3. Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, K. K.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond In April 2000, an international research team, supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), embarked on a five-year program to undertake atmosphere-ice-ocean observations at distributed locations in the high Arctic Ocean. The first temporary camp at the North Pole that year laid the groundwork for taking the pulse of the Arctic Ocean and learning how the world's northernmost sea helps regulate global climate. The Arctic Ocean has been affected in recent years by dramatic thinning of sea ice and shifts in ocean circulation which seem to be related to a pattern of change in the atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere. The objective of the "North Pole Environmental Observatory" or NPEO is to document further change and to understand what is controlling the Arctic system. Among other things, the NPEO includes a hydrographic component in which Twin Otter aircraft are landed on the ice at targeted stations in order to record ocean properties and take water samples through holes drilled in the ice. I am responsible for contributing chemical measurements to deciphering upper ocean circulation patterns under the ice. Properties analyzed thus far include salinity, nutrients, oxygen, oxygen isotopic composition of water and barium. Results are posted at http://chemoc.oce.orst.edu/users/kfalkner/index.html this web-site by year. This site is linked to the main project web-site where additional information about NPEO can be found. In my AGU presentation, I will describe the challenging field program and summarize implications of the chemical data to date. The news of John Edmond's untimely death reached me while I was en route to the North Pole camp this past April. Seemingly endless hours on a Canadian Hercules allowed me to reflect on the many influences John had on me as his graduate student and beyond. One thing is certain; there was no way in hell I'd have been

  4. [right] - DUST RING AROUND STAR OFFERS NEW CLUES INTO PLANET FORMATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope false-color near infrared image of a novel type of structure seen in space - a dust ring around a star. Superficially resembling Saturn's rings -- but on a vastly larger scale -- the 'hula-hoop' around the star called HR 4796A offers new clues into the possible presence of young planets. The near-infrared light reflecting off the dust ring is about 1,000 times fainter than the illuminating central star. Astronomers used a coronagraphic camera on Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), specifically designed to enable observations of very faint and low surface brightness objects in the close proximity to bright stars. Even with the coronagraph, the glare from HR 4796A overwhelms the much-fainter ring at distances less than about 4 billion miles (inside the blacked-out circle, centered on the star). Hubble's crisp view was able to resolve the ring, seen at lower resolution at longer wavelengths, in ground-based thermal infrared images, as a disk with some degree of central clearing. The ring has an angular radius of 1.05 arc seconds, equivalent to the apparent size of a dime seen more than 4 miles away. Unlike the extensive disks of dust seen around other young stars, the HR 4796A dust ring, 6.5 billion miles from the star, is tightly confined within a relatively narrow zone less than 17 Astronomical Units wide. An Astronomical Unit is the distance from the Earth to the Sun). For comparison, the ring width is approximately equal to the distance separating the orbits of Mars and Uranus in our own Solar System. All dust rings, whether around stars or planets, can only stay intact by some mechanism confining the dust, likely the gravitational tug of unseen planets. The image was taken on March 15, 1998, centered at a near infrared wavelength of 1.1 microns. The false-color corresponds to the ring's brightness (yellow is bright, purple is faint). The ring, which is undoubtedly circular, appears elliptical since

  5. Arousal responses to noxious stimuli in somatoparaphrenia and anosognosia: clues to body awareness.

    PubMed

    Romano, Daniele; Gandola, Martina; Bottini, Gabriella; Maravita, Angelo

    2014-04-01

    A complex brain representation of our body allows us to monitor incoming sensory stimuli and plan actions towards the external world. A critical element of such a complex representation is the sense of ownership towards our own body parts. Brain damage may disrupt this representation, leading to the striking neuropsychological condition called somatoparaphrenia, that is, the delusion that one's own limbs belong to someone else. The clinical features characterizing somatoparaphrenia are well known, however, physiological clues of the level at which this condition may disrupt sensory functions are unknown. In the present study we investigated this issue by measuring the anticipatory skin conductance response to noxious stimuli approaching either the affected or the intact body side in a group of patients with somatoparaphrenia (n=5; three females, age range=66-84), and in a group of patients with anosognosia for sensory deficits, i.e. preserved ownership but decreased awareness of somatosensory deficit, (n=5; one female, age range=62-81 years) and in a group of purely hemiplegic patients (n=5; two females, age range=63-74 years) with no deficits of ownership or sensory awareness. Results show that anticipatory skin conductance responses to noxious stimuli directed to the contralesional hand are significantly reduced as compared to noxious stimuli directed to the ipsilesional hand in patients with somatoparaphrenia. By contrast a non-reduced anticipatory skin conductance response was observed in control participants as well as in patients affected by anosognosia for the somatosensory deficit and in patients affected by pure motor deficits. Furthermore, a pain anticipation response was always measured when the stimuli were directed towards the ipsilesional, unaffected hand in all groups. Our results show for the first time that the delusions shown by somatoparaphrenic patients are associated with an altered physiological index of perceptual analysis. The reduced

  6. Deformation behavior in reactor pressure vessel steels as a clue to understanding irradiation hardening.

    SciTech Connect

    DiMelfi, R. J.; Alexander, D. E.; Rehn, L. E.

    1999-10-25

    post-yield hardening rate is clearly greater than that of the unirradiated material, and the flow curves cannot be made to superimpose. The binary iron-base model alloys studied here show a less pronounced difference in flow behavior for neutrons and electrons than exhibited by the steels, implicating the effect of alloy chemistry. Our results are analyzed in the context of classical theories dealing with the interaction between the deformation microstructure, i.e. glide dislocations, and irradiation-produced defects. Our findings provide clues about the way different alloy constituents interact with the different kinds of irradiation damage to strengthen the material differently.

  7. The enigma of apparent symmetry in the internal Saturn magnetic field: clues from external periodic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, David; Kivelson, Margaret

    We present a scenario which starts from the well-known periodic cam currents in the middle Saturnian magnetosphere. We point that the currents impose a periodic torque on the planetary ionosphere. We suggest that the simplest manner to explain the reason for the torque is to postulate the presence of relatively massive conducting material somewhere on magnetic shells within the cam shells (at L=10-12). Indeed the inward extension of the cam field magnetic observations suggest it should be near or inside the orbit of Enceladus. The model at the same time would resolve the long-standing puzzle that the all multipole fits to the measured magnetic field at Saturn indicate the internal field to be like an off-set dipole closely aligned with the planetary rotation axis. The apparent internal field axial symmetry has hitherto been proposed to be imposed by conducting layers immediately below the planetary surface at low and mid-latitude which suppress higher order fields that should be present in a dynamo generated field. Here we point out that the conductor responsible for suppressing evidence of non-axisymmetric moments may not be inside the planet and that the cam currents provide an important clue. In the simple case where the planetary dipole is tilted with respect to the rotation axis, conducting material in the equatorial regions should experience a periodic rocking force. Current systems to exert such forces couple the equatorial regions to the ionosphere and the result is a torque between equator and ionosphere. If the conducting material in the magnetosphere is massive enough, a small asymmetric part of the planetary magnetic field may be insufficient to impose the rocking motion in the equatorial region. At Saturn, the role of charged dust in the vicinity of the rings may add considerable inertia to the equatorial plasma, thereby making the proposed scenario plausible in the inner magnetosphere. In the scenario envisaged, the evidence of an internal dipole tilt

  8. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  9. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  10. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II. PMID:20586595

  11. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  12. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  13. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  14. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  15. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  16. Megacity Megaquakes: Two Near-misses, and the Clues they Leave for Earthquake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S. A.; Krüger, O.; Dinske, C.; Langenbruch, C.

    2011-12-01

    that they are contingent on the mainshock, and underwent at least an initial decay. But aftershocks do not necessarily signal a heightened likelihood of large shocks. They could instead accompany post-seismic creep, with the creep shedding the stress imposed by the megaquakes. These aftershocks are too deep for GPS observations to reveal unequivocally whether the faults are locked or creeping. But one clue is that the ratio of small to large shocks was not changed by the megaquakes. This distribution could be a reliable pointer for the probability of lager quakes, and so large shocks may now indeed be more probable than before the megaquakes--by a factor of at least two.

  17. Megacity Megaquakes: Two Near-misses, and the Clues they Leave for Earthquake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

    2013-12-01

    that they are contingent on the mainshock, and underwent at least an initial decay. But aftershocks do not necessarily signal a heightened likelihood of large shocks. They could instead accompany post-seismic creep, with the creep shedding the stress imposed by the megaquakes. These aftershocks are too deep for GPS observations to reveal unequivocally whether the faults are locked or creeping. But one clue is that the ratio of small to large shocks was not changed by the megaquakes. This distribution could be a reliable pointer for the probability of lager quakes, and so large shocks may now indeed be more probable than before the megaquakes--by a factor of at least two.

  18. Discrete Climatic Events on Timescales of Decades to Centuries: Clues from Polar Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2002-12-01

    depressions were reactivated close to the same time as the smaller ones began forming. It is possible therefore that the same climatic event is responsible in both cases. Modeling these quickly evolving polar landforms can offer clues to Martian climatic events on timescales of decades to centuries. Changes in orbital parameters on these timescales are negligible, implying that Mars' climate has some intrinsically variability. It seems unlikely that we happen to be observing Mars during a single short-lived episode of Swiss-cheese growth. A more likely possibility is that this is part of a longer term cyclic process containing many of these climatic events. We report on these possible events and develop some scenarios of the recent history of Mars' climate and southern residual cap.

  19. Microtektite spherules from proximal K-Pg sections: alteration patterns and clues to precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, J.; Goderis, S.; Smit, J.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Baert, K.; Terryn, H.; Claeys, P. F.

    2013-05-01

    -layered alteration rim consisting of (1) an immobile product layer depleted in SiO2, Na2O, CaO, MgO, K2O and enriched in H2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and TiO2. REE are depleted but still reflect the CI-normalized pattern of the precursor glass phase; (2) a palagonite/smectite phase. Most REE are below LOD and provide no clue to the composition of the precursor phase. This step-wise alteration is expressed as successive palagonite lamellae, enriched in Fe-Ti oxides that have accumulated at the alteration fronts. The type of alteration seems to be controlled by the composition of the glass. SiO2-rich green glasses (>67 wt% SiO2) seem to undergo simple hydration, whereas black SiO2 poor glasses (<65 wt% SiO2) are subjected to palagonitisation. This is consistent with the alteration mechanism postulated by Glass et al. (1997) for Cenozoic microtektites. References GLASS, B. P., MUENOW, D. W., BOHOR, B. F., & MEEKER, G. P. 1997. Fragmentation and hydration of tektites and microtektites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 32, 333-341.

  20. Titan's topography as a clue to geologic processes and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Cassini has revealed a diversity of surface features on Titan rivaled by few bodies in the Solar System. Some of these features are readily identified: dunes, channels, lakes, seas, fresh impact craters, and mountains. Others are enigmatic and in some cases have sparked debate about their mode of origin. Given the limited resolution of the Cassini images, at best 300 m for synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) images, it can be difficult to identify details that might confirm a particular mode of origin. Supplementing the images with topographic information provides an important and sometimes crucial clue to the origin and evolution of landforms. Topographic profiles from altimetry and SARTopo analysis of the images can shed light on simpler features (e.g., dunes) and led to the surprising conclusion that Titan's largest feature, Xanadu, is not elevated as had been supposed. For more complex structures, digital topographic models (DTMs) provide a full three-dimensional view. About 10% of Titan's surface has been imaged in stereo by RADAR, and we have produced DTMs of about 2% by analyzing these stereopairs. Analysis of the results within the Cassini RADAR team has shed light on a number of geologic problems: * Some putative volcanic features (e.g., the supposed dome Ganesa Macula and various diffuse surface flows) have been shown to lack the expected relief, greatly weakening the case for their volcanic origin. * Conversely, flows in Hotei Regio have been shown to tower over nearby fluvial channels, and those near Sotra Facula are associated with multiple edifices and caldera-like pits, strengthening the case for a volcanic origin. * Depths of the handful of definite impact craters measured so far range from Ganymede-like to nearly zero, and are statistically consistent with a process such as eolian deposition that would steadily reduce the crater depth rather than a process such as surface erosion that would tend to leave craters only partially filled. * Clustering of

  1. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues.

    PubMed

    Jaipaew, Jirayut; Wangkulangkul, Piyanun; Meesane, Jirut; Raungrut, Pritsana; Puttawibul, Puttisak

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. PMID:27127042

  2. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  3. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  4. THE MASSES OF POPULATION II WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Davis, D. Saul; Richer, Harvey B.; Bergeron, P.; Catelan, Marcio; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Michael Rich, R. E-mail: sdavis@astro.ubc.c E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.c E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.ed

    2009-11-01

    Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 M{sub sun} have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend impressive 5-8 mag in the faint-blue region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectroscopic observations, our results indicate that 0.8 M{sub sun} population II main-sequence stars evolving today form 0.53 +- 0.01 M{sub sun} white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of this result as it relates to our understanding of stellar structure and evolution of population II stars and for the age of the Galactic halo, as measured with white dwarf cooling theory.

  5. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paul D; Willis, F Buck

    2009-01-01

    Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control); Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols); Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively); Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy). The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p < 0.001) following a one-way ANOVA. The greatest change with the smallest standard deviation was for the combined treatment group IV, (mean change of 29°). Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158 PMID:19735563

  6. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India J.-J. BRAUN1,2*, J. RIOTTE1,2, S. AUDRY2, J. L. BOEGLIN2, M. DESCLOITRES3, P. DESCHAMPS4, J. C. MARÉCHAL1,2, J. VIERS2, J.-R. NDAM5, M. SEKHAR6, B. DUPRÉ2 1IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India. (*Correspondence: braun@civil.iisc.ernet.in) 2LMTG, Univ. Toulouse, CNRS IRD OMP, 14, avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France 3LTHE, Univ. Grenoble, CNRS, IRD, INPG, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France 4CEREGE, Univ. Aix-Marseille, CNRS, IRD, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, France. 5Université de Yaoundé I, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, BP80, 13545 Yaoundé, Cameroun. 6Deprtment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India Understanding the relative controls of forcing factors on the silicate chemical weathering rates and the associated atmospheric CO2 consumption is usually assessed through investigations based on small to medium granito-gneissic watersheds from 1 to100 km2 located in different climatic and tectonic settings. In addition to climate, the importance of the thickness and nature of the blanket of loose and transportable weathered material, namely regolith, which overlies the intact bedrocks, was also recently invoked, especially in tropical environment. We have conducted an integrated approach of the Critical Zone in two pristine forested small watersheds located in Cameroon and India. Both watersheds have developed on granito-gneissic bedrocks of stable Precambrian shields. Our approach is directed at (i) understanding the bio-geochemical, hydro-geological and hydrological processes and (ii) assessing the long-term and contemporary chemical weathering rates. The Nsimi watershed, South Cameroon, has been the first to be monitored since 1994. It belongs to the Nyong River basin and has a humid tropical climate. It is

  7. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  8. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  9. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  10. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  11. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  12. Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Provide Clues to the Origin and Pathogenesis of Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A.; Tax, David M. J.; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.; Koestler, Devin C.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina’s HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we

  13. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified

  14. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  15. The Fe/Ni ratio in ionized nebulae: clues on dust depletion patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Inglada, G.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; García-Rojas, J.; Rodríguez, M.; Esteban, C.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a homogeneous analysis of the Fe/Ni abundance ratio in eight Galactic planetary nebulae and three Galactic H II regions that include the Orion nebula, where we study four nebular zones and one shocked region. We use [Fe II], [Fe III], and [Ni III] lines, and ionization correction factors (ICFs) that account for the unobserved ions. We derive an ICF for nickel from an extensive grid of photoionization models. We compare our results with those derived by other authors for 16 neutral clouds in the solar neighbourhood with available Fe/Ni ratios in the literature. We find an excellent agreement between the ionized nebulae and the diffuse clouds, with both types of regions showing a clear correlation between the Fe/Ni ratios and the iron and nickel depletion factors. The trend shows that the objects with a relatively low depletion have near solar Fe/Ni ratios whereas at higher depletions the Fe/Ni ratio increases with the depletion. Our results confirm that, compared to iron atoms, nickel ones are more efficiently stuck to the dust grains in ambients where dust formation or growth have been more efficient.

  16. Steep increase in best-practice cohort life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri A; Andreev, Evgeny M; Vaupel, James W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze trends in best-practice life expectancy among female cohorts born from 1870 to 1950. Cohorts experience declining rather than constant death rates, and cohort life expectancy usually exceeds period life expectancy. Unobserved mortality rates in non-extinct cohorts are estimated using the Lee-Carter model for mortality in 1960–2008. Best-practice cohort and period life expectancies increased nearly linearly. Across cohorts born from 1870 to 1920 the annual increase in cohort length of life was 0.43 years. Across calendar years from 1870 to 2008, the annual increase was 0.28 years. Cohort life expectancy increased from 53.7 years in the 1870 cohort to 83.8 years in the 1950 cohort. The corresponding cohort/period longevity gap increased from 1.2 to 10.3 years. Among younger cohorts, survival to advanced ages is substantially higher than could have been anticipated by period mortality regimes when these cohorts were young or middle-aged. A large proportion of the additional expected years of life are being lived at ages 65 and older. This substantially changes the balance between the stages of the life cycle. PMID:22167810

  17. Gas Clouds in Whirlpool Galaxy Yield Important Clues Supporting Theory on Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers studying gas clouds in the famous Whirlpool Galaxy have found important clues supporting a theory that seeks to explain how the spectacular spiral arms of galaxies can persist for billions of years. The astronomers applied techniques used to study similar gas clouds in our own Milky Way to those in the spiral arms of a neighbor galaxy for the first time, and their results bolster a theory first proposed in 1964. M51 The spiral galaxy M51: Left, as seen with the Hubble Space Telescope; Right, radio image showing location of Carbon Monoxide gas. CREDIT: STScI, OVRO, IRAM (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Optical and Radio (CO) Views (above image) HST Optical Image with CO Contours Overlaid Radio/Optical Composite Image of M51 VLA/Effelsberg Radio Image of M51, With Panel Showing Magnetic Field Lines The Whirlpool Galaxy, about 31 million light-years distant, is a beautiful spiral in the constellation Canes Venatici. Also known as M51, it is seen nearly face-on from Earth and is familiar to amateur astronomers and has been featured in countless posters, books and magazine articles. "This galaxy made a great target for our study of spiral arms and how star formation works along them," said Eva Schinnerer, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM. "It was ideal for us because it's one of the closest face-on spirals in the sky," she added. Schinnerer worked with Axel Weiss of the Institute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (IRAM) in Spain, Susanne Aalto of the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, and Nick Scoville of Caltech. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Denver, Colorado. The scientists analyzed radio emission from Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecules in giant gas clouds along M51's spiral arms. Using telescopes at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the 30-meter radio telescope of IRAM, they were able to determine the temperatures and amounts of turbulence within the

  18. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  19. Cohort Analysis of Variations in Political Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Ed

    A cohort analysis of data gathered in three national election surveys (1956, 1968, 1980) was used to study the effect of media use on political knowledge, which was divided into knowledge of issues, personalities, and political parties. Knowledge levels were calculated by creating indices from open-ended questions about why a person liked or…

  20. Knowledge Building in an Online Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Mary E.; Santo, Susan A.; Yost, Rosanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to understand how an online cohort in a master's program, comprised of teachers from the same school district, constructed knowledge about instructional theories and practices. Participants in this descriptive study included 10 teachers from the same rural school district. Data collection consisted of a focus group and written…

  1. Cohort Size and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, David C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that policymakers should be skeptical of forecasts that predict faculty shortages and surpluses according to population trends and analyzes an economic model of the academic labor market. Concludes that forecasts from such models do not support policies designed to offset the impact of cohort size on the academic labor market. (Author/CH)

  2. Teacher Education in an Interdisciplinary Cohort Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Interdisciplinary Cohort Model of Teacher Preparation at the University of Kentucky. It has been successful in preparing business and marketing teachers in a one-year period, has made educational foundations an integral part of classroom practice, and fostered collaboration between business and marketing…

  3. Orthodontic therapists--the first Bristol cohort.

    PubMed

    Bain, S; Lee, W; Day, C J; Ireland, A J; Sandy, J R

    2009-09-12

    This paper outlines the development of the training of orthodontic therapists in the UK, the experiences of the first cohort to pass through the Bristol course, the roles and responsibilities of the therapist and possible issues with future orthodontic manpower planning. PMID:19749720

  4. Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shainline, Michael

    At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

  5. 4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal law requires Pennsylvania, and all other states, to transition to a new calculation method for determining high school graduation rates. Beginning in 2012, using graduation data from the Classes of 2010 and 2011, the "4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate" calculation will replace the "4-Year Leaver Graduation Rate" calculation. The new…

  6. Reexamining the Dominance of Birth Cohort Effects on Mortality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The association between birth cohort and subsequent mortality has been of interest especially following publication of studies around 1930 of cohorts born up to the latter part of the nineteenth century, particularly for England and Wales. Updated results are presented for this population, together with those for two other cohorts, twentieth-century Japanese and British populations born about 1930, which have been identified as having particularly clear-cut birth cohort patterns, and which are used to underpin incorporation of cohort effects in both British official and actuarial mortality forecasts. Graphical methods used to identify cohort patterns are discussed. A number of limitations and difficulties are identified that mean that the conclusions about the predominance of cohort effects are less robust than often assumed. It is argued that alternative explanations should be considered and that the concentration on birth cohorts with particularly advantaged patterns may distort research priorities. PMID:20734557

  7. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  8. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  9. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    PubMed

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals. PMID:18003475

  10. Isolation and Synthesis of Laxaphycin B-Type Peptides: A Case Study and Clues to Their Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bornancin, Louis; Boyaud, France; Mahiout, Zahia; Bonnard, Isabelle; Mills, Suzanne C.; Banaigs, Bernard; Inguimbert, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The laxaphyci’s B family constitutes a group of five related cyclic lipopeptides isolated from diverse cyanobacteria from all around the world. This group shares a typical structure of 12 amino acids from the l and d series, some of them hydroxylated at the beta position, and all containing a rare beta-amino decanoic acid. Nevertheless, they can be differentiated due to slight variations in the composition of their amino acids, but the configuration of their alpha carbon remains conserved. Here, we provide the synthesis and characterization of new laxaphycin B-type peptides. In doing so we discuss how the synthesis of laxaphycin B and analogues was developed. We also isolate minor acyclic laxaphycins B, which are considered clues to their biosynthesis. PMID:26690181