These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Rapid CME Cavity Formation and Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cavity is supposed to be a general feature of well-developed CMEs at the stage they can be imaged by white-light coronagraphs (in the outer corona and solar wind). The cavity is interpreted as the cross section of the CME flux rope in the plane of sky. Preexisting cavities are observed around some quiescent erupting prominences, but usually not in active regions. Observations of CME cavities in the inner corona, where most of them appear to form, have become possible only with the STEREO and SDO missions. These reveal a very rapid formation and expansion of "EUV cavities" in fast and impulsively commencing eruptions early in the phase of main CME acceleration and impulsive flare rise. Different from the white-light observations, the EUV cavity initially appears to be larger than the CME flux rope. However, it evolves into the white-light cavity subsequently. MHD simulations of flux rope eruptions conform to this picture of initially larger cavity but subsequently approaching cavity and flux rope size. The initial expansion of ambient flux can be understood as a "reverse pinch effect", driven by decreasing flux rope current as the rope rises.

Kliem, Bernhard; Forbes, Terry G.; Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos

2014-06-01

2

CME Theory and Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of current efforts in the theory and modeling of CMEs. Five key areas are discussed: (1)\\u000a CME initiation; (2) CME evolution and propagation; (3) the structure of interplanetary CMEs derived from flux rope modeling;\\u000a (4) CME shock formation in the inner corona; and (5) particle acceleration and transport at CME driven shocks. In the section

T. G. Forbes; J. A. Linker; J. Chen; C. Cid; J. Kóta; M. A. Lee; G. Mann; Z. Mikic; M. S. Potgieter; J. M. Schmidt; G. L. Siscoe; R. Vainio; S. K. Antiochos; P. Riley

2006-01-01

3

Formation of hot channels in pre-CME coronal flux ropes and their role in the onset of eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the eruption of coronal flux ropes, we examine the thermal features produced by current sheet formation and the associated “tether-cutting” reconnections. We find that current sheets form along topological structures identified as quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) during the pre-eruption stage. Tether-cutting reconnections in the current sheets produce a hot channel containing reconnected, twisted flux threading under the axis of the flux rope. This accumulation of twisted flux allows the flux rope to rise quasi-statically to the critical height for the onset of the torus instability, which leads to the dynamic eruption of the flux rope. The current sheet morphology and the hot channel that forms above it may explain the observed prominence “horns” enclosing a central cavity seen in AIA observations of coronal cavities. They may also be the cause of the X-ray emitting cores observed in some coronal cavities. We present a sequence of simulations to examine how the temperature and density of the hot channel depend on the properties of the coronal flux rope, and compare the results with multi-wavelength coronal observations of CMEs.

Fan, Yuhong; Chatterjee, P.

2013-07-01

4

Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

2013-11-01

5

Multi-protein Delivery by Nanodiamonds Promotes Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE® for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

Moore, L.; Gatica, M.; Kim, H.; Osawa, E.; Ho, D.

2013-01-01

6

CME Plotting Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the movement of a coronal mass ejection. Learners will plot the path of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs), both the distance traveled and the increasing angular width, as they leave the Sun and travel outward through the Solar System. Then, they will sketch the path of the CMEs and identify the location on the Sun from which a CME would need to leave in order for it to hit Earth. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring the Wind from the Sun educator guide.

7

Continuing Medical Education: What Delivery Format Do Physicians Prefer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although physicians are in a unique position to prevent life-threatening outcomes by counseling patients to stop smoking, many of them miss the opportunity to intervene in their patients' use of tobacco. Nicotine Dependence Across the Lifespan was developed as a continuing medical education (CME) program to teach and encourage…

Stancic, Nancy; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; McAlister, Alfred L.

2003-01-01

8

The fastest CME of Cycle 23 overtakes another fast CME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 4, 2003, the Sun produced its fastest coronal mass ejection (CME) for cycle 23 out of the active region 0486 located near the southwest limb of the Sun. The CME was expelled with a speed of approximately 2700 km-s. At the time of the launch of this CME, there was another ejection in progress from the same region. The previous ejection started about 7 hours earlier with a speed of about 1000 km-s. The fastest CME overtook the previous one within 2 hours and produced a spectacular radio radiation detected by the Wind, Ulysses and Cassini spacecraft. The movie shows the radio emission and the two interacting CMEs as observed by the SOHO spacecraft.

Tom Bridgman

2004-05-23

9

Numerical models of Oort Cloud formation and comet delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I use a newly designed numerical algorithm to simulate the dynamics of the Oort Cloud. The processes I model are the formation of the cloud, the current delivery of comets to the planetary region, and long-period comet production during comet showers. Concerning the cloud's formation, I find that the Sun's birth environment dramatically affects the structure of the inner Oort Cloud as well as the amount of material trapped in this region. In addition, the structure of this reservoir is also sensitive to the Sun's orbital history in the Milky Way. This raises the possibility that constraining our inner Oort Cloud's properties can constrain the Sun's dynamical history. In this regard, I use my simulations of comet delivery to better understand what the population of comets passing through the planetary region can tell us about the inner Oort Cloud. I find that the inner Oort Cloud (rather than the scattered disk) dominates the production of planet-crossing TNOs with perihelia beyond 15 AU and semimajor axes greater than a few hundred AU. My results indicate that two objects representing this population (2000 00 67 and 2006 SQ 372 ) have already been detected, and the detection of many analogous objects can constrain the inner Oort Cloud. In addition, these simulations of comet delivery also demonstrate that, contrary to previous understanding, the inner Oort Cloud is a significant and perhaps the dominant source of known long-period comets. This result can be used to place the first observationally motivated upper limit on the inner Oort Cloud's population. Finally, with this maximum population value, I use my comet shower simulations to show that comet showers are unlikely to be responsible for more than one minor extinction event since the Cambrian Explosion.

Kaib, Nathan A.

10

Haze activity of different barley trypsin inhibitors of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe).  

PubMed

Our previous study found that the critical protein in SE (silica eluted) proteins is BTI-CMe, and assumed that SE-ve malt for brewing may improve the haze stability in beer. In this study, we investigated the difference in gene sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence of BTI-CMe between SE+ve and SE-ve types. The results showed that there were 7 amino acid differences between Yerong (SE-ve) and Franklin (SE+ve). Two types BTI-CMe were expressed in vitro and purified successfully. By adding the purified BTI-CMe into commercial beer, we found that both original turbidity and alcohol chill haze degree of beer were increased. BTI-CMe of SE-ve haplotype showed a lower level of haze formation in beer than SE+ve haplotype. Response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted to determine the relationship between BTI-CMe and tannic acid, and their effects on haze formation. It was found that (1) higher content of BTI-CMe and/or tannic acid in beer would give rise to higher turbidity; (2) there was a significant interaction between BTI-CMe and tannic acid; (3) haze activity disparity of BTI-CMe between two types was significantly and positively correlated with the tannic acid concentration. PMID:25038664

Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Lu; Huang, Yuqing; Wu, Dezhi; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-15

11

Ensemble Modeling of CME Propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current progression toward solar maximum provides a unique opportunity to use multi-perspective spacecraft observations together with numerical models to better understand the evolution and propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Of interest to both the scientific and forecasting communities are the Earth-directed "halo" CMEs, since they typically produce the most geoeffective events. However, determining the actual initial geometries of halo CMEs is a challenge due to the plane-of-sky projection effects. Thus the recent 15 February 2011 halo CME event has been selected for this study. During this event the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) A and B spacecraft were fortuitously located ˜ 90° away from the Sun-Earth line such that the CME was viewed as a limb event from these two spacecraft, thereby providing a more reliable constraint on the initial CME geometry. These multi-perspective observations were utilized to provide a simple geometrical description that assumes a cone shape for a CME to calculate its angular width and central position. The event was simulated using the coupled Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-Enlil 3D numerical solar corona-solar wind model. Daily updated global photospheric magnetic field maps were used to drive the background solar wind. To improve our modeling techniques, the sensitivity of the modeled CME arrival times to the initial input CME geometry was assessed by creating an ensemble of numerical simulations based on multiple sets of cone parameters for this event. It was found that the accuracy of the modeled arrival times not only depends on the initial input CME geometry, but also on the accuracy of the modeled solar wind background, which is driven by the input maps of the photospheric field. To improve the modeling of the background solar wind, the recently developed data-assimilated magnetic field synoptic maps produced by the Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model were used. The ADAPT maps provide a more instantaneous snapshot of the global photospheric field distribution than that provided by traditional daily updated synoptic maps. Using ADAPT to drive the background solar wind, an ensemble set of eight different CME arrival times was generated, where the spread in the predictions was ˜ 13 hours and was nearly centered on the observed CME shock arrival time.

Lee, C. O.; Arge, C. N.; Odstr?il, D.; Millward, G.; Pizzo, V.; Quinn, J. M.; Henney, C. J.

2013-07-01

12

Reflections on CME Congress 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary reflects the author's impressions of Continuing Medical Education (CME) Congress 2012, a provocative international conference on professional development and quality improvement in the health professions that took place in Toronto, Ontario, last spring. The sessions he attended and conversations he had with other attendees were…

Knox, Alan B.

2013-01-01

13

CME impact on Mercury's sputtered exospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar wind and magnetospheric plasma precipitation onto the surface of Mercury triggers the formation of exospheric particle populations by sputtering processes. Numerical modeling of Mercury's magnetosphere has shown that the weak intrinsic magnetic field of the planet is sufficient to prevent the equatorial regions from being impacted by solar wind ions during moderate solar wind conditions. However, intense fluxes of protons are expected to hit the auroral regions, giving rise to the release of surface elements at high latitudes by ion sputtering. During high solar wind dynamic pressure conditions in the case of CME events, the solar wind protons will have access to Mercury's entire dayside surface, which may result in a considerable filling of the exosphere by sputtered surface material.

Pfleger, M.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Lammer, H.; Mura, A.; Wurz, P.; Martin-Fernandez, J. A.

2013-09-01

14

Factors influencing nursing students' preference for a hybrid format delivery in a pathophysiology course.  

PubMed

A growing number of courses in higher education are adopting a hybrid format of course delivery. Hybrid courses use both online learning activities with traditional classroom teaching and thus offer the efficiency and flexibility of online delivery without the complete loss of face-to-face contact. This paper explores students' satisfaction with a hybrid course delivery format, where students were required to attend the traditional tutorial session as well as complete the prescribed web-based learning activities. The study also sought to determine if age, part-time employment or academic performance were associated with satisfaction levels of the hybrid format. Participants were 143 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a final year pathophysiology course at a university in Sydney, Australia. A survey design was used to evaluate hybrid versus traditional face-to-face classroom instruction, resulting in a high overall satisfaction with the hybrid course delivery format. Students' age and the hours they spent in part-time employment were not associated with satisfaction levels of the hybrid format. Students who achieved higher marks in the final examination expressed stronger preference for the traditional format of course delivery indicating a perceived reliance on teacher-based instruction. It is recommended that additional support be provided to students while they make the shift to a more active independent mode of learning when using web-based formats. PMID:15607242

Salamonson, Yenna; Lantz, Julie

2005-01-01

15

College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 CME 006 THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION (JUNIOR AND SENIOR). (0) Activities of the Student Chapter of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

MacAdam, Keith

16

Controlled delivery of platelet-rich plasma-derived growth factors for bone formation  

E-print Network

. Orthopedic and maxillofacial bone defects are frequently reconstructed with either auto- logous or allogeneic has been reported to improve the aggregation and cohesiveness of partic- ulate-based bone substitutesControlled delivery of platelet-rich plasma-derived growth factors for bone formation Helen H. Lu,1

Lu, Helen H.

17

CME Link to the Geomagnetic Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coronal mass ejection (CME) link to geomagnetic storms stems from the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field contained in the CME flux ropes and in the sheath between the flux rope and the CME-driven shock. A typical storm-causing CME is characterized by (i) high speed, (ii) large angular width (mostly halos and partial halos), and (iii)solar source location close to the central meridian. For CMEs originating at larger central meridian distances, the storms are mainly caused by the sheath field. Both the magnetic and energy contents of the storm-producing CMEs can be traced to the magnetic structure of active regions and the free energy stored in them.

Gopalswamy, Nat

2009-01-01

18

Mechanism of Membranous Tunnelling Nanotube Formation in Viral Genome Delivery  

PubMed Central

In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems. PMID:24086111

Peralta, Bibiana; Gil-Carton, David; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Bertin, Aurelie; Boulogne, Claire; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Abrescia, Nicola G. A.

2013-01-01

19

Calculation of Droplet Size and Formation Time in Electrohydrodynamic Based Pulsatile Drug Delivery System  

E-print Network

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsed-release drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2x2x3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method.

Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Lin, Qiao

2012-01-01

20

Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

2005-12-01

21

Solar Back-sided Halo CME - Duration: 0:13.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Sun erupted with several CMEs (coronal mass ejections) during a period just over a day (Nov. 8-9, 2012), the largest of which was a halo CME. This CME appears to have originated from an active ...

22

Sharing Collaborative Designs of Tobacco Cessation Performance Improvement CME Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) provides an important opportunity for CME providers to combine educational and quality health care improvement methodologies. Very few CME providers take on the challenges of planning this type of intervention because it is still a new practice and there are limited…

Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Ales, Mary W.; Cho, Jane; Nelson, Teena M.; Rodrigues, Shelly B.; Speight, Mike

2011-01-01

23

The Growth, Characteristics, and Future of Online CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Physician use of online continuing medical education (CME) is growing, but there are conflicting data on the uptake of online CME and few details on this market. Methods: Analyses of 11 years of data from the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and a survey of 272 publicly available CME Web sites. …

Harris, John M., Jr.; Sklar, Bernard M.; Amend, Robert W.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl

2010-01-01

24

The CME Flare Arcade and the Width of the CME in the Outer Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007, ApJ, 668, 1221) present evidence that (1) a CME is typically a magnetic bubble, a low-beta gplasmoid with legs h having roughly the 3D shape of a light bulb, and (2) in the outer corona the CME plasmoid is in lateral pressure equilibrium with the ambient magnetic field. They present three CMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO, each from a very different source located near the limb. One of these CMEs came from a compact ejective eruption from a small part of a sunspot active region, another came from a large quiet-region filament eruption, and the third CME, an extremely large and fast one, was produced in tandem with an X20 flare arcade that was centered on a huge delta sunspot. Each of these CMEs had more or less the classic lightbulb silhouette and attained a constant heliocentric angular width in the outer corona. This indicates that the CME plasmoid attained lateral magnetic pressure balance with the ambient radial magnetic field in the outer corona. This lateral pressure balance, together with the standard scenario for CME production by the eruption of a sheared-core magnetic arcade, yields the following simple estimate of the strength B(sub Flare) of the magnetic field in the flare arcade produced together with the CME: B(sub Flare) 1.4(theta CME/theta Flare)sup 2 G, where theta (sub CME) is the heliocentric angular width of the CME plasmoid in the outer corona and theta (sub Flare) is the heliocentric angular width of the full-grown flare arcade. Conversely, theta (sub CME) approximately equal to (R(sub Sun)sup -1(phi(sub Flare)/1.4)sup 1/2 radians, where Flare is the magnetic flux covered by the full-grown flare arcade. In addition to presenting the three CMEs of Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007) and their agreement with this relation between CME and Flare, we present a further empirical test of this relation. For CMEs that erupt from active regions, the co-produced flare arcade seldom if ever covers the entire active region: if AR is the total magnetic flux of the active region, Flare . AR, and we predict that CME. (R(sub Sun))sup -1(theta AR/1.4)sup 1/2 radians. For a random sample of 31 CMEs that erupted from active regions within 30 of the limb, for each CME we have measured CME from LASCO/C3 and have measured AR from a SOHO/MDI magnetogram of the source active region when it was within 30 of disk center. We find that each CME obeys the above predicted inequality, none having width greater than half of the upper bound given by theta(sub AR). Thus, an active region's magnetic flux content, together with its location on the solar disk, largely determines whether the active region can possibly produce a CME that is wide enough to intercept the Earth.

Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

2008-01-01

25

Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.  

PubMed Central

Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL. PMID:9681165

Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

1998-01-01

26

Delivery  

PubMed Central

Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

Miller, Thomas A

2013-01-01

27

A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. III. Catastrophe of the Eruptive Filament at a Magnetic Null Point and Formation of an Opposite-Handedness CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our analysis in Papers I and II (Grechnev et al., Solar Phys. 289, 289, 2014b and Solar Phys. 289, 1279, 2014c) of the 18 November 2003 solar event responsible for the 20 November geomagnetic superstorm has revealed a complex chain of eruptions. In particular, the eruptive filament encountered a topological discontinuity located near the solar disk center at a height of about 100 Mm, bifurcated, and transformed into a large cloud, which did not leave the Sun. Concurrently, an additional CME presumably erupted close to the bifurcation region. The conjectures about the responsibility of this compact CME for the superstorm and its disconnection from the Sun are confirmed in Paper IV (Grechnev et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2014a), which concludes about its probable spheromak-like structure. The present article confirms the presence of a magnetic null point near the bifurcation region and addresses the origin of the magnetic helicity of the interplanetary magnetic clouds and their connection to the Sun. We find that the orientation of a magnetic dipole constituted by dimmed regions with the opposite magnetic polarities away from the parent active region corresponded to the direction of the axial field in the magnetic cloud, while the pre-eruptive filament mismatched it. To combine all of the listed findings, we propose an intrinsically three-dimensional scheme, in which a spheromak-like eruption originates via the interaction of the initially unconnected magnetic fluxes of the eruptive filament and pre-existing ones in the corona. Through a chain of magnetic reconnections their positive mutual helicity was transformed into the self-helicity of the spheromak-like magnetic cloud.

Uralov, A. M.; Grechnev, V. V.; Rudenko, G. V.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Chertok, I. M.; Filippov, B. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

2014-10-01

28

Plasmoid instability in a large post-CME current sheet system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares and CME that cause violent space weather change have been studied for years. The standard model suggests that there is a current sheet connecting the CME and the site of the post-CME flare after the eruption, but understanding of the detailed physical mechanism of dynamical processes in the current sheet remains incomplete. Recently, the secondary plasmoid instabilities of large scale current sheet in high Lundquist number environment such as solar corona and the change of magnetic topology in such a current sheet system has become a subject of great interest (Bhattacharjee et al. 2009). In our work, we study a post-CME current sheet via both observation and simulation. We use SOHO/LASCO observations of a fast halo CME as well as a slow CME. After the fast halo CME event on January 8, 2002, we observe a long, thin current sheet which connects the CME to a flare site on the surface of the sun. In this current sheet we identify over 60 bright plasmoid-like blobs in 39 hours. In the slow CME event on June 25, 2005, we observe 32 such blobs in 18 hours after the formation of the current sheet. We simulate both cases using high-Lundquist-number resistive MHD simulations of the model of Lin & Forbes (2000), and demonstrate that the distribution of plasmoid size in both cases appears to conform well to a distribution function that is independent of the Lundquist number and predicted by theory. The average observed plasmoid speed in both cases is a fraction of the typical Alfven speed, qualitatively consistent with the simulations. Thus, we propose that these observations can be plausibly accounted for by the plasmoid instability of the large-scale current sheet. The observed bright blobs are probably evidence of large-scale plasmoids, and their behavior appears to be qualitatively consistent with high-Lundquist-number MHD simulations.
observation case summary

Guo, L.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.; CenterIntegrated Computation; Analysis of Reconnection; Turbulence

2011-12-01

29

CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT  

SciTech Connect

We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-04-10

30

Membrane domain formation—a key factor for targeted intracellular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Protein molecules, toxins and viruses internalize into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) using specific proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a barrier for many pharmaceutical agents to enter into the cytoplasm of target cells. In the case of cancer cells, tissue-specific biomarkers in the plasma membrane, like cancer-specific growth factor receptors, could be excellent candidates for RME-dependent drug delivery. Recent data suggest that agent binding to these receptors at the cell surface, resulting in membrane domain formation by receptor clustering, can be used for the initiation of RME. As a result, these pharmaceutical agents are internalized into the cells and follow different routes until they reach their final intracellular targets like lysosomes or Golgi. We propose that clustering induced formation of plasma membrane microdomains enriched in receptors, sphingolipids, and inositol lipids, leads to membrane bending which functions as the onset of RME. In this review we will focus on the role of domain formation in RME and discuss potential applications for targeted intracellular drug delivery. PMID:25520666

Popov-?eleketi?, Dušan; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M. P.

2014-01-01

31

pH-sensitive tubular polymersomes: formation and applications in cellular delivery.  

PubMed

Optimizing the shape of a nanovector influences its interaction with a cell and determines the internalization kinetics. Block copolymer amphiphiles self-assemble into monodisperse structures in aqueous solutions and have been explored extensively as drug delivery vectors. However, the structure of self-assembled block copolymers has mainly been limited to spherical vesicles or spherical and worm-like micelles. Here we show the controlled formation and purification of tubular polymersomes, long cylindrical vesicles. Tubular polymersomes are purified from other structures, and their formation is manipulated by incorporating the biocompatible membrane components cholesterol and phospholipids. Finally we show that these tubular polymersomes have different cellular internalization kinetics compared with spherical polymersomes and can successfully encapsulate and deliver fluorescent bovine serum albumin protein intracellularly. PMID:24724711

Robertson, James D; Yealland, Guy; Avila-Olias, Milagros; Chierico, Luca; Bandmann, Oliver; Renshaw, Stephen A; Battaglia, Giuseppe

2014-05-27

32

A new interactive approach to Continuous Medical Education (CME) Journal CME  

PubMed Central

This article introduces the new Continuing Medical Education (CME) section of the interactive Journal of Radiology Case Reports. This section provides SA-CMEs which are a new requirement for Maintenance of Certification (MOC) by the American Board of Radiology (ABR) and other medical specialties. PMID:24967014

Talanow, Roland

2014-01-01

33

Content Validation Policy for CME Activities Content Validation Policy for CME  

E-print Network

, or increase the knowledge, skills, and professional performance and relationships that a physician uses that will be in a position to control the content of the CME 5. Selection of educational methods 6. Evaluation available trade names from several companies should be used, not just trade names from a single company. F

Paulsson, Johan

34

Peptide hydrogel as an intraocular drug delivery system for inhibition of postoperative scarring formation.  

PubMed

A biocompatible hydrogel self-assembled from a peptide comprised of a peptide backbone containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence and a hydrophobic N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (FMOC) tail was designed and prepared to load antiproliferative model drug (5-fluorouracil, 5-Fu). After administering this 5-Fu-loaded peptide hydrogel in the filtering surgery of rabbit eyes, because of the sustained release of 5-Fu from the hydrogel to inhibit the scleral flap fibrosis efficiently, the pathology and immunohistochemistry demonstrate that the filtration fistula is patent without postoperative scarring formation, resulting in the significantly low intraocular pressure (IOP) of the rabbit eyes within postoperative 28 days. In a comparison with the conventional 5-Fu exposure, the strategy demonstrated here presents several advantages including providing convenience and preventing the toxicity of 5-Fu to the surrounding ocular tissues efficiently, suggesting a feasibility of this peptide hydrogel as a potential implanted drug delivery system for the inhibition of postoperative scarring formation. PMID:20707334

Xu, Xiao-Ding; Liang, Liang; Chen, Chang-Sheng; Lu, Bo; Wang, Na-ling; Jiang, Fa-Gang; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

2010-09-01

35

Making other Earths: Dynamical Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Formation and Water Delivery  

E-print Network

We present results from 42 simulations of late stage planetary accretion, focusing on the delivery of volatiles (primarily water) to the terrestrial planets. Our simulations include both planetary "embryos" (defined as Moon to Mars sized protoplanets) and planetesimals, assuming that the embryos formed via oligarchic growth. We investigate volatile delivery as a function of Jupiter's mass, position and eccentricity, the position of the snow line, and the density (in solids) of the solar nebula. In all simulations, we form 1-4 terrestrial planets inside 2 AU, which vary in mass and volatile content. In 42 simulations we have formed 43 planets between 0.8 and 1.5 AU, including 11 "habitable" planets between 0.9 and 1.1 AU. These planets range from dry worlds to "water worlds" with 100+ oceans of water (1 ocean = 1.5x10^24 g), and vary in mass between 0.23 and 3.85 Earth masses. There is a good deal of stochastic noise in these simulations, but the most important parameter is the planetesimal mass we choose, which reflects the surface density in solids past the snow line. A high density in this region results in the formation of a smaller number of terrestrial planets with larger masses and higher water content, as compared with planets which form in systems with lower densities. We find that an eccentric Jupiter produces drier terrestrial planets with higher eccentricities than a circular one. In cases with Jupiter at 7 AU, we form what we call "super embryos," 1-2 Earth mass protoplanets which can serve as the accretion seeds for 2+ Earth mass planets with large water contents.

Sean N. Raymond; Thomas R. Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

2003-08-09

36

Local delivery of FTY720 accelerates cranial allograft incorporation and bone formation  

PubMed Central

Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 µg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm3, respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls. PMID:21863314

Huang, Cynthia; Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel; Tholpady, Sunil; Wang, Tiffany; Cui, Quanjun; Ogle, Roy

2012-01-01

37

Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically…

Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

2012-01-01

38

Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

2007-01-01

39

Acceleration of Fast CME: A Parametric Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of LASCO/SOHO, Skylab and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations show that there are many CMEs initiated with streamer and flux-rope magnetic topology (Dere et al. 1999; St. Cyr et al., 1999; Plunkett et al., 2000). Two types of CMEs have been distinguished with different kinematic characteristics (MacQueen and Fisher, 1983; Andrews and Howard, 2001). These are fast CMEs with high initial speeds (i.e. constant speed) and slow CMEs with low initial speeds but gradual acceleration (i.e. accelerated CMEs). Efforts have been made to probe the underlying physics responsible for these dual characteristics. Low and Zhang (2002) proposed that fast and slow CMEs result from initial topology of the magnetic field characterized by normal and inverse quiescent prominences, respectively. Liu et al. have successfully performed a numerical MHD simulation for this scenario. In this presentation, we explore other possible processes using a 2.5D, time-dependent streamer and flux-rope MHD model (Wu and Guo, 1997) to investigate the dual kinematic properties of the CMEs by specifying the different initiation processes with a particular magnetic topology (i.e. inverse quiescent prominence magnetic topology). Two typical initiation processes are tested; (1) injection of the magnetic flux into the flux-rope causes additional Lorentz force to destabilize the streamer launching a CME (Wu et al., 1997) resulting in a category slow CME and (2) draining the plasma from the flux-rope together with flux injection leads to a balloon instability due to the magnetic buoyancy force which results in a impulsive eruption and launches a fast CME. References Andrews, M.D. and Howard, R.A., Space Sci. Rev., 95, 147, 2001 Dere, K.P. et al., Ap. J., 529, 575, 1999 Lin, et al., Proceedings of ICSC 2003: Solar Variability as an Input to the Earth's Environemnt, ESA-SP-535, 2003 (in press). Low, B.C. and Zhang, M., Ap. J., 564, L53, 2002. MacQueen, R.M. and Fisher, R.R., Solar Phys. 89, 89, 1983. Plunket, S., et al., Solar Phys. 194, 321, 2000. St. Cry., O.C. et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12493, 1999. Wu, S.T. and Guo, W.P. in Coronal Mass Ejection, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, (N. Crooker, et al. eds.), AGU Washington, DC 1997. Wu, S.T. et al., Solar Phys., 175, 719, 1997.

Wu, S. T.; Zhang, T. X.; Tan, A.

2003-12-01

40

Facile Formation of Dynamic Hydrogel Microspheres for Triggered Growth Factor Delivery  

PubMed Central

Dynamic hydrogels have emerged as an important class of biomaterials for temporal control over growth factor delivery. In this study we formed dynamic hydrogel microspheres from protein-polymer conjugates using an aqueous two phase suspension polymerization process. The aqueous two phase suspension polymerization process enabled rapid microsphere formation without the use of an organic phase, surfactants, mechanical strain, or toxic radical initiators. The microspheres’ size distribution was modulated by varying the protein-polymer conformation in the pre-polymer solution. Notably, the protein’s ligand-induced, nanometer scale conformational change translated to maximum hydrogel volume changes of 76±10%. The magnitude of the microspheres’ volume change was tuned by varying the crosslinking time and ligand identity. After characterizing the microspheres’ dynamic properties, we encapsulated two important therapeutic proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), in the hydrogel microspheres and characterized how the microspheres’ dynamic properties controlled their release. Significantly, the aqueous two phase suspension polymerization process enabled high encapsulation efficiencies (65.8±4.8% and 79.5±3.0% for VEGF and BMP-2, respectively). Also, the microspheres’ ligand-induced volume change triggered VEGF and BMP-2 release at specific, predetermined times. There are hundreds of proteins that undergo well characterized conformational changes that could be processed into hydrogel microspheres via aqueous two phase suspension polymerizations. Therefore, this approach could be used to form dynamic, growth factor-releasing hydrogel microspheres that respond to a broad range of specific biochemical ligands. PMID:21029793

King, William J.; Toepke, Michael W.; Murphy, William L.

2010-01-01

41

CME front and severe space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

to the work of a number of scientists who made it known that severe space weather can cause extensive social and economic disruptions in the modern high-technology society. It is therefore important to understand what determines the severity of space weather and whether it can be predicted. We present results obtained from the analysis of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar energetic particle (SEP) events, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), CME-magnetosphere coupling, and geomagnetic storms associated with the major space weather events since 1998 by combining data from the ACE and GOES satellites with geomagnetic parameters and the Carrington event of 1859, the Quebec event of 1989, and an event in 1958. The results seem to indicate that (1) it is the impulsive energy mainly due to the impulsive velocity and orientation of IMF Bz at the leading edge of the CMEs (or CME front) that determine the severity of space weather. (2) CMEs having high impulsive velocity (sudden nonfluctuating increase by over 275 km s-1 over the background) caused severe space weather (SvSW) in the heliosphere (failure of the solar wind ion mode of Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor in ACE) probably by suddenly accelerating the high-energy particles in the SEPs ahead directly or through the shocks. (3) The impact of such CMEs which also show the IMF Bz southward from the leading edge caused SvSW at the Earth including extreme geomagnetic storms of mean DstMP < -250 nT during main phases, and the known electric power outages happened during some of these SvSW events. (4) The higher the impulsive velocity, the more severe the space weather, like faster weather fronts and tsunami fronts causing more severe damage through impulsive action. (5) The CMEs having IMF Bz northward at the leading edge do not seem to cause SvSW on Earth, although, later when the IMF Bz turns southward, they can lead to super geomagnetic storms of intensity (Dstmin) less than even -400 nT.

Balan, N.; Skoug, R.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Rajesh, P. K.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Batista, I. S.; Ebihara, Y.; Nakamura, T.

2014-12-01

42

Initiation of CMEs associated with filament eruption, and the nature of CME related shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from SDO, PROBA2 and other spacecraft, Fainshtein and Egorov (2013) have discovered processes accompanying initiation of six limb CMEs and have studied features of their motion. The said CMEs occurred after eruption of prominence or hot emission loop and were associated with X-ray flares. The follow-up study of the CMEs, associated with the prominence eruption, showed that the formation of such mass ejections and the initial stage of their motion may be characterised by special features. In this work, we give examples of CMEs with such features. We have revealed a positive correlation between the height of the CME-related eruptive prominence and the height of the frontal structure of CMEs measured before they began to move. By analysing two of the CMEs, using SDO data, we found out that the kinematics of CME body and its related shock differs considerably. We have established that the time dependence of shock position and velocity obtained from SDO data is in agreement with theoretical dependencies of variation in these motion parameters with time in the context of self-similar motion of an explosion shock. We have concluded that the shock are not piston-like with the CME body acting as a piston.

Fainshtein, V. G.; Egorov, Ya. I.

2015-02-01

43

CME Propagation Characteristics from Radio Observations  

E-print Network

We explore the relationship among three coronal mass ejections (CMEs), observed on 28 October 2003, 7 November 2004, and 20 January 2005, the type II burst-associated shock waves in the corona and solar wind, as well as the arrival of their related shock waves and magnetic clouds at 1 AU. Using six different coronal/interplanetary density models, we calculate the speeds of shocks from the frequency drifts observed in metric and decametric radio wave data. We compare these speeds with the velocity of the CMEs as observed in the plane-of-the-sky white-light observations and calculated with a cone model for the 7 November 2004 event. We then follow the propagation of the ejecta using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) measurements, which were available for the 7 November 2004 and 20 January 2005 events. Finally, we calculate the travel time of the interplanetary (IP) shocks between the Sun and Earth and discuss the velocities obtained from the different data. This study highlights the difficulties in making velocity estimates that cover the full CME propagation time.

S. Pohjolainen; L. van Driel-Gesztelyi; J. L. Culhane; P. K. Manoharan; H. A. Elliott

2007-11-20

44

Numerical Simulation of a Slow Streamer-Blowout CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 3D numerical MHD simulation of the 2008 Jun 2 gradual streamer blowout CME that had virtually no identifiable low coronal signatures. We energize the field by simple footpoint shearing along the source region's polarity inversion line and model the background solar wind structure using an ?2MK isothermal wind and a low-order potential field source surface representation of the CR2070 synoptic magnetogram. Our results show that the CME ``initiation’’ is obtained by slowly disrupting the quasi-steady-state configuration of the helmet streamer, resulting in the standard eruptive flare picture that ejects the sheared fields, but very slowly, on a relatively large scale, and with very little magnetic energy release. We obtain a relatively slow CME eruption of order the background solar wind speed and argue that these slow streamer blowout CMEs (now also known as ``stealth CMEs’’) are simply at the lowest end of the CME energy distribution. We present comparisons of the CME propagation through the corona (?15Rs) in synthetic white-light images derived from the simulation density structure with multi-spacecraft coronagraph data from STEREO/SECCHI and SOHO/LASCO.

Lynch, Benjamin J.; Masson, Sophie; Li, Yan; DeVore, C. Richard; Luhmann, Janet; Antiochos, Spiro K.

2014-06-01

45

Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control  

DOEpatents

A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

2002-07-09

46

CME Earthward Direction as an Important Geoeffectiveness Indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frontside halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are generally considered as potential candidates for producing geomagnetic storms, but there was no definite way to predict whether they will hit the Earth or not. Recently Moon et al. suggested that the degree of CME asymmetries, as defined by the ratio of the shortest to the longest distances of the CME front measured from the solar center, be used as a parameter for predicting their geoeffectiveness. They called this quantity a direction parameter, D, as it suggests how much CME propagation is directed to Earth, and examined its forecasting capability using 12 fast halo CMEs. In this paper, we extend this test by using a much larger database (486 frontside halo CMEs from 1997 to 2003) and more robust statistical tools (contingency table and statistical parameters). We compared the forecast capability of this direction parameter to those of other CME parameters, such as location and speed. We found the following results: (1) The CMEs with large direction parameters (D>=0.4) are highly associated with geomagnetic storms. (2) If the direction parameter increases from 0.4 to 1.0, the geoeffective probability rises from 52% to 84%. (3) All CMEs associated with strong geomagnetic storms (Dst<=-200 nT) are found to have large direction parameters (D>=0.6). (4) CMEs causing strong geomagnetic storms (Dst<=-100 nT), in spite of their northward magnetic field, have large direction parameters (D>=0.6). (5) Forecasting capability improves when statistical parameters (e.g., ``probability of detection-yes'' and ``critical success index'') are employed, in comparison with the forecast solely based on the location and speed of CMEs. These results indicate that the CME direction parameter can be an important indicator for forecasting CME geoeffectiveness.

Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S.; Kim, K.-H.; Park, Y.-D.; Moon, Y.-J.; Yi, Y.; Lee, J.; Wang, H.; Song, H.; Dryer, M.

2008-04-01

47

01.22.12: SOHO's View of Earth-directed CME - Duration: 0:07.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Solar Heliospheric Observatory captured the coronal mass ejection (CME) in this video (which shows the sun's activity from January 19 to January 23). The CME is associate with an M8.7 class sol...

48

Space Weather Model of July 22-23, 2012 CME - Duration: 0:05.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Space Weather Research Center modeled the July 23, 2012 CME using a modeling program called ENLIL. The CME can be seen to expand dramatically as it travels through space. By comparing how we...

49

Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

2011-05-01

50

Palladium ketonyl carboxylate complexes--potential models of polynuclear intermediates in olefin oxidation: formation and X-ray structure of Pd6(?-Cl)(2+x)(?-CF3CO2)4(?,?(2)-CH2C(O)CMe3)(6-x) (x = 0, 2).  

PubMed

Reactions of Pd(4)(NO)(4)(CF(3)CO(2))(4) with olefins were studied, this Pd-cluster was shown to promote the oxidation of olefins into ketones, which were found as ketonyl ligands in complex products of the reaction; 6-nuclear palladium clusters with carboxylate and ketonyl ligands Pd(6)(?-Cl)(x)(?-CF(3)CO(2))(4)(?,?(2)-CH(2)C(O)CMe(3))(6-x) were characterized by XRD analysis. PMID:23212233

Shishilov, Oleg N; Podobedov, Roman E; Rezinkova, Yaroslavna N; Churakov, Andrei V; Efimenko, Inessa A

2013-02-01

51

Formation of thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte complex micelles from two biocompatible graft copolymers for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) micelles assembled from two biocompatible graft copolymers chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS-g-PNIPAM) and carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CMC-g-PNIPAM) were prepared for delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The PEC micelles showed a narrow size distribution with core-shell structure, in which the core formed from positively charged CS and negatively charged CMC by electrostatic interactions and the shell formed from thermo-sensitive PNIPAM. The synthesized PEC micelles have lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) in the region of 37°C, which is favorable for smart drug delivery applications. The hydrogen bondings between PEC micelles and 5-FU increased the drug loading. Changing temperature, pH or ionic strength, a sustained and controlled release was observed due to the deformation of PEC micelles. Adding glutaraldehyde, a chemical crosslinking reagent, was an efficient way to reinforce the micelles structure and decrease the initial burst release. Cytotoxicity assays showed that drug-loaded PEC micelles retained higher cell inhibition efficiency in HeLa cells. PMID:23894021

Li, Guiying; Meng, Yanfeng; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Junshen

2014-07-01

52

Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun  

E-print Network

#12;Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun Composite image of the Sun in UV light with the naked eye, the Sun seems static, placid, constant. From the ground, the only notice- able variations in the Sun are its location (where will it rise and set today?) and its color (will clouds cover

Christian, Eric

53

4Name ________________________________ Sun -CME Earth -Aurora Saturn -Aurora  

E-print Network

4Name ________________________________ Sun - CME Earth - Aurora Saturn - Aurora On November 8, 2000, the Hubble Space Telescope detected an aurora on Saturn. During the period from November to December, 2000, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn were almost lined-up with each other. Assuming that the three planets were

54

Improving CME: Using Participant Satisfaction Measures to Specify Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine having developed a continuing medical education (CME) initiative to educate physicians on updated guidelines regarding high cholesterol in adults. This initiative consisted of didactic presentations and case-based discussions offered in 5 major US cities, followed by a Web-based enduring component to distill key points of the live…

Olivieri, Jason J.; Regala, Roderick P.

2013-01-01

55

STEREO Captures Fastest CME to Date - Duration: 0:15.  

NASA Video Gallery

This movie shows a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the sun from July 22, 2012 at 10:00 PM EDT until 2 AM on July 23 as captured by NASA's Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A). Be...

56

MHD Simulations of CME Acceleration and Impulsive Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MHD simulations of flux rope motion and magnetic reconnection are presented. In particular, we discuss the role of nonuniform anomalous resistivity on the time scale of flux rope acceleration and reconnection rate. The simulation results show that the flux rope's accelerated rising motion is associated with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. By choosing a particular dependence of resistivity on the current density, the simulation results are in good quantitative agreement with the observed temporal profile of the filament-CME acceleration. Moreover, the impulsive rise of the magnetic reconnection rate obtained from the simulations are also in good quantitative agreement with those obtained from the magnetogram data and horizontally expanding two-ribbon emissions for CME-flare events. For the X-class flare events the peak reconnection electric field is ˜ O(103 V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate electrons to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 0.1 km and produce an impulsive hard X-ray emission observed during the flare rise phase. Thus, the simulation results are consistent with CME-flare events that show a temporal correlation among the peak filament-CME acceleration, the impulsive flare non-thermal emissions, and the peak rate of GOES X-ray emission. We will discuss the implications of the empirical anomalous resistivity model on the microscopic reconnection and particle acceleration processes in the current sheet.

Cheng, C. Z.; Choe, G. S.; Ren, Y.; Qiu, J.; Moon, Y. J.

2004-05-01

57

Formation of vitamin D nanoemulsion-based delivery systems by spontaneous emulsification: factors affecting particle size and stability.  

PubMed

Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are particularly suitable for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals because of their ability to form stable and transparent delivery systems with high oral bioavailability. In this study, the influence of system composition and preparation conditions on the particle size and stability of vitamin D nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification (SE) was investigated. SE relies on the formation of small oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is titrated into an aqueous solution. The influence of oil phase composition (vitamin D and MCT), surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), surfactant type (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and 85), and stirring conditions on the initial particle size of vitamin D nanoemulsions was studied. Nanoemulsions with small droplet diameters (d<200 nm) could be formed using Tween 80 at SOR?1 at high stirring speeds (800 rpm). These systems were relatively stable to droplet growth at ambient temperatures (<10% in diameter after 1 month storage), but unstable to heating (T>80°C). The thermal stability of the nanoemulsions could be improved by adding a cosurfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)). The spontaneous emulsification method is simple and inexpensive to carry out and therefore has great potential for forming nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for food, personal care, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25308650

Guttoff, Marrisa; Saberi, Amir Hossein; McClements, David Julian

2015-03-15

58

Rational design of multifunctional hetero-hexameric proteins for hydrogel formation and controlled delivery of bioactive molecules.  

PubMed

A hetero-hexameric protein system is developed in this study, which not only functions as cross-linkers for hydrogel formation but also offers docking sites for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules. First, a hexameric protein with two, four, and six tax-interacting protein-1 (TIP-1), respectively (named as 2T, 4T, and 6T), is designed and obtained. As the hexapeptide ligand (WRESAI) can specifically bind to TIP-1 with high affinity, the hexameric proteins of 2T, 4T, and 6T can be used to crosslink the self-assembling nanofibers of Nap-GFFYGGGWRESAI, leading to formation of injectable biohybrid hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. Furthermore, a hetero-hexameric protein containing four TIP-1 and two C-terminal moiety of the pneumococcal cell-wall amidase LytA (C-LytA) proteins is designed and engineered (named as 4T2C). The 4T2C proteins can not only serve as cross-linkers for hydrogel formation but also provide docking sites for loading and controlled release of model drug Rhoda-GGK'. This study opens up new opportunities for further development of multifunctional hetero- recombinant protein-based hydrogels for biological applications. PMID:24861900

Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Ying; Ren, Chunhua; Ding, Dan; Long, Jiafu; Yang, Zhimou

2014-11-01

59

The Impact of Course Delivery Format on Wellness Patterns of University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students (N = 103) enrolled in multiple wellness courses at a small northeastern public university completed a questionnaire measuring wellness patterns at the beginning and end of a wellness course delivered totally on line (web-based), in the traditional classroom, or in a mix of the two formats (blended). Attrition of participants…

Everhart, Kim; Dimon, Chelsea

2013-01-01

60

Electromediated formation of DNA complexes with cell membranes and its consequences for gene delivery  

E-print Network

Electroporation is a physical method to induce the uptake of therapeutic drugs and DNA, by eukaryotic cells and tissues. The phenomena behind electro-mediated membrane permeabilization to plasmid DNA have been shown to be significantly more complex than those for small molecules. Small molecules cross the permeabilized membrane by diffusion whereas plasmid DNA first interacts with the electropermeabilized part of the cell surface, forming localized aggregates. The dynamics of this process is still poorly understood because direct observations have been limited to scales of the order of seconds. Here, cells are electropermeabilized in the presence of plasmid DNA and monitored with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. This allows us to show that during the first pulse application, plasmid complexes, or aggregates, start to form at distinct sites on the cell membrane. FRAP measurements show that the positions of these sites are remarkably immobile during the application of further pluses. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the appearance of distinct interaction sites, the quantitative increase in DNA and also their immobility leading to a tentative explanation for the success of electro-mediated gene delivery.

Jean-Michel Escoffre; Thomas Portet; Cyril Favard; Justin Teissié; David S. Dean; Marie-Pierre Rols

2011-02-03

61

Effects of Alternate Format In-Service Delivery on Teacher Knowledge Base and Problem-Solving Related to Autism & Adaptations: What Teachers Need to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's purpose was to explore effectiveness of alternate format in-service delivery for what teachers needed to know to effectively teach their students with Autism Spectrum Disorder/High Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome (ASD/HFA/AS) in the general education setting. The study's research questions included: Did participants learn…

Bruening, Marie Diane

2010-01-01

62

Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies' physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic…

Sidman, Cara Lynn; Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

2011-01-01

63

Effect of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine content on the formation of microemulsions and the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.  

PubMed

The choice of appropriate excipients is crucial for the success of a dermal drug delivery system. Especially surfactants should be chosen carefully, because of their possible interactions with the skin or the applied drug. Since monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) exhibits great emulsification properties and can be derived from natural sources, it is of great interest as surfactant in microemulsions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MAPL content on the formation of microemulsions. The great emulsification power of MAPL was confirmed by increased isotropic areas with increasing MAPL content. Moreover, a decrease in particle size, particle size distribution and viscosity with increasing MAPL content was determined. Besides its effects on microemulsion structure, MAPL exhibited a significant influence on the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. Interestingly, the higher the MAPL content, the lower was the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. A possible explanation might be that the hydrophilic MAPL could hinder the permeation of the lipophilic drug. In contrast, the skin permeation enhancing effects of the microemulsion with the lowest MAPL content might be attributed to formation of a patch-like structure and therefore better contact between the formulation and the skin. PMID:25542986

Hoppel, Magdalena; Juric, Sonja; Ettl, Hanna; Valenta, Claudia

2015-02-01

64

Creating a tumor-resistant microenvironment: cell-mediated delivery of TNF? completely prevents breast cancer tumor formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Here, we provide the necessary proof of concept, that it is possible to metabolically create a non-permissive or "hostile" stromal microenvironment, which actively prevents tumor engraftment in vivo. We developed a novel genetically engineered fibroblast cell line that completely prevents tumor formation in mice, with a 100% protection rate. No host side effects were apparent. This could represent a viable cellular strategy for preventing and treating a variety of human cancers. More specifically, we examined the autocrine and paracrine effects of the cellular delivery of TNF? on breast cancer tumor growth and cancer metabolism. For this purpose, we recombinantly overexpressed TNF? in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) or human immortalized fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1). Our results directly show that TNF? functions as a potent tumor suppressor. Remarkably, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells were viable, without any significant increases in their basal apoptotic rate. However, after 4 weeks post-implantation, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells failed to form any tumors in xenografted mice (0 tumors/10 injections), ultimately conferring 100% protection against tumorigenesis. Similarly, TNF?-overexpressing fibroblasts were also viable, without any increases in apoptosis. Significantly, complete tumor suppression was obtained by co-injecting TNF? expressing stromal fibroblasts with human breast cancer cells, indicating that paracrine cell-mediated delivery of TNF? can also prevent tumor engraftment and growth (0 tumors/10 injections). Mechanistically, TNF? induced autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in both epithelial cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts, preventing energy transfer from the tumor microenvironment, likely "starving" the cancer cells to death. In addition, via qRT-PCR analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells, we observed that TNF? mediated the upregulation of gene transcripts associated with inflammation and senescence [IL-1-?, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2, p21(WAF1/CIP1)] and downregulated known tumor-promoting genes (collagen VI and MMP2). Recombinant overexpression of TNF? receptor(s) in MDA-MB-231 cells also significantly reduced tumor growth, but was not as effective as the TNF? ligand itself in preventing tumor growth. Thus, we propose that stromal cell-mediated delivery of TNF? to human tumors [using transfected fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)] may be a novel and effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23292149

Al-Zoubi, Mazhar; Salem, Ahmed F; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Arafat, Hwyda; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

2013-02-01

65

Dependence Of Solar Proton Events On Flare And Cme Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have examined the probability of solar proton events (SEPs) and their peak fluxes depending on flare (intensity, longitude and impulsive time) and CME parameters (linear speed and angular width). For this we used the NOAA SPE events and their associated flare data from 1976 to 2006 and CME data from 1997 to 2006. From this study, we found that about only 3.5% (1.9% for M-class and 21.3% for X-class) of the flares are associated with the proton events. It is also found that this fraction strongly depends on longitude; for example, the fraction for 30W° < L < 90W° is about three times larger than that for 30°E < L < 90°E. The occurrence probability of solar proton events for flares with long duration (? 0.3 hours) is about 2 (X-class flare) to 7 (M-class flare) times larger than that for flares with short duration (< 0.3 hours). In the case of halo CMEs with V ? 1500km/s, 36.1% are associated with SPEs but in the case of partial halo CME (120° ? AW < 359°) with 400 km/s ? V < 1000 km/s, only 0.9% are associated with SPEs. The relationship between X-ray flare peak intensity and proton flux as well as its correlation coefficient strongly depends on longitude and impulsive time. It is also noted that the relationship between CME speed and proton flux depends on longitude as well as direction parameter.

Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.

2011-05-01

66

Automated LASCO CME Catalog for Solar Cycle 23: Are CMEs Scale Invariant?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the first automatically constructed LASCO coronal mass ejection (CME) catalog, a result of the application of the Computer Aided CME Tracking software (CACTus) on the LASCO archive during the interval 1997 September-2007 January. We have studied the CME characteristics and have compared them with similar results obtained by manual detection (CDAW CME catalog). On average, CACTus detects less than two events per day during solar minimum, up to eight events during maximum, nearly half of them being narrow (<20°). Assuming a correction factor, we find that the CACTus CME rate is surprisingly consistent with CME rates found during the past 30 years. The CACTus statistics show that small-scale outflow is ubiquitously observed in the outer corona. The majority of CACTus-only events are narrow transients related to previous CME activity or to intensity variations in the slow solar wind, reflecting its turbulent nature. A significant fraction (about 15%) of CACTus-only events were identified as independent events, thus not related to other CME activity. The CACTus CME width distribution is essentially scale invariant in angular span over a range of scales from 20° to 120° while previous catalogs present a broad maximum around 30°. The possibility that the size of coronal mass outflows follow a power-law distribution could indicate that no typical CME size exists, i.e., that the narrow transients are not different from the larger well defined CMEs.

Robbrecht, E.; Berghmans, D.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.

2009-02-01

67

Determination of the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test facility for the measurement of the length variation of polymer composites due to moisture evaporation is described. The measurement method is based on commercial laser interferometers with a resolution of 10nm and working under vacuum conditions yields a total accuracy of 0,1?m. The high sensitivity and resolution of the test facility is shown by CTE experiments with copper and Invar samples. The CTE results are in the expected range although the considered temperature regime is very small. CME measurements were performed on simple lay ups - unidirectional and bidirectional material - of carbon fibre reinforced polymers, which were preconditioned in water at a temperature of 50°C. Two methods for the determination of ?m - determination of the initial and final sample weight (method 1) - online-measurement of the sample weight during outgassing under vacuum condition (method 2) are presented and a comparison of the CME results confirms the time effectiveness and reliability of the method 2. The CME values for the chosen material are in the range of 5E-6/% to 1E-2/%.

Poenninger, A.; Defoort, B.

2003-09-01

68

Dependence of Geomagnetic Storms on Their Associated Halo CME Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the geoeffective parameters of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We consider 50 front-side full-halo CMEs (FFH CMEs), which are from the list of Michalek, Gopalswamy, and Yashiro ( Solar Phys. 246, 399, 2007), whose asymmetric-cone model parameters and earthward-direction parameter were available. For each CME we use its projected velocity [ V p], radial velocity [ V r], angle between cone axis and sky plane [ ?] from the cone model, earthward-direction parameter [ D], source longitude [ L], and magnetic-field orientation [ M] of its CME source region. We make a simple linear-regression analysis to find out the relationship between CME parameters and Dst index. The main results are as follows: i) The combined parameters [( V r D)1/2 and V r ?] have higher correlation coefficients [cc] with the Dst index than the other parameters [ V p and V r]: cc=0.76 for ( V r D)1/2, cc=0.70 for V r ?, cc=0.55 for V r, and cc=0.17 for V p. ii) Correlation coefficients between V r ? and Dst index depend on L and M; cc=0.59 for 21 eastern events [E], cc=0.80 for 29 western events [W], cc=0.49 for 17 northward magnetic-field events [N], and cc=0.69 for 33 southward magnetic-field events [S]. iii) Super geomagnetic storms (Dst?-200 nT) only appear in the western and southward magnetic-field events. The mean absolute Dst values of geomagnetic storms (Dst?-50 nT) increase with an order of E+N, E+S, W+N, and W+S events; the mean absolute Dst value (169 nT) of W+S events is significantly larger than that (75 nT) of E+N events. Our results demonstrate that not only do the cone-model parameters together with the earthward-direction parameter improve the relationship between CME parameters and Dst index, but also the longitude and the magnetic-field orientation of a FFH CME source region play a significant role in predicting geomagnetic storms.

Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, R.-S.

2014-06-01

69

STUDY OF THE 2007 APRIL 20 CME-COMET INTERACTION EVENT WITH AN MHD MODEL  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the tail disconnection event on 2007 April 20 on comet 2P/Encke, caused by a coronal mass ejection (CME) at a heliocentric distance of 0.34 AU. During their interaction, both the CME and the comet are visible with high temporal and spatial resolution by the STEREO-A spacecraft. Previously, only current sheets or shocks have been accepted as possible reasons for comet tail disconnections, so it is puzzling that the CME caused this event. The MHD simulation presented in this work reproduces the interaction process and demonstrates how the CME triggered a tail disconnection in the April 20 event. It is found that the CME disturbs the comet with a combination of a 180 deg. sudden rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), followed by a 90 deg. gradual rotation. Such an interpretation applies our understanding of solar wind-comet interactions to determine the in situ IMF orientation of the CME encountering Encke.

Jia, Y. D.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K. [IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Manchester, W. B.; Cohen, O.; Hansen, K. C.; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I. [CSEM, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Solar Physics Branch, Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2009-05-01

70

Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree? 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

2008-12-01

71

Correlation Among Flare Emissions, CME Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent solar observations have shown that the flare emission and the flux rope motion and the magnetic reconnection rate are closely related. Filament eruptions in the lower corona and CMEs in the higher corona are considered as the motion of flux ropes. From the flare-CME-filament observations it was observed that the most intense peak in the flare nonthermal emissions (hard X-ray, microwaves) and the maximum rate of increase in the total soft X-ray emission during the flare rise phase occur at the time of maximum acceleration of the flux rope's rising motion. Moreover, the magnetic reconnection rate obtained from the magnetogram data and horizontally expanding two-ribbon emissions is found to temporally correlate with the flux rope acceleration. We have performed resistive MHD simulations of the temporal evolution of flux rope motion and magnetic reconnection rate by employing a nonuniform anomalous resistivity. The simulation results show that the flux rope's accelerated rising motion is associated with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The results are in good quantitative agreement with observations of the acceleration of flux ropes (CMEs) for several CME-flare events. For the X-class flare events the peak reconnection electric field is ˜ O(103 V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate electrons to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 0.1 km and produce an impulsive hard X-ray emission observed during the flare rise phase, consistent with the estimated reconnection rate based on observations. Comparisons of the flux rope height, velocity and acceleration between our simulation results and observed CME-flare events will be presented.

Cheng, C. Z.; Choe, G. S.; Qiu, J.; Ren, Y.; Moon, Y. J.

2004-05-01

72

Flare Emissions, CME Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent solar observations have shown that the flare emission, the flux rope motion and the magnetic reconnection rate are closely related. Filament eruptions in the lower corona and CMEs in the higher corona are considered as the motion of a flux rope. From the flare-CME-filament observations it was observed that the most intense peak in the flare nonthermal emissions (hard X-ray, microwaves) and the maximum rate of increase in the total soft X-ray emission during the flare rise phase occur at the time of maximum acceleration of the flux rope's rising motion. Moreover, the magnetic reconnection rate obtained from the magnetogram data and horizontally expanding two-ribbon emissions is found to temporally correlate with the flux rope acceleration. We have performed resistive MHD simulations of the temporal evolution of flux rope motion and magnetic reconnection rate, which depends critically on the nonuniform anomalous resistivity which is a function of current density. The simulation results show that the flux rope's accelerated rising motion is associated with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The results are in good quantitative agreement with observations of the acceleration of flux ropes (CMEs) for several CME-flare events. For the X-class flare events the peak reconnection electric field is ˜ O(103 V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate electrons to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 0.1 km and produce an impulsive hard X-ray emission observed during the flare rise phase, consistent with the estimated reconnection rate based on observations. Comparisons of the flux rope height, velocity and acceleration between our simulation results and observed CME-flare events will be presented. Moreover, possible scenarios of particle acceleration and particle distributions responsible for flare emissions will be discussed.

Cheng, C. Z.; Choe, G. S.; Qiu, J.; Ren, Y.; Moon, Y. J.

2004-05-01

73

Acceleration of SEPs in Flaring Loops and CME Driven shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider two stage acceleration of the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). The first occurring via the stochastic acceleration mechanism at the flare site in the corona, which produces the so-called impulsive SEPs, with anomalous abundances, as well as nonthermal particles responsible for the observed radiation. The second is re-acceleration the flare accelerated particles at the CME driven shock associated with larger, longer duration events with relatively normal abundances. Turbulence plays a major role in both stages. We will show how stochastic acceleration can explain some of the salient features of the impulsive SEP observations; such as extreme enrichment of 3He (and heavy ions), and the observed broad distributions and ranges of the 3He and 4He fluences. We will then show that the above hybrid mechanism of first stochastic acceleration of ions in the reconnecting coronal magnetic structures and then their re-acceleration in the CME shock can produce the varied shapes of the 3He and 4He spectra observed in all events ranging from weak impulsive to strong gradual events.

Petrosian, Vahe; Chen, Qingrong

2014-06-01

74

Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He++ component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the effect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

2011-01-01

75

Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind. fast wind. solar energetic particle (SEP) population. and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He(++) component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the etfect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

Killen, Roseamry M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

2011-01-01

76

CME Initiation Driven by Velocity-Shear Kinetic Reconnection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection is widely believed to be the mechanism that disrupts this force balance, leading to explosive eruption. For understanding CME/flare initiation, therefore, it is critical to model the onset of reconnection that is driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are important in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is nontrivial, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. In the work presented here, we discuss methods for applying a velocity shear perpendicular to the plane of reconnection in a system with open boundary conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.

Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard; Germaschewski, Kai

2014-06-01

77

KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF THE CME RECONNECTION OUTFLOW LAYER IN THE LOW CORONA  

SciTech Connect

New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature ({approx}11.6 MK), and high flow shear ({approx}680 km s{sup -1}) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nykyri, Katariina [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hannah, Iain G., E-mail: claire.foullon@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2013-04-20

78

Promoting Free Online CME for Intimate Partner Violence: What Works at What Cost?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There is a need to provide practicing physicians with training on the recognition and management of intimate partner violence (IPV). Online continuing medical education (CME) could help meet this need, but there is little information on the costs and effectiveness of promoting online CME to physicians. This lack of information may…

Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Amend, Robert W.; Surprenant, Zita J.

2009-01-01

79

Relation between CME Speed and Magnetic Helicity in Solar Source Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to be powered by the free energy in the solar source regions. The magnetic helicity in the source regions is one of the indicators of this free energy. In order to see the relationship between the magnetic helicity of CME source regions and CME energy, we considered a set of 41 solar source regions (from solar cycle 23) from which CMEs erupted and ended up as magnetic clouds near Earth. Using EUV and magnetogram data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission, we determined the most probable linear force-free magnetic structure and its magnetic helicity for each CME source region. The magnetograms taken just prior to the CME eruption were used to compute the magnetic helicity. The CME speeds were obtained from the SOHO/LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov). We found that the magnetic helicity is positively correlated with the speed of CMEs. This result suggests that the magnetic helicity of CME source regions maybe useful for predicting CME speed.

Jung, H.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Xie, H.

2010-12-01

80

Implications of CME Deflections on the Habitability of Planets Around M Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are known to produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. These effects include geomagnetically induced currents and energetic particles accelerated by CME-driven shocks. Significant non-radial motions are observed for solar CMEs with the CME path deviating as much as 30 degrees within 20 solar radii. We have developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), which predicts the deflected path of a CME according to the magnetic forces of the background solar wind. In Kay et al (2013), we show that these magnetic forces cause CMEs to deflect towards the region of minimum magnetic field strength. For the Sun, this magnetic minimum corresponds to the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS). We predict that the Earth is most likely to be impacted by a deflected CME when its orbit brings it near the HCS. M dwarfs can have magnetic field strengths several orders of magnitude larger than the Sun which will strongly affect CME deflections. We explore stellar CME deflections with ForeCAT. We present results for M4V star V374 Peg. We determine potential impacts caused by CME deflections for a planet located within the habitable zone of V374 Peg 20-40 solar radii). We discuss future extensions as including variations in solar cycle, capturing small structures such as active regions, and extensions for other M dwarf stars.

Kay, Christina; Opher, Merav

2014-06-01

81

KL2/Catalyst Medical Research Investigator Training (CMeRIT) Request for Applications (RFA)  

E-print Network

KL2/Catalyst Medical Research Investigator Training (CMeRIT) Request for Applications (RFA) Due Medical Research Investigator Training (CMeRIT) award provides two years of salary support at 50 Harvard Catalyst will be tuition-free. Each awardee will also receive a small research support funding

Church, George M.

82

A Pilot Study of CME on Risk Management in Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study's purpose was to evaluate behavioral changes among medical directors and physicians following CME on risk management in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The setting was a satellite conference at the AGS Meeting Symposium 2000. CME participants included 51 medical directors, attending physicians, and nurses. Evaluations were based…

Powers, James; Pichert, James W.; Habermann, Ralf; Ribble, Rachel

2004-01-01

83

A Reflective Learning Framework to Evaluate CME Effects on Practice Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The importance of reflective practice is recognized by the adoption of a reflective learning model in continuing medical education (CME), but little is known about how to evaluate reflective learning in CME. Reflective learning seldom is defined in terms of specific cognitive processes or observable performances. Competency-based…

Leung, Kit H.; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Weston, Cynthia

2010-01-01

84

Delivery presentations  

MedlinePLUS

Delivery presentation describes the way the baby (fetus) is positioned to come down the birth canal for delivery. ... THE DELIVERY PROCESS The delivery process is described in terms of fetal station, lie, attitude, and presentation. Fetal station: ...

85

Recurrent flare/CME events from an emerging flux region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on six recurrent ‘halo’ coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred (in November 2000) during a 60-hour period in clear association with major flares in an active region on the solar disk. The region was undergoing dynamic restructuring due to flux emergence. The flares were not long-decay events (LDEs) in terms of soft X-ray light curves and morphologies, although, in the impulsive phase, they produced ejections in soft X-rays that are characteristic of CMEs. We do not detect global changes in EUV and X-ray full-disk images prior to these flares. We suggest that emerging magnetic flux in the core of an active region may be responsible for the occurrence of such repeated flare/CME events.

Nitta, Nariaki V.; Hudson, Hugh S.

86

CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their Interplanetary Consequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant number of interplanetary (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open magnetic field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open magnetic field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.

Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

2008-01-01

87

Effects of the 5 October 1996 CME at 4.4 AU: Ulysses observations  

SciTech Connect

The authors present observations from Ulysses associated with a large coronal mass ejection (CME) that lifted off the west limb of the Sun on 5 October, 1996. The study focuses on the effects of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME on the energetic particle populations at the location of Ulysses, in particular the effect on the sequence of corotating enhancements that had been observed prior to its arrival. They conclude that, despite its large spatial extent, the CME caused no permanent deformation of the heliospheric current sheet.

Marsden, R.G.; Desai, M.I.; Sanderson, T.R. [Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept. of ESA; Forsyth, R.J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom); Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-09-01

88

ON A CORONAL BLOWOUT JET: THE FIRST OBSERVATION OF A SIMULTANEOUSLY PRODUCED BUBBLE-LIKE CME AND A JET-LIKE CME IN A SOLAR EVENT  

SciTech Connect

The coronal blowout jet is a peculiar category among various jet phenomena, in which the sheared base arch, often carrying a small filament, experiences a miniature version of blowout eruption that produces large-scale coronal mass ejection (CME). In this paper, we report such a coronal blowout jet with high-resolution multi-wavelength and multi-angle observations taken from Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and Big Bear Solar Observatory. For the first time, we find that simultaneous bubble-like and jet-like CMEs were dynamically related to the blowout jet that showed cool and hot components next to each other. Our observational results indicate that (1) the cool component resulted from the eruption of the filament contained within the jet's base arch, and it further caused the bubble-like CME; (2) the jet-like CME was associated with the hot component, which was the outward moving heated plasma generated by the reconnection of the base arch and its ambient open field lines. On the other hand, bifurcation of the jet's cool component was also observed, which resulted from the uncoupling of the erupting filament's two legs that were highly twisted at the very beginning. Based on these results, we propose a model to interpret the coronal blowout jet, in which the external reconnection not only produces the jet-like CME, but also leads to the rising of the filament. Subsequently, internal reconnection starts underneath the rising filament and thereby causes the bubble-like CME.

Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China); Su Jiangtao; Deng Yuanyong, E-mail: ydshen@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-02-01

89

CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems Department of Electrical.usask.ca/university_secretary/honesty/StudentAcademicAppeals.pdf Course Content: Microprocessor - introductory concepts Intro to Stellaris LaunchPad Microcontroller

Saskatchewan, University of

90

December 2008 CME as Viewed by Spacecraft - Duration: 0:16.  

NASA Video Gallery

Newly reprocessed images from NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, allow scientists to trace the anatomy of the December 2008 CME as it moves and changes on its journey from the Sun to the Earth, identify t...

91

SOHO Captures CME From X5.4 Solar Flare - Duration: 0:05.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) captured this movie of the sun's coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an X5.4 solar flare on the evening of March 6, 2012. The extremely fast and en...

92

On the identification of time interval threshold in the twin-CME scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been suggested that the "twin-CME" scenario may be a very effective mechanism in causing extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events and, in particular, ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Ding et al. (2013) performed a statistical examination of the twin-CME scenario with a total of 126 fast and wide western coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They found that CMEs having a preceding CME with a speed > 300 km/s within 9 h from the same active region have larger probability of leading to large SEP events than CMEs that do not have preceding CMEs. The choice of 9 h being the time lag ? between the preceding CME and the main CME was based on some crude estimates of the decay time of the turbulence downstream of the shock driven by the preceding CME. In this work, we examine this choice. For the 126 fast wide CMEs examined in, we vary the time lag ? from 1 h to 24 h with an increment of 1 h. By considering three quantities whose values depend on the choice of this time lag ?, we show that the choice of 13 h for ? is more appropriate. Our study confirms our earlier result that twin CMEs are more likely to lead to large SEP events than single fast CMEs. The results shown here are of great relevance to space weather studies.

Ding, Liu-Guan; Li, Gang; Dong, Li-Hua; Jiang, Yong; Jian, Yi; Gu, Bin

2014-03-01

93

Quasi-periodic components of solar microwave emission preceded CME's onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of observations at the radio-astronomical station NIRFI "Zimenki" are examined. Pre-eruption manifestations can be detected over different time scales: from several days, which is typical to the evolution of active region in whole, to several hours and tens of minutes, which leads to the formation of conditions for CME initiation and propagation. Primarily this process is developed as wave motion. For example, a study of the evolution of radio emission in January 2005 discovered the growth of amplitude of long-period pulsations with a period of more than 20 minutes in centimetre solar radio emission three days before coronal mass ejections. During the time intervals of 25 to 15 minutes prior to CMEs registration the oscillations of substantially smaller period (t 6-22 s) occurred, which were apparently connected to waves in coronal loops. The obtained result is close to the results of other authors, based on the observations of solar radio emission with the high spatial resolution. Thus, it is shown that the use of patrol multi wave observational data with the high sensitivity and a sufficient time resolution is possible for the analysis of the quasi-periodic components of radio emission and their dynamics.

Sheyner, Olga; Fridman, Vladimir

94

CME-Associated Radio Bursts from Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely associated with various types of radio bursts from the Sun. All radio bursts are due to nonthermal electrons, which are accelerated during the eruption of CMEs. Radio bursts at frequencies below about 15 MHz are of particular interest because they are associated with energetic CMEs that contribute to severe space weather. The low-frequency bursts need to be observed primarily from space because of the ionospheric cutoff. The main CME-related radio bursts are associated are: type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines, type II bursts due to electrons accelerated in shocks, and type IV bursts due to electrons trapped in post-eruption arcades behind CMEs. This paper presents a summary of results obtained during solar cycle 23 primarily using the white-light coronagraphic observations from the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the WAVES experiment on board Wind. Particular emphasis will be placed on what we can learn about particle acceleration in the coronal and interplanetary medium by analyzing the CMEs and the associated radio bursts.

Gopalswamy, Nat

2012-01-01

95

Stereoscopic observations of the effects of a halo CME on the solar coronal structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the substantial restructuring of the outer solar corona in the aftermath of the halo CME that occurred on 9 March 2012. To perform our analysis, we used SOHO/LASCO, STEREO/COR1 and SDO/AIA data, which provide observations from different viewpoints. In particular, we applied the polarization ratio technique to the COR1 calibrated images to derive the three-dimensional structure of the CME and determine its direction and speed of propagation. We also estimated the CME mass from a sequence of four observations of the event and obtained values of up to 2.2 × 1016 g. The COR1 images show a brightness decrease in the coronal sector where the CME propagates. We verified that this intensity reduction is due to a plasma depletion. Moreover, the combined analysis performed by the two STEREO satellites allowed us to deduce that a preexisting streamer is located along the propagation direction of the CME and disappears after the passage of the event. The coronal mass loss associated with the plasma depletion is much lower than the mass expelled from the Sun in the COR1-B data. Conversely, the COR1-A obsevations allowed us to infer that the mass of the streamer carried away from the outer corona corresponds to about half of the CME mass. The results highlight the importance of stereoscopic observations in the study of corona restructuring in the aftermath of a CME event. The movie associated with Fig. 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Dolei, S.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.

2014-07-01

96

Medical Problems Referred to a Care of the Elderly Physician: Insight for Future Geriatrics CME  

PubMed Central

Purpose Family physicians provide the majority of elderly patient care in Canada. Many experience significant challenges in serving this cohort. This study aimed to examine the medical problems of patients referred to a care of the elderly physician, to better understand the geriatric continuing medical education (CME) needs of family doctors. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients assessed at an urban outpatient seniors’ clinic between 2003 and 2008 was conducted. Data from 104 charts were analyzed and survey follow-up with 28 of the referring family physicians was undertaken. Main outcomes include the type and frequency of medical problems actually referred to a care of the elderly physician. Clarification of future geriatric CME topics of need was also assessed. Results Preventive care issues were addressed with 67 patients. Twenty-four required discussion of advance directives. The most common medical problems encountered were osteoarthritis (42), hypertension (34), osteoporosis (32), and depression or anxiety (23). Other common problems encountered that have not been highly cited as being a target of CME included musculoskeletal and joint pain (41), diabetes (23), neck and back pain (20), obesity (11), insomnia (11), and neuropathic, fibromyalgia and “leg cramps” pain (10). The referring family physicians surveyed agreed that these were topics of need for future CME. Conclusions The findings support geriatric CME for the common medical problems encountered. Chronic pain, diabetes, obesity and insomnia continue to be important unresolved issues previously unacknowledged by physicians as CME topics of need. Future CME focusing more on process of geriatric care may also be relevant. PMID:23983827

Lam, Robert; Gallinaro, Anna; Adleman, Jenna

2013-01-01

97

Mixed micelle formation with hydrophobic and hydrophilic Pluronic block copolymers: implications for controlled and targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Pluronic block copolymers offer affluent phase behavioral characteristics and are extensively investigated for drug delivery applications. Hydrophobic Pluronics produce larger aggregates whereas hydrophilic Pluronics often generate small-sized micelles in aqueous milieu. To overcome the limitations and combine the advantages of different kinds of Pluronics the mixing of such two types of Pluronics is studied here, especially for hydrophobic Pluronic L81 and relatively hydrophilic Pluronic P123. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the developed binary mixtures was 0.032 mg/ml as evidenced from pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy and is located in between that of the individual Pluronics. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed very small particle sizes (?20 nm) and low polydispersity indices for most of the mixed micelles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated spherical shape of micelles. Based upon the ratio of hydrophobic and hydrophilic Pluronics, dispersions of varied stability were obtained. With 0.1/1.0 wt.% and 0.5/3.0 wt.% of Pluronic L81/P123, stable dispersions were obtained. Stability was assessed from turbidity measurement, size analysis and clarity of dispersion on standing. Micelles were also found to be stable in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. Mixed micelles showed fairly high entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and sustained release profile for aceclofenac (Acl), a model hydrophobe. Presence of salt lowered Acl solubilization in micelles. Thermodynamic parameters for Acl solubilization in mixed micelles revealed high partition coefficient values and spontaneity of drug solubilization. Thus, the developed novel mixed micelles hold promise in controlled and targeted drug delivery owing to their very small size, high entrapment efficiency and stability. PMID:21862296

Kulthe, S S; Inamdar, N N; Choudhari, Y M; Shirolikar, S M; Borde, L C; Mourya, V K

2011-12-01

98

Compressed antisolvent precipitation and photopolymerization for the formation of crosslinked polymer microparticles useful for controlled drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents novel antisolvent processing technique entitled Compressed Antisolvent Precipitation and Photopolymerization (CAPP) useful for forming crosslinked polymer microparticles. In this process, an organic solvent dissolves monomer and polymerization photoinitiators to form a homogeneous solution. Photopolymerization and microparticle formation occur when the homogeneous solution is sprayed into a compressed antisolvent while being simultaneously exposed to initiating light. We investigated

Jennifer Lani Owens

2002-01-01

99

Insights into the Role of Specific Lipids in the Formation and Delivery of Lipid Microdomains to the Plasma Membrane of Plant Cells1[W  

PubMed Central

The existence of sphingolipid- and sterol-enriched microdomains, known as lipid rafts, in the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells is well documented. To obtain more insight into the lipid molecular species required for the formation of microdomains in plants, we have isolated detergent (Triton X-100)-resistant membranes (DRMs) from the PM of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and leek (Allium porrum) seedlings as well as from Arabidopsis cell cultures. Here, we show that all DRM preparations are enriched in sterols, sterylglucosides, and glucosylceramides (GluCer) and depleted in glycerophospholipids. The GluCer of DRMs from leek seedlings contain hydroxypalmitic acid. We investigated the role of sterols in DRM formation along the secretory pathway in leek seedlings. We present evidence for the presence of DRMs in both the PM and the Golgi apparatus but not in the endoplasmic reticulum. In leek seedlings treated with fenpropimorph, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor, the usual ?5-sterols are replaced by 9?,19-cyclopropylsterols. In these plants, sterols and hydroxypalmitic acid-containing GluCer do not reach the PM, and most DRMs are recovered from the Golgi apparatus, indicating that ?5-sterols and GluCer play a crucial role in lipid microdomain formation and delivery to the PM. In addition, DRM formation in Arabidopsis cells is shown to depend on the unsaturation degree of fatty acyl chains as evidenced by the dramatic decrease in the amount of DRMs prepared from the Arabidopsis mutants, fad2 and Fad3+, affected in their fatty acid desaturases. PMID:17114270

Laloi, Maryse; Perret, Anne-Marie; Chatre, Laurent; Melser, Su; Cantrel, Catherine; Vaultier, Marie-Noëlle; Zachowski, Alain; Bathany, Katell; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Vallet, Myriam; Lessire, René; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Moreau, Patrick

2007-01-01

100

Anabolic Bone Formation Via a Site Specific Bone Targeting Delivery System by Interfering with Semaphorin 4D Expression.  

PubMed

Recently semaphorins have been targeted as new molecules directly implicated in the cell-cell communication that occurs between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Over-expression of certain semaphorins such as semaphorin4D (sema4D) is found in an osteoporotic phenotype and plays a key role in osteoclast activity by suppressing osteoblast maturation, thus significantly altering the bone modelling cycle. In the present study, we fabricate a site-specific bone-targeting drug delivery system from polymeric nanoparticles with the incorporation of siRNA interference molecule for sema4D and demonstrate their cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking within osteoclasts, thus preventing the suppression of osteoblast activity. We then demonstrate in an osteoporotic animal model induced by ovariectomy that weekly intravenous injections led to a significantly greater number of active osteoblasts at the bone surface resulting in higher bone volume in compromised animals. The findings from the present study demonstrate a novel and promising site-specific therapeutic option for the treatment of osteoporosis via interference of the sema4D-plexin cell communication pathway between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25088728

Zhang, Yufeng; Wei, Lingfei; Miron, Richard J; Shi, Bin; Bian, Zhuan

2014-08-01

101

Adenovirus-Mediated Human Tissue Kallikrein Gene Delivery Inhibits Neointima Formation Induced by Interruption of Blood Flow in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

morphometric analysis revealed that Ad.CMV-cHK reduced neointima formation by 52% (P,0.05) compared with Ad.CMV-LacZ. Expression of human tissue kallikrein (HK) mRNA was detected in mouse carotid artery, aorta, kidney, heart, and liver, and recombinant HK was present in the urine and plasma of mice receiving HK gene. Kallikrein gene transfer resulted in increases in urinary kinin, cGMP, and cAMP levels.

Costanza Emanueli; Maria Bonaria Salis; Julie Chao; Lee Chao; Jun Agata; Kuei-Fu Lin; Antonella Munao; Stefania Straino; Alessandra Minasi; Maurizio C. Capogrossi; Paolo Madeddu

2010-01-01

102

Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni CmeC outer membrane channel.  

PubMed

As one of the world's most prevalent enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni is a major causative agent of human enterocolitis and is responsible for more than 400 million cases of diarrhea each year. The impact of this pathogen on children is of particular significance. Campylobacter has developed resistance to many antimicrobial agents via multidrug efflux machinery. The CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily, plays a major role in drug resistant phenotypes of C. jejuni. This efflux complex spans the entire cell envelop of C. jejuni and mediates resistance to various antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of C. jejuni CmeC, the outer membrane component of the CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux system. The structure reveals a possible mechanism for substrate export. PMID:24753291

Su, Chih-Chia; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Long, Feng; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W

2014-07-01

103

Stereoscopic Analysis of STEREO/SECCHI Data for CME Trajectory Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) coronagraphs on the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft provide simultaneous views of the corona and coronal mass ejections from two view points. Here, we analyze simultaneous image pairs using the technique of tie-pointing and triangulation (T&T) to determine the three-dimensional trajectory of seven coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bright leading edge of a CME seen in coronagraph images results from line-of-sight integration through the CME front; the two STEREO coronagraphs see different apparent leading edges, leading to a systematic error in its three-dimensional reconstruction. We analyze this systematic error using a simple geometric model of a CME front. We validate the technique and analysis by comparing T&T trajectory determinations for seven CMEs with trajectories determined by Thernisien et al. (2009) using a forward modeling technique not susceptible to this systematic effect.

Liewer, P. C.; Hall, J. R.; Howard, R. A.; DeJong, E. M.; Thompson, W. T.; Thernisten, A.

2010-01-01

104

Relation of CME apparent parameters with solar source regions during the solar minimum 1997 - 1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the LASCO CME catalog, all the CMEs observed during 1997 - 1998 are investigated. By visually examing the LASCO and EIT movies, the source regions of them are identified, in which near half of them are believed come from front-side of solar disk. Based on the identified CME source locations, the following issues are addressed, (1) the statistical bias of halo CMEs, (2) projection effects, (3) invisibility of disk CMEs, and (4) deflection of CMEs in latitude. Further, for those CMEs originating from active regions (ARs), a technique of regiongrowing with thresholds is applied to determine the parameters of active regions based on MDI synoptic charts. Then the properties of ARs with/without CMEs and the AR capability of producing CMEs in regard to the CME numbers and the fastest speed are analyzed.

Wang, Yuming

105

Competitive displacement of drugs from cyclodextrin inclusion complex by polypseudorotaxane formation with poloxamer: implications in drug solubilization and delivery.  

PubMed

The competitive interactions between the poly-[propylene oxide] (POO)-poly-[ethylene oxide] (PEO) block copolymer poloxamer 407 (Pluronic F127) and two drugs, triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine, by the formation of inclusion complexes with two cyclodextrin hydrophilic derivatives, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD; molar substitution (MS) 0.65) and partially methylated-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD; MS 0.57), were studied by means of one-dimensional (1)H NMR, 2D ROESY experiments, solubility studies and drug release studies. 1D and 2D NMR and solubility studies indicate that both triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine form stable inclusion complexes with the cyclodextrin derivatives. In the case of ciclopirox olamine the complex was more stable at pH 1. Effective complexation of poloxamer with the two cyclodextrins (CDs) was also evidenced by NMR analysis, and competitive displacement of the drugs from the CD cavity by the polymer was observed. Drug solubility in CD solutions was not modified by the addition of polymers, indicating that a decrease in solubility due to the competitive displacement is probably compensated by the solubilizing effect of polymer micellization. Finally, polypseudorotaxanes formation has a significant influence on the release of the drugs studied. Changes in the release rate depend on the stability of drug-CD inclusion complex and on cyclodextrin concentration in the bulk solution; so polypseudorotaxane formation can be employed to modulate drug controlled release from thermosensitive hydrogels. PMID:22182528

Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Gómez-Amoza, José Luis; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

2012-04-01

106

Web-Based Delivery System for Disaster Prevention Information Using a New Jma Dpi Xml Format and Amedas Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) Data is used along with compound disaster information for a geographic information system (GIS) by integration into the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) disaster prevention information XML data. A JMA XML format is a next generation format that contains weather warnings, tsunami warnings, and earthquake information, etc. However, it is not possible to process it by reading disaster prevention information XML Data and AMeDAS Data directly to the GIS system. Therefore, development of a program that converts the data structure is important to consolidate a variety of disaster prevention information on the GIS system. Information on escape routes and evacuation sites, etc. were given as points for regional meteorological observation forecasts using AMeDAS Data by disaster prevention information XML data and integrating it where the disaster was generated, giving a range of expansion of damage and a damage level. There are two main aims; the first is to deliver these compound data of disaster prevention information XML data and AMeDAS Data via the Internet. The second aim is to provide GIS files (shapefile format) of these data to such as local governments for their individual analysis. This was furthermore confirmed to enable the construction of a system using WebGIS (Google Maps) and Open Source Software GIS to monitor disaster information at low cost.

Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

2012-07-01

107

Modeling a space weather event from the Sun to the Earth: CME generation and interplanetary propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the solar corona propagating to 1 astronomical unit (AU). The simulations are performed using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. We begin by developing a global steady-state model of the corona that possesses high-latitude coronal holes and a helmet streamer structure with a current sheet at the equator. The Archimedean spiral topology of the interplanetary magnetic field is reproduced along with fast and slow speed solar wind. Within this model system, we drive a CME to erupt by the introduction of a Gibson-Low magnetic flux rope that is anchored at both ends in the photosphere and embedded in the helmet streamer in an initial state of force imbalance. The flux rope rapidly expands and is ejected from the corona with maximum speeds in excess of 1000 km/s. Physics-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) allows us to capture the structure of the CME focused on a particular Sun-Earth line with high spatial resolution given to the bow shock ahead of the flux rope as well as to the current sheet behind. The CME produces a large magnetic cloud at 1 AU (>100 R?) in which Bz undergoes a full rotation from north to south with an amplitude of 20 nT. In a companion paper, we find that the CME is very effective in generating strong geomagnetic activity at the Earth in two ways. First, through the strong sustained southward Bz (lasting more than 10 hours) and, second, by a pressure increase associated with the CME-driven shock that compresses the magnetosphere.

Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Roussev, Ilia; Ridley, Aaron; de Zeeuw, Darren L.; Sokolov, I. V.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Tóth, GáBor

2004-02-01

108

The Solar Stormwatch CME catalogue: Results from the first space weather citizen science project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Stormwatch was the first space weather citizen science project, the aim of which is to identify and track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the Heliospheric Imagers aboard the STEREO satellites. The project has now been running for approximately 4 years, with input from >16,000 citizen scientists, resulting in a data set of >38,000time-elongation profiles of CME trajectories, observed over 18 preselected position angles. We present our method for reducing this data set into a CME catalogue. The resulting catalogue consists of 144 CMEs over the period January 2007 to February 2010, of which 110 were observed by STEREO-A and 77 were observed by STEREO-B. For each CME, the time-elongation profiles generated by the citizen scientists are averaged into a consensus profile along each position angle that the event was tracked. We consider this catalogue to be unique, being at present the only citizen science-generated CME catalogue, tracking CMEs over an elongation range of 4° out to a maximum of approximately 70°. Using single spacecraft fitting techniques, we estimate the speed, direction, solar source region, and latitudinal width of each CME. This shows that at present, the Solar Stormwatch catalogue (which covers only solar minimum years) contains almost exclusively slow CMEs, with a mean speed of approximately 350 km s-1. The full catalogue is available for public access at www.met.reading.ac.uk/~spate/solarstormwatch. This includes, for each event, the unprocessed time-elongation profiles generated by Solar Stormwatch, the consensus time-elongation profiles, and a set of summary plots, as well as the estimated CME properties.

Barnard, L.; Scott, C.; Owens, M.; Lockwood, M.; Tucker-Hood, K.; Thomas, S.; Crothers, S.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R.; Lintott, C.; Simpson, R.; O'Donnell, J.; Smith, A. M.; Waterson, N.; Bamford, S.; Romeo, F.; Kukula, M.; Owens, B.; Savani, N.; Wilkinson, J.; Baeten, E.; Poeffel, L.; Harder, B.

2014-12-01

109

Prediction of solar proton events based on flare and CME parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have examined the probability of solar proton events (SPEs) and their peak fluxes depending on flare (flux, longitude and impulsive time) and CME parameters (linear speed and angular width). For this we used the NOAA SPE list and their associated flare data from 1976 to 2006 and CME data from 1997 to 2006. We found that about 3.5% (1.9% for M-class and 21.3% for X-class) of the flares are associated with SPEs. It is also found that this fraction strongly depends on longitude; for example, the fraction for 30W° < L < 90W° is about three times larger than that for 30°E < L < 90°E. The occurrence probability of SPEs for flares with long duration (? 0.3 hours) is about 2 (X-class flare) to 7 (M-class flare) times larger than that for flares with short duration (< 0.3 hours). In the case of halo CMEs with V ? 1500km/s, 36.1% are associated with SPEs but in the case of partial halo CME (120° ? AW < 359°) with 400 km/s ? V < 1000 km/s, only 0.9% are associated with SPEs. The relationships between X-ray flare peak flux and SPE peak flux are strongly dependent on longitude and impulsive time. The relationships between CME speed and SPE peak flux depend on longitude as well as direction parameter. From this study, we suggest a new SPE forecast method with three-steps: (1) SPE occurrence probability prediction according to the contingency tables depending on flare and CME parameters, (2) SPE flux prediction depending on flare and CME parameters, and (3) SPE peak time.

Park, J.; Moon, Y.

2011-12-01

110

Role of Ambient Solar Wind Conditions in CME evolution (P21)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ipsraj@yahoo.com Solar events are mainly responsible for producing storms at the Earth. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is a major cause for this. In this paper, Coronal Mass Ejections occurred during 1998-2004 are studied. Ambient solar wind does play some role in determining the effect of a CME. The effects produced at the Earth during the period 1999 2004 are considered and an attempt has been made to understand the role of ambient solar wind. This is to draw some conclusion about how some of the events become geo- effective.

Jadav, R.; Jadeja, A. K.; Iyer, K. N.

2006-11-01

111

Induction of reparative dentin formation by ultrasound-mediated gene delivery of growth/differentiation factor 11.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are morphogens implicated in embryonic and regenerative odontogenic differentiation. Gene therapy has the potential to induce reparative dentin formation for potential pulp capping. We have optimized the gene transfer of Growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11)/Bmp11 plasmid DNA into dental pulp stem cells by sonoporation in vivo. Dental pulp tissue treated with plasmid pEGFP or CMV-LacZ in 5-10% Optison (Molecular Biosystems Inc., San Diego, CA) and stimulated by ultrasound (1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 30 sec) showed significant efficiency of gene transfer and high level of protein production selectively in the local region, within 500 microm of the amputated site of the pulp tissue. The Gdf11 cDNA plasmid transferred into dental pulp tissue by sonoporation in vitro, induced the expression of dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), a differentiation marker for odontoblasts. The transfection of Gdf11 by sonoporation stimulated a large amount of reparative dentin formation on the amputated dental pulp in canine teeth in vivo. These results suggest the possible use of BMPs using ultrasound-mediated gene therapy for endodontic dental treatment. PMID:12718768

Nakashima, Misako; Tachibana, Katsuro; Iohara, Koichiro; Ito, Masataka; Ishikawa, Masaki; Akamine, Akifumi

2003-04-10

112

Compressed antisolvent precipitation and photopolymerization for the formation of crosslinked polymer microparticles useful for controlled drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents novel antisolvent processing technique entitled Compressed Antisolvent Precipitation and Photopolymerization (CAPP) useful for forming crosslinked polymer microparticles. In this process, an organic solvent dissolves monomer and polymerization photoinitiators to form a homogeneous solution. Photopolymerization and microparticle formation occur when the homogeneous solution is sprayed into a compressed antisolvent while being simultaneously exposed to initiating light. We investigated the method of particle formation in the CAPP process to explain the repeatable bimodal particle size distribution obtained under a variety of operating conditions. Ternary phase diagrams of antisolvent, monomer, and solvent solutions were constructed and specific spray paths from the resulting ternary phase diagrams were investigated and the significance of crossing the binodal, as well as the importance of where the binodal was crossed, was discovered. In addition, manipulation of injection conditions, varying process residence times, and nucleation rate calculations were explored to further investigate the means of particle formation. We demonstrate the feasibility of encapsulating therapeutic agents into highly crosslinked polymer particles using the CAPP process. Ion-paired tacrine, erythromycin, erythromycin estolate, and erythromycin ethyl succinate were CAPP processed with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate monomers of several molecular weights so that the resulting particles would entrap different sized drugs in networks with varying mesh sizes. In vitro drug release profiles were obtained for all of the various drug-monomer combinations. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a short time approximation of Fickian release from a sphere of fixed diameter to the release data and were applied to a model of Fickian release from polydisperse spheres, and the results were compared to the in vitro release data. CAPP particle processing was explored in acetone, ethanol, and methanol with respect to reaction kinetics, particle size and morphology, particle double bond conversion, and in vitro drug release. A multifunctional anhydride monomer was also applied to the CAPP process and ion-paired tacrine was successfully encapsulated in the resulting surface eroding, crosslinked polymer microparticles. Degradation of and release from thin disks of photopolymerized monomer, poly(sebacic anhydride dimethacrylate), gave a kinetic constant for surface erosion, which was applied to predict the release of ion-paired tacrine from the CAPP-processed, degradable particles.

Owens, Jennifer Lani

113

INVESTIGATION OF THE FORMATION AND SEPARATION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM THE EXPANSION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION  

SciTech Connect

We address the nature of EUV waves through direct observations of the formation of a diffuse wave driven by the expansion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and its subsequent separation from the CME front. The wave and the CME on 2011 June 7 were well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Following the solar eruption onset, marked by the beginning of the rapid increasing of the CME velocity and the X-ray flux of accompanying flare, the CME exhibits a strong lateral expansion. During this impulsive expansion phase, the expansion speed of the CME bubble increases from 100 km s{sup -1} to 450 km s{sup -1} in only six minutes. An important finding is that a diffuse wave front starts to separate from the front of the expanding bubble shortly after the lateral expansion slows down. Also a type II burst is formed near the time of the separation. After the separation, two distinct fronts propagate with different kinematic properties. The diffuse front travels across the entire solar disk, while the sharp front rises up, forming the CME ejecta with the diffuse front ahead of it. These observations suggest that the previously termed EUV wave is a composite phenomenon and driven by the CME expansion. While the CME expansion is accelerating, the wave front is cospatial with the CME front, thus the two fronts are indiscernible. Following the end of the acceleration phase, the wave moves away from the CME front with a gradually increasing distance between them.

Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Olmedo, O. [NRC, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-01-20

114

A CME-driven solar wind distrubance observed at both low and high heliographic latitudes  

SciTech Connect

A solar wind disturbance produced by a fast coronal mass ejection, CME, that departed from the Sun on Feburary 20, 1994 was observed in the ecliptic plane at 1 AU by IMP 8 and at high heliographic latitudes at 3.53 AU by Ulysses. In the ecliptic the disturbance included a strong forward shock but no reverse shock, while at high latitudes the disturbance was bounded by a relatively weak forward-reverse shock pair. It is clear that the disturbance in the ecliptic plane was driven primarily by the relative speed between the CME and a slower ambient solar wind ahead, whereas at higher latitudes the disturbance was driven by expansion of the CME. The combined IMP 8 and Ulysses observations thus provide a graphic illustration of how a single fast CME can produce very different types of solar wind disturbances at low and high heliographic latitudes. Simple numerical simulations help explain observed differences at the two spacecraft. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); and others

1995-07-01

115

Relationship between CME initial speed and magnetic helicity of magnetic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the relationship between solar and interplanetary phenomena, we have examined the initial properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and magnetic helicity of magnetic clouds (MCs) for 24 CME- MC pairs. MCs are fitted with the linear force-free cylindrical model to obtain MC parameters (orientation, size, magnetic field magnitude, impact parameter, chirality, etc). The relative helicity per unit length of MC is calculated by \\frac{HMC}{L}=\\frac{4? B02}{?}\\int0RJ12(? r)rdr. Comparing the square of CME initial speeds (VCME2) with the magnetic helicities (HMC, we find that there is a positive correlation between VCME2 and HMC, and the linear correlation coefficient (CC) between the two parameters is 0.52. We obtain a better correlation (CC=0.61) for 17 events whose impact parameter (the shortest distance of the satellite to the MC axis normalized by MC radius) is less than 0.5. Considering that the magnetic force in a flux rope is intimately related to magnetic helicity, our result supports that the magnetic force is responsible for the CME eruption. From this result we suggest that the high speed CME is associated with large magnetic helicity.

Sung, S.; Marubashi, K.; Kim, K.; Cho, K.; Moon, Y.; Chae, J.

2007-12-01

116

Constraints on CME Evolution from in situ Observations of Ionic Charge States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a novel procedure for deriving the physical properties of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMES) in the corona. Our methodology uses in-situ measurements of ionic charge states of C, O, Si and Fe in the heliosphere and interprets them in the context of a model for the early evolution of ICME plasma, between 2 - 5 R-solar. We find that the data can be fit only by an evolution that consists of an initial heating of the plasma, followed by an expansion that ultimately results in cooling. The heating profile is consistent with a compression of coronal plasma due to flare reconnect ion jets and an expansion cooling due to the ejection, as expected from the standard CME/flare model. The observed frozen-in ionic charge states reflect this time-history and, therefore, provide important constraints for the heating and expansion time-scales, as well as the maximum temperature the CME plasma is heated to during its eruption. Furthermore, our analysis places severe limits on the possible density of CME plasma in the corona. We discuss the implications of our results for CME models and for future analysis of ICME plasma composition.

Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

2010-01-01

117

Solar Wind Electron Strahls Associated with a High-Latitude CME: Ulysses Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counterstreaming beams of electrons are ubiquitous in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - although their existence is not unanimously accepted as a necessary and/or sufficient signature of these events. We continue the investigation of a high-latitude CME registered by the Ulysses spacecraft on 18 - 19 January 2002 (Dumitrache, Popescu, and Oncica, Solar Phys. 272, 137, 2011), by surveying the solar-wind electron distributions associated with this event. The temporal evolution of the pitch-angle distributions reveals populations of electrons that are distinguishable through their anisotropy, with clear signatures of i) electron strahls, ii) counter-streaming in the magnetic clouds and their precursors, and iii) unidirectionality in the fast wind preceding the CME. The analysis of the counter-streams inside the CME allows us to elucidate the complexity of the magnetic-cloud structures embedded in the CME and to refine the borders of the event. Identifying such strahls in CMEs, which preserve properties of the low ? [<1] coronal plasma, gives more support to the hypothesis that these populations are remnants of the hot coronal electrons that escape from the electrostatic potential of the Sun into the heliosphere.

Lazar, M.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S.; Dumitrache, C.; Popescu, N. A.

2014-11-01

118

Interrater Reliability to Assure Valid Content in Peer Review of CME-Accredited Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) provides guidelines for continuing medical education (CME) materials to mitigate problems in the independence or validity of content in certified activities; however, the process of peer review of materials appears largely unstudied and the reproducibility of…

Quigg, Mark; Lado, Fred A.

2009-01-01

119

Medical Education and Communication Companies Involved in CME: An Updated Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Medical Education and Communication Companies (MECCs) represent approximately 21% of the providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), yet relatively little is known about these organizations in the greater continuing medical education (CME) community. Two prior studies described them,…

Peterson, Eric D.; Overstreet, Karen M.; Parochka, Jacqueline N.; Lemon, Michael R.

2008-01-01

120

Tracking of Interplanetary CME/Shocks evolution using Type II radio burst observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to apply a new analysis technique, using Type II radio observations in the kilometric (km) domain obtained by the Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR) of the WIND/WAVES experiment, to infer the speed evolution of interplanetary (IP) CME/shocks. These CME/Shocks propagating in the IP medium can generate km Type II radio emissions that occur at the fundamental and/or harmonic of the plasma frequency, so these radio emissions provide a means of remotely tracking CME/shocks. We combine our results with previously reported speeds from coronagraph white light and interplanetary scintillation observations, and in-situ measurements, to study the temporal speed evolution of these events. The shock speed values obtained by our analysis technique are in a reasonable agreement with the speed measurements inferred by other techniques at different heliocentric distance ranges. The combination of all the speed measurements show a gradual deceleration of the CME/shocks as they propagate to 1 AU.

Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Ontiveros, V.

2010-12-01

121

The Integrated Joslin Performance Improvement/CME Program: A New Paradigm for Better Diabetes Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of…

Brown, Julie A.; Beaser, Richard S.; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

2011-01-01

122

The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC\\/CME) - An Overview of its Architecture and Current Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, is developing the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME) under a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research (ITR) Program jointly funded by the Geosciences

P. J. Maechling; T. H. Jordan; B. Minster; R. Moore; C. Kesselman

2004-01-01

123

Effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity: modeling the 2012-March-07 SEP event with ENLIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T programAbstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T program

Xie, Hong; Gopalswamy, N.; St. Cyr, O. C.

2013-07-01

124

The Role of Coronal Holes in CME Deflection in the Lower Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are known to be deflected when ejected near a coronal hole (Gopalswamy et al. 2009). We present results from simulations of CMEs near a coronal hole (CH) using a 3D magnetohydrodymics model - the Space Weather Modeling Framework. We propose magnetic tension and pressure as a cause of the CME deflection from the disturbed magnetic field lines of the simulation coronal hole. The solar wind is driven via Alfven waves and Kolmogorov-like dissipation and surface Alfven wave damping are considered for the dissipation of the waves (Evans et al. 2011). The magnetic field at the inner boundary is specified with synoptic magnetogram data from Carrington Rotation 2029, which corresponds to April 21 to May 18, 2005. CMEs are generated by inserting an out of equilibrium modified Titov-Demoulin flux rope into active region (AR) 0758. Treating the CME as a solid body we calculate the expected deflection from the coronal hole field lines. We compare this value to the actual path of the simulated CMEs for which we define a deflection angle as the difference between the observed path and the radial vector connecting the center of the Sun and the CME launch site. Finally, we generalize the deflection by seeing how it scales with several physical parameters such as CME mass, velocity and the separation of the AR and CH as well as its intensity. We compare our simulated and estimated values with observed deflections (Gopalswamy et. al 2009)

Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Evans, R. M.; Gombosi, T. I.

2011-12-01

125

Superposed epoch analyses of ion temperatures during CME- and CIR/HSS-driven storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions associated with high speed solar wind streams (CIR/HSSs) drive geomagnetic storms in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Each type of storm driver yields different dynamics of storm evolution. We present results from comparative superposed epoch analyses of global ion temperatures calculated from TWINS energetic neutral atom (ENA) data and simulations using the comprehensive ring current model (CRCM). During the June 2008-April 2012 timeframe, 48 geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst?-40 nT) occurred. Of these, 21 storms were CME-driven and 15 were driven by CIR/HSSs. Superposed epoch analysis results demonstrate that ion temperatures increase during the recovery phase of CIR/HSS-driven storms, while ions are rapidly heated at the commencement of CME-driven storms then cool over the main phase, particularly for intense (minimum Dst?-78 nT) CME-driven storms. Higher energy ions are convected to lower L-shells during CME-driven storms, while CIR/HSS-driven storms tend to have average ion temperatures that are higher on the dayside than nightside.

Keesee, A. M.; Elfritz, J. G.; Fok, M.-C.; McComas, D. J.; Scime, E. E.

2014-08-01

126

Diagnostic Role of PET in Dementia CME Author: Hossein Jadvar, MD, PhD, MPH  

E-print Network

Diagnostic Role of PET in Dementia CME Author: Hossein Jadvar, MD, PhD, MPH Complete author of dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Goal The objective of this activity is to spotlight the clinical of dementias such as Alzheimer's disease; to define appropriate settings for the use of this technology

Jadvar, Hossein

127

Are solar flare emissions and CME acceleration related via magnetic reconnection?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent solar observations have shown that both the impulsive flare non-thermal emissions and the maximum rate of increase in the flare soft X-ray emission occur at the time of maximum CME acceleration. By employing a non-uniform anomalous resistivity, our MHD simulation results relate the CME's accelerated rising motion with an impulsive magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. For X-class flares the peak reconnection electric field is ˜ 1 kV/m, enough to accelerate electrons to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 0.1 km and produce impulsive non-thermal emissions observed during the flare rise phase. Moreover, the temporal evolution and magnitude of the reconnection electric field are confirmed by the magnetic reconnection rate obtained from the observed magnetogram data and horizontally expanding motion of two-ribbon flare emissions. The simulated CME motion is also in good agreement with the observed CME motion.

Cheng, C. Z.; Choe, G. S.; Qiu, J.; Ren, Y.; Moon, Y. J.

2004-11-01

128

The formation of jupiter, the jovian early bombardment and the delivery of water to the asteroid belt: the case of (4) vesta.  

PubMed

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement. PMID:25370027

Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

129

The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement.

Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

130

The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta  

PubMed Central

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1–2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement. PMID:25370027

Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

131

SMEI and IPS 3-D CME Reconstructions, and What They Indicate of Heliospheric Solar Wind Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remotely-sensed measurements of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs) from Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) white-light brightness and radio interplanetary scintillation (IPS) data can be used to provide limits on the acceleration and deceleration of transients in the inner heliosphere. As an intermediate measurement between the Sun and 1 AU, the limits provided by remote sensing are convolved with line-of-sight effects and CME/ICME `evolution' as each feature of the transient moves outward from the Sun. Here we review a few of the popular events and studies that have been presented to show how CME propagation proceeds in the inner heliosphere. Often, the apparent acceleration shown can only be provided by employing an assumption of the CME three-dimensional (3-D) shape, which often changes with solar distance and CME visibility along the line of sight. This assumption can often abrogate the original acceleration measurement. In particular we concentrate here on the analysis of two events during periods in 02-04 November 2003, and also in January 2010 showing how each event provides significantly different acceleration profiles depending on which structures are identified in each transient. Finally, we highlight the strange case of polar coronal jets (that are essentially miniature CMEs) frequently observed to move outward in the polar coronal fast wind at speeds of over three times ambient. These small solar wind transients seem to have disappeared by the time they can be observed in Ulysses in-situ data. Thus, a detailed study of these jets may provide an understanding of smaller-scale CME/ICME deceleration processes.

Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.

2011-12-01

132

The SCEC Community Modeling Environment(SCEC/CME): A Collaboratory for Seismic Hazard Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) Project is an NSF-supported Geosciences/IT partnership that is actively developing an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This partnership includes SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed on the Project include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERFs). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) codes have also been developed that simulate friction-based fault slip. The SCEC/CME collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of these SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based scientific workflow system. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC and TeraGrid High Performance Computing Centers. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB). This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data seta and their metadata. To provide an easy-to-use system for constructing SHA computations, a browser-based workflow assembly web portal has been developed. Users can compose complex SHA calculations, specifying SCEC/CME data sets as inputs to calculations, and calling SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. Knowledge-based software tools have been implemented that utilize ontological descriptions of SHA software and data can validate workflows created with this pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration supports analysis and validation of data sets. Several programs have been developed to visualize SCEC/CME data including GMT-based map making software for PSHA codes, 4D wavefield propagation visualization software based on OpenGL, and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes, faults, and seismic wave propagation. The SCEC/CME Project also helps to sponsor the SCEC UseIT Intern program. The UseIT Intern Program provides research opportunities in both Geosciences and Information Technology to undergraduate students in a variety of fields. The UseIT group has developed a 3D data visualization tool, called SCEC-VDO, as a part of this undergraduate research program.

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, J. B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.

2005-12-01

133

Deriving the radial distances of wide coronal mass ejections from elongation measurements in the heliosphere - application to CME-CME interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present general considerations regarding the derivation of the radial distances of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from elongation angle measurements such as those provided by SECCHI and SMEI, focusing on measurements in the Heliospheric Imager 2 (HI-2) field of view (i.e. past 0.3 AU). This study is based on a three-dimensional (3-D) magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of two CMEs observed by SECCHI on 24-27 January 2007. Having a 3-D simulation with synthetic HI images, we are able to compare the two basic methods used to derive CME positions from elongation angles, the so-called "Point-P" and "Fixed-?" approximations. We confirm, following similar works, that both methods, while valid in the most inner heliosphere, yield increasingly large errors in HI-2 field of view for fast and wide CMEs. Using a simple model of a CME as an expanding self-similar sphere, we derive an analytical relationship between elongation angles and radial distances for wide CMEs. This relationship is simply the harmonic mean of the "Point-P" and "Fixed-?" approximations and it is aimed at complementing 3-D fitting of CMEs by cone models or flux rope shapes. It proves better at getting the kinematics of the simulated CME right when we compare the results of our line-of-sights to the MHD simulation. Based on this approximation, we re-analyze the J-maps (time-elongation maps) in 26-27 January 2007 and present the first observational evidence that the merging of CMEs is associated with a momentum exchange from the faster ejection to the slower one due to the propagation of the shock wave associated with the fast eruption through the slow eruption.

Lugaz, N.; Vourlidas, A.; Roussev, I. I.

2009-09-01

134

Delivery methods for LVSD systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.

Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.

2011-06-01

135

DFT NORMAL MODES FOR ETHYL-TRANSFER TRANSITION STATE IN THE TMS+ ADDUCT OF Et2CMeCH=O  

E-print Network

DFT NORMAL MODES FOR ETHYL-TRANSFER TRANSITION STATE IN THE TMS+ ADDUCT OF Et2CMeCH=O Copyright proprietary and confidential information, including trade secrets, belonging to Gaussian, Inc. This software

Morton, Thomas Hellman

136

The integrated Joslin performance improvement/CME program: a new paradigm for better diabetes care.  

PubMed

Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of continuing medical education credits attained rather than the quality of outcomes. The Joslin Diabetes Center has undertaken a new performance-based CME program model that offers performance improvement and continuing medical education as a unified entity that is convenient and accessible for the overburdened primary care physician. This paper describes the origins of the Joslin Professional Educational Continuum as well as its infrastructure and intended outcomes. PMID:21425361

Brown, Julie A; Beaser, Richard S; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

2011-01-01

137

High resolution numerical simulation of the 4 November 1997 CME event propagation into the heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the time-dependent propagation of 4 November 1997 CME in the heliosphere and through the termination shock into the heliosheath. The input plasma data were obtained at 10 Sun radii (Rs) from the Solar-InterPlanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element (SIP-CESE) MHD model. The data were propagated to 50Rs using the Multi-Scale Fluid Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and compared with the output of the SIP-CESE MHD model. The results appear to be in a good agreement. Time-dependent data obtained at 50 Rs was used in global simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium. We show the effects of the CME evolution onto the heliospheric interface.

Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Feng, X. S.; Wu, S.

2011-12-01

138

Charge state composition in coronal hole and CME related solar wind: Latitudinal variations observed by Ulysses and WIND  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron charge states in recurrent coronal hole-associated solar wind flows are obtained in the ecliptic by WIND/SMS, while measurements of iron and silicon from the polar coronal holes are available from Ulysses/SWICS. Ulysses/SWICS also provides ion composition of coronal mass ejection (CME)-related solar wind. Both coronal hole-associated and CME-related solar wind charge charges show heliographic latitudinal variations.

Galvin, A. B.; Gloeckler, G.

1997-01-01

139

The Dependence of Characteristic Times of Gradual SEP Events on Their Associated CME Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally believed that coronal mass ejections CMEs are the drivers of shocks that accelerate gradual solar energetic particles SEPs One might expect that the characteristics of the SEP intensity time profiles observed at 1 AU are determined by properties of the associated CMEs such as the radial speed and the angular width Recently Kahler statistically investigated the characteristic times of gradual SEP events observed from 1998-2002 and their associated coronal mass ejection properties Astrophys J 628 1014--1022 2005 Three characteristic times of gradual SEP events are determined as functions of solar source longitude 1 T 0 the time from associated CME launch to SEP onset at 1 AU 2 T R the rise time from SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is a factor of 2 below peak intensity and 3 T D the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of 2 of the peak intensity However in his study the CME speeds and angular widths are directly taken from the LASCO CME catalog In this study we analyze the radial speeds and the angular widths of CMEs by an ice-cream cone model and re-investigate their correlationships with the characteristic times of the corresponding SEP events We find T R and T D are significantly correlated with radial speed for SEP events in the best-connected longitude range and there is no correlation between T 0 and CME radial speed and angular width which is consistent with Kahler s results On the other hand it s found that T R and T D are also have

Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Xue, X. H.; Wang, Y. M.

140

The study of ring-filament eruption and CME in AR0588 on 2004 April 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using YNAO Halpha, SOHO\\/EIT EUV, SOHO\\/MDI magnetic field and Nobeyama Radio Heliograph 17 GHz observations, we studied the eruption of a ring-filament, a following C9.6 flare, and an associated partial halo CME occurring in AR0588 on 2004 April 11. The main results are as follows: (1) The erupted filament shaped as a closed ring in Halpha. Before its eruption, the

Su-Li Ma; Le-Ping Li; Hua-Dong Chen; Qiong-Ying Li; Shi-Qing Zhao; Yun-Chun Jiang

2005-01-01

141

Filament eruption, flare, coronal dimming and associated partial halo CME on 2001 September 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Halpha, EUV, photospheric magnetic field and white-light coronagraph data, we study the eruption of an active-region Halpha filament and associated partial-halo type coronal mass ejection (CME) occurring in NOAA AR 9616 on 2001 September 17. Accompanied by an M1.5 flare, the small active-region filament quickly erupted, a quiet-sun region outside the active region intensively darkened so a remote coronal

Y. C. Jiang; L. P. Li; S. Q. Zhao; Q. Y. Li; H. D. Chen; S. L. Ma

2006-01-01

142

Filament eruption, flare, coronal dimming and associated partial halo CME on 2001 September 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using H?, EUV, photospheric magnetic field and white-light coronagraph data, we study the eruption of an active-region H? filament and associated partial-halo type coronal mass ejection (CME) occurring in NOAA AR 9616 on 2001 September 17. Accompanied by an M1.5 flare, the small active-region filament quickly erupted, a quiet-sun region outside the active region intensively darkened so a remote coronal

Y. C. Jiang; L. P. Li; S. Q. Zhao; Q. Y. Li; H. D. Chen; S. L. Ma

2006-01-01

143

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Forecast evaluation of the CME geoeffectiveness  

E-print Network

M. Dryer, 3,4 Su-Chan Bong, 2 and Y.-D. Park 2 D R A F T August 4, 2005, 1:18pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 Institute 61-1, Whaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348, Korea M. Dryer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric magnetic field [Dryer, 1994]. We may refer to the observed near-Sun CME, which results in the geomagnetic

144

Numerical Simulation of Multiple-CME Events in 2011-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ENLIL-based heliospheric modeling system enables faster-than-real time simulations of corotating and transient disturbances. This hybrid system does not simulate origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but uses appearance in coronagraphs, its geometric and kinematic parameters, and launches a CME-like structure into the solar wind computed using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model. Propagation and interaction in the heliosphere is solved by a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. In this presentation, we introduce the recent improvements that support modeling of the evolving background solar wind and modeling of multiple-CME events. These enhancements are needed especially for simulations of complex scenarios of multiple-transients interacting with each other and with corotating solar wind stream structures. We simulated over 700 CMEs in 2011-2013 to validate and calibrate new modeling system, and we will show examples of multi-CME events during August 2010. March 2012, and July 2012 periods of enhanced solar activity. We will present results of numerical simulations and compare them with remote white-light observations, with in-situ measurements of plasma parameters, and with detection of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at various spacecraft.

Odstrcil, Dusan; Jian, Lan; Luhmann, Janet; Mays, Leila; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Xie, Hong

2014-05-01

145

After Delivery  

MedlinePLUS

... frequently following delivery to avoid either high or low blood glucose levels until you get an idea of how ... danger of napping through a snack or mealtime. Low blood glucose is a real danger. It's important for your ...

146

Efficacy of an integrated continuing medical education (CME) and quality improvement (QI) program on radiation oncologist (RO) clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There has been little radiation oncologist (RO)-specific research in continuing medical education (CME) or quality improvement (QI) program efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate a CME/QI program for changes in RO behavior, performance, and adherence to department protocols/studies over the first 12 months of the program. Methods and Materials: The CME/QI program combined chart audit with feedback (C-AWF), simulation review AWF (SR-AWF), reminder checklists, and targeted CME tutorials. Between April 2003 and March 2004, management of 75 patients was evaluated by chart audit with feedback (C-AWF) and 178 patients via simulation review audit (SR-AWF) using a validated instrument. Scores were presented, and case management was discussed with individualized educational feedback. RO behavior and performance was compared over the first year of the program. Results: Comparing the first and second 6 months, there was a significant improvement in mean behavior (12.7-13.6 of 14, p = 0.0005) and RO performance (7.6-7.9 of 8, p = 0.018) scores. Protocol/study adherence significantly improved from 90.3% to 96.6% (p = 0.005). A total of 50 actions were generated, including the identification of learning needs to direct CME tutorials, the systematic change of suboptimal RO practice, and the alteration of deficient management of 3% of patients audited during the program. Conclusion: An integrated CME/QI program combining C-AWF, SR-AWF, QI reminders, and targeted CME tutorials effectively improved targeted RO behavior and performance over a 12-month period. There was a corresponding increase in departmental protocol and study adherence.

Leong, Cheng Nang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore)]. E-mail: Cheng_Nang_Leong@mail.nhg.com.sg; Shakespeare, Thomas Philip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Mukherjee, Rahul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Back, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Lee, Khai Mun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Lu, Jiade Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Wynne, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Lim, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Tang, Johann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Zhang Xiaojian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Fudan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

2006-12-01

147

Transit time of CME/shock associated with four major geo-effective CMEs in solar cycle 24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics of coronal mass ejection (CME) in the interplanetary medium is very important in the concept of space-weather. Main aim of this paper is to study the propagation of four major geo-effective CMEs and their associated shocks observed in solar cycle 24. The arrival of interplanetary shocks and CMEs of these events near the Earth is seen from the ACE/wind in situ data available in OMNI data base. The CMEs considered in this study have a wide range of initial speeds 500-1900 km/s in the LASCO field of view, comprising of two slow CMEs (V ? 500 km/s), one fast CME (V ? 1800 km/s) and one moderate speed CME (V ? 800 km/s). The observed transit time of these events are compared with transit time estimated using the empirical shock arrival model (ESA). Especially, we utilize (i) different acceleration - speed equations reported in the literature from the observations made in the last few decades and (ii) various acceleration cessation distances (Acd) In addition, we compared the estimated and observed transit time with that from the Drag Based Model (DBM). From the result of this analysis, we demonstrated that each CME behaves in its own way in the interplanetary medium and their propagation is governed by the CME initial speed, interplanetary acceleration and acceleration cessation distances. In the present paper, we found (i) which acceleration equation is better for the transit time calculations (ii) importance of the CME acceleration cessation distances (iii) reducing the transit time error in CME forecasting. Based on these results and on Zhao and Dryer (2014) review (that included physics-based models), the realistic statistics should be based on real-time studies, not on post-mortem case studies.

Syed Ibrahim, M.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.

2015-01-01

148

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

149

Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

150

An Interpretation of GLE71 Concurrent CME-driven Shock Wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle accelerations in solar flares and CME-driven shocks can sometimes result in very high-energy particle events (>=1 GeV) that are known as ground level enhancements (GLEs). Recent studies on the first GLE event (GLE71 2012 May 17 01:50 UT) of solar cycle 24 suggested that CME-driven shock played a leading role in causing the event. To verify this claim, we have made an effort to interpret the GLE71 concurrent shock wave. For this, we have deduced the possible speed and height of the shock wave in terms of the frequency (MHz) of the solar radio type II burst and its drift rate (MHz min-1), and studied the temporal evolution of the particle intensity profiles at different heights of the solar corona. For a better perception of the particle acceleration in the shock, we have studied the solar radio type II burst with concurrent solar radio and electron fluxes. When the particle intensity profiles are necessarily shifted in time at ~1 AU, it is found that the growth phases of the electron and cosmic ray intensity fluxes are strongly correlated (>0.91 >=0.87) with the frequency drift rate of the type II burst, which is also consistent with the intensive particle accelerations at upper coronal heights (~>=0.80 R S < 1.10 R S). Thus, we conclude that the CME-driven shock was possibly capable of producing the high-energy particle event. However, since the peaks of some flare components are found to be strongly associated with the fundamental phase of the type II burst, the preceding flare is supposed to contribute to the shock acceleration process.

Firoz, Kazi A.; Zhang, Q. M.; Gan, W. Q.; Li, Y. P.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kudela, K.; Park, Y.-D.; Dorman, Lev I.

2014-08-01

151

Comparison of the WSA-ENLIL model with three CME cone types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a comparison of the CME-associated shock propagation based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the asymmetric cone model is 10.6 hours, which is about 1 hour smaller than those of the other models. Their ensemble average of MAE is 9.5 hours. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of the empirical model of Kim et al. (2007). We will compare their IP shock velocities and densities with those from ACE in-situ measurements and discuss them in terms of the prediction of geomagnetic storms.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We have made a comparison of the CME-associated shock propagation based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the asymmetric cone model is 10.6 hours, which is about 1 hour smaller than those of the other models. Their ensemble average of MAE is 9.5 hours. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of the empirical model of Kim et al. (2007). We will compare their IP shock velocities and densities with those from ACE in-situ measurements and discuss them in terms of the prediction of geomagnetic storms.

Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

2013-07-01

152

Plasma properties from the multi-wavelength analysis of the November 1st 2003 CME/shock event  

PubMed Central

The analysis of the spectral properties and dynamic evolution of a CME/shock event observed on November 1st 2003 in white-light by the LASCO coronagraph and in the ultraviolet by the UVCS instrument operating aboard SOHO, has been performed to compute the properties of some important plasma parameters in the middle corona below about 2R?. Simultaneous observations obtained with the MLSO/Mk4 white-light coronagraph, providing both the early evolution of the CME expansion in the corona and the pre-shock electron density profile along the CME front, were also used to study this event. By combining the above information with the analysis of the metric type II radio emission detected by ground-based radio spectrographs, we finally derive estimates of the values of the local Alfvén speed and magnetic field strength in the solar corona.

Benna, Carlo; Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio; Gioannini, Lorenzo

2012-01-01

153

PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the magnetic cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the interplanetary medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.

Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

2009-12-01

154

Magnetosphere ionosphere coupling during the CME events of 07 12 November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere to the coronal mass ejection (CME) events during the period 07-12 November 2004 is studied using Cluster and ground-based (ESR, EISCAT and Jicamarca radars and magnetometer) observations. The coordinated observations provide a good example of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through prompt penetration electric field (PPEF). The strongest PPEF ever recorded appears to be generated in the magnetosphere by the v×B effect, which is mapped to the high latitude ionosphere along the geomagnetic field lines and promptly penetrated to low latitudes. The CMEs, though started with a weak front end ( and 3.3 nPa), attained velocities up to , pressure up to 60 nPa and IMF components up to . The impact of the CME compressed and deformed the magnetosphere such that Cluster, which was in the southern magnetospheric lobe, suddenly found itself in the magnetosheath. While crossing a compressed magnetosheath under steady solar wind pressure and steady velocity components, the magnetosphere shifted back to the Cluster position for about 1.5 h when IMF By, which was negative before and after, became zero. The high latitude ionosphere over the ESR radar responded directly to the CMEs mainly through particle precipitation that resulted in strong ionisation and thermal expansion of the ionosphere.

Balan, N.; Alleyne, H.; Walker, S.; Reme, H.; McCrea, I.; Aylward, A.

2008-12-01

155

Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini ,Sneha Yadav and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India Abstract: The concerning results, are the variation of Geomagnetic Field Component in European Zone during CME events. The geomagnetic events selected for this study occurred during 2003-2006, a period of declining phase of solar cycle 23rd at European zone (Tromso, Sodankyla and Rorvik with Geomagnetic Latitude 69.39o N and Long. 18.56o E, Geomagnetic Latitude 67.360o N and Long. 26.363o E and Geomagnetic Latitude 64.56o N and Long.10.59 o E). From this study it is observed that the strength of a geomagnetic storm depends on the interplanetary-magnetospheric coupling parameter VBz. Higher the value of VBz, higher will be the strength of geomagnetic storm. Magnitude of variation at Rorvik is more as compared to Tromso and magnitude of variation is more at Tromso as compared to Sodankyla. Variation in vertical component is less as compared to the north-south and east-west component. Geomagnetic field components shows the variation when either interplanetary magnetic field orientes southward or remains southward for few hours.

Chandel, Babita

156

Ion acceleration at CME-driven shocks near the Earth and the Sun  

SciTech Connect

We compare the behavior of heavy ion spectra during an Energetic Storm Particle (ESP) event that exhibited clear evidence of wave excitation with that observed during an intense, large gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event in which the associated <0.2 MeV/nucleon ions are delayed >12 hr. We interpret that the ESP event is an example of the first-order Fermi acceleration process where enhancements in the magnetic field power spectral densities around local ion cyclotron frequency {nu}{sub pc} indicate the presence of Alfven waves excited by accelerated protons streaming away from the in-situ interplanetary shock. The softening or unfolding of the CNO energy spectrum below {approx}200 keV/nucleon and the systematic organization of the Fe and O spectral roll-overs with the E/q ratio during the ESP event are likely due to M/Q-dependent trapping and scattering of the heavy ions by the proton-excited waves. Based on striking similarities in the spectral behavior observed upstream of both, the ESP and the SEP event, we suggest that coupling between proton-generated Alfven waves and energetic ions is also operating at the distant CME shock during the large, gradual SEP event, thereby providing us with a new, powerful tool to remotely probe the roles of shock geometries and wave-particle interactions at near-Sun CME-driven shocks.

Desai, Mihir; Dayeh, Maher; Ebert, Robert; Smith, Charles; Mason, Glenn; Li, G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas, 78238 (United States); University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824 (United States); Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland, 20724 (United States); Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Al 35899 (United States)

2012-11-20

157

Kinetic Reconnection Simulations for CME Initiation Driven by Velocity-Shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field balanced by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection is widely believed to be the mechanism that disrupts this force balance, leading to explosive eruption. For understanding CME/flare initiation, therefore, it is critical to model the onset or reconnection that is driven by the buildup of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are important in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is nontrivial. The field must be sheared self-consistently/ indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. In the work presented here, we discuss methods for applying a velocity shear perpendicular to the plane of reconnection for a nonperiodic system. We also discuss the implementation of boundary conditions that are open to electric currents that flow through the system boundary. C.B. is supported through an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at GSFC, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J.; DeVore, C. R.; Germaschewski, K.

2012-12-01

158

SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has formed a Geoscience/IT partnership to develop an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This SCEC/ITR partnership comprises SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. This collaboration recently completed the second year in a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ITR project called the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME). The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed by project collaborators include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA [Field et al., this meeting]. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERF's). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. A Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) has also been developed that couples a rupture dynamics simulation into an anelastic wave model. The collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based system utilizing Globus software [Kesselman et al., this meeting]. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC, NPACI and Teragrid High Performance Computing Centers. We have developed a SCEC Community Velocity Model server based on Internet standards (XML, SOAP, and WSDL) to provide access to the SCEC Community Velocity Model. We have also continued development of the SCEC Fault Information System (SCEC/FIS) to provide access to the SCEC Community Fault Model and the SCEC Fault Activity Database. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) [Minster et al., this meeting]. This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data sets and their metadata. A browser-based computational pathway assembly web site has been developed [Gupta et al., this meeting]. Users can compose SHA calculations and call SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. By assembling a series of computational steps, users can develop complex computational pathways the validity of which can be verified with an ontology-based pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration to support analysis and validation of data sets includes 4D wave propagation visualization software based on OpenGL [Thiebaux et al., this meeting] and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes and faults.

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

2003-12-01

159

An Integrated CME-SEP Numerical Investigation of the 1998 May 1-2 CME Events Part III: SEP Abundance and Variability at 1AU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), also known as solar eruptions, are regarded as the main drivers of many of the observed solar energetic particles (SEP). The shock wave driven by the ejecta can accelerate charged particles to ultra-relativistic energies as the result of Fermi acceleration processes. The most energetic particles can escape upstream of the shock, reaching the Earth shortly after the initiation of the CME. In this paper we study the SEP variability in the course of the 1998 May 1-2 events on the basis of kinetic numerical models. Both the direct integration of the kinetic equation and the direct simulation approaches have been utilized for solving the SEP acceleration and transport problem. We developed a coupled SEP-turbulence model to take into account excitation of turbulence by the self-generated Alfven waves and particle diffusion due to the enhanced turbulence in self consistent manner. It allows us to compute the SEP variability at 1 AU and compare it with the observational data. The numerical results for different sorts of ions are obtained. The abundances of heavy ions in SEP are compared with observations. The Monte Carlo method has been also applied to include both pinch-angle scattering and cross-field diffusion of particles into the SEP transport model.

Tenishev, V.; Roussev, I.; Sokolov, I.; Tylka, A.; Gombosi, T.

2005-12-01

160

Amphiphilic polymer-mediated formation of laponite-based nanohybrids with robust stability and pH sensitivity for anticancer drug delivery.  

PubMed

The development of pH-sensitive drug delivery nanosystems that present a low drug release at the physiological pH and are able to increase the extent of the release at a lower pH value (like those existent in the interstitial space of solid tumors (pH 6.5) and in the intracellular endolysosomal compartments (pH 5.0)) is very important for an efficient and safe cancer therapy. Laponite (LP) is a synthetic silicate nanoparticle with a nanodisk structure (25 nm in diameter and 0.92 nm in thickness) and negative-charged surface, which can be used for the encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX, a cationic drug) through electrostatic interactions and exhibit good pH sensitivity in drug delivery. However, the colloidal instability of LP still limits its potential clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrate an elegant strategy to develop stable Laponite-based nanohybrids through the functionalization of its surface with an amphiphile PEG-PLA copolymer by a self-assembly process. The hydrophobic block of PEG-PLA acts as an anchor that binds to the surface of drug-loaded LP nanodisks, maintaining the core structure, whereas the hydrophilic PEG part serves as a protective stealth shell that improves the whole stability of the nanohybrids under physiological conditions. The resulting nanocarriers can effectively load the DOX drug (the encapsulation efficiency is 85%), and display a pH-enhanced drug release behavior in a sustained way. In vitro biological evaluation indicated that the DOX-loaded nanocarriers can be effectively internalized by CAL-72 cells (an osteosarcoma cell line), and exhibit a remarkable higher anticancer cytotoxicity than free DOX. The merits of Laponite/PEG-PLA nanohybrids, such as good cytocompatibility, excellent physiological stability, sustained pH-responsive release properties, and improved anticancer activity, make them a promising platform for the delivery of other therapeutic agents beyond DOX. PMID:25167168

Wang, Guoying; Maciel, Dina; Wu, Yilun; Rodrigues, João; Shi, Xiangyang; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng; Tomás, Helena; Li, Yulin

2014-10-01

161

Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 3277 c Copernicus Gesellschaft 2001 Particle injection in the 6 November 1997 SEP event: CME, radio  

E-print Network

with shock acceleration at these heights. We then con- sider a potential flare source of SEPs in this event November 1997 SEP event: CME, radio and gamma-ray observations E. W. Cliver1 , A. Falcone2 , J. Ryan2 , H solar energetic particle (SEP) event exhibited charge state dependence on energy with Fe having a mean

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

162

Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

2011-01-01

163

Simulation of the 23 July 2012 extreme space weather event: What if this extremely rare CME was Earth directed?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (˜1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME. We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Leila Mays, M.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

2013-12-01

164

C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

PubMed Central

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members. PMID:18286178

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

2008-01-01

165

18XZ Tauri and the Super CME! These pictures were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope between 1995  

E-print Network

18XZ Tauri and the Super CME! These pictures were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope between 1995 gas in events called Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) but involve far less matter ejected into space present in the star's interplanetary space? Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;18 Answer Key

166

The Successive CME on 13th; 14th and 15th February 2011 and Forbush decrease on 18 February 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims. We analyze the kinematics of three interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that occurred on 13th, 14th and 15th February 2011 in the active region AR 11155 and have shown that they appeared at the Earth orbit on February, 18th and caused Forbush decrease (FD). Methods. The solar coordinates of flares are (S19W03), (S20W14) and (S21W18). The kinematic curves were obtained using STEREO (A&B) data. Additionally, we explore the possibility of the CME-CME interaction for these three events. We compare obtained estimates of ICME arrival with the in-situ measurements from WIND satellite at L1 point and with ground-based cosmic ray data obtained from SEVAN network. Results. The acceleration of each CME is highly correlated with the associated SXR flares energy release. CMEs that erupted at 13 and 14 Feb 2011 are not associated with prominence eruption; maximum velocity was vmax550 ± 50 km/s and vmax400 ± 50 km/s, respectively. However, 15 Feb 2011 CME is connected with much more violent eruption associated with a prominence, with maximum velocity of vmax 1400 ± 50 km/s. The last overtakes 13th and 14th Feb CMEs at distances of 32 and 160 Rsolar, respectively.

Mari?i?, D.; Bostasyan, N.; Dumbovi?, M.; Chilingarian, A.; Mailyan, B.; Rostomyan, H.; Arakelyan, K.; Vršnak, B.; Roša, D.; Hržina, D.; Romštajn, I.; Veronig, A.

2013-02-01

167

Stellar CME activity and its possible influence on exoplanets' environments: Importance of magnetospheric protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMEs are large-scale magnetized plasma structures carrying billions of tons of material that erupt from a star and propagate in the stellar heliosphere, interacting in multiple ways with the stellar wind. Due to the high speed, intrinsic magnetic field and the increased plasma density compared to the stellar wind background, CMEs can produce strong effects on planetary environments when they collide with a planet. The main planetary impact factors of CMEs, are associated interplanetary shocks, energetic particles accelerated in the shock regions, and the magnetic field disturbances. All these factors should be taken into account during the study of evolutionary processes on exoplanets and their atmospheric and plasma environments. CME activity of a star may vary depending on stellar age, stellar spectral type and the orbital distance of a planet. Because of relatively short range of propagation of majority of CMEs, they impact most strongly the magnetospheres and atmospheres of close orbit (< 0.1 AU) exoplanets.

Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Sasunov, Yury; Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Alexeev, Igor I.; Belenkaya, Elena S.; Lammer, Helmut; Kislyakova, Kristina G.; Odert, Petra; Leitzinger, Martin; Güdel, Manuel

2014-01-01

168

Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

2011-12-01

169

On-board CME detection algorithm for the Solar Orbiter-METIS coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The METIS coronagraph is one of the instruments part of the payload of the ESA - Solar Orbiter mission to be launched in 2017. The spacecraft will operate much like a planetary encounter mission, with the main scientific activity taking place with the remote-sensing instruments during three 10-days intervals per orbit: optimization of the different instrument observing modes will be crucial. One of the key scientific targets of METIS will be the study of transient ejections of mass through the solar corona (Coronal Mass Ejections - CMEs) and their heliospheric evolution. METIS will provide for the first time imaging of CMEs in two different wavelengths: VL (visible light 580- 640 nm) and UV (Lyman-? line of HI at 121.6 nm). The detection of transient phenomena shall be managed directly by the METIS Processing and Power Unit (MPPU) by means of both external triggers ("flags") coming from other Solar Orbiter instruments, and internal "flags" produced directly by the METIS on-board software. METIS on-board algorithm for the automatic detection of CMEs will be based on running differences between consecutive images re-binned to very low resolution and thresholded for significant changes over a minimum value. Given the small relative variation of white light intensity during CMEs, the algorithm will take advantage of VL images acquired with different polarization angles to maximize the detection capability: possible false detections should be automatically managed by the algorithm. The algorithm will be able to provide the CME first detection time, latitudinal direction of propagation on the plane of the sky (within 45 degrees), a binary flag indicating whether a "halo CME" has been detected.

Bemporad, A.; Andretta, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Focardi, M.; Straus, T.; Sasso, C.; Spadaro, D.; Uslenghi, M.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Nicolini, G.; Landini, F.; Romoli, M.; Naletto, G.; Nicolosi, P.

2014-07-01

170

Wavelet analysis of CME, X-ray flare, and sunspot series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are the most energetic transient phenomena taking place at the Sun. Together they are principally responsible for disturbances in outer geospace. Coronal mass ejections and solar flares are believed to be correlated with the solar cycle, which is mainly characterized by sunspot numbers. Aims: Here, we search for pattern identification in CMEs, X-ray solar flares, and sunspot number time series using a new data mining process and a quantitative procedure to correlate these series. Methods: This new process consists of the combination of a decomposition method with the wavelet transform technique applied to the series ranging from 2000 until 2012. A simple moving average is used for the time-series decomposition as a high-pass filter. A continuous wavelet transform is applied to the series in sequence, which permits us to uncover signals previously masked by the original time series. We made use of the wavelet coherence to find some correlation between the data. Results: The results have shown the existence of periodic and intermittent signals in the CMEs, flares, and sunspot time series. For the CME and flare series, few and relatively short time intervals without any signal were observed. Signals with an intermittent character take place during some epochs of the maximum and descending phases of the solar cycle 23 and rising phase of solar cycle 24. A comparison among X-ray flares, sunspots, and CME time series shows a stronger relation between flare and CMEs, although during some short intervals (four-eight months) and in a relatively narrow band. Yet, in contrast we have obtained a fainter or even absent relation between the X-ray flares and sunspot number series as well as between the CMEs and sunspot number series.

Guedes, M. R. G.; Pereira, E. S.; Cecatto, J. R.

2015-01-01

171

MHD Modeling of Coronal Large-Amplitude Waves Related to CME Lift-off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have employed a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation code to study mass motions and large-amplitude coronal waves related to the lift-off of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The eruption of the filament is achieved by an artificial force acting on the plasma inside the flux rope. By varying the magnitude of this force, the reaction of the ambient corona to CMEs with different acceleration profiles can be studied. Our model of the ambient corona is gravitationally stratified with a quadrupolar magnetic field, resulting in an ambient Alfvén speed that increases as a function of height, as typically deduced for the low corona. The results of the simulations show that the erupting flux rope is surrounded by a shock front, which is strongest near the leading edge of the erupting mass, but also shows compression near the solar surface. For rapidly accelerating filaments, the shock front forms already in the low corona. Although the speed of the driver is less than the Alfvén speed near the top of the atmosphere, the shock survives in this region as well, but as a freely propagating wave. The leading edge of the shock becomes strong early enough to drive a metric type II burst in the corona. The speed of the weaker part of the shock front near the surface is lower, corresponding to the magnetosonic speed there. We analyze the (line-of-sight) emission measure of the corona during the simulation and recognize a wave receding from the eruption site, which strongly resembles EIT waves in the low corona. Behind the EIT wave, we clearly recognize a coronal dimming, also observed during CME lift-off. We point out that the morphology of the hot downstream region of the shock would be that of a hot erupting loop, so care has to be taken not to misinterpret soft X-ray imaging observations in this respect. Finally, the geometry of the magnetic field around the erupting mass is analyzed in terms of precipitation of particles accelerated in the eruption complex. Field lines connected to the shock are further away from the photospheric neutral line below the filament than the field lines connected to the current sheet below the flux rope. Thus, if the DC fields in the current sheet accelerate predominantly electrons and the shock accelerates ions, the geometry is consistent with recent observations of gamma rays being emitted further out from the neutral line than hard X-rays.

Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R.; Kissmann, R.

2008-12-01

172

A solar type II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction:simultaneous radio and EUV imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the 3-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two STEREO spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio imaging data to infer the 3-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the CME EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui

2014-06-01

173

Correlation Between CME Occurrence Rate and Current Helicity in the Global Magnetic Field of Solar Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the correlation between the occurrence rate of the monthly coronal mass ejection (CME) and the magnitude of the current helicity in global magnetic field on the photosphere of solar cycle 23. We used the technique introduced by Pevtsov and Latushko (Astrophys. J. 528, 999, 2000) to retrieve the vector magnetic field from longitudinal full-disk magnetograms, but applied a different method to calculate the current helicity and focused on the evolution of the magnitude of current helicity over a full solar cycle. We found that there is a close relationship between the variation of the current helicity in the global magnetic field and that of the monthly CME occurrence rate. This provides further evidence to support that helicity is an important ingredient for solar eruptions.

Wang, Chuanyu; Zhang, Mei

2015-01-01

174

Elemental composition before, during and after the January 6, 1997, CME event measured by CELIAS/SOHO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using solar wind particle data from the charge, element and isotope analysis system (CELIAS) experiment on the SOHO mission, densities of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe are derived, and their abundance is analyzed before, during and after the 6 Janaury 1997 coronal mass ejection event (CME). In the interstream and coronal hole regions before and after this event, typical solar wind abundances for the elements investigated were found. However, during the passage of the coronal mass ejection and during the passage of the erupted filament, the elemental composition differed markedly from typical solar wind. For the passage of the CME and for the passage of the erupted filament, a mass-dependent enhancement of the elements was found, with a monotonic increase towards heavier elements. Si/O and Fe/O ratios of the order of one during these time periods were observed.

Wurz, P.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Bochsler, P.; Aellig, M. R.; Kallenbach, R.; Hovestadt, D.; Gruenwaldt, H.; Hilchenbach, M.; Axford, W. I.; Balsiger, H.; Buergi, A.; Coplan, M. A.; Geiss, J.; Gliem, F.; Gloeckler, G.; Hefti, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Klecker, B.; Lee, M. A.

1997-01-01

175

Tracking the Momentum Flux of a CME and Quantifying Its Influence on Geomagnetically Induced Currents at Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate a coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward Earth on 29 March 2011. This event is specifically chosen for its predominately northward directed magnetic field, so that the influence from the momentum flux onto Earth can be isolated. We focus our study on understanding how a small Earth-directed segment propagates. Mass images are created from the white-light cameras onboard STEREO which are also converted into mass height-time maps (mass J-maps). The mass tracks on these J-maps correspond to the sheath region between the CME and its associated shockfront as detected by in situ measurements at L1. A time series of mass measurements from the STEREOCOR-2A instrument is made along the Earth propagation direction. Qualitatively, this mass time series shows a remarkable resemblance to the L1 in situ density series. The in situ measurements are used as inputs into a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetospheric space weather simulation from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. These simulations display a sudden compression of the magnetosphere from the large momentum flux at the leading edge of the CME, and predictions are made for the time derivative of the magnetic field (dBdt) on the ground. The predicted dBdt values were then compared with the observations from specific equatorially located ground stations and showed notable similarity. This study of the momentum of a CME from the Sun down to its influence on magnetic ground stations on Earth is presented as a preliminary proof of concept, such that future attempts may try to use remote sensing to create density and velocity time series as inputs to magnetospheric simulations.

Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lavraud, B.; Owens, M. J.

2013-01-01

176

Delivery plan August 2007  

E-print Network

Delivery plan 2005-2008 August 2007 #12;Science and Technology Facilities Council Delivery Plan and Effectiveness 26 1 #12;Science and Technology Facilities Council Delivery Plan 2007-2008 1. INTRODUCTION This Delivery Plan describes the Science and Technology Facilities Council's (STFC) plans and key deliverables

Crowther, Paul

177

Acceleration of Relativistic Protons During the 20 January 2005 Flare and CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of relativistic solar protons during large flare/CME events has not been uniquely identified so far. We perform a detailed comparative analysis of the time profiles of relativistic protons detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors at Earth with electromagnetic signatures of particle acceleration in the solar corona during the large particle event of 20 January 2005. The intensity - time profile of the relativistic protons derived from the neutron monitor data indicates two successive peaks. We show that microwave, hard X-ray, and ?-ray emissions display several episodes of particle acceleration within the impulsive flare phase. The first relativistic protons detected at Earth are accelerated together with relativistic electrons and with protons that produce pion-decay ? rays during the second episode. The second peak in the relativistic proton profile at Earth is accompanied by new signatures of particle acceleration in the corona within ?1 R ? above the photosphere, revealed by hard X-ray and microwave emissions of low intensity and by the renewed radio emission of electron beams and of a coronal shock wave. We discuss the observations in terms of different scenarios of particle acceleration in the corona.

Masson, S.; Klein, K.-L.; Bütikofer, R.; Flückiger, E.; Kurt, V.; Yushkov, B.; Krucker, S.

2009-07-01

178

Particle escape in the interplanetary medium: Link between CME observations and MHD simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the more hazardous forms of space weather at Earth and in the heliosphere are the intense solar energetic particle (SEP) bursts associated with fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. A fundamental question to understand the origin and the evolution of solar energetic particles is: How do solar energetic particles escape the Sun? Answering this question is critical for understanding how the corona couples dynamically to the heliosphere during explosive events, and is fundamental to developing any future forecasting capability for SEP events. The release onto open field lines of energetic particles originating in the low corona is the bridge connecting the acceleration site to the interplanetary propagation and is, therefore, the key to reconciling remote and in-situ observations of energetic particles. Recent multi-instrument studies showed that CMEs are important factors that determine whether the energetic particles escape into the heliosphere and partly define the spatial distribution of particle flux. In order to understand how and why CMEs play a crucial role in the particle escape, we must understand the dynamics of the corona disturbed by a CME ejection. The details of the dynamics can be studied through MHD simulations. To advance understanding, it is pertinent to combine observations and simulations to develop models that respect the observational constraints. Thus, first we will describe the observational results, then discuss how MHD simulations help demonstrate why CMEs are important for particle release.

Masson, Sophie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. Richard

179

Trauma-Informed Medical Care: A CME Communication Training for Primary Care Providers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trauma exposure predicts mental disorders, medical morbidity, and healthcare costs. Yet trauma-related impacts have not received sufficient attention in primary care provider (PCP) training programs. This study adapted a theory-based approach to working with trauma survivors, Risking Connection, into a 6-hour CME course, Trauma-Informed Medical Care (TI-Med), and evaluated its efficacy. METHODS: We randomized PCPs to training or wait-list (delay) conditions; waitlist groups were trained after reassessment. The primary outcome assessing newly acquired skills was a patient-centeredness score derived from Roter Interactional Analysis System ratings of 90 taped visits between PCPs and standardized patients (SPs). PCPs were Family Medicine residents (n=17) and community physicians (n=13; 83% Family Medicine specialty), from four sites in the Washington DC metropolitan area. RESULTS: Immediately trained PCPs trended toward a larger increase in patient-centeredness than did the delayed PCPs (p < .09), with a moderate effect size (.66). The combined trained PCP groups showed a significant increase in patient-centeredness pre to post training, p < .01, Cohen’s D = .61. CONCLUSIONS: This is a promising approach to supporting relationship-based trauma-informed care among PCPs to help promote better patient health and higher compliance with medical treatment plans. PMID:25646872

Green, Bonnie L.; Saunders, Pamela A.; Power, Elizabeth; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Schelbert, Kavitha Bhat; Giller, Esther; Wissow, Larry; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Mete, Mihriye

2014-01-01

180

Observations of a comet tail disruption induced by the passage of a CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Mass Ejection Imager observed an extremely faint interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) as it passed Comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) on 5 May 2004, apparently causing a disruption of its plasma tail. This is the first time that an ICME has been directly observed interacting with a comet. SMEI's nearly all-sky coverage and image cadence afforded unprecedented coverage of this rarely observed event. The onset first appeared as a "kink" moving antisunward that eventually developed knots within the disturbed tail. These knots appeared to be swept up in the solar wind flow. We present the SMEI observations as well as identify a likely SOHO/LASCO progenitor of the CME. SMEI observed two other comets (C/2002 T7 [LINEAR] and C/2004 F4 [Bradfield]) and at least five similar events during a 35-d period encompassing this observation. Although these had similar morphologies to the 5 May NEAT event, SMEI did not observe any ICMEs in these cases. Three of these were observed close to the heliospheric current sheet indicating that a magnetic boundary crossing may have contributed to the disruptions. However, there are no discernable causes in the SMEI observations for the remaining two events.

Kuchar, T. A.; Buffington, A.; Arge, C. N.; Hick, P. P.; Howard, T. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Johnston, J. C.; Mizuno, D. R.; Tappin, S. J.; Webb, D. F.

2008-04-01

181

Are Decaying Magnetic Fields Above Active Regions Related to CME Onset?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are powered by magnetic energy stored in non-potential (current-carrying) coronal magnetic fields; the pre-CME field is thought to exhibit a balance between outward magnetic pressure of the proto-ejecta and inward magnetic tension from overlying fields that confine the proto-ejecta. In global potential (current-free) models of coronal magnetic fields --- potential field source-surface (PFSS) models --- above flare sites where CMEs originated, it has been noted that model field strengths are larger above sites where eruptions fail, suggesting potential field models might be useful to quantify magnetic confinement. One straightforward implication of this idea is that a decrease in model field strength overlying a possible eruption site should correspond to diminished confinement, implying an eruption is more likely. We have searched for such an effect by post facto investigation of the time evolution of model field strengths above a sample of 10 eruption sites. To check if the strengths of overlying fields were relevant only in relatively slow CMEs, we included both slow and fast CMEs in our sample.

Suzuki, J.; Welsch, B. T.; Li, Y.

2011-12-01

182

Kinetic Approaches to Shear-Driven Magnetic Reconnection for Multi-Scale Modeling of CME Initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance, consisting of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field balanced by a downward tension due to overlying un-sheared field, is widely believed to be disrupted by magnetic reconnection. Therefore, understanding initiation of solar explosive phenomena requires a true multi-scale model of reconnection onset driven by the buildup of magnetic shear. While the application of magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter in MHD simulations, it is a significant challenge in a PIC code. The driver must be implemented in a self-consistent manner and with boundary conditions that avoid the generation of waves that destroy the applied shear. In this work, we describe drivers for 2.5D, aperiodic, PIC systems and discuss the implementation of driver-consistent boundary conditions that allow a net electric current to flow through the walls. Preliminary tests of these boundaries with a MHD equilibrium are shown. This work was supported, in part, by the NASA Living With a Star TR&T Program.

Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.; Germaschewski, K.; Karpen, J. T.

2013-12-01

183

DNA amplification via polymerase chain reaction inside miniemulsion droplets with subsequent poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) shell formation and delivery of polymeric capsules into mammalian cells.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the development of stable nanocapsules that could deliver the bioactive compounds within the living organism, and to release them without causing any toxic effects. Here the miniemulsion droplets were first used as "nanoreactors" for the amplification of single-molecule dsDNA template (476 and 790 base pairs) through PCR. Afterwards, each droplet was surrounded with a biodegradable PBCA shell by interfacial anionic polymerization, enabling therefore to deliver the PCR products into the cells. The size of the initial miniemulsion droplets and the final polymeric capsules was in the range of 250 and 320 nm, mainly depending on the type of the continuous phase and presence of dsDNA template molecules. The formation of PCR products was resolved with gel electrophoresis and detected with fluorescence spectroscopy in the presence of DNA specific dye (SYBRGreen). TEM studies were performed to prove the formation of the polymeric shell. The shell thickness was measured to be within 5-15 nm and the average molecular weight of the formed PBCA polymer was around 75000 g · mol(-1) . For the cell uptake experiments, the obtained nanocapsules were transferred from the organic phase into aqueous medium containing a water-soluble surfactant. The effect of the surfactant type (anionic, cationic or non-ionic) on the HeLa cell viability and nanocapsule uptake behavior was studied by CLSM and FACS. Confocal analysis demonstrated that nanocapsules stabilized with cationic (CTMA-Cl) and non-ionic (Lutensol AT50) surfactants show almost the same uptake, whereas capsules redispersed in anionic (SDS) surfactant possess a 30% higher uptake. The release of the encapsulated material within the cell was studied on the example of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides showing the colocalization with mitochondria of MSCs cells. PMID:21557476

Baier, Grit; Musyanovych, Anna; Landfester, Katharina; Best, Andreas; Lorenz, Steffen; Mailänder, Volker

2011-08-11

184

Transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767

Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

2009-01-01

185

Use of Yohkoh SXT in Measuring the Net Current and CME Productivity of Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our investigation of the correlation of global nonpotentiality of active regions to their CME productivity (Falconer, D. A. 2001, JGR, in press, and Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2000, EOS 82, 20 S323), we use Yohkoh SXT images for two purposes. The first use is to help resolve the 180o ambiguity in the direction of the observed transverse magnetic field. Resolution of the 180o ambiguity is important, since the net current, one of our measures of global nonpotentiality, is derived from integrating the dot product of the transverse field around a contour (IN = int BTcdot dl). The ambiguity results from the observed transverse field being determined from the linear polarization, which gives the plane of the direction, but leaves a 180o ambiguity. Automated methods to resolve the ambiguity ranging from the simple acute angle rule (Falconer, D. A. 2001) to the more sophisticated annealing method (Metcalf T. R. 1994). For many active regions, especially ones that are nearly potential these methods work well. But for very nonpotential active regions where the shear angle (the angle between the observed and potential transverse field) is near 90o throughout large swaths along the main neutral line, both methods can resolve the ambiguity incorrectly for long segments of the neutral line. By determining from coronal images, such as those from Yohkoh/SXT, the sense of shear along the main neutral line in the active region, these cases can be identified and corrected by a modification of the acute angle rule described here. The second use of Yohkoh/SXT in this study is to check for the cusped coronal arcades of long-duration eruptive flares. This signature is an excellent proxy for CMEs, and was used by Canfield, Hudson, and McKenzie (1999 GRL V26, 6, 627-630). This work is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program and by NASA through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

2002-01-01

186

CME-Producing Precursors to the 2006 December 13 X-Flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We revisit one of the largest explosions observed during the Hinode era, the X4.3 class event of 2006 Dec 13. We gain insight into the main eruption through study of two sub-C-class precursor eruptions, occurring within 12 hours of and originating from the same (or nearby) neutral line as the X-flare. The precursors share some features in common with the main eruption, and their lower energy and consequent slower development renders interpretation of these features easier to decipher than in the rapidly explosive main eruption. In addition, because the weak precursors occurred in a magnetically strong region, magnetic connections indicated by soft X-ray loops are readily visible in these cases, while such connections can be much less apparent in weaker-region eruptions. Hinode/SOT magnetograms indicate that photospheric magnetic dynamic activity in the "magnetic core" is the likely ultimate source of the eruptions. All the eruptions, however, produce Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) that have wider spatial extent than the localized source region; this is a long-observed but puzzling phenomena, which can address directly here using the high-quality Hinode data. For the precursor eruptions, Hinode/XRT images show that the initial eruptions occur inside larger-scale magnetic structures that encompass the core. The exploding core field blows out this larger-scale structure, resulting in the CME having angular extent far exceeding that of the source-region core alone; this is the arch-arch-blowout scenario for CMEs of Moore & Sterling (2007). Similar processes occur in the main eruption, except that the much larger energy release in that eruption compared to the precursors results in much faster and larger-scale phenomena.

Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louise K.; Moore, Ronald L.

2008-01-01

187

May 12 1997 CME Event: A Simplified Model of the Pre-Eruptive Magnetic Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of the coronal magnetic field prior to the CME eruption on May 12 1997 is developed. First, this field is constructed by superimposing a large-scale background field and a localized bipolar field to model the active region (AR) in the potential approximation. The background field is determined from the observed photospheric normal field averaged over the longitude of the Sun. The AR field is modeled by a subphotospheric dipole whose parameters are optimized to fit the magnetic field obtained from an MDI magnetogram. Second, this potential configuration is quasi-statically sheared by photospheric vortex motions applied to two flux concentrations of the AR. Third, the resulting force-free field is then evolved by canceling the photospheric flux with the help of a flow converging to the neutral line of the AR. To understand the structure of the modeled configuration, we use a field line mapping technique generalized to spherical geometry. It is demonstrated that the initial configuration contains a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) consisting of two intersecting quasi-separatrix layers. This HFT provides a partition of the closed magnetic flux between the AR and global solar magnetic field. Such a partition is approximate since the entire flux distribution is perfectly continuous. The vortex motions applied to the AR interlock the coronal field lines to form additionally two new HFTs pinched into thin current layers (CLs). These CLs carry the return current shielding the twisted field of the AR from a nearly potential background field. Reconnection in these CLs helps redistribute the flux in the configuration during the cancellation phase. At this phase, a magnetic flux rope is formed together with a bald patch separatrix surface wrapping around the rope. Other important implications of the identified structural features of the modeled configuration are also discussed.

Titov, Viacheslav; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.

2007-05-01

188

FUEL DELIVERY TEMPERATURE STUDY  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION FUEL DELIVERY TEMPERATURE STUDY COMMISSIONREPORT March 2009 CEC-600 and Nicholas Janusch, 2009. Fuel Delivery Temperature Study, California Energy Commission. CEC-600-2009-002-CMF

189

Vaginal delivery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... return in: Four to 9 weeks after your delivery if you're not breastfeeding Three to 4 ... rest. Lovemaking can begin around 6 weeks after delivery, assuming the discharge or lochia has stopped. Check ...

190

Thermosensitive polymers for drug delivery  

SciTech Connect

Thermosensitive polymers (TSP) demonstrating temperature-dependent temperature-dependent swelling in water have been extensively studied in recent years. Their molecular and physical properties have been tailored for a variety of biomedical and engineering uses. This presentation will discuss TSP based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and its crosslinked networks modified with hydrophobic or hydrophilic components by copolymerization blending and formation of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). TSP designed for three different areas of drug delivery will be presented. First, heparin releasing temperature-sensitive polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis will be presented as an example of a local macromolecular delivery from a surface of a medical device. Second, a new oral delivery device based on a novel mechanical squeezing concept, utilizing specific swelling-deswelling characteristics of temperature- and temperature/pH-sensitive hydrogels will be described. These hydrogels were synthesized to exhibit a controlled swelling-deswelling kinetics, hence a variety of release profiles may be generated: a delayed, a zero-order or an {open_quotes}on-off{close_quotes} release profile. Finally, thermally reversible polymeric gels as an extracellular matrix for the entrapment of pancreatic islet cells in biohybrid artificial pancreas for insulin delivery will be discussed.

Gutowska, A.; Kim, Sung Wan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

191

Comparison of the CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth using the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a comparison of CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters from Michalek et al. (2007) as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone models (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are used for input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the elliptical cone model is 10 hours, which is about 2 hours smaller than those of the other models. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of an empirical model by Kim et al. (2007). We are investigating several possibilities on relatively large errors of the WSA-ENLIL cone model, which may be caused by CME-CME interaction, background solar wind speed, and/or CME density enhancement.

Jang, S.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

2012-12-01

192

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wetland, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef)....

2010-10-01

193

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

...wetland, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef)....

2014-10-01

194

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wetland, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef)....

2012-10-01

195

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wetland, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef)....

2013-10-01

196

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wetland, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef) and is classified...wetlands, seagrass, or kelp) or invertebrate reef (e.g., coral reef)....

2011-10-01

197

Analysis and interpretation of a fast limb CME with eruptive prominence, C-flare and EUV dimming  

E-print Network

Coronal Mass ejections or CMEs are large dynamical solar-corona events. The mass balance and kinematics of a fast limb CME, including its prominence progenitor and the associated flare, will be compared with computed magnetic structures to look for their origin and effect. Multi-wavelength ground-based and space-borne observations are used to study a fast W-limb CME event of December 2, 2003, taking into account both on and off disk observations. Its erupting prominence is measured at high cadence with the Pic du Midi full H-alpha line-flux imaging coronagraph. EUV images from space instruments are processed including difference imaging. SOHO/LASCO images are used to study the mass excess and motions. A fast bright expanding coronal loop is identified in the region recorded slightly later by GOES as a C7.2 flare, followed by a brightening and an acceleration phase of the erupting material with both cool and hot components. The total coronal radiative flux dropped by 5 percent in the EUV channels, revealing a large dimming effect at and above the limb. The typical 3-part structure observed 1 hour later shows a core shaped similarly to the eruptive filament/prominence. The total measured mass of the escaping CME (1.5x10to16 g from C2 LASCO observations) definitely exceeds the estimated mass of the escaping cool prominence material although assumptions made to analyse the Ha erupting prominence, as well as the corresponding EUV darkening of the filament observed several days before, made this evaluation uncertain by a factor of 2. From the current free extrapolation we discuss the shape of the magnetic neutral surface and a possible scenario leading to an instability, including the small scale dynamics inside and around the filament.

Serge Koutchmy; Vladimir Slemzin; Boris Filippov; Jacques-Clair Noens; David Romeuf; Leon Golub

2008-01-17

198

Communications Drug Delivery  

E-print Network

Communications Drug Delivery Z. Zhao, H. Meng, N. Wang, M. J. Donovan, T. Fu, M. You, Z. Chen, X Targeting and Translocation for Drug Delivery This pHLIP is no flop: Functionalizing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with pHLIPss peptide provides a con- trolled-release nanoparticle drug delivery system

Tan, Weihong

199

Responsive polymeric delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the state of the art in a relatively new approach in the field of controlled drug delivery–responsive polymeric drug delivery systems. Such systems are capable of adjusting drug release rates in response to a physiological need. The fundamental principles of externally and self-regulated delivery systems are examined. Special attention is paid to specific clinical settings such as

Joseph Kost; Robert Langer

2001-01-01

200

Home Delivery MIT Pharmacy  

E-print Network

Home Delivery from MIT Pharmacy To make refills easier, MIT Pharmacy offers a prescription home delivery service. 1. Fill out the order blank completely. If using more than one order blank, fill out delivery person. 5. Some medications will not be mailed. These include certain controlled drugs, those

Polz, Martin

201

The solar minimum X2.6/1B flare and CME of 9 July 1996. Pt. 1; Solar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar observations from GOES-8, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Yohkoh satellite concerning the events of the X-class flare are discussed. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) magnetometer shows a new region of magnetic activity in AR 7978. The rapid development and evolution of this region is shown by the MDI and the extreme-ultraviolet Doppler telescope (EDT) data. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed using coronagraphs are presented. The possible association between the CME and the X-flare is considered.

Andrews, M. D.; Dryer, M.; Aurass, H.; DeForest, C.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Meisner, R.; Paswaters, S. E.; Smith, Z.; Tappin, S. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Watari, S.-I.; Lamy, P.; Mann, G.; Schwenn, R.; Michels, D. J.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M.

1997-01-01

202

Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

2011-01-01

203

A Parametric Study of Erupting Flux Rope Rotation. Modeling the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotation of erupting filaments in the solar corona is addressed through a parametric simulation study of unstable, rotating flux ropes in bipolar force-free initial equilibrium. The Lorentz force due to the external shear-field component and the relaxation of tension in the twisted field are the major contributors to the rotation in this model, while reconnection with the ambient field is of minor importance, due to the field's simple structure. In the low-beta corona, the rotation is not guided by the changing orientation of the vertical field component's polarity inversion line with height. The model yields strong initial rotations which saturate in the corona and differ qualitatively from the profile of rotation vs. height obtained in a recent simulation of an eruption without preexisting flux rope. Both major mechanisms writhe the flux rope axis, converting part of the initial twist helicity, and produce rotation profiles which, to a large part, are very similar within a range of shear-twist combinations. A difference lies in the tendency of twist-driven rotation to saturate at lower heights than shear-driven rotation. For parameters characteristic of the source regions of erupting filaments and coronal mass ejections, the shear field is found to be the dominant origin of rotations in the corona and to be required if the rotation reaches angles of order 90 degrees and higher; it dominates even if the twist exceeds the threshold of the helical kink instability. The contributions by shear and twist to the total rotation can be disentangled in the analysis of observations if the rotation and rise profiles are simultaneously compared with model calculations. The resulting twist estimate allows one to judge whether the helical kink instability occurred. This is demonstrated for the erupting prominence in the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008, which has shown a rotation of ? 115? up to a height of 1.5 R ? above the photosphere. Out of a range of initial equilibria which include strongly kink-unstable (twist ?=5 ?), weakly kink-unstable (?=3.5 ?), and kink-stable (?=2.5 ?) configurations, only the evolution of the weakly kink-unstable flux rope matches the observations in their entirety.

Kliem, B.; Török, T.; Thompson, W. T.

2012-11-01

204

Use of Yohkoh SXT in Measuring the Net Current and CME Productivity of Active Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In our investigation of the correlation of global nonpotentiality of active regions to their CME productivity (Falconer, D.A. 2001, JGR, in press, and Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2000, EOS 82, 20 S323), we use Yohkoh SXT images for two purposes. The first use is to help resolve the 180 degree ambiguity in the direction of the observed transverse magnetic field. Resolution of the 180 degree ambiguity is important, since the net current, one of our measures of global nonpotentiality, is derived from integrating the dot product of the transverse field around a contour (I(sub N)=(integral)BT(raised dot)dl). The ambiguity results from the observed transverse field being determined from the linear polarization, which gives the plane of the direction, but leaves a 180 degrees ambiguity. Automated methods to resolve the ambiguity ranging from the simple acute angle rule (Falconer, D.A. 2001) to the more sophisticated annealing method (Metcalf T.R. 1994). For many active regions, especially ones that are nearly potential these methods work well. But for very nonpotential active regions where the shear angle (the angle between the observed and potential transverse field) is near 90 degrees throughout large swaths along the main neutral line, both methods can resolve the ambiguity incorrectly for long segments of the neutral line. By determining from coronal images, such as those from Yohkoh/SXT, the sense of shear along the main neutral line in the active region, these cases can be identified and corrected by a modification of the acute angle rule described here. The second use of Yohkoh/SXT in this study is to check for the cusped coronal arcades of long-duration eruptive flares. This signature is an excellent proxy for CMEs, and was used by Canfield, Hudson, and McKenzie (1999 GRL V26, 6, 627-630). This work is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program and by NASA through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

205

A Parametric Study of Erupting Flux Rope Rotation: Modeling the 'Cartwheel CME' on 9 April 2008  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rotation of erupting filaments in the solar corona is addressed through a parametric simulation study of unstable, rotating flux ropes in bipolar force-free initial equilibrium. The Lorentz force due to the external shear-field component and the relaxation of tension in the twisted field are the major contributors to the rotation in this model, while reconnection with the ambient field is of minor importance, due to the field's simple structure. In the low-beta corona, the rotation is not guided by the changing orientation of the vertical field component's polarity inversion line with height. The model yields strong initial rotations which saturate in the corona and differ qualitatively from the profile of rotation vs. height obtained in a recent simulation of an eruption without preexisting flux rope. Both major mechanisms writhe the flux rope axis, converting part of the initial twist helicity, and produce rotation profiles which, to a large part, are very similar within a range of shear-twist combinations. A difference lies in the tendency of twist-driven rotation to saturate at lower heights than shear-driven rotation. For parameters characteristic of the source regions of erupting filaments and coronal mass ejections, the shear field is found to be the dominant origin of rotations in the corona and to be required if the rotation reaches angles of order 90 degrees and higher; it dominates even if the twist exceeds the threshold of the helical kink instability. The contributions by shear and twist to the total rotation can be disentangled in the analysis of observations if the rotation and rise profiles are simultaneously compared with model calculations. The resulting twist estimate allows one to judge whether the helical kink instability occurred. This is demonstrated for the erupting prominence in the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008, which has shown a rotation of approximately 115 deg. up to a height of 1.5 Solar R above the photosphere. Out of a range of initial equilibria which include strongly kink-unstable (Phi = 5 pi), weakly kink-unstable (Phi = 3.5 pi), and kink-stable (Phi = 2.5 pi) configurations, only the evolution of the weakly kink-unstable flux rope matches the observations in their entirety.

Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.; Thompson, W. T.

2012-01-01

206

THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24: DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SHOCK FORMATION AND PARTICLE RELEASE HEIGHTS  

SciTech Connect

We report on the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement (GLE) event, which is the first of its kind in solar cycle 24. This is the first GLE event to be fully observed close to the surface by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission. We determine the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst (i.e., shock formation height) as 1.38 Rs (from the Sun center). The CME height at the time of GLE particle release was directly measured from a STEREO image as 2.32 Rs, which agrees well with the estimation from CME kinematics. These heights are consistent with those obtained for cycle-23 GLEs using back-extrapolation. By contrasting the 2012 May 17 GLE with six other non-GLE eruptions from well-connected regions with similar or larger flare sizes and CME speeds, we find that the latitudinal distance from the ecliptic is rather large for the non-GLE events due to a combination of non-radial CME motion and unfavorable solar B0 angle, making the connectivity to Earth poorer. We also find that the coronal environment may play a role in deciding the shock strength.

Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Davila, J. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, MD (United States); Usoskin, I. G. [Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit) and Department of Physics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)

2013-03-10

207

Transcriptional Regulation of the CmeABC Multidrug Efflux Pump and the KatA Catalase by CosR in Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

CosR is an essential response regulator in Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing enteritis worldwide. A transcriptomic analysis performed in this study discovered 93 genes whose transcriptional levels were changed >2-fold due to the repression of CosR expression by antisense peptide nucleic acid. The identified CosR-regulated genes are involved in various cellular functions, such as energy production, protein synthesis and folding, flagellum biogenesis, and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, 17 of the 93 CosR-regulated genes (18.3%) are predicted essential genes, indicating that CosR may participate in the regulation of vital biological processes in C. jejuni. In particular, CosR knockdown increased the transcriptional levels of cmeA, cmeB, and cmeC genes, whose protein product (CmeABC) is an important determinant conferring multidrug resistance in Campylobacter. Negative regulation of cmeABC by CosR was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and PcmeABC::lacZ assay. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated that CosR directly binds to the cmeABC promoter. Another notable finding is that CosR regulates the transcription of katA, the sole catalase gene in C. jejuni. Further characterization with qRT-PCR, the catalase enzyme assay, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assays successfully demonstrated that CosR affects the katA transcription and the catalase activity by direct interactions with the katA promoter. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that CosR regulates resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni by controlling the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense and extrusion of toxic compounds out of the cell. PMID:23065977

Hwang, Sunyoung; Zhang, Qijing; Ryu, Sangryeol

2012-01-01

208

Modeling Particle Acceleration and Turbulence Generation in CME-driven Shocks in the Solar Corona and Interplanetary Medium (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are associated with fast, wide CMEs driving shock waves through the corona. The process of diffusive shock acceleration is the most plausible acceleration mechanism responsible for these events. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation model to compute the coupled transport of particles and generation of Alfvénic fluctuation through streaming instabilities in the foreshock region ahead of a CME-driven shock. The model self-consistently computes the fluxes of energetic ions accelerated by the shock front, starting from the ambient ion population that can be modeled as a kappa distribution with spectral indices ranging between 2 and 15. The simulation model computes the density and magnetic field compression ratios from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and employs an empirical cross-shock potential in order to model the interaction of the low-energy ions with the shock adequately. We present results of a parameter study simulating a large number of shocks with different speeds and angles of obliquity at different distances from the Sun. A semi-analytical model of the resulting shock-accelerated particle distribution and foreshock transport conditions is generated, based on the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, which captures the simulation results well with a single free parameter fixing the injection efficiency of the shock. The semi-analytical model allows the self-consistent results to be used in analytical modeling of shock acceleration in CME-driven shocks.

Vainio, R. O.; Battarbee, M. C.; Pönni, A.; Laitinen, T. L.

2013-12-01

209

Analysis and interpretation of a fast limb CME with eruptive prominence, C-flare and EUV dimming  

E-print Network

Coronal Mass ejections or CMEs are large dynamical solar-corona events. The mass balance and kinematics of a fast limb CME, including its prominence progenitor and the associated flare, will be compared with computed magnetic structures to look for their origin and effect. Multi-wavelength ground-based and space-borne observations are used to study a fast W-limb CME event of December 2, 2003, taking into account both on and off disk observations. Its erupting prominence is measured at high cadence with the Pic du Midi full H-alpha line-flux imaging coronagraph. EUV images from space instruments are processed including difference imaging. SOHO/LASCO images are used to study the mass excess and motions. A fast bright expanding coronal loop is identified in the region recorded slightly later by GOES as a C7.2 flare, followed by a brightening and an acceleration phase of the erupting material with both cool and hot components. The total coronal radiative flux dropped by 5 percent in the EUV channels, revealing a ...

Koutchmy, Serge; Filippov, Boris; Noens, Jacques-Clair; Romeuf, David; Golub, Leon

2008-01-01

210

Iontophoretic delivery of apomorphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomorphine is a mixed dopamine D1\\/D2 receptor agonist which is potentially useful in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The delivery of apomorphine is however complicated because it is not absorbed orally and other delivery routes with the exception of the intravenous route seem to fail. The most interesting route for controlled delivery of apomorphine is transdermal iontophoresis because this could

H. E Junginger

2002-01-01

211

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was also explored. Positively charged CPPs were complexed with pDNA or siRNA, which resulted in 'loose' (˜1 micron) particles. These were then condensed into small nanoparticles by using calcium, which formed "soft" crosslinks by interacting with both phosphates on nucleic acids and amines on CPPs. An optimal amount of CaCl2 produced stable, ˜100 nm complexes that exhibited higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than PEI polyplexes. CPPs also displayed negligible cytotoxicity up to 5 mg/mL. Biophysical studies of the pDNA structure within complexes suggested that pDNA within CPP complexes (condensed with calcium) had similar structure, but enhanced thermal stability compared to PEI complexes. Thus, CPP complexes emerged as simple, attractive candidates for future studies on nonviral gene delivery in vivo.

Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

2011-12-01

212

Power delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a power delivery system for connecting a transmission to an output shaft of an engine, the transmission including a dog clutch for establishing a power transmission route by the engagement of the dog clutch, the power delivery system comprising; a clutch for disconnecting the engagement between an output member of the fluid coupling and the output shaft

S. Moroto; S. Sakakibara

1987-01-01

213

Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

214

conventional delivery? (ie  

E-print Network

Is this a new programme proposal? Is the programme for conventional delivery? (ie not blended? (subject and SCQF level) Where is the programme being delivered? Is the programme for conventional delivery, it is a modification Does modification involve changes to/additions of: Modes of Study Locations of Study Language

Painter, Kevin

215

An Ensemble Study of a January 2010 Coronal Mass Ejection (CME): Connecting a Non-obvious Solar Source with Its ICME/Magnetic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinct magnetic cloud (MC) was observed in-situ at the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)-B on 20 - 21 January 2010. About three days earlier, on 17 January, a bright flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) were clearly observed by STEREO-B, which suggests that this was the progenitor of the MC. However, the in-situ speed of the event, several earlier weaker events, heliospheric imaging, and a longitude mismatch with the STEREO-B spacecraft made this interpretation unlikely. We searched for other possible solar eruptions that could have caused the MC and found a faint filament eruption and the associated CME on 14 - 15 January as the likely solar source event. We were able to confirm this source by using coronal imaging from the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)/EUVI and COR and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) telescopes and heliospheric imaging from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and the STEREO/ Heliospheric Imager instruments. We use several empirical models to understand the three-dimensional geometry and propagation of the CME, analyze the in-situ characteristics of the associated ICME, and investigate the characteristics of the MC by comparing four independent flux-rope model fits with the launch observations and magnetic-field orientations. The geometry and orientations of the CME from the heliospheric-density reconstructions and the in-situ modeling are remarkably consistent. Lastly, this event demonstrates that a careful analysis of all aspects of the development and evolution of a CME is necessary to correctly identify the solar counterpart of an ICME/MC.

Webb, D. F.; Bisi, M. M.; de Koning, C. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Jian, L. K.; Lugaz, N.; Marubashi, K.; Möstl, C.; Romashets, E. P.; Wood, B. E.; Yu, H.-S.

2014-11-01

216

Responsibility of a Filament Eruption for the Initiation of a Flare, CME, and Blast Wave, and its Possible Transformation into a Bow Shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-instrument observations of two filament eruptions on 24 February and 11 May 2011 suggest the following updated scenario for eruptive flare, coronal mass ejection (CME), and shock wave evolution. An initial destabilization of a filament results in stretching out of the magnetic threads belonging to its body that are rooted in the photosphere along the inversion line. Their reconnection leads to i) heating of parts of the filament or its environment, ii) an initial development of the flare cusp, arcade, and ribbons, iii) an increasing similarity of the filament to a curved flux rope, and iv) to its acceleration. Then the pre-eruption arcade enveloping the filament becomes involved in reconnection according to the standard model and continues to form the flare arcade and ribbons. The poloidal magnetic flux in the curved rope developing from the filament progressively increases and forces its toroidal expansion. This flux rope impulsively expands and produces a magnetohydrodynamical disturbance, which rapidly steepens into a shock. The shock passes through the arcade that expands above the filament and then freely propagates for some time ahead of the CME like a decelerating blast wave. If the CME is slow, then the shock eventually decays. Otherwise, the frontal part of the shock changes into the bow-shock regime. This was observed for the first time in the 24 February 2011 event. When reconnection ceases, the flux rope relaxes and constitutes the CME core-cavity system. The expanding arcade develops into the CME frontal structure. We also found that reconnection in the current sheet of a remote streamer forced by the shock passage results in a running flare-like process within the streamer responsible for a type II burst. The development of dimming and various associated phenomena are discussed.

Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Chertok, I. M.; Kalashnikov, S. S.

2015-01-01

217

Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks  

MedlinePLUS

... born through incisions made in the abdomen and uterus ). What is an “elective” delivery? An elective delivery ... which the uterus tears during labor or delivery. Uterus: A muscular organ located in the female pelvis ...

218

Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

219

Secure Multicast Software Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, purchased software is delivered via sending CD-ROMs or downloading from the Internet. These solutions are either time-consuming or not scalable when the number of end-users becomes large. In this paper, we explore the use of multicast technology as an option for software delivery. We present a global structure for multicast software delivery and look into security issues, mainly focusing

Lin Han; Nahid Shahmehri

2000-01-01

220

Service Delivery Strategies for Multicultural  

E-print Network

Service Delivery Strategies for Multicultural Environments #12;Identifying Service Delivery: Service delivery has become an increasingly important part of managing public lands for recreation of more than one service delivery strategy. Two questions were examined: (1) Are there differences in site

Standiford, Richard B.

221

Nanodisks: hydrophobic drug delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

Members of the class of exchangeable apolipoproteins possess the unique capacity to transform phospholipid vesicle substrates into nanoscale disk-shaped bilayers. This reaction can proceed in the presence of exogenous hydrophobic biomolecules, resulting in the formation of novel transport vehicles termed nanodisks (NDs). The objective of this study is to describe the structural organization of NDs and evaluate the utility of these complexes as hydrophobic biomolecule transport vehicles. The topics presented focus on two distinct water insoluble drugs, amphotericin B (AMB) and all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that AMB-ND display potent anti-fungal and anti-protozoal activity, while ATRA-ND show promise in the treatment of cancer. The versatility conferred by the presence of a polypeptide component provides opportunities for targeted delivery of ND to cells. PMID:18318655

Ryan, Robert O

2008-03-01

222

Origin Development, and Effects of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): Report from the 2nd International CME Workshop at Elmau Castle, Germany, in February 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second of three international workshops on Origin, Development, and Effects of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) was held at Elmau castle with about 50 participants. The aim of the workshop is to interpret the observations from CMEs involving scientists from all different disciplines affected. This includes experimenters, ground observers, modellers, and theorists, remote sensing and in-situ observations, and the environments of the solar photosphere, chromosphere, coronal and the interplanetary space out to the outer heliosphere. The work is done mostly within two sets of 4 working groups meeting in parallel and concentrating on specific asp ects of CMEs. To stimulate interdisciplinary cross-fertilisation esp ecially in the second set of working groups participants from different areas using various to ols coop erate. The working groups are: Set I: A: Coronal observations, B: Solar wind and magnetic field measurements, C: Energetic particle observations, D: CME theory and models. Set I I: E: The pre-CME Sun, F: CME-related coronal phenomena, G: Inner heliosphere, H: Outer heliosphere & high latitudes. Preliminary results from the working groups are presented.

Kunow, Horst W.

2003-07-01

223

Source region of the 2003 November 18 CME that led to the strongest magnetic storm of cycle 23  

E-print Network

The super-storm of November 20, 2003 was associated with a high speed coronal mass ejection which originated in the NOAA AR 10501 on November 18. This coronal mass ejection had severe terrestrial consequences leading to a geomagnetic storm with DST index of -472 nT, the strongest of the current solar cycle. In this paper, we attempt to understand the factors that led to the coronal mass ejection on November 18. We have also studied the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field of NOAA AR 10501, the source region of this coronal mass ejection. For this purpose, the MDI line-of-sight magnetograms and vector magnetograms from Solar Flare Telescope, Mitaka, obtained during November, 17-19, 2003 were analysed. In particular, quantitative estimates of the temporal variation in magnetic flux, energy and magnetic field gradient were estimated for the source active region. The evolution of these quantities was studied for the 3-day period with an objective to understand the pre-flare configuration leading up to the moderate flare which was associated with the geo-effective coronal mass ejection. We also examined the chromospheric images recorded in H-alpha from Udaipur Solar Observatory to compare the flare location with regions of different magnetic field and energy. Our observations provide evidence that the flare associated with the CME occurred at a location marked by high magnetic field gradient which led to release of free energy stored in the active region.

N. Srivastava; S. Mathew; R. Louis; T. Wiegelmann

2008-12-30

224

Formation of Opposite-Sign Magnetic Helicity by an Erupting Filament in a Coronal Mass Ejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unclear whether it is possible for magnetic helical fields of opposite signs to co-exist in a coronal mass ejection (CME). During filament eruption with high-cadence observations for the initial stage, evidence is found for the formation of right-handed helical fields in a rising dextral filament that is embedded in a CME with helical fields in a left-handed sense. The data include Mees multi-off-band H? observations with 16s cadence and TRACE 1600Å observations of 2s cadence. The filament material is ejected outward and is associated with the expanding CME, suggesting that both of the opposite-sign helical fields are injected into interplanetary space. In this paper, we consider the key observational features, including the formation of a coil-like structure (due to barb reconnections) and the alignment of reconnected field lines with the primary axis of the filament. It is found that they are consistent with the predicted changes during filament eruption by the filament model of Martin and McAllister. However, our results do not reject the filament model of Rust and Kumar. Moreover, a model that reconciles both of them seems to be more convenient for understanding the complicated observations. Therefore, the formation of opposite-sign helicity in an eruptive flux rope should be common for such types of filament eruptions.

Liu, Yu; Kurokawa, Hiroki

2004-06-01

225

Delivery of epidrugs.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of epigenetic targets have entered clinical trials with some success, in particular for combined therapies. Like many other chemotherapeutics these new classes of molecules have dose-limiting toxicities and highly active metabolism in vivo resulting in lower efficacy than expected. This review presents drug delivery strategies proposed to prolong epigenetic inhibitor effects while reducing toxicities and metabolic clearance. Inspired from the work done in cancer-targeted strategies, prodrugs and nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are discussed in a comprehensive way, detailing the chemical and physiological principles of the selected releasing method and, when available, how epigenetic chemistry can be exploited. PMID:24680930

el Bahhaj, Fatima; Dekker, Frank J; Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe

2014-09-01

226

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

227

Preliminary analysis of a CME observed by SOHO and Ulysses Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last week of November 2002 SOHO/LASCO observed several Coronal Mass Ejections, most of which occurring in the NW quadrant. At that time SOHO/UVCS was involved in a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature campaign, making observations off the west limb of the Sun, at a northern latitude of 27 deg. Here we focus on data taken at 1.7 solar radii, over a time interval of approx. 7 hours, on 26/27 November 2002, when a large streamer disruption was imaged by LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. UVCS spectra revealed the presence of lines from both high and low ionization ions, such as C III, O VI, Si VIII, IX, and XII, Fe X and XVIII, which brighten at different times, with a different time scale and at different positions and are apparently related to different phenomena. In particular, the intensity increase and fast disappearance of the C III 977 Angstrom line represents the passage through the UVCS slit of cold material released in a jet imaged by EIT in the He II 304 Angstrom line. The persistent presence of the Fe XVIII 974 Angstrom line is not easily related to any special feature crossing the UVCS slit. We suggest to interpret this behavior in terms of the reconnection events which lead to the formation of loops observed in the EIT He II 304 Angstrom line.

Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Suess, S. T.

2003-01-01

228

The PulmoSphere™ platform for pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

Spray-dried PulmoSphere™ formulations comprise phospholipid-based small, porous particles. Drug(s) may be incorporated in or with PulmoSphere formulations in three formats: solution-, suspension-, and carrier-based systems. The multiple formats may be administered to the respiratory tract with multiple delivery systems, including portable inhalers (pressurized, metered-dose inhaler and dry-powder inhaler), nebulizers, and via liquid dose instillation in conjunction with partial liquid ventilation. The PulmoSphere platform (particles, formats, delivery systems) enables pulmonary delivery of a broad range of drugs independent of their physicochemical properties and lung dose. The engineered particles provide significant improvements in lung targeting and dose consistency, relative to current marketed inhalers. PMID:24592954

Weers, Jeffry; Tarara, Thomas

2014-03-01

229

Educational Telecommunications Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph is a single volume reference manual providing an overall review of the current status and likely near future application of six major educational telecommunications delivery technologies. The introduction provides an overview to the usage and potential for these systems in the context of the major educational issues involved. Each…

Curtis, John A., Ed.; Biedenbach, Joseph M., Ed.

230

Iontophoretic drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and architecture of the stratum corneum render it a formidable barrier to the topical and transdermal administration of therapeutic agents. The physicochemical constraints severely limit the number of molecules that can be considered as realistic candidates for transdermal delivery. Iontophoresis provides a mechanism to enhance the penetration of hydrophilic and charged molecules across the skin. The principal distinguishing

Yogeshvar N. Kalia; Aarti Naik; James Garrison; Richard H. Guy

2004-01-01

231

Document Delivery Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents highlights of research that used industrywide surveys, focus groups, personal interviews, and industry-published data to explore the future of electronic information delivery in libraries. Topics discussed include CD-ROMs; prices; full-text products; magnetic tape leasing; engineering and technical literature; connections between online…

Nelson, Nancy Melin

1992-01-01

232

Microprocessor controlled transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery via iontophoresis is reviewed with special focus on the delivery of lidocaine for local anesthesia and fentanyl for patient controlled acute therapy such as postoperative pain. The role of the microprocessor controller in achieving dosimetry, alternating/reverse polarity, pre-programmed, and sensor-based delivery is highlighted. Unique features such as the use of tactile signaling, telemetry control, and pulsatile waveforms in iontophoretic drug delivery are described briefly. PMID:16713690

Subramony, J Anand; Sharma, Ashutosh; Phipps, J B

2006-07-01

233

STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 2009/109/109/109/10 Annual Delivery Report  

E-print Network

STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 2009/109/109/109/10 0 Annual Delivery Report 2009/10 August 2010 #12;STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 200STFC Annual Delivery

234

EUTOX CME course: Progression in CKD and management of the risk factors in dialysis patients (Meeting Report).  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). On September 8, 1991, Macedonian citizens voted unanimously to have an independent state and to separate from Yugoslavia. This year, on September 8, we celebrated 20 years of independent Republic of Macedonia. The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (MSNDTAO) and the EUTOX group as an endorsed group at the European Renal Association on October 22, 2011 organized a one-day scientific meeting (as a continuous medical education - CME course) on the topic of Progression in CKD and Management of the Risk Factors in Dialysis Patients. The meeting was held in the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The speakers at the meeting and the titles of their presentations were: Momir Polenakovic, Member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honorary President of MSNDTAO: Nephrology in the 20 years of the independent Republic of Macedonia, Harald MISCHAK, Professor at the University of Glasgow, proteomics research within the British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of mosaiques diagnostics and therapeutics AG, Professor in the Department of Nephrology at the Medical School of Hannover, Germany: Do we have markers on CKD progression and possibilities on mass screening? Goce SPASOVSKI, Professor, Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, R. Macedonia, President of the MSNDTAO, Chairmen of the ERA-EDTA CME Committee: Ca and P in the progression of CKD, Raymond VANHOLDER, Professor of Medicine at the University of Ghent, Belgium, Head of the Nephrology Division of the Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, Past President of ESAO, President of ERA-EDTA: Can we prevent CKD progression by various adsorbing methods? Andrzej WIECEK, Professor, Silesian Medical Academy, Director, Department of Nephrology, Katowice, Poland: Anaemia as a cause of CKD progression, Alessandra PERNA, Professor, Second University of Naples, First Division of Nephrology - Faculty of Medicine, Naples, Italy: The role of low protein diet in the progression of CKD, Philippe BRUNET, Professor, University Aix - Marseille and INSERM 608 Nephrology - Hospital Conception, Marseille, France: Vascular dysfunction in dialysis patients, Angel ARGILÉS, Professor, Research Director of CNRS RD - Nephrology, Montpellier, France: Vascular calcification as a risk factor in dialysis patients, Ziad A. MASSY, Professor, MD, PhD, Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Nephrology INSERM ERI-12, University of Picardie and Amiens University Hospital Avenue Rene Laennec, France: Vascular calcification management in CKD patients, Juan Mariano RODRIGUEZ-PORTILLO, Professor, University Hospital Reina Sofia, Research Unit, Cordoba, Spain: FGF23 and Klotho. 70 participants from the Republic of Macedonia and neighbouring countries attended the meeting. The lectures were interesting and were followed by lively discussion among the participants. At the end it was concluded that chronic kidney diseases and chronic kidney insufficiency are problems in the whole world as well as in the Republic of Macedonia; early diagnosis and prevention of kidney diseases are necessary, as well as a stimulation of scientific research in nephrology. PMID:22286636

Polenakovic, M; Spasovski, G

2011-12-01

235

to cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy  

E-print Network

Welcome to cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy 572507 q 3/12 Offered by: Connecticut General Life Insurance Company or Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company. #12;At Cigna Home Delivery PharmacySM we have at Cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy, I am honored to be part of a team that provides our customers

Nelson, Tim

236

Cyclodextrins in nasal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal drug delivery is an attractive approach for the systemic delivery of high potency drugs with a low oral bioavailability due to extensive gastrointestinal breakdown and high hepatic first-pass effect. For lipophilic drugs nasal delivery is possible if they can be dissolved in the dosage form. Peptide and protein drugs often have a low nasal bioavailability because of their large

F. W. H. M Merkus; J. C Verhoef; E Marttin; S. G Romeijn; P. H. M van der Kuy; W. A. J. J Hermens; N. G. M Schipper

1999-01-01

237

Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

Wu, S. T.

2001-01-01

238

Speed Evolution of Fast CME/Shocks with SOHO/LASCO, Wind/WAVES, IPS and in-situ WIND data: Analysis of Kilometric Type-II Emissions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast CME/shocks propagating in the interplanetary medium can generate kilometric Type II (km-TII) radio emissions at the local plasma frequency and/or its harmonic, so these radio emissions provide a means of remotely tracking CME/shocks. We apply a new analysis technique, using the frequency drift of km-TII spectrum obtained by the Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR) of the WIND/WAVES experiment, to infer, at some adequate intervals, the propagation speed of six CME/shocks. We combine these results with previously reported speeds from coronagraph white light and interplanetary scintillation observations, and in-situ measurements, to study the temporal speed evolution of the six events. The shock speed values obtained by the km-TII analysis are in a reasonable agreement with the speed measurements inferred by other techniques at different heliocentric distance ranges. The combination of all the speed measurements show a gradual deceleration of the CME/shocks as they propagate to 1 AU. This new technique can be useful in studying the evolution of fast CME/shocks when adequate intervals of km-TII emissions are available.

Gonzalez-Esparza, A.

2009-12-01

239

Chemistry of the azine phosphine ligand Z,E-PPh 2CH 2C(Bu t)=N-N=CMe(C 6H 4NO 2-4): crystal structure of [Mo(CO) 4{PPh 2CH 2C(Bu t)=N-N=CMe(C 6H 4NO 2-4)}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensation of Z-PPh2CH2C(But)=NNH2 with 4-nitroacetophenone gave the azine phosphine Z,E-PPh2CH2C(But)=N-N=CMe(C6H4NO2-4) (I). The corresponding phsophine oxide II was prepared by treatment of I with H2O2. The phosphine I with [Mo(CO)4(nbd)] (nbd=norbornadiene) gave [Mo(CO)4{PPh2CH2C(But)=N-N=CMe(C6H4NO2-4)}] (1a); the corresponding tungsten 1b and chromium 1c complexes were made similarly. The crystal structure of 1a was determined by X-ray diffraction and showed the presence of a

Bernard L. Shaw; Sarath D. Perera; David J. Shenton; Mark Thornton-Pett

1998-01-01

240

Comparison of interplanetary CME arrival times and solar wind parameters based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a comparison between coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated shock propagations based on the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations. For this we use 28 full-halo CMEs, whose cone parameters are determined and their corresponding interplanetary shocks were observed at the Earth, from 2001 to 2002. We consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice cream cone model, and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error of the CME-associated shock travel times for the WSA-ENLIL model using the ice-cream cone model is 9.9 h, which is about 1 h smaller than those of the other models. We compare the peak values and profiles of solar wind parameters (speed and density) with in situ observations. We find that the root-mean-square errors of solar wind peak speed and density for the ice cream and asymmetric cone model are about 190 km/s and 24/cm3, respectively. We estimate the cross correlations between the models and observations within the time lag of ± 2 days from the shock travel time. The correlation coefficients between the solar wind speeds from the WSA-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations are approximately 0.7, which is larger than those of solar wind density (cc ˜0.6). Our preliminary investigations show that the ice cream cone model seems to be better than the other cone models in terms of the input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model.

Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Na, Hyeonock

2014-09-01

241

A Comparison of Ground Level Event e/p and Fe/O Ratios with Associated Solar Flare and CME Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energetic particle (SEP) events reaching rigidities >1 GV are observed at 1 AU as ground-level events (GLEs). They are considered to be extreme cases of gradual SEP events, produced by shocks driven by wide and fast CMEs that are usually associated with long-duration (>1 hour) soft X-ray (SXR) flares. However, some large gradual SEP events, including GLEs, are associated with flares of short-duration (<1 hour) timescales comparable to those of flares seen with impulsive, low-energy SEP events with enhanced charge states, heavy-element abundances, and e/p ratios. The association of some GLEs with short-duration SXR events challenges us to understand the GLE event-to-event variation with SXR durations and whether it truly reflects the nature of the particle acceleration processes or simply the characteristics of the solar regions from which large, fast CMEs arise. We examine statistically the associated flare, active region (AR), and CME characteristics of ˜40 GLEs observed since 1976 to determine how the GLE e/p and Fe/O ratios, each measured in two energy ranges, depend on those characteristics. The abundance ratios trend weakly to lower, more coronal, and less scattered values with increasing flare timescales, thermal and nonthermal peak fluxes, and measures of source AR sizes. These results and the wide range of solar longitude connections for GLEs with high abundance ratios argue against a significant role for flare effects in the GLEs. We suggest that GLE SEPs are accelerated predominately in CME-driven shocks and that a coupling of flare size and timescales with CME properties could explain the SEP abundance correlations with flare properties.

Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Tylka, A. J.; Dietrich, W. F.

2012-10-01

242

Delivery systems for brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is described as the short distance treatment of cancer with a radioactive isotope placed on, in, or near the lesions or tumor to be treated. The main advantage of brachytherapy compared with external beam radiation (EBR) is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest, thus normal tissue irradiation is reduced. The precise and targeted nature of brachytherapy provides a number of key benefits for the effective treatment of cancer such as efficacy, minimized risk of side effects, short treatment times, and cost-effectiveness. Brachytherapy devices have yielded promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, brachytherapy can only be used in localized and relatively small tumors. Although the introduction of new delivery devices allows the treatment of more complex tumor sites, with wider range of dose rate for improving treatment efficacy and reduction of side effects, a better understanding about the safety, efficacy, and accuracy of these systems is required, and further development of new techniques is warranted. Therefore, this review focuses on the delivery devices for brachytherapy and their application in prostate, breast, brain, and other tumor sites. PMID:25008970

de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

2014-10-28

243

Pressure-driven high-to-low spin transition in the bimetallic quantum magnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron-based infrared and Raman spectroscopies were brought together with diamond anvil cell techniques and an analysis of the magnetic properties to investigate the pressure-induced high ? low spin transition in [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. The extended nature of the diruthenium wave function combined with coupling to chromium-related local lattice distortions changes the relative energies of the ?* and ?* orbitals and drives the high ? low spin transition on the mixed-valence diruthenium complex. This is a rare example of an externally controlled metamagnetic transition in which both spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions contribute to the mechanism.

O'Neal, K. R.; Liu, Z.; Miller, Joel S.; Fishman, R. S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

2014-09-01

244

Pressure-driven high to low spin transition in the bimetallic quantum magnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron-based infrared and Raman spectroscopies were brought together with diamond anvil cell techniques and an analysis of the magnetic properties to investigate the pressure-induced high low spin transition in [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. The extended nature of the diruthenium wavefunction combined with coupling to chromium-related local lattice distortions changes the relative energies of the and orbitals and drives the high low spin transition on the mixed-valence diruthenium complex. This is a rare example of an externally controlled metamagnetic transition in which both spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions contribute to the mechanism.

O'Neal, K. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Z. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Musfeldt, J. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2014-01-01

245

Anatomy of a CME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about graph interpretation. Learners will compare, interpret, and discuss four graphs of the speed, temperature, magnetic field strength, and density of a coronal mass ejection as it swept past Earth in 1997. This is the third activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring the Wind from the Sun educator guide.

2012-08-03

246

DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941

Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

2009-01-01

247

Radiotherapy delivery during motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the 3D dosimetric consequences of radiotherapy delivery during two kinds of motion, (i) the respiratory motion by the patient and (ii) the motion by the gantry while rotating around the patient. Respiratory motion primarily compromises treatments in the thorax and abdomen regions. Several strategies to reduce respiratory motion effects have been developed or are under development. The organ motion could for instance be measured and incorporated in the treatment planning, or adapted to by using respiratory gating and tumour-tracking delivery techniques. Gantry motion is involved in various forms of intensity-modulated arc-therapy techniques. The purpose is to increase the modulation by simultaneously varying the MLC positions, the rotation speed of the gantry, and the dose rate during the treatment. The advantage of these techniques is the increased possibility to deliver a high absorbed dose to the target volume while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. However, the dosimetric uncertainties associated with motion, small fields and steep dose gradients, has to be evaluated in detail, and this requires adequate true 3D dose-verification tools.

Ceberg, Sofie; Bäck, Sven Å. J.

2010-11-01

248

Power delivery system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power delivery system for connecting a transmission to an output shaft of an engine, the transmission including a dog clutch for establishing a power transmission route by the engagement of the dog clutch, the power delivery system comprising; a clutch for disconnecting the engagement between an output member of the fluid coupling and the output shaft when the dog clutch is operated in order to switch between an on-state and an off-state. The clutch includes a clutch plate case in the form of a hollow cylinder which is connected to the turbine shell. A clutch disk wheel connected to the output shaft. A first set of clutch plates supports the clutch plate case, and a second set of clutch plates supports the clutch disk wheel. The first and second sets of clutch plates are positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the fluid coupling; the clutch is engaged when the first and second sets of clutch plates are selectively pressed; an oil pump for supplying oil into the fluid coupling case; and the oil pump positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the clutch.

Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

1987-06-16

249

H2A Delivery H2A Hydrogen Delivery  

E-print Network

, contingency ­ Options to use H2A, Peters and Timmerhaus or other data · O&M Costs ­ Labor, feedstock costs ­ All component capital costs ­ Options to use H2A data, or user-entered data #12;H2A Delivery Component to determine a "generic" hydrogen cost for a particular component · Each storage and delivery component has

250

DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR A FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTION DRIVEN BY THE PRIOR FORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT DESTABILIZATION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic flux ropes play a central role in the physics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although a flux-rope topology is inferred for the majority of coronagraphic observations of CMEs, a heated debate rages on whether the flux ropes pre-exist or whether they are formed on-the-fly during the eruption. Here, we present a detailed analysis of extreme-ultraviolet observations of the formation of a flux rope during a confined flare followed about 7 hr later by the ejection of the flux rope and an eruptive flare. The two flares occurred during 2012 July 18 and 19. The second event unleashed a fast (>1000 km s{sup -1}) CME. We present the first direct evidence of a fast CME driven by the prior formation and destabilization of a coronal magnetic flux rope formed during the confined flare on July 18.

Patsourakos, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece)] [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)] [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Stenborg, G. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

2013-02-20

251

PECTIN BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two drug delivery systems have been developed from pectin recently in our laboratory. (I) Pectin gel formulations for controlled fragrance release and (II) pectin/zein hydrogels for oral drug delivery. By altering the molecular characteristics or modifying the pectin hydrogel networks, the release ...

252

Microneedles for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a

Mark R Prausnitz

2004-01-01

253

18 CFR 157.211 - Delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...end-user, the location of the delivery point, and the...showing the location of the proposed...through the proposed delivery tap upon the certificate... (2) The location and maximum quantities...delivered at such delivery point;...

2013-04-01

254

18 CFR 157.211 - Delivery points.  

...end-user, the location of the delivery point, and the...showing the location of the proposed...through the proposed delivery tap upon the certificate... (2) The location and maximum quantities...delivered at such delivery point;...

2014-04-01

255

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good delivery. 46.44 Section 46.44 Agriculture...PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed to between the...

2011-01-01

256

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good delivery. 46.44 Section 46.44 Agriculture...PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed to between the...

2010-01-01

257

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs...Government Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to or for...

2014-04-01

258

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs...Government Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to or for...

2013-04-01

259

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good delivery. 46.44 Section 46.44 Agriculture...PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed to between the...

2014-01-01

260

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs...Government Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to or for...

2010-04-01

261

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs...Government Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to or for...

2011-04-01

262

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good delivery. 46.44 Section 46.44 Agriculture...PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed to between the...

2012-01-01

263

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good delivery. 46.44 Section 46.44 Agriculture...PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed to between the...

2013-01-01

264

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs...Government Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to or for...

2012-04-01

265

Secondary fuel delivery system  

DOEpatents

A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

2010-02-23

266

Economical ground data delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data delivery in the Deep Space Network (DSN) involves transmission of a small amount of constant, high-priority traffic and a large amount of bursty, low priority data. The bursty traffic may be initially buffered and then metered back slowly as bandwidth becomes available. Today both types of data are transmitted over dedicated leased circuits. The authors investigated the potential of saving money by designing a hybrid communications architecture that uses leased circuits for high-priority network communications and dial-up circuits for low-priority traffic. Such an architecture may significantly reduce costs and provide an emergency backup. The architecture presented here may also be applied to any ground station-to-customer network within the range of a common carrier. The authors compare estimated costs for various scenarios and suggest security safeguards that should be considered.

Markley, Richard W.; Byrne, Russell H.; Bromberg, Daniel E.

1994-01-01

267

This CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well-being of urban residents. We will discuss latest practices, policies, and research on the social determinants of urban mental health at community,  

E-print Network

This CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well of urban mental health at community, regional, national, and international levels. Intended for mental presents The Social Determinants of URBAN MENTAL HEALTH: Paving the Way Forward This conference is jointly

Illinois at Chicago, University of

268

1311 S. College Avenue 4040 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

1311 S. College Avenue 4040 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523- 4040 Communications: _____________________________ Account/IMO: ___ _________________________ #12;1311 S. College Avenue 4040 Campus Delivery Fort Collins

269

Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

2011-01-01

270

Hydrogels for Lentiviral Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gene delivery from hydrogel biomaterials provides a fundamental tool for a variety of clinical applications including regenerative medicine, gene therapy for inherited disorders and drug delivery. The high water content and mild gelation conditions of hydrogels support their use for gene delivery by preserving activity of lentiviral vectors and acting to shield vectors from any host immune response. Areas Covered Strategies to control lentiviral entrapment within and retention/release from hydrogels are reviewed. We discuss the ability of hydrogel design parameters to control the transgene expression profile and the capacity of hydrogels to protect vectors from (and even modulate) the host immune response. Expert Opinion Delivery of genetic vectors from scaffolds provides a unique opportunity to capitalize on the potential synergy between the biomaterial design for cell processes and gene delivery. Hydrogel properties can be tuned to directly control the events that determine the tissue response to controlled gene delivery, which include the extent of cell infiltration, preservation of vector activity and vector retention. While some design parameters have been identified, numerous opportunities for investigation are available in order to develop a complete model relating the biomaterial properties and host response to gene delivery. PMID:23347508

Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Gower, R. Michael; Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2013-01-01

271

Local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] probed with implanted muons  

SciTech Connect

We present a muon-spin relaxation study of local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. We observe magnetic order with TN = 33 K, although above 25 K the sublattice spins become less rigid and a degree of static magnetic disorder is observed. The comparison of measurements in applied magnetic field with simulations allows us to understand the origin of the muon response across the metamagnetic transition and to map out the phase diagram of the material. Applied hydrostatic pressures of up to 6 kbar lead to an increase in the local magnetic field along with a complex change in the internal magnetic field distribution.

Lancaster, T. [University of Oxford; Pratt, F. L. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Blundell, S. J. [University of Oxford; Steele, Andrew J. [University of Oxford; Baker, Peter J. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Wright, Jack D. [University of Oxford; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

2011-01-01

272

Local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] probed with implanted muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a muon-spin relaxation study of local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. We observe magnetic order with TN=33 K, although above 25 K the sublattice spins become less rigid and a degree of static magnetic disorder is observed. The comparison of measurements in applied magnetic field with simulations allows us to understand the origin of the muon response across the metamagnetic transition and to map out the phase diagram of the material. Applied hydrostatic pressures of up to 6 kbar lead to an increase in the local magnetic field along with a complex change in the internal magnetic-field distribution.

Lancaster, Tom; Pratt, Francis L.; Blundell, Stephen J.; Steele, Andrew J.; Baker, Peter J.; Wright, Jack D.; Watanabe, Isao; Fishman, Randy S.; Miller, Joel S.

2011-09-01

273

Space age health care delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

Jones, W. L.

1977-01-01

274

Pulsatile Drug Delivery System Based on Electrohydrodynamic Method  

E-print Network

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsatile drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2\\times2\\times3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between two electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method experimentally as well as theoretically.

Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Gao, Wenle

2012-01-01

275

Controlled Release of Simvastatin from Biomimetic ?-TCP Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin. PMID:23349949

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-01-01

276

Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic ?-TCP drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin. PMID:23349949

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-01-01

277

DEtonation gas delivery unit  

SciTech Connect

The detonation gas for gas-detonatable blasting charges used in surface mining and the like is supplied by a portable self-contained delivery unit connected to the blasting charges by a network of small flexible tubing, which unit blends pressurized fuel and oxidizing gases from separate supply sources in predetermined proportions and regulates the separate flows of such gases in response to the backpressure imposed by the tubing network to maintain such proportions in the gas blend delivered to the tubing network. The separate gas flows are controlled by servo-actuated flow control valves actuated by a control gas pressure which is applied or released in response to such backpressure. Preferably, the control gas pressure is regulated by a pair of pilot valves, one normally open and the other normally closed, connected in parallel between the servo actuators of such flow control valves and the control gas source and the atmosphere, respectively, the state of the pilot valves being reversed in response to the occurrence of a backpressure exceeding a predetermined maximum to disconnect the control gas from and release the existing gas pressure on the flow control valve servo actuators. A preferred safety feature assures complete filling of the tubing network before the gas therein can be ignited to initiate detonation of the explosive charges.

Emmett, G. C.

1984-12-04

278

Best antibiotics for buccal delivery  

E-print Network

The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

2011-01-01

279

Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump  

DOEpatents

A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

2001-01-01

280

Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery  

PubMed Central

For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli. PMID:21114841

2010-01-01

281

Drug delivery to the ear.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions. PMID:23323784

Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

2013-01-01

282

Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks  

MedlinePLUS

... including infection, hemorrhage, and problems related to the anesthesia used. An elective cesarean delivery may pose additional ... provider to get other suggestions and advice. Glossary Anesthesia: Relief of pain by loss of sensation. Bilirubin: ...

283

Ultrasound in Labor and Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound may play an important role in the management of labor and delivery. Induction of labor is a common obstetric intervention, performed in about 20% of pregnancies. Pre-induction cervical length, measured by transvaginal sonography, has been shown to have a significant association with the induction-to-delivery interval and the risk for cesarean section. In the management of labor there is extensive

Francisca S. Molina; Kypros H. Nicolaides

2010-01-01

284

Electroporation-mediated gene delivery.  

PubMed

Electroporation has been used extensively to transfer DNA to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells in culture for the past 30 years. Over this time, numerous advances have been made, from using fields to facilitate cell fusion, delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to cells and tissues, and most importantly, gene and drug delivery in living tissues from rodents to man. Electroporation uses electrical fields to transiently destabilize the membrane allowing the entry of normally impermeable macromolecules into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, at the appropriate field strengths, the application of these fields to tissues results in little, if any, damage or trauma. Indeed, electroporation has even been used successfully in human trials for gene delivery for the treatment of tumors and for vaccine development. Electroporation can lead to between 100 and 1000-fold increases in gene delivery and expression and can also increase both the distribution of cells taking up and expressing the DNA as well as the absolute amount of gene product per cell (likely due to increased delivery of plasmids into each cell). Effective electroporation depends on electric field parameters, electrode design, the tissues and cells being targeted, and the plasmids that are being transferred themselves. Most importantly, there is no single combination of these variables that leads to greatest efficacy in every situation; optimization is required in every new setting. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery has proven highly effective in vaccine production, transgene expression, enzyme replacement, and control of a variety of cancers. Almost any tissue can be targeted with electroporation, including muscle, skin, heart, liver, lung, and vasculature. This chapter will provide an overview of the theory of electroporation for the delivery of DNA both in individual cells and in tissues and its application for in vivo gene delivery in a number of animal models. PMID:25620008

Young, Jennifer L; Dean, David A

2015-01-01

285

Development of insulin delivery systems.  

PubMed

Delivery system of insulin is vital for its acceptance and adherence to therapy for achieving the glycemic targets. Enormous developments have occurred in the delivery system of insulin during the last twenty years and each improvement was aimed at two common goals: patients convenience and better glycemic control. Till to date, the various insulin delivery systems are: syringes/vials, injection aids, jet injectors, transmucosal delivery, transdermal delivery, external insulin infusion pump, implantable insulin pumps, insulin pens and insulin inhalers. Syringe/vial is the oldest and conventional method, still widely used and relatively cheaper. Modern plastic syringes are disposable, light weight with microfine needle for patients convenience and comfort. Oral route could be the most acceptable and viable, if the barriers can be overcome and under extensive trial. Insulin pen device is an important milestone in the delivery system of insulin as it is convenient, discrete, painless, attractive, portable with flexible life style and improved quality of life. More than 80% of European diabetic patients are using insulin pen. Future digital pen will have better memory option, blood glucose monitoring system, insulin dose calculator etc. Insulin infusion pump is a good option for the children, busy patients with flexible lifestyle and those who want to avoid multiple daily injections. Pulmonary route of insulin delivery is a promising, effective, non-invasive and acceptable alternative method. Exubera, the world first insulin inhaler was approved by FDA in 28 January 2006. But due to certain limitations, it has been withdrawn from the market in October 2007. The main concern of inhaled insulin are: long term pulmonary safety issues, cost effectiveness and user friendly device. In future, more acceptable and cost effective insulin inhaler will be introduced. Newer avenues are under extensive trial for better future insulin delivery systems. PMID:18285745

Siddiqui, N I; Siddiqui, Ni; Rahman, S; Nessa, A

2008-01-01

286

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOEpatents

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01

287

Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:17471764

GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

2010-01-01

288

Matrices and Scaffolds for DNA Delivery in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Regenerative medicine aims to create functional tissue replacements, typically through creating a controlled environment that promotes and directs the differentiation of stem or progenitor cells, either endogenous or transplanted. Scaffolds serve a central role in many strategies by providing the means to control the local environment. Gene delivery from the scaffold represents a versatile approach to manipulating the local environment for directing cell function. Research at the interface of biomaterials, gene therapy, and drug delivery has identified several design parameters for the vector and the biomaterial scaffold that must be satisfied. Progress has been made towards achieving gene delivery within a tissue engineering scaffold, though the design principles for the materials and vectors that produce efficient delivery require further development. Nevertheless, these advances in obtaining transgene expression with the scaffold have created opportunities to develop greater control of either delivery or expression and to identify the best practices for promoting tissue formation. Strategies to achieve controlled localized expression within the tissue engineering scaffold will have broad application to the regeneration of many tissues, with great promise for clinical therapies. PMID:17512630

De Laporte, Laura; Shea, Lonnie D.

2007-01-01

289

Microporous bilayer osmotic tablet for colon-specific delivery.  

PubMed

Microporous bilayer osmotic tablet bearing dicyclomine hydrochloride and diclofenac potassium was developed using a new oral drug delivery system for colon targeting. The tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan-coating process. The developed microporous bilayer osmotic pump tablet (OPT) did not require laser drilling to form the drug delivery orifice. The colon-specific biodegradation of pectin could form in situ delivery pores for drug release. The effect of formulation variables like inclusion of osmogen, amount of HPMC and NaCMC in core, amount of pore former in semipermeable membrane was studied. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed formation of in situ delivery pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The number of pores was dependent on the amount of the pore former in the semipermeable membrane. In vitro dissolution results indicated that system showed acid-resistant, timed release and was able to deliver drug at an approximate zero order up to 24h. The developed tablets could be effectively used for colon-specific drug delivery to treat IBS. PMID:21255646

Chaudhary, Anil; Tiwari, Neha; Jain, Vikas; Singh, Ranjit

2011-05-01

290

UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI MAIL LOCATION DELIVERY POINT  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI MAIL LOCATION DELIVERY POINT REQUEST FORM Instructions: · Use a separate Location and Delivery Point that you wish to change or delete. If you are adding a new delivery point only enter your current Mail Location without a current delivery point: Current Mail Location/ Del. Pt

Papautsky, Ian

291

Type II Radio Emission from Shock Formation In The Low Corona on 13-Jun-2010: Combined Observations from the ARTEMIS-IV Radiospectrograph and SDO/AIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High cadence observations in the low corona from AIA imagers combined with radiospectrograph high-resolution recordings give a new perspective of shock formation in the low corona. Using ARTEMIS-IV observations of drifting type-II metric radio emission and ultra-high resolution observations from the AIA imagers we present direct observation of shock formation in the EUV and its association to the accompanying type-II during the 13-Jun-2010 Event. We will show that, in this case, the coronal expansion driven by the formation of the CME ejecta is responsible for both EUV and radio emissions.

Kouloumvakos, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Hillaris, A.; Caroubalos, C.; Moussas, X.; Tsitsipis, P.; Kontogeorgos, A.

2012-01-01

292

2 Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@ System's Case Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 #12;2 Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@ System's Case Delivery of Learning Design new challenges to learning delivery systems. To comply with this speci- fication, delivery platforms from the view- point of an open delivery system, Explor@-2. Explor@-2 is the re- sult of a research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

The Effectiveness of the Longest Delivery Time Rule for the Flow Shop Delivery Time Problem  

E-print Network

The Effectiveness of the Longest Delivery Time Rule for the Flow Shop Delivery Time Problem Philip DOI 10.1002/nav.10054 Abstract: In the flow shop delivery time problem, a set of jobs has as to minimize maximum delivery completion time over all the jobs, where the delivery completion time of a job

Kaminsky, Philip M.

294

STFC's Delivery Plan Scorecard 2011-2015 1 STFC's Delivery Plan Scorecard 2011-2015  

E-print Network

STFC's Delivery Plan Scorecard 2011-2015 1 STFC's Delivery Plan Scorecard 2011-2015 STFC's Delivery's strategic objectives. This Scorecard sets out how we will deliver the commitments outlined in our Delivery identifies high level, strategic delivery mechanisms that are not activity based, in accordance with BIS

Crowther, Paul

295

In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

2009-01-01

296

Transcutaneous immunization with Intercell's vaccine delivery system.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) has become an attractive alternate route of immunization due to increase understanding of the skin immune system and to recent technical innovations in skin patch delivery systems. Basic principles of TCI have been demonstrated in animal and human studies, covering a variety of bacterial, viral, and cancer diseases. At Intercell, we have advanced two major platforms of TCI: 1) a needle-free vaccine delivery patch (VDP) and 2) a vaccine enhancement patch (VEP). Simplified, the VDP contains an antigen with or without an adjuvant that is administered on the skin; while the VEP contains only the adjuvant and is used in combination with an injected vaccine. In many of our TCI studies, the VDP or VEP is routinely applied on pretreated skin, in which the stratum corneum has been partially removed by mild abrasion. Recently, we have achieved technical breakthroughs in formulating and stabilizing vaccines in a dry patch format. For instance, a microplate-based screening process has been implemented to rapidly identify excipients, singularly or in combination, to stabilize biological macromolecules in patch blend formulations. A second technical innovation is our nonwoven (patch) disc matrix-supported drying technology, which allows efficient drying of our patch formulation blend to produce dry stable dosage forms of VDP or VEP. The low cost and the facileness in the manufacturing of VDP (or VEP) combined with the development of thermostable dry patches should improve the supply chain efficiency and reduce the dependence on cold chain. PMID:22682290

Seid, Robert C; Look, Jee Loon; Ruiz, Christian; Frolov, Vladimir; Flyer, David; Schafer, Jason; Ellingsworth, Larry

2012-06-19

297

Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. Objective: The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. Methods: This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Conclusion: Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects. PMID:24892625

Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

2014-06-01

298

Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

299

Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery for efficient cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor penetration of anti-cancer drugs through tumor vasculature and cancer cell membrane as well as slow diffusion of the drugs in the interstitium limit efficacy of cancer chemo- and biotherapy. Recently we proposed to use ultrasound-induced cavitation (formation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles) to enhance anti-cancer drug delivery through these barriers. Cavitation can be selectively induced in tumors by using

I. V. Larina; B. M. Evers; C. Bartels; T. V. Ashitkov; K. V. Larin; R. O. Esenaliev

2002-01-01

300

Nucleic acid delivery: the missing pieces of the puzzle?  

PubMed Central

Conspectus The ability of gene or RNA interference (RNAi) delivery to increase or decrease virtually any protein in a cell opens the path for cures to most diseases that afflict humans. However, their high molecular weight, anionic nature, and instability in the presence of enzymes, pose major obstacles to nucleic acid delivery and frustrates their use as human therapies. This Account describes current ideas on the mechanisms in non-viral nucleic acid delivery and how lipidic and polymeric carriers overcome some of the critical barriers to delivery. A multitude of polymeric and lipidic vectors have been developed over the last 20 years, only a small fraction of them have progressed into clinical trials. Given that none of these vectors has received FDA approval, indicates that the current vectors do not yet have suitable properties for effective in vivo nucleic acid delivery. Nucleic acid delivery is a multistep process and inefficiencies at any stage result in a dramatic decrease in gene delivery or gene silencing. Despite this, the majority of studies investigating synthetic vectors focus solely on optimization of endosomal escape. A small number of studies address how to improve uptake via targeted delivery. A smaller fraction examine the intracellular fate of the delivery systems and nucleic acid cargo. The internalization of genes into the cell nucleus remains an inefficient and mysterious process. In the case of DNA delivery, strategies to increase and accelerate the migration of DNA through the cytoplasm and transport it through the nuclear membrane are required. The barriers to siRNA delivery are fewer: siRNA is more readily released from the carrier, siRNA is more resistant to enzymatic degradation and the target is in the cytoplasm; hence, siRNA delivery systems are becoming a clinical reality. With regard to siRNA therapy, the exact cytoplasmic location of RISC formation and activity is unknown. This makes specific targeting of the RISC for more efficient siRNA delivery difficult. Furthermore, identifying the factors favoring the binding of siRNA to Ago-2 and understanding how the half-life of siRNA and Ago-2/siRNA complex in the cytoplasm can be modulated without interfering with RISC functions that are essential for normal cell activity could increase siRNA delivery efficiency. In this manuscript we concisely review the current synthetic vectors and for a few of these, propose alternative strategies. We suggest how certain cellular mechanisms might be exploited to improve gene transfection and silencing. Finally, we raise the question if some carriers are delivering the siRNA to cells capable of repackaging the siRNA into exosomes. The exosomes would then transport the siRNA into a subsequent population of cells where the siRNA effect is manifest. This piggy-back mechanism may be responsible for reported deep tissue siRNA effects using certain carriers. PMID:22428908

Nguyen, Juliane; Szoka, Francis C.

2012-01-01

301

Two Distinct Course Formats in the Delivery of Connectivist MOOCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massive Open Online Courses based on the principles of connectivist educational pedagogy known as connectivist MOOCs (c-MOOCs) have been carried out with great success during the last years with hundreds of registered participants. Examples are CCK08 (2008), PLENK2010 (2010), MobiMOOC (2011), EduMOOC (2011), Change11 (2011/12), and LAK12 (2012).…

Rodriguez, C. Osvaldo

2013-01-01

302

Distance Education Quality Course Delivery Framework: A Formative Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Fall 2010 semester, student enrollment in distance education courses increased in the United States to over 6.1 million students taking at least one distance course. Distance education allows institutions to meet increasing demands from the government and business sectors for more graduates in ways that face-to-face courses cannot meet with…

Berta, Michael Raymond

2013-01-01

303

Advances in ophthalmic drug delivery.  

PubMed

Various strategies for ocular drug delivery are considered; from basic formulation techniques for improving availability of drugs; viscosity enhancers and mucoadhesives aid drug retention and penetration enhancers promote drug transport into the eye. The use of drug-loaded contact lenses and ocular inserts allows drugs to be better placed where they are needed for more direct delivery. Developments in ocular implants gives a means to overcome the physical barriers that traditionally prevented effective treatment. Implant technologies are under development allowing long-term drug delivery from a single procedure, these devices allow posterior chamber diseases to be effectively treated. Future developments could bring artificial corneas to eliminate the need for donor tissue and one-off implantable drug depots lasting the patient's lifetime. PMID:25531930

Morrison, Peter Wj; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

2014-12-01

304

Aptamers as drug delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

The benefits of directed and selective therapy for systemic treatment are reasons for increased interest in exploiting aptamers for cell-specific drug delivery. Nucleic acid based pharmaceuticals represent an interesting and novel tool to counter human diseases. Combining inhibitory potential and cargo transfer upon internalization, nanocarriers as well as various therapeutics including siRNAs, chemotherapeutics, photosensitizers, or proteins can be imported via these synthetic nucleic acids. However, widespread clinical application is still hampered by obstacles that must be overcome. In this review, we give an overview of applications and recent advances in aptamer-mediated drug delivery. We also introduce prominent selection methods as well as useful approaches in choice of drug and conjugation method. We discuss the challenges that need to be considered and present strategies that have been applied to achieve intracellular delivery of effectors transported by readily internalized aptamers. PMID:25130604

Kruspe, Sven; Mittelberger, Florian; Szameit, Kristina; Hahn, Ulrich

2014-09-01

305

Get Home Delivery Register Now  

E-print Network

Get Home Delivery Log In Register Now Home Page Today's Paper Video Most Popular Times Topics Search All NYTimes.com Tuesday, June 1, 2010 World U.S. N.Y. / Region Business Technology Science Health of a weak and unstable government to loot the rain forest of trees found nowhere else on earth. The wood

Brown, Jason

306

New Methods of Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments

Robert Langer

1990-01-01

307

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-print Network

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This roadmap is a document of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. U.S. DRIVE (United States Driving Research partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR

308

Teleteach Expanded Delivery System: Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to meet the demand for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) professional continuing education (PCE) courses within the School of Systems and Logistics and the School of Engineering, the Teleteach Expanded Delivery System (TEDS) for instruction of Air Force personnel at remote locations was developed and evaluated. TEDS uses a device…

Christopher, G. Ronald; Milam, Alvin L.

309

Packaging for a drug delivery microelectromechanical system  

E-print Network

Local drug delivery is a fast expanding field, and has been a center of attention for researchers in medicine in the last decade. Its advantages over systemic drug delivery are clear in cancer therapy, with localized tumors. ...

Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

2005-01-01

310

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970 OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970) 491-5917 Fax +1 (970

311

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970) CAMPUS DELIVERY 1024. 5. AFTER ALL THE REQUIRED INFORMATION AND FEES ARE RECEIVED, INTERNATIONAL STUDENT

312

CSU Mail Production Center 6011 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

CSU Mail Production Center 6011 Campus Delivery Phone: 970-491-6142 Fax: 970-491-5012 E-mail: mail Mailings, Please Send Sample to Mail Production @ 6011 Campus Delivery Date Materials to Arrive Consider

313

Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970 Gardenier, Laurel Hall, Campus Delivery 1024, Fort Collins, CO 80523 or email intled@colostate.edu #12;

314

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970 Code: Yes No #12;OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA

315

FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Births - Method of Delivery Share Compartir Data are for ... of all deliveries by Cesarean: 32.7% Source: Births: Final Data for 2013, table 21 [PDF - 1. ...

316

Drug delivery strategies for therapeutic angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Angiogenesis is essential to human biology and of great clinical significance. Excessive or reduced angiogenesis can result in, or exacerbate, several disease states, including tumor formation, exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and ischemia. Innovative drug delivery systems can increase the effectiveness of therapies used to treat angiogenesis-related diseases. Areas covered This paper reviews the basic biology of angiogenesis, including current knowledge about its disruption in diseases, with the focus on cancer and AMD. Anti- and proangiogenic drugs available for clinical use or in development are also discussed, as well as experimental drug delivery systems that can potentially improve these therapies to enhance or reduce angiogenesis in a more controlled manner. Expert opinion Laboratory and clinical results have shown pro- or antiangiogenic drug delivery strategies to be effective in drastically slowing disease progression. Further research in this area will increase the efficacy, specificity and duration of these therapies. Future directions with composite drug delivery systems may make possible targeting of multiple factors for synergistic effects. PMID:21338327

Bhise, Nupura S; Shmueli, Ron B; Sunshine, Joel C; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Green, Jordan J

2014-01-01

317

Novel forms of insulin delivery.  

PubMed

Despite its widespread use, much is wrong with conventional subcutaneous insulin injection. It is more-or-less painful and inconvenient; it delivers insulin slowly with highly inconsistent pharmacokinetics into the peripheral venous system rather than directly to the liver via the portal vein; and, once delivered into the skin, it cannot be "turned off". This review has focused on novel alternative approaches to insulin delivery. The clinically available insulin delivery devices, such as pen injectors and external insulin pumps, are probably underutilized. Pen injectors offer convenience, whereas external pumps offer a basal/bolus approach to insulin delivery unlike that achieved by injections. Of the approaches currently under development, IPPs are closet to general availability. They have been extremely popular in more than 600 patients worldwide, however, an insulin problem has delayed application for their PMA in the United States. Feasibility studies of inhaled insulin, nasal insulin, and oral insulin have produced interesting preliminary findings, with pulmonary delivery for meal coverage with short-acting insulin having perhaps the brightest prospects. Encapsulated islets and biohybrid systems that place live islets into an implanted device are in earlier stages of development. Closing the loop with a continuous glucose sensor will be the only way to achieve truly normal blood glucose homeostasis by directing insulin delivery automatically on demand. Glucose sensors would have many other clinical applications in diabetes management in addition to driving a mechanical delivery system. However, the development of glucose sensing devices has been a formidable technical challenge. Based on an evaluation of current technologic development, glucose oxidase-based, needle-type sensors may become available within the next few years. Clinicians, the research community, and persons with diabetes can join in rejecting the notion that standard regimens of insulin injection do not need to be improved. If there is adequate incentive to continue a broad-based research effort into novel approaches to insulin delivery, the quality of life of persons with diabetes can be improved in the not too distant future. PMID:9314017

Saudek, C D

1997-09-01

318

Chitosan-based gastrointestinal delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan, a natural polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, is non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable. These properties make chitosan a good candidate for the development of conventional and novel gastrointestinal (GI) drug and gene delivery systems. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent applications of chitosan in oral and\\/or buccal delivery, stomach-specific drug delivery, intestinal delivery, and

Radi Hejazi; Mansoor Amiji

2003-01-01

319

Cyclodextrins in drug delivery: An updated review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the interesting findings and applications of cyclodextrins\\u000a (CDs) and their derivatives in different areas of drug delivery, particularly in protein and peptide drug delivery and gene\\u000a delivery. The article highlights important CD applications in the design of various novel delivery systems like liposomes,\\u000a microspheres, microcapsules, and nanoparticles. In

Rajeswari Challa; Alka Ahuja; Javed Ali; R. K. Khar

2005-01-01

320

Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.  

PubMed

Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

2012-01-01

321

A New Brain Drug Delivery Strategy: Focused Ultrasound-Enhanced Intranasal Drug Delivery  

E-print Network

A New Brain Drug Delivery Strategy: Focused Ultrasound-Enhanced Intranasal Drug Delivery Hong Chen1 the delivery efficiency of intranasally administered drugs at a targeted location. After IN administration using fluorescence imaging of brain slices. The results showed that FUS+IN enhanced drug delivery within

Konofagou, Elisa E.

322

Dynamic pricing of multiple home delivery options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online grocers accept delivery bookings and have to deliver groceries to consumers’ residences. Grocery stores operate on very thin margins. Therefore, a critical question that an online grocery store needs to address is the cost of home delivery operations. In this paper, we develop a Markov decision process-based pricing model that recognizes the need to balance utilization of delivery capacity

Kursad Asdemir; Varghese S. Jacob; Ramayya Krishnan

2009-01-01

323

Osteogenesis imperfecta: cesarean deliveries in identical twins.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a congenital disorder resulting in multiple fractures and extremely short stature, usually necessitating cesarean delivery. Identical twins with severe osteogenesis imperfecta each of whom underwent a cesarean delivery with different anesthetic modalities are presented. A review of the literature and anesthetic options for cesarean delivery and postoperative analgesia for women with osteogenesis imperfecta are discussed. PMID:25433579

Dinges, E; Ortner, C; Bollag, L; Davies, J; Landau, R

2015-02-01

324

VIDEO DELIVERY IN WIRELESS Keerthi Chintapalli  

E-print Network

1 VIDEO DELIVERY IN WIRELESS By Keerthi Chintapalli Authors: Kumwilaisak, W.; Hou, Y.T.; Qian Zhang for video delivery in wireless networks Journal: Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE, JNL Year: Dec. 2003 Page(s):1685 - 1698 Authors: Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Zhang, Y Title: End-to-End QoS for Video Delivery Over

Oh, JungHwan

325

Drug Formulation / Drug Delivery Raj Suryanarayanan (Sury)  

E-print Network

Drug Formulation / Drug Delivery Raj Suryanarayanan (Sury) Department of Pharmaceutics College)Physical Pharmaceutics (Materials Science) Suryanarayanan, Sun Drug Delivery K di ll P bh P Si l Wi dKandimalla, Prabha, Panyam, Siegel, Wiedmann 2 #12;#12;Center for Translational Drug Delivery Developing

Blanchette, Robert A.

326

Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer  

E-print Network

Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles Using a Microfluidic Flow-Focusing Device for Controlled Drug Delivery Qiaobing Xu, Michinao Hashimoto, Tram T. Dang, Todd microparticles have broad utility as vehicles for drug delivery and form the basis of several therapies approved

Prentiss, Mara

327

38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505 Section 21.4505 ...Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education...spouse or surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution....

2013-07-01

328

38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505 Section 21.4505 ...Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education...spouse or surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution....

2011-07-01

329

Process Detail* 1. Reconcile Carrier Delivery  

E-print Network

Process Detail* 1. Reconcile Carrier Delivery 1. Count packages received, reconcile any differences and signer on "ERSO Incoming Delivery Log" 3. Separate packages by building. 4. Remove packing slip from "Purchase Order" tab 2. Fill in Customer Name, Final Destination, Purchasing Agent, and Delivery Log Name

California at Irvine, University of

330

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970 for processing. For U.S. Postal Service (USPS) deliveries: USCIS PO Box 21281 Phoenix, AZ 85036 For Express mail and courier deliveries: USCIS Attn: AOS 1820 E. Skyharbor Circle S Suite 100 Phoenix, AZ 85034 #12;SAMPLE

331

Best Practices for On-line Delivery  

E-print Network

1 Best Practices for On-line Delivery Stephen Edwards Dept. of Computer Science, Virginia Tech comes first: Learning goals Activities and assignments BEST PRACTICES FOR ON-LINE DELIVERY Activities-LINE DELIVERY 100% on-line course: Paperless, all electronic No face-to-face meetings Weekly Centra meetings

Edwards, Stephen H.

332

(FM 10-500-1) AERIAL DELIVERY  

E-print Network

FM 4-20.41 (FM 10-500-1) AERIAL DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION IN THE THEATER OF OPERATIONS DISTRIBUTION-20.41 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 29 August 2003 Aerial Delivery Distribution in the Theater.........................................................................................................III Chapter 1 AERIAL DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BATTLEFIELD.......................1-1 Service

US Army Corps of Engineers

333

The Split Delivery Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem  

E-print Network

The Split Delivery Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem C. Archetti(1) N. Bianchessi(1) A. Hertz(2 deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit and the vehicle capacity constraints. When split deliveries are allowed each customer may be served by more than

Hertz, Alain

334

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970 of Country Month/Day/Year Month/Day/Year Change of Level I-20 Delivery Method: I will pick up my Change: _______________________________ Packet Complete: Y or N Notes: Print Form #12;OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 1024 Campus Delivery Fort

335

38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505 Section 21.4505 ...Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education...spouse or surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution....

2010-07-01

336

Accounts Receivable Operations 6024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

Accounts Receivable Operations 6024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins CO 80523-6024 Graduate Assistant o If top portion is incomplete, it will be returned to the department o Please give campus delivery Receivable Operations, 555 S Howes Street 110, 6024 Campus Delivery. The lists can also be faxed to 491

337

Mercury Delivery System Tony Gabriel, Phil Spampinato  

E-print Network

Mercury Delivery System Issues Van Graves Tony Gabriel, Phil Spampinato Targetry Teleconference 21 during CERN tests - Investigate alternative Hg delivery systems · Experiment lends itself to non in downstream piping - Nozzle/piping changes will not affect Hg delivery ability - Jet characteristics should

McDonald, Kirk

338

Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery  

E-print Network

Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970. _____Initials ___________ Date Print Form #12;Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins. #12;Office of International Programs 1024 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523-1024 USA Tel +1 (970

339

38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505 Section 21.4505 ...Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education...spouse or surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution....

2014-07-01

340

38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505 Section 21.4505 ...Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education...spouse or surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution....

2012-07-01

341

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

2010-10-01

342

43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section 418.11 Public Lands...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the...

2011-10-01

343

43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section 418.11 Public Lands...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the...

2013-10-01

344

Delivery Fee Policy (updated 08302011) College of Agriculture & Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Delivery Fee Policy (updated 08302011) College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Departmental and College Delivery Fees by Course Department Course / Program Department Fee College Fee Agronomy Proposal & Approval of Delivery Fees Program and Departmental delivery fee proposals are submitted to CALS

Hu, Hui

345

43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section 418.11 Public Lands...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the...

2010-10-01

346

43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.  

... 2014-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section 418.11 Public Lands...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the...

2014-10-01

347

Evolution of the Magnetic Helicity Flux during the Formation and Eruption of Flux Ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.

2014-10-01

348

On the existence of two different mechanisms of coronal mass ejection formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from Mark 3 and 4, DPM (Mauna Loa Solar Observatory), and from spacecrafts place-SOHO (LASCO C2, EIT), STEREO (COR1, EUVI) were analyzed. It is demonstrated that the difference between the physical nature of the "impulsive" and the "gradual" CMEs is mainly represented by such parameters as the CME location, velocity and angular size at the moment the CME emerges. The "gradual" CMEs are formed in the corona at 0.1R0 ? h ? 0.7R0 above the limb of the Sun (R0 is the solar radius). They start moving, when their angular size is ? 15-65 degrees (in the heliocentric coordinate system) and their initial velocity V0 ? 0. A probable mechanism for their formation is the eruption of a coronal flux rope from the equilib-rium state. The formation of "impulsive" CMEs appears to begin under the photosphere of the Sun and may be related to ejection of floating magnetic tubes (flux ropes) from the convective zone. At the photospheric level, the radial velocities of such magnetic tubes exceed the local sound velocity and may reach hundreds km/s, while their angular sizes do not exceed ? (1-5)° . Possible ejection of magnetic tubes from the convective zone was theoretically demonstrated earlier.

Eselevich, Victor; Eselevich, Maxim

349

SMART DRUG DELIVERY AND BIONANOTECHNOLOGY Nicholas A Peppas  

E-print Network

SMART DRUG DELIVERY AND BIONANOTECHNOLOGY Nicholas A Peppas Center forBiomaterials, Drug Delivery for nanoscale structures in drug delivery. Uses such as carriers for controlled and targeted drug delivery materials [1]. We report on major new developments of recognitive drug delivery systems. Novel drug delivery

Peppas, Nicholas A.

350

DISTRIBUTED EDUCATION DELIVERY USC Columbia, Lancaster, Salkehatchie, Sumter & Union campuses  

E-print Network

will be delivered from a location other than where the students are located. The instructor's delivery of the courseDISTRIBUTED EDUCATION DELIVERY USC Columbia, Lancaster, Salkehatchie, Sumter & Union campuses COURSE DELIVERY Distributed Delivery Method: Web Delivery: synchronous Course Delivery Totals

Almor, Amit

351

Asymmetric membrane capsule for osmotic delivery of flurbiprofen.  

PubMed

An asymmetric membrane capsule of cellulose acetate for osmotic delivery of flurbiprofen has been developed and influence of osmogents and solubilizing agent on in vitro drug release were evaluated. The capsule membrane was prepared by the phase inversion technique. To ensure the osmotic delivery of drug, two approaches were adopted: (i) the drug was encapsulated with osmogents like sodium chloride and mannitol to increase the osmotic pressure of the core, and (ii) the drug was encapsulated with sodium lauryl sulfate in the core of the formulation to increase the solubility and thus its osmotic pressure. Scanning electron microscopy of the membrane confirmed its porous, dense asymmetric nature. Dye test revealed in situ pore formation. The in vitro release study showed that as the proportion of osmogent and solubilizing agent was increased the release rate also increased. A good correlation was observed between the zero-order rate constant and the amount of the osmogent and solubilizing agent used. PMID:17878113

Choudhury, Pratim K; Ranawat, Mahendra S; Pillai, Mousumi K; Chauhan, Chetan S

2007-09-01

352

Coming into View: Eukaryotic Iron Chaperones and Intracellular Iron Delivery*  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells contain hundreds of metalloproteins, and ensuring that each protein receives the correct metal ion is a critical task for cells. Recent work in budding yeast and mammalian cells has uncovered a system of iron delivery operating in the cytosolic compartment that involves monothiol glutaredoxins, which bind iron in the form of iron-sulfur clusters, and poly(rC)-binding proteins, which bind Fe(II) directly. In yeast cells, cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins are required for the formation of heme and iron-sulfur clusters and the metallation of some non-heme iron enzymes. Poly(rC)-binding proteins can act as iron chaperones, delivering iron to target non-heme enzymes through direct protein-protein interactions. Although the molecular details have yet to be explored, these proteins, acting independently or together, may represent the basic cellular machinery for intracellular iron delivery. PMID:22389494

Philpott, Caroline C.

2012-01-01

353

AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

2012-12-01

354

The transdermal delivery of fentanyl.  

PubMed

The fentanyl patch is one of the great commercial successes in transdermal drug delivery. The suitability of this molecule for delivery through skin had been identified in the 1970s, and subsequently, a number of transdermal formulations became available on the market. This article reviews the development of fentanyl patch technology with particular emphasis on the pharmacokinetics and disposition of the drug when delivered through the skin. The various patch designs are considered as well as the bioequivalence of the different designs. The influence of heat on fentanyl permeation is highlighted. Post-mortem redistribution of fentanyl is discussed in light of the reported discrepancies in serum levels reported in patients after death compared with therapeutic levels in living subjects. Finally, alternatives to patch technology are considered, and recent novel transdermal formulations are highlighted. PMID:23419814

Lane, Majella E

2013-08-01

355

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery  

E-print Network

in formulation design and can be tailored to fit the size and topology of the gene. 1.4.2.1. Natural polymers Over the years, a significant number of natural polymers, such as chitosan 174 , cationic proteins (e.g., polylysine, protamine and histones... polymers, the cationic polysaccharide chitosan has attracted considerable attention as a nonviral gene delivery vector. Although chitosan showed effective nucleic acid binding and compaction, the transfection efficiency was significantly lower compared...

Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

2011-04-26

356

Levator Trauma After Vaginal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: Fifty women (82%) were seen postpartum. Of the 39 women delivered vaginally, levator avulsion was diagnosed in 14 (36%, 95% confidence interval 21-51%). Among those delivered vaginally, there were associations with higher maternal age (P.10), vaginal operative delivery (P.07), and worsened stress incontinence postpartum (P.02). CONCLUSIONS: Avulsion of the inferomedial aspects of the levator ani from the pelvic sidewall

Hans Peter Dietz; Valeria Lanzarone

357

Breastfeeding practices: does method of delivery matter?  

PubMed

Objective of this study was to assess the relationship between method of delivery and breastfeeding. Using data (2005-2006) from the longitudinal Infant Feeding Practices Study II (n = 3,026) we assessed the relationship between delivery method (spontaneous vaginal, induced vaginal, emergency cesarean, and planned cesarean) and breastfeeding: initiation, any breastfeeding at 4 weeks, any breastfeeding at 6 months, and overall duration. We used SAS software to analyze data using multivariable analyses adjusting for several confounders, including selected demographic characteristics, participants' pre-delivery breastfeeding intentions and attitude, and used event-history analysis to estimate breastfeeding duration by delivery method. We found no significant association between delivery method and breastfeeding initiation. In the fully adjusted models examining breastfeeding duration to 4 weeks with spontaneous vaginal delivery group as the reference, those with induced vaginal deliveries were significantly less likely to breastfeed [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.53; 95 % CI = 0.38-0.71]; and no significant relationship was observed for those who had planned or emergency cesarean deliveries. Again, compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery group, those with induced vaginal [AOR = 0.60; 96 % CI = 0.47-0.78] and emergency cesarean [AOR = 0.68; 96 % CI = 0.48-0.95] deliveries were significantly less likely to breastfeed at 6 months. Median breastfeeding duration was 45.2 weeks among women with spontaneous vaginal, 38.7 weeks among planned cesarean, 25.8 weeks among induced vaginal and 21.5 weeks among emergency cesarean deliveries. While no significant association was observed between delivery method and breastfeeding initiation; breastfeeding duration varied substantially with method of delivery, perhaps indicating a need for additional support for women with assisted deliveries. PMID:22926268

Ahluwalia, Indu B; Li, Ruowei; Morrow, Brian

2012-12-01

358

Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites  

PubMed Central

To eliminate apicomplexan parasites, inhibitory compounds must cross host cell, parasitophorous vacuole, and parasite membranes and cyst walls, making delivery challenging. Here, we show that short oligomers of arginine enter Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and encysted bradyzoites. Triclosan, which inhibits enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), conjugated to arginine oligomers enters extracellular tachyzoites, host cells, tachyzoites inside parasitophorous vacuoles within host cells, extracellular bradyzoites, and bradyzoites within cysts. We identify, clone, and sequence T. gondii enr and produce and characterize enzymatically active, recombinant ENR. This enzyme has the requisite amino acids to bind triclosan. Triclosan released after conjugation to octaarginine via a readily hydrolyzable ester linkage inhibits ENR activity, tachyzoites in vitro, and tachyzoites in mice. Delivery of an inhibitor to a microorganism via conjugation to octaarginine provides an approach to transporting antimicrobials and other small molecules to sequestered parasites, a model system to characterize transport across multiple membrane barriers and structures, a widely applicable paradigm for treatment of active and encysted apicomplexan and other infections, and a generic proof of principle for a mechanism of medicine delivery. PMID:14623959

Samuel, B. U.; Hearn, B.; Mack, D.; Wender, P.; Rothbard, J.; Kirisits, M. J.; Mui, E.; Wernimont, S.; Roberts, C. W.; Muench, S. P.; Rice, D. W.; Prigge, S. T.; Law, A. B.; McLeod, R.

2003-01-01

359

Recent developments in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Some recent innovative approaches to drug delivery have demonstrated that the administration of drugs can be more rigidly controlled with respect to the rate and amount of drug delivered to sites of action than from the conventional dosage forms. One category of controlled release referred to as programmed drug delivery primarily involves the application of polymers of defined specifications to release agents from either non-bioerodible membrane-controlled systems or bioerodible and non-bioerodible matrices. Also included here are the pro-drugs, inactive derivatives of drugs which are transformed into the active form in vivo but possess improved solubility, stability and disposition properties, yielding more efficient action and fewer side effects. Thus, exploitation of several routes of administration have resulted in products which are inserted ophtalmically, rectally or vaginally, implanted subcutaneously, taken orally or applied topically to achieve transdermal delivery of drugs to the systemic circulation. In several cases, release is designed to follow zero-order kinetics to achieve control of therapeutic plasma concentrations for prolonged time periods. Targeting of drugs by carrier is another form of controlled release technology. Normally administered intravenously, carriers such as liposomes, nanoparticles, microspheres, human cells and linear macromolecules are finding application in treating disease states with drugs which previously were unavailable to treatment. PMID:10262189

Rogers, J A

1982-01-01

360

Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications  

PubMed Central

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market. PMID:21814436

Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rai, Awani K.

2010-01-01

361

CCMR: Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safe and nontoxic drug delivery is an ongoing area of research. Some current methods of drug delivery include the use of nanoparticles, hydrogels, dendrimers, and micelles. Nanoparticles can be used as vehicles in which to transport certain drugs to cancerous cells. A certain class of nanoparticles called clays is especially useful in synthesizing these drug delivery vehicles. Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) are a type of hydrotalcite clay with a structure similar to smectite clays. They have a general structure that consists of layers of metal hydroxides connected to a layer of another metal hydroxide by hydrogen bonding. LDHs are made up of layers of a trivalent and a divalently charged cation coordinated by six oxygen atoms. The resulting structure consists of two-dimensional sheets with positively charged faces and negatively charged edges that are stacked together via hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups on adjacent sheets. These sheets generally have a very high aspect ratio, resulting in a large surface area. The positively charged layers are balanced by the presence of anions between them. A wide variety of LDHs can be synthesized depending on the various cations and interlayer anions used. Characterization of the LDHs themselves as well as LDHs intercalated with the drugs was performed using X-ray diffraction and TEM and SEM microscopy.

Lin, Joyce

2005-08-17

362

New Evidence for the Role of Emerging Flux in a Solar Filament's Slow Rise Preceding its CME-Producing Fast Eruption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We observe the eruption of a large-scale (approx.300,000 km) quiet-region solar filament, leading to an Earth-directed "halo" coronal mass ejection (CME). We use coronal imaging data in EUV from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, and in soft X-rays (SXRs) from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite. We also use spectroscopic data from the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), magnetic data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and white-light coronal data from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO), all on SOHO. Initially the filament shows a slow (approx.1 km/s projected against the solar disk) and approximately constant-velocity rise for about 6 hours, before erupting rapidly, reaching a velocity of approx. 8 km/s over the next approx. 25 min. CDS Doppler data show Earth-directed filament velocities ranging from < 20 km/s (the noise limit) during the slow-rise phase, to approx. 100 km/s-1 early in the eruption. Beginning within 10 hours prior to the start of the slow rise, localized new magnetic flux emerged near one end of the filament. Near the start of and during the slow-rise phase, SXR microflaring occurred repeatedly at the flux-emergence site, in conjunction with the development of a fan of SXR illumination of the magnetic arcade over the filament. The SXR microflares, development of the SXR fan, and motion of the slow-rising filament are all consistent with "tether-weakening" reconnection occurring between the newly-emerging flux and the overlying arcade field containing the filament field. The microflares and fan structure are not prominent in EUV, and would not have been detected without the SXR data. Standard "twin dimmings" occur near the location of the filament, and "remote dimmings" and "brightenings" occur further removed from the filament.

Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louis K.; Moore, Ronald L.

2007-01-01

363

Predictions and observations of HF radio propagation in the northerly ionosphere: The effect of the solar flares and a weak CME in early January 2014.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously reported on a significant new multi-national project to provide improved predictions and forecasts of HF radio propagation for commercial aircraft operating on trans-polar routes. In these regions, there are limited or no VHF air-traffic control facilities and geostationary satellites are below the horizon. Therefore HF radio remains important in maintaining communications with the aircraft at all times. Space weather disturbances can have a range of effects on the ionosphere and hence HF radio propagation - particularly in the polar cap. While severe space weather effects can lead to a total loss of communications (i.e. radio blackout), less intense events can still cause significant disruption. In this paper we will present the effect of a series of M and X class solar flares and a relatively weak CME on HF radio performance from 6 to 13 January 2014. This is an interesting interval from the point of view of HF radio propagation because while the solar effects on the ionosphere are significant, except for an interval of approximately 12 hours duration, they are not so intense as to produce a complete radio blackout on all paths. Observations of the signal-to-noise ratio, direction of arrival, and time of flight of HF radio signals on six paths (one entirely within the polar cap, three trans-auroral, and two sub-auroral) will be presented together with riometer measurements of the ionospheric absorption. Global maps of D-region absorption (D-region absorption prediction, DRAP) inferred from satellite measurements of the solar wind parameters will be compared with the HF and riometer observations. In addition, a ray-tracing model using a realistic background ionosphere and including localised features found in the ionospheric polar cap (e.g. polar patches and arcs) will be used to model the expected and observed HF radio propagation characteristics.

Hallam, Jonathan; Stocker, Alan J.; Warrington, Mike; Siddle, Dave; Zaalov, Nikolay; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil; Boteler, David; Danskin, Donald

2014-05-01

364

Accessible service delivery of child welfare services and differential response models.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a study of the impacts of accessible neighborhood and school service delivery formats for front-line child protection services within a flexible response model of child welfare in southwest Ontario, Canada. More specifically, this article looks at the contributions that these accessible service delivery models made to: (a) clients willingness to ask for help, (b) establishing constructive helping relationships, (c) accessing services and supports, (d) bridging the gap between mandated and supportive services, and (e) community engagement. The article also shows how the existing child protection service template constrained the accomplishments possible through these service delivery innovations. Accessible and central service delivery sites differed in notable ways in each of these areas. PMID:25224782

Cameron, Gary; Freymond, Nancy

2015-01-01

365

Delivery  

MedlinePLUS

... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... IQhydr8 Keep your Hydration on Track and Give Back. Living W/ Diabetes: Are You a Teen with ...

366

Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

2011-09-10

367

Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

Alufohai, G. O.

2006-01-01

368

A System for Customized News Delivery from Video G. Ahanger and T.D.C. Little  

E-print Network

, to provide a user with news in video format a news provider needs to expedite the editing process. A videoA System for Customized News Delivery from Video Archives1 G. Ahanger and T.D.C. Little Multimedia-06-1997 Abstract­ Video is a powerful medium for disseminating news as information. Like any other information

Little, Thomas

369

ELVYN: The Delivery of an Electronic Version of a Journal from the Publisher to Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the ELVYN project in the United Kingdom that investigated the scenario of dual publishing (in electronic and print formats) of journals in the physical sciences by delivery of the electronic file from the publisher to academic libraries. Topics include implementation, use of the World Wide Web and electronic mail, usage data, and cost…

Rowland, Fytton; And Others

1996-01-01

370

Drug delivery systems: An updated review  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time. PMID:23071954

Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Sriwastawa, Birendra; Bhati, L; Pandey, S; Pandey, P; Bannerjee, Saurabh K

2012-01-01

371

Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOEpatents

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-08-12

372

Sediment delivery after a wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use a record of sedimentation a small reservoir within the Cerro Grande burn area, New Mexico, to document postfire delivery of ash, other fine-grained sediment carried in suspension within floods, and coarse-grained sediment transported as bedload over a five-year period. Ash content of sediment layers is estimated using fallout 137Cs as a tracer, and ash concentrations are shown to rapidly decrease through a series of moderate-intensity convective storms in the first rainy season after the fire. Over 90% of the ash was delivered to the reservoir in the first year, and ash concentrations in suspended sediment were negligible after the second year. Delivery of the remainder of the fine sediment also declined rapidly after the first year despite the occurrence of higher-intensity storms in the second year. Fine sediment loads after five years remained significantly above prefire averages. Deposition of coarse-grained sediment was irregular in time and was associated with transport by snowmelt runoff of sediment stored along the upstream channel during short-duration summer floods. Coarse sediment delivery in the first four years was strongly correlated with snowmelt volume, suggesting a transport-limited system with abundant available sediment. Transport rates of coarse sediment declined in the fifth year, consistent with a transition to a more stable channel as the accessible sediment supply was depleted and the channel bed coarsened. Maximum impacts from ash and other fine-grained sediment therefore occurred soon after the fire, whereas the downstream impacts from coarse-grained sediment were attenuated by the more gradual process of bedload sediment transport. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

Reneau, S.L.; Katzman, D.; Kuyumjian, G.A.; Lavine, A.; Malmon, D.V.

2007-01-01

373

Ocular Drug Delivery Using Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal was to evaluate ultrasound (US) enhancement of drug delivery through the cornea, and the histological appearance of the cornea, up to 24 h after treatment. The aqueous humor concentration of topically applied sodium fluorescein was determined quantitatively in US-treated and sham rabbit eyes in vivo. Gross and light microscopic examinations were used to observe structural changes in the cornea 0-24 h after US exposure. The increase in the dye concentration in aqueous humor, after the simultaneous application of 880 kHz US and the dye solution (for 5 min), was 2.4 times at 0.19 W/cm2, 3.8 times at 0.34 W/cm2, and 10.6 times at 0.56 W/m2 (p<0.05). The dye delivery was found to increase with increasing US intensity, which corresponded with an increase in cavitation activity. After the separate application of US and the dye solution, the increase in the dye concentration was 3.8 times at 0.56 W/cm2 (p<0.01), while no increase was achieved at 0.19-0.34 W/cm2. The majority of damaged cells were present in the surface layer of the corneal epithelium. Corneal pits, observed in the US-treated epithelium, completely disappeared within 90 min. The application of 880 kHz ultrasound provided enhancement in the delivery of a hydrophilic compound through the cornea while producing minor changes in the corneal epithelium.

Zderic, Vesna; Clark, John I.; Vaezy, Shahram

2005-03-01

374

Medical care delivery in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to the delivery of medical care in space. The history of aviation medicine is reviewed. Medical support for the early space programs is discussed, including the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab programs. The process of training crew members for basic medical procedures for the Space Shuttle program is briefly described and medical problems during the Shuttle program are noted. Plans for inflight medical care on the Space Station are examined, including the equipment planned for the Health Maintenance Facility, the use of exercise to help prevent medical problems.

Stewart, Don F.

1989-01-01

375

Gene Delivery to the Airway  

PubMed Central

This unit describes generation of and gene transfer to several commonly used airway models. Isolation and transduction of primary airway epithelial cells are first described. Next, the preparation of polarized airway epithelial monolayers is outlined. Transduction of these polarized cells is also described. Methods are presented for generation of tracheal xenografts as well as both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer to these xenografts. Finally, a method for in vivo gene delivery to the lungs of rodents is included. Methods for evaluating transgene expression are given in the support protocols. PMID:23853081

Keiser, Nicholas W.; Engelhardt, John F.

2013-01-01

376

Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

377

Opportunities in respiratory drug delivery.  

PubMed

A wide range of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease products are soon to be released onto the inhaled therapies market and differentiation between these devices will help them to gain market share over their competitors. Current legislation is directing healthcare towards being more efficient and cost-effective in order to continually provide quality care despite the challenges of aging populations and fewer resources. Devices and drugs that can be differentiated by producing improved patient outcomes would, therefore, be likely to win market share. In this perspective article, the current and potential opportunities for the successful delivery and differentiation of new inhaled drug products are discussed. PMID:25531928

Pritchard, John N; Giles, Rachael D

2014-12-01

378

Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview  

PubMed Central

The major challenge faced by today’s pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments. Also, recent developments with other ocular drug delivery strategies employing in situ gels, implants, contact lens and microneedles have been discussed. PMID:25590022

Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mitra, Ashim K

2014-01-01

379

Emergency delivery of Vasopressin from an implantable MEMS rapid drug delivery device  

E-print Network

An implantable rapid drug delivery device based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology was designed, fabricated and validated for the in vivo rapid delivery of vasopressin in a rabbit model. In vitro ...

Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

2009-01-01

380

Delivery of neuroactive peptide drugs to the brain via intranasal delivery  

E-print Network

1School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. Introduction A technique to study the delivery of neuroactive drugs to the brain via nasal delivery involves the addition of the radioactive label 3H3C...

Cros, C. D.; Toth, I.; Blanchfield, J.

2006-10-27

381

Dendrimers as Nanovectors for Nucleic Acid Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleic acid based gene therapy holds great promise in the treatment of various diseases. However, the success of both DNA- and siRNAbased gene therapies depends critically on safe and efficient nucleic acid delivery systems. Owing to their well-defined structure and multivalent cooperativity, dendrimers have attracted particular attention as ideal nanocarriers for nucleic acid delivery. The present chapter highlights the current status of dendrimers as non-viral nanovectors for both DNA and siRNA delivery, focusing on the different dendrimers investigated for their delivery efficiency with respect to structural alterations in the view to developing safe and efficient nanovectors for gene therapy application.

Liu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Qi; Peng, Ling

2013-09-01

382

Multilayered membrane-controlled microcapsules for controlled delivery of isoniazid  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolytes (PEs) has received a great attention in the area of drug delivery due to its simplicity and versatility. This research was aimed to develop multilayered microcapsules through LbL deposition of chitosan (CHI) and sodium alginate (NaALG) and utilize them as vehicle for controlled delivery of isoniazid (INH). Methods CaCO3 particles, prepared by colloidal crystallization of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 solutions, were used as micro-templates for LbL deposition of CHI and NaALG. Subsequent to the deposition, templates were decomposed to obtain hollow microcapsules. Prepared microcapsules were subjected to physicochemical evaluations, drug release and stability studies. Results and major conclusion Though CaCO3 particles possessed a rough and irregular surface, prepared hollow microcapsules were spherical in shape, having smooth surface and regular thickness. Following deposition of each layer, alternating values of zeta potential were observed, indicating the formation of multilayered films. Microcapsules with 5 bilayers, i.e. (CHI/NaALG)5 provided 39% entrapment efficiency and exhibited a controlled release behavior, lasting up to 24 hrs. An improvement in drug release rate and stability profile of the formulation was observed by increasing the number of deposition steps and performing the crosslinking of polyelectrolytes. This study showed that the prepared formulation could promisingly be utilized as controlled delivery vehicle for INH. PMID:22615638

Tiwari, S; Mishra, B

2011-01-01

383

Transungual delivery: deliberations and creeds.  

PubMed

Although considered as trifling illness, nail diseases have a reasonably high occurrence and a noteworthy impact on the patients' quality of life. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the topical treatment for nail diseases to avoid drug interactions and to reduce side effects associated with oral therapy. Topical drug delivery to the nails has established amplified consideration lately. Strategies (such as chemical enhancers, formulation strategies, physical and mechanical methods) are being investigated in order to improve drug permeability across the nail plate. The rationale of this review is to present contemporary information on the structure of human nail along with its comparison with animal hooves. Precincts of nail permeability have been briefly discussed with respect to factors like permeant's molecular size, hydrophilicity, charge and the nature of the vehicle. These factors affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail. Formulations like nail lacquers which mimic cosmetic varnish and colloidal carriers along with nail substitutes that can be utilized for transungual delivery have also been discussed. PMID:24888698

Thatai, P; Sapra, B

2014-10-01

384

"Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

2014-11-10

385

Food, physiology and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. PMID:23612358

Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

2013-12-01

386

Microneedle patches for vaccine delivery  

PubMed Central

In today's medical industry, the range of vaccines that exist for administration in humans represents an eclectic variety of forms and immunologic mechanisms. Namely, these are the live attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses, subunit proteins, and virus-like particles for treating virus-caused diseases, as well as the bacterial-based polysaccharide, protein, and conjugated vaccines. Currently, a new approach to vaccination is being investigated with the concept of DNA vaccines. As an alternative delivery route to enhance the vaccination efficacy, microneedles have been devised to target the rich network of immunologic antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin. Numerous studies have outlined the parameters of microneedle delivery of a wide range of vaccines, revealing comparable or higher immunogenicity to conventional intramuscular routes, overall level of stability, and dose-sparing advantages. Furthermore, recent mechanism studies have begun to successfully elucidate the biological mechanisms behind microneedle vaccination. This paper describes the current status of microneedle vaccine research. PMID:24427762

Suh, Hyemee; Shin, Juhyung

2014-01-01

387

Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

Ray, Partha; White, Rebekah R.

2010-01-01

388

Superhydrophobic materials for drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobicity is a property of material surfaces reflecting the ability to maintain air at the solid-liquid interface when in contact with water. These surfaces have characteristically high apparent contact angles, by definition exceeding 150°, as a result of the composite material-air surface formed under an applied water droplet. Superhydrophobic surfaces were first discovered on naturally occurring substrates, and have subsequently been fabricated in the last several decades to harness these favorable surface properties for a number of emerging applications, including their use in biomedical settings. This work describes fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic 3D materials, as well as their use as drug delivery devices. Superhydrophobic 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces in that air is maintained not just at the surface of the material, but also within the bulk. When the superhydrophobic 3D materials are submerged in water, water infiltrates slowly and continuously as a new water-air-material interface is formed with controlled displacement of air. Electrospinning and electrospraying are used to fabricate superhydrophobic 3D materials utilizing blends of the biocompatible polymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(caprolactone-co-glycerol monostearate) (PGC-C18). PGC-C18 is significantly more hydrophobic than PCL (contact angle of 116° versus 83° for flat materials), and further additions of PGC-C18 into electrospun meshes and electrosprayed coatings affords increased stability of the entrapped air layer. For example, PCL meshes alone (500 mum thick) take 10 days to fully wet, and with 10% or 30% PGC-C18 addition wetting rates are dramatically slowed to 60% wetted by 77 days and 4% by 75 days, respectively. Stability of the superhydrophobic materials can be further probed with a variety of physio-chemical techniques, including pressure, surfactant containing solutions, and solvents of varying surface tension. Superhydrophobicity is shown to be enhanced with further increases in PGC-C18 content and surface roughness (a decrease in fiber size). We demonstrate the utility of superhydrophobicity as a method for drug delivery. When the camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and CPT-11 are encapsulated within electrospun meshes, changes in air layer stability (due to changes in PGC-C18 content) dictate the rate of drug release by controlling the rate in which water can permeate into the porous 3D electrospun structure. Drug release can be tuned from 2 weeks to >10 weeks from 300 mum meshes, and meshes effectively kill a variety of cancer cell lines (lung, colon, breast) when utilized in a cytotoxicity assay. After determining that air could be used to control the rate of drug release, superhydrophobic 3D materials are explored for three applications. First, meshes are considered as a potential combination reinforcement-drug delivery device for use in resectable colorectal cancer. Second, removal of the air layer in superhydrophobic meshes is used as a method to trigger drug release. The pressure generated from high-intensity focused ultrasound (0.75-4.25 MPa) can remove the air layer spatially and temporally, allowing drug release to be controlled with application of a sufficient treatment. Third, "connective" electrosprayed coatings are deposited on chemically distinct material surfaces, which are both three-dimensional and mechanically robust. In summary, superhydrophobic 3D materials are fabricated and characterized, and are utilized as drug delivery devices. Controlled air removal from these materials offers an entirely new strategy for drug delivery, and is promising for the applications considered in this work as well as many others.

Yohe, Stefan Thomas

389

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: Deciding on a Trial of Labor After a Cesarean Delivery (TOLAC)  

MedlinePLUS

What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery , you have two choices about how to give ... and Gynecologists f AQ • What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? • What is a trial ...

390

Pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Although oral delivery has become a widely accepted route of administration of therapeutic drugs, the gastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins

M. K. Chourasia; S. K. Jain

391

Multivalent dendrimer vectors with DNA intercalation motifs for gene delivery.  

PubMed

Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers constitute an important class of nonviral, cationic vectors in gene delivery. Here we report on a new concept for dendrimer vector design based on the incorporation of dual binding motifs: DNA intercalation, and receptor recognition for targeted delivery. We prepared a series of dendrimer conjugates derived from a fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimer, each conjugated with multiple folate (FA) or riboflavin (RF) ligands for cell receptor targeting, and with 3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridinium ("DAPP")-derived ligands for anchoring a DNA payload. Polyplexes of each dendrimer with calf thymus dsDNA were made and characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement. These studies provided evidence supporting polyplex formation based on the observation of tight DNA-dendrimer adhesion, and changes in particle size and surface charge upon coincubation. Further SPR studies to investigate the adhesion of the polyplex to a model surface immobilized with folate binding protein (FBP), demonstrated that the DNA payload has only a minimal effect on the receptor binding activity of the polyplex: KD = 0.22 nM for G5(FA)(DAPP) versus 0.98 nM for its polyplex. Finally, we performed in vitro transfection assays to determine the efficiency of conjugate mediated delivery of a luciferase-encoding plasmid into the KB cancer cell line and showed that RF-conjugated dendrimers were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more effective in enhancing luciferase gene transfection than a plasmid only control. In summary, this study serves as a proof of concept for DNA-ligand intercalation as a motif in the design of multivalent dendrimer vectors for targeted gene delivery. PMID:25285357

Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Kenny; Coulter, Alexa; Tang, Shengzhuang; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

2014-11-10

392

Silk fibroin rods for sustained delivery of breast cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

A silk-protein based reservoir rod was developed for zero-order and long-term sustained drug delivery applications. Silk reservoir rod formulations were processed in three steps. First, a regenerated silk fibroin solution, rich in random-coil content was transformed into a tubular silk film with controllable dimensions, uniform film morphology and a structure rich in silk II, ?-sheet content via "film-spinning." Second, the drug powder was loaded into swollen silk tubes followed by tube end clamping. Last, clamped silk tube ends were sealed completely via dip coating. Anastrozole, an FDA approved active ingredient for the treatment of breast cancer, was used as a model drug to investigate viability of the silk reservoir rod technology for sustained drug delivery. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic data (in a female Sprague-Dawley rat model) analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy indicated zero-order release for 91 days. Both in vitro and in vivo anastrozole release rates could be controlled simply by varying silk rod dimensions. The swelling behavior of silk films and zero-order anastrozole release kinetics indicated practically immediate film hydration and formation of a linear anastrozole concentration gradient along the silk film thickness. The dependence of anastrozole release rate on the overall silk rod dimensions was in good agreement with an essentially diffusion-controlled sustained release from a reservoir cylindrical geometry. In vivo results highlighted a strong in vitro-in vivo pharmacokinetic correlation and a desirable biocompatibility profile of silk reservoir rods. During a 6-month implantation in rats, the apparent silk molecular weight values decreased gradually, while rod dry mass and ?-sheet crystal content values remained essentially constant, providing a suitable timeframe for controlled, long-term sustained delivery applications. Overall, the silk reservoir rod may be a viable candidate for sustained delivery of breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:25009069

Yucel, Tuna; Lovett, Michael L; Giangregorio, Raffaella; Coonahan, Erin; Kaplan, David L

2014-10-01

393

Silk-elastin-like protein biomaterials for the controlled delivery of therapeutics.  

PubMed

Introduction: Genetically engineered biomaterials are useful for controlled delivery owing to their rational design, tunable structure-function, biocompatibility, degradability and target specificity. Silk-elastin-like proteins (SELPs), a family of genetically engineered recombinant protein polymers, possess these properties. Additionally, given the benefits of combining semi-crystalline silk-blocks and elastomeric elastin-blocks, SELPs possess multi-stimuli-responsive properties and tunability, thereby becoming promising candidates for targeted cancer therapeutics delivery and controlled gene release. Areas covered: An overview of SELP biomaterials for drug delivery and gene release is provided. Biosynthetic strategies used for SELP production, fundamental physicochemical properties and self-assembly mechanisms are discussed. The review focuses on sequence-structure-function relationships, stimuli-responsive features and current and potential drug delivery applications. Expert opinion: The tunable material properties allow SELPs to be pursued as promising biomaterials for nanocarriers and injectable drug release systems. Current applications of SELPs have focused on thermally-triggered biomaterial formats for the delivery of therapeutics, based on local hyperthermia in tumors or infections. Other prominent controlled release applications of SELPs as injectable hydrogels for gene release have also been pursued. Further biomedical applications that utilize other stimuli to trigger the reversible material responses of SELPs for targeted delivery, including pH, ionic strength, redox, enzymatic stimuli and electric field, are in progress. Exploiting these additional stimuli-responsive features will provide a broader range of functional biomaterials for controlled therapeutics release and tissue regeneration. PMID:25476201

Huang, Wenwen; Rollett, Alexandra; Kaplan, David L

2014-12-01

394

MedscapeCME Physician Connect  

E-print Network

. Review case study Physician Rating: ( 1 Vote ) Rate This Article: Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging because it can be influenced by other conditions such as inflammation, ischemia, and benign prostatic Policy Terms

Jadvar, Hossein

395

Regolith Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part activity, learners use food to determine the effects of wind, sandblasting and water on regolith (dust) formation and deposition on Earth. Then, learners simulate regolith formation on the Moon by meteorite bombardment, an activity best completed outdoors.

Nasa

1997-01-01

396

Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair.  

PubMed

The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the structural layers of the osteochondral unit, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were loaded into gelatin microparticles and embedded within the OPF hydrogel matrix in a spatially controlled manner. Three different scaffold formulations were implanted in a medial femoral condyle osteochondral defect: 1) IGF-1 in the chondral layer, 2) BMP-2 in the subchondral layer, and 3) IGF-1 and BMP-2 in their respective separate layers. The quantity and quality of osteochondral repair was evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks with histological scoring and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). While histological scoring results at 6 weeks showed no differences between experimental groups, micro-CT analysis revealed that the delivery of BMP-2 alone increased the number of bony trabecular islets formed, an indication of early bone formation, over that of IGF-1 delivery alone. At 12 weeks post-implantation, minimal differences were detected between the three groups for cartilage repair. However, the dual delivery of IGF-1 and BMP-2 had a higher proportion of subchondral bone repair, greater bone growth at the defect margins, and lower bone specific surface than the single delivery of IGF-1. These results suggest that the delivery of BMP-2 enhances subchondral bone formation and that, while the dual delivery of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in separate layers does not improve cartilage repair under the conditions studied, they may synergistically enhance the degree of subchondral bone formation. Overall, bilayered OPF hydrogel composites demonstrate potential as spatially-guided, multiple growth factor release vehicles for osteochondral tissue repair. PMID:25047629

Lu, Steven; Lam, Johnny; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Lee, Esther J; Seyednejad, Hajar; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Wong, Mark E; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G; Kasper, F Kurtis

2014-10-01

397

Development of the Choctaw Health Delivery System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…

Nguyen, Binh N.

398

Moving smaller in drug discovery and delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in new micro- and nanotechnologies are accelerating the identification and evaluation of drug candidates, and the development of new delivery technologies that are required to transform biological potential into medical reality. This article will highlight the emerging micro- and nanotechnology tools, techniques and devices that are being applied to advance the fields of drug discovery and drug delivery. Many

David A. LaVan; David M. Lynn; Robert Langer

2002-01-01

399

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been

Jean-François Etter; Chris Bullen; Andreas D Flouris; Murray Laugesen; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

400

Innovative Educational Programs Using Flexible Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Chattanooga State Technical Community College (CSTCC) in Tennessee, a "regional concept" for health care program delivery was developed involving affiliations with approved regional health care facilities. The delivery system allows CSTCC students enrolled in the college's para-radiologic technology (PRT) specialty programs to receive their…

Purdie, Tanya G.; Watson, Alan

401

Customer Satisfaction during the Service Delivery Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies of how service quality evolves during the service delivery process have used aggregate case data in retrospect or have not obtained objective measures of the actual dimensions of the service encounter on an individual basis. Reports on a study of an actual hotel service delivery process partitioned into five distinct service encounters; check-in, the room, the restaurant, the

Peter J. Danaher; Jan Mattsson

1994-01-01

402

Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases. PMID:24325540

Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2014-05-01

403

Seven Steps to On-Time Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes seven steps to consider when making project-delivery decisions that include defining the school district's goals and profile, selecting the project-delivery system and procurement method, selecting the project team and contract type, and developing and confirming the facility program. Concluding comments address the district review of…

Konchar, Mark; Sanvido, Victor

1999-01-01

404

Colloidal systems for CNS drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmaceutical treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders is the second largest area of therapy, following cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, noninvasive drug delivery systems for CNS are actively studied. The development of these new delivery systems started with the discovery that properly surface-engineered colloidal vectors, and in particular liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, with a diameter ?200nm, were shown to be

Luca Costantino; Giovanni Tosi; Barbara Ruozi; Lucia Bondioli; Maria Angela Vandelli; Flavio Forni

2009-01-01

405

Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle  

E-print Network

Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle Dual-Drug Delivery Santosh Aryal, Che-Ming Jack Hu, and Liangfang Zhang* A new approach to loading multiple drugs onto the same drug through hydrolyzable linkers to form drug conjugates, is reported. In contrast to loading individual types

Zhang, Liangfang

406

Status of Statewide Career Information Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a resource document as well as a status report on all the statewide career information delivery systems (CIDS) in operation, this report examines the status of 39 statewide information systems. (Career information delivery systems are computer-based systems that provide national, state, and local information to individuals who are in…

Dunn, Wynonia L.

407

Capillary Physiology and Drug Delivery in Central  

E-print Network

Capillary Physiology and Drug Delivery in Central Nervous System Lymphomas Peter C. Warnke, MD,1 drug delivery, we quantita- tively assessed pharmacokinetic factors in seven patients. The capillary the chemosensitivity of primary cen- tral nervous system lymphomas to water-soluble drugs could result from improved

Timmer, Jens

408

MEMS based system for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the new design of transdermal drug delivery system. The system consists of integrated control electronics and microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices such as micropump, microneedles, blood pressure sensor and fluid flow sensor. Micropump and microneedles are essential components of proposed drug delivery system. Design, analysis, fabrication and characterization of piezoelectric valveless micropump and hollow out-of-plane silicon microneedles are presented

Muhammad Waseem Ashraf; Shahzadi Tayyaba; Asim Nisar; Nitin Afzulpurkar

2010-01-01

409

Electronic Delivery Systems: A Selection Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of electronic learning delivery systems focuses on a delivery system selection model that is designed for use by performance improvement professionals who are choosing between satellite networks, teleconferencing, Internet/Intranet networks, desktop multimedia, electronic performance support systems, transportable audio/video, and the…

Pallesen, Peter J.; Haley, Paul; Jones, Edward S.; Moore, Bobbie; Widlake, Dina E.; Medsker, Karen L.

1999-01-01

410

Dendrimers and dendritic polymers in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique properties of dendrimers, such as their high degree of branching, multivalency, globular architecture and well-defined molecular weight, make them promising new scaffolds for drug delivery. In the past decade, research has increased on the design and synthesis of biocompatible dendrimers and their application to many areas of bioscience including drug delivery, immunology and the development of vaccines, antimicrobials

Elizabeth R. Gillies; Jean M. J. Fréchet

2005-01-01

411

Exploring the first delay: a qualitative study of home deliveries in Makwanpur district Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background In many low-income countries women tend to deliver at home, and delays in receiving appropriate maternal care can be fatal. A contextual understanding of these delays is important if countries are to meet development targets for maternal health. We present qualitative research with women who delivered at home in rural Nepal, to gain a contemporary understanding of the context where we are testing the effectiveness of an intervention to increase institutional deliveries. Methods We purposively sampled women who had recently delivered at home and interviewed them to explore their reasons for home delivery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. We used the ‘delays’ model discussed in the literature to frame our analysis. Results Usually a combination of factors prevented women from delivering in health institutions. Many women were aware of the benefits of institutional delivery yet their status in the home restricted their access to health facilities. Often they did not wish to bring shame on their family by going against their wishes, or through showing their body in a health institution. They often felt unable to demand the organisation of transportation because this may cause financial problems for their family. Some felt that government incentives were insufficient. Often, a lack of family support at the time of delivery meant that women delivered at home. Past bad experience, and poor quality health services, also prevented women from having an institutional delivery. Conclusions Formative research is important to develop an understanding of local context. Sociocultural issues, perceived accessibility of health services, and perceived quality of care were all important barriers preventing institutional delivery. Targeting one factor alone may not be effective in increasing institutional deliveries. Our intervention encourages communities to develop local responses to address the factors preventing institutional delivery through women’s groups and improved health facility management. We will monitor perceptions of health services over time to help us understand the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:24576187

2014-01-01

412

Floating Drug Delivery of Nevirapine as a Gastroretentive System  

PubMed Central

A multiple-unit floating drug delivery system based on gas formation technique was developed, in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the dosage form. The floating bead formulations were prepared by dispersing nevirapine together with calcium carbonate in a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution and then dripping the dispersion into an acidified solution of calcium chloride. Calcium alginate beads were formed, as the alginate underwent ionotropic gelation by calcium ions, and carbon dioxide developed from the reaction of carbonate salts with acid. The obtained beads were able to float due to CO2-gas formation and the gas entrapment by the polymeric membrane. The prepared beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, morphology, surface topography, buoyancy, in-vitro release, and release kinetics. The formulations were optimized for different weight ratios of the gas-forming agent and sodium alginate. The beads containing higher amounts of calcium carbonate demonstrated an instantaneous, complete, and excellent floating ability over a period of 24 hours. The increased amount of the gas forming agent did not affect the time to float, but increased the drug release from the floating beads, while increasing the coating level of the gas-entrapped membrane, increased the time to float, and slightly retarded the drug release. Good floating properties and sustained drug release were achieved. Finally, these floating beads seemed to be a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system. PMID:21264092

Vedha, Hari BN; Brahma, Reddy A; Samyuktha, Rani B

2010-01-01

413

Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

2011-12-01

414

Delivery materials for siRNA therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RNA interference (RNAi) has broad potential as a therapeutic to reversibly silence any gene. To achieve the clinical potential of RNAi, delivery materials are required to transport short interfering RNA (siRNA) to the site of action in the cells of target tissues. This Review provides an introduction to the biological challenges that siRNA delivery materials aim to overcome, as well as a discussion of the way that the most effective and clinically advanced classes of siRNA delivery systems, including lipid nanoparticles and siRNA conjugates, are designed to surmount these challenges. The systems that we discuss are diverse in their approaches to the delivery problem, and provide valuable insight to guide the design of future siRNA delivery materials.

Kanasty, Rosemary; Dorkin, Joseph Robert; Vegas, Arturo; Anderson, Daniel

2013-11-01

415

Nanoparticle mediated non-covalent drug delivery?  

PubMed Central

The use of nanoparticles (NPs) for enhanced drug delivery has been heavily explored during the last decade. Within the field, it is has become increasingly apparent that the physical properties of the particles themselves dictate their efficacy, and the relevant non-covalent chemistry at the NP interface also influences how drugs are immobilized and delivered. In this review, we reflect on the physical chemistry of NP mediated drug delivery (and more specifically, non-covalent drug delivery) at the three main experimental stages of drug loading, NP–drug conjugate transport, and the resulting cellular drug delivery. Through a critical evaluation of advances in drug delivery within the last decade, an outlook for biomedical applications of nanoscale transport vectors will be presented. PMID:22664231

Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens

2013-01-01

416

Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOEpatents

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-03-04

417

Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

2009-01-01

418

Tissue-Specific Gene Delivery via Nanoparticle Coating  

E-print Network

The use of biomaterials for gene delivery can potentially avoid many of the safety concerns with viral gene delivery. However, the efficacy of polymeric gene delivery methods is low, particularly in vivo. One significant ...

Harris, Todd J.

419

40 CFR 141.155 - Report delivery and recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rooms of public buildings; delivery of multiple copies for distribution...large private employers; delivery to community organizations...by mail, door-to-door delivery or by posting in an appropriate location that the report is...

2013-07-01

420

48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section...and Clauses 452.247-70 Delivery Location. As prescribed in 447...substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988) Shipment...

2013-10-01

421

75 FR 1681 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on International Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has...to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory...open to the public). Location: The American Institute of...on International Postal and Delivery Services. Dennis M....

2010-01-12

422

40 CFR 141.155 - Report delivery and recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rooms of public buildings; delivery of multiple copies for distribution...large private employers; delivery to community organizations...by mail, door-to-door delivery or by posting in an appropriate location that the report is...

2011-07-01

423

43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...part. (a) Valid headgate deliveries. If water is delivered...District will stop the illegal delivery immediately; (2) The...including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The...included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of...

2011-10-01

424

48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section...and Clauses 452.247-70 Delivery Location. As prescribed in 447...substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988) Shipment...

2011-10-01

425

43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part. (a) Valid headgate deliveries. If water is delivered...District will stop the illegal delivery immediately; (2) The...including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The...included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of...

2013-10-01

426

48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section...and Clauses 452.247-70 Delivery Location. As prescribed in 447...substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988) Shipment...

2012-10-01

427

19 CFR 19.39 - Delivery for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exportation. (a) Delivery to land border locations —(1) Land border...certify receipt. (b) Delivery to seaport locations —(1) Seaport location...certify receipt. (c) Delivery to airport locations. Airport location...

2012-04-01

428

40 CFR 141.155 - Report delivery and recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rooms of public buildings; delivery of multiple copies for distribution...large private employers; delivery to community organizations...by mail, door-to-door delivery or by posting in an appropriate location that the report is...

2012-07-01

429

19 CFR 19.39 - Delivery for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exportation. (a) Delivery to land border locations —(1) Land border...certify receipt. (b) Delivery to seaport locations —(1) Seaport location...certify receipt. (c) Delivery to airport locations. Airport location...

2010-04-01

430

43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...part. (a) Valid headgate deliveries. If water is delivered...District will stop the illegal delivery immediately; (2) The...including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The...included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of...

2012-10-01

431

40 CFR 141.155 - Report delivery and recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rooms of public buildings; delivery of multiple copies for distribution...large private employers; delivery to community organizations...by mail, door-to-door delivery or by posting in an appropriate location that the report is...

2010-07-01

432

43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.  

...part. (a) Valid headgate deliveries. If water is delivered...District will stop the illegal delivery immediately; (2) The...including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The...included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of...

2014-10-01

433

19 CFR 19.39 - Delivery for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exportation. (a) Delivery to land border locations —(1) Land border...certify receipt. (b) Delivery to seaport locations —(1) Seaport location...certify receipt. (c) Delivery to airport locations. Airport location...

2013-04-01

434

48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section...and Clauses 452.247-70 Delivery Location. As prescribed in 447...substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988) Shipment...

2014-10-01

435

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2013-10-01

436

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2010-10-01

437

19 CFR 19.39 - Delivery for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exportation. (a) Delivery to land border locations —(1) Land border...certify receipt. (b) Delivery to seaport locations —(1) Seaport location...certify receipt. (c) Delivery to airport locations. Airport location...

2011-04-01

438

19 CFR 19.39 - Delivery for exportation.  

...exportation. (a) Delivery to land border locations —(1) Land border...certify receipt. (b) Delivery to seaport locations —(1) Seaport location...certify receipt. (c) Delivery to airport locations. Airport location...

2014-04-01

439

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2014-10-01

440

43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part. (a) Valid headgate deliveries. If water is delivered...District will stop the illegal delivery immediately; (2) The...including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The...included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of...

2010-10-01

441

48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section...and Clauses 452.247-70 Delivery Location. As prescribed in 447...substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988) Shipment...

2010-10-01

442

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2011-10-01

443

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2012-10-01

444

27 CFR 28.246 - Delivery for shipment.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delivery for shipment. 28.246 Section 28...ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Consignment § 28.246 Delivery for shipment. The proprietor or...

2014-04-01

445

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public...PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water...

2011-10-01

446

19 CFR 142.25 - Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. 142.25 Section 142...ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.25 Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. (a) Authority of port...

2011-04-01

447

19 CFR 191.24 - Certificate of manufacture and delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Certificate of manufacture and delivery. 191.24 Section 191.24 Customs...24 Certificate of manufacture and delivery. (a) When required. When...party, a certificate of manufacture and delivery shall be prepared and certified by...

2012-04-01

448

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public...PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water...

2012-10-01

449

19 CFR 191.34 - Certificate of delivery required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Certificate of delivery required. 191.34 Section 191...Drawback § 191.34 Certificate of delivery required. (a) Direct identification...destroyer, a properly executed certificate of delivery must be prepared by the importer...

2013-04-01

450

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public...PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water...

2013-10-01

451

42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457...Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems...description of the proposed methods of delivery and utilization control systems. A...

2014-10-01

452

19 CFR 191.24 - Certificate of manufacture and delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Certificate of manufacture and delivery. 191.24 Section 191.24 Customs...24 Certificate of manufacture and delivery. (a) When required. When...party, a certificate of manufacture and delivery shall be prepared and certified by...

2011-04-01

453

(WR121 -New Delivery Models) RECOGNIZES WHEN INFORMATION  

E-print Network

(WR121 - New Delivery Models) RECOGNIZES WHEN INFORMATION IS NEEDED Delivery Models) FINDS INFORMATION EFFICIENTLY: Successful learners know that knowledge to design effective search strategies (WR121 - New Delivery Models) LEARNS

Tullos, Desiree

454

31 CFR 211.1 - Withholding delivery of checks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Withholding delivery of checks. 211.1 Section 211...TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO ADDRESSES...POSSESSIONS § 211.1 Withholding delivery of checks. (a) It is...

2010-07-01

455

31 CFR 211.1 - Withholding delivery of checks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Withholding delivery of checks. 211.1 Section 211...TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO ADDRESSES...POSSESSIONS § 211.1 Withholding delivery of checks. (a) It is...

2011-07-01

456

31 CFR 211.1 - Withholding delivery of checks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Withholding delivery of checks. 211.1 Section 211...TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO ADDRESSES...POSSESSIONS § 211.1 Withholding delivery of checks. (a) It is...

2012-07-01

457

77 FR 10529 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Delivery Schedules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Information Collection; Delivery Schedules AGENCY: Department of Defense...information collection requirement concerning delivery schedules. Public comments are particularly...Information Collection 9000- 0043, Delivery Schedules by any of the following...

2012-02-22

458

19 CFR 191.34 - Certificate of delivery required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Certificate of delivery required. 191.34 Section 191...Drawback § 191.34 Certificate of delivery required. (a) Direct identification...destroyer, a properly executed certificate of delivery must be prepared by the importer...

2010-04-01

459

27 CFR 28.246 - Delivery for shipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Delivery for shipment. 28.246 Section 28...LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Consignment § 28.246 Delivery for shipment. The proprietor or...

2011-04-01

460

19 CFR 142.25 - Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. 142.25 Section 142...ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.25 Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. (a) Authority of port...

2012-04-01

461

19 CFR 191.34 - Certificate of delivery required.  

...2014-04-01 false Certificate of delivery required. 191.34 Section 191...Drawback § 191.34 Certificate of delivery required. (a) Direct identification...destroyer, a properly executed certificate of delivery must be prepared by the importer...

2014-04-01

462

27 CFR 28.246 - Delivery for shipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delivery for shipment. 28.246 Section 28...ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Consignment § 28.246 Delivery for shipment. The proprietor or...

2013-04-01

463

22 CFR 201.32 - Suppliers of delivery services.  

...2014-04-01 false Suppliers of delivery services. 201.32 Section...Suppliers § 201.32 Suppliers of delivery services. (a) Performance...service contract. The supplier of delivery services financed by USAID...

2014-04-01

464

19 CFR 191.24 - Certificate of manufacture and delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certificate of manufacture and delivery. 191.24 Section 191.24 Customs...24 Certificate of manufacture and delivery. (a) When required. When...party, a certificate of manufacture and delivery shall be prepared and certified by...

2013-04-01

465

47 CFR 64.1601 - Delivery requirements and privacy restrictions.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery requirements and privacy restrictions...Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1601 Delivery requirements and privacy restrictions. (a) Delivery. Except as provided in...

2014-10-01

466

19 CFR 142.25 - Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges.  

...2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. 142.25 Section 142...ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.25 Discontinuance of immediate delivery privileges. (a) Authority of port...

2014-04-01