Sample records for cme delivery format

  1. CME Activity Monitoring (ACCME Standards for Commercial Support 5: Content and Format Without Commercial Bias

    E-print Network

    any advertisements from commercial supporter appear in the same space as the CME activity? (Essential of commercial interests engage in sales or promotional activity while in the same space of the CME ActivityCME Activity Monitoring (ACCME Standards for Commercial Support 5: Content and Format Without

  2. CME Theory and Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Forbes; J. A. Linker; J. Chen; C. Cid; J. Kóta; M. A. Lee; G. Mann; Z. Mikic; M. S. Potgieter; J. M. Schmidt; G. L. Siscoe; R. Vainio; S. K. Antiochos; P. Riley

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current efforts in the theory and modeling of CMEs. Five key areas are discussed: (1)\\u000a CME initiation; (2) CME evolution and propagation; (3) the structure of interplanetary CMEs derived from flux rope modeling;\\u000a (4) CME shock formation in the inner corona; and (5) particle acceleration and transport at CME driven shocks. In the section

  3. CME -CME interaction: Kinematics & Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Nandita; Mishra, Wageesh

    2015-04-01

    The launch of STEREO spacecraft with the capability of heliospheric imaging alongwith in-situ observations have provided us an opportunity to track and understand the propagation of CMEs from the Sun to the Earth and beyond. We present the results of a study based on several cases of CME-CME interaction observed by STEREO/HI instruments. These CMEs were launched in quick succession and interacted as they propagated in the inner heliosphere. We estimate the 3D kinematics of these interacting CMEs using stereoscopic observations and examine the nature of their collision /interaction and exchange of momentum during interaction. We also compare the actual arrival times of these CMEs with that estimated from the 3D kinematics. This would help us to understand the role of the post-collision kinematics dependence on the actual arrival time of these CMEs at the in-situ spacecraft. Further, we examine the signatures of collision/interaction of CMEs in in-situ observations. The consequences of interaction in strengthening the geoeffectiveness of CMEs will also be presented.

  4. CME Prediction from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    We have found that active regions that are likely to be CME productive can be identified from measures of their nonpotentiality from magnetograms. We have developed four different measures from vector magnetograms and another that can be obtained from a line-of-sight magnetogram. We find that all five measures are strongly correlated with CME productivity to a similar degree. Hence, all five are roughly equally good predictors of active-region CME productivity. Since the measures all have similar predictive ability, the measures that are easiest to reliably measure are the best for operational forecasting of CMEs. The two best measures are the length of strong-shear main neutral line L(sub SS) (the length of the main neutral line with the magnetic shear angle greater than 45deg and observed transverse field greater than 150G) and the length of strong-gradient main neutral line L(sub G) (the length of the main neutral line with line-of-sight magnetic field greater than 50G/Mm and potential transverse field greater than 150G). As L(sub G) is measured from line-of-sight magnetograms it opens the larger data base of SOHO/MDI and Kitt Peak line-of-sight magnetograms for CME prediction study. This is especially important for evolutionary studies, with SOHO/MDI having no daylight, cloudy weather, or atmospheric seeing problems.

  5. CME Plotting Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the movement of a coronal mass ejection. Learners will plot the path of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs), both the distance traveled and the increasing angular width, as they leave the Sun and travel outward through the Solar System. Then, they will sketch the path of the CMEs and identify the location on the Sun from which a CME would need to leave in order for it to hit Earth. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring the Wind from the Sun educator guide.

  6. Ensemble modeling of CME propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. O.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.; Odstrcil, D.; Millward, G. H.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Wang-Sheeley-Arge(WSA)-Enlil-cone modeling system is used for making routine arrival time forecasts of the Earth-directed "halo" coronal mass ejections (CMEs), since they typically produce the most geoeffective events. A major objective of this work is to better understand the sensitivity of the WSA-Enlil modeling results to input model parameters and how these parameters contribute to the overall model uncertainty and performance. We present ensemble modeling results for a simple halo CME event that occurred on 15 February 2011 and a succession of three halo CME events that occurred on 2-4 August 2011. During this period the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) A and B spacecraft viewed the CMEs over the solar limb, thereby providing more reliable constraints on the initial CME geometries during the manual cone fitting process. To investigate the sensitivity of the modeled CME arrival times to small variations in the input cone properties, for each CME event we create an ensemble of numerical simulations based on multiple sets of cone parameters. We find that the accuracy of the modeled arrival times not only depends on the initial input CME geometry, but also on the reliable specification of the background solar wind, which is driven by the input maps of the photospheric magnetic field. As part of the modeling ensemble, we simulate the CME events using the traditional daily updated maps as well as those that are produced by the Air Force data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model, which provide a more instantaneous snapshot of the photospheric field distribution. For the August 2011 events, in particular, we find that the accuracy in the arrival time predictions also depends on whether the cone parameters for all three CMEs are specified in a single WSA-Enlil simulation. The inclusion/exclusion of one or two of the preceding CMEs affects the solar wind conditions through which the succeeding CME propagates.

  7. Performance improvement CME: adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Barkley, Russell A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is now understood to be a lifelong condition for most individuals. Unfortunately, many adults with ADHD are not being diagnosed, possibly due to insufficient diagnostic criteria, the complex presentation of the disorder, and a reluctance by physicians to diagnose the disorder in adults. Additionally, many of those who have been diagnosed with ADHD do not receive adequate treatment despite the availability of established and effective agents. Performance Improvement CME (PI CME) is an educational activity in which clinicians retrospectively assess their current clinical practice, choose areas for improvement and implement interventions based on treatment guidelines and health care standards, and then re-evaluate their clinical practice to assess the improvements made. This PI CME activity focuses on improving the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. PMID:21527121

  8. Hematometra formation- a rare complication of cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Jain, Sandhya; Sharma, Abha; Vaid, Neelam Bala

    2014-08-01

    Hematometra resulting from partial or complete obstruction of lower genital tract may be congenital or acquired. Commonest congenital causes are imperforate hymen and transverse vaginal septum. Acquired causes are senile atrophy of endocervical canal, scarring of the isthmus by synechiae, radiation and endocervical malignancy or due to surgical procedures. Various surgical procedures associated with hematometra are dilatation and curettage, cone biopsy, endometrial ablation, cryocoagulation and electrocautery. Hematometra following an abortion or cesarean delivery is rare. We report a case of hematometra following obstruction of outflow tract due to prior cesarean delivery. PMID:25302239

  9. Online CME options: an update.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Online options for continuing medical education (CME) are multiplying, thanks to technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) feeds, podcasts, and blogs. As with traditional CME modalities, there are issues of accreditation, quality, cost, and relevance. Physician-directed syndication technologies are especially significant in the area of relevance, because they provide subscriber-side filtering of the growing amount of information available online. As the medical education community embraces the technologies enabling targeted dissemination of information, physicians can expect more and better focused medical education experiences. PMID:16986645

  10. Parametric Study of CME Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Zhang, T. X.; Fry, C. F.; Tan, A.

    2003-05-01

    Observations obtained by Skylab and SMM using HAO/CP (MacQueen and Fisher, 1983) and by the recent SOHO/LASCO mission (Andrews and Howard, 2001) indicate that there at two distinct types of CMEs with different kinematic characteristics. These are (a) constant velocity CMEs and (b) accelerated CMEs. Recently, Low and Zhang (2002) have proposed a theoretical model based on specific magnetic topology which could explain these two types of CME kinematic properties. This theoretical model was attested by observation (Zhang et al. 2002) and simulated by using MHD models (Liu et al. 2002). To investigate the potential mechanisms to reveal these two types of CME kinematic properties, we have used a 2 1/2-D streamer and flux-rope MHD model (Wu and Guo, 1997) by specifying the total magnetic energy content of the streamer and flux-rope system which forms a perturbation at the lower boundary. Our results show (a) that the accelerated CMEs are due solely to the flux-rope eruption which destabilizes the streamer and (b) that the constant speed CMEs are due to drainage of flux rope material with additional heat. The results also showed that the higher the magnetic energy content of the system, the higher the CME propagation speed. Work by STW and TXZ is supported by a NASA grant NAG5-12843 and CDF's work is supported by NASA Grant NAG5-12527 and the DOD University Partnering for Operational Support (UPOS) program.

  11. The future of academic libraries: changing formats and changing delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Wood; James H. Walther

    2000-01-01

    Time is of the essence for librarians to review the pace of change occurring within higher education and how information will be provided in academic libraries to their vastly changing student population. The integration of technology in higher education has an impact on academic libraries in two direct ways: changing material formats and the scholarly communication options; and changing how

  12. Professional Development Integrating Technology: Does Delivery Format Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Rubino-Hare, Lori; Bloom, Nena; Fredrickson, Kristi; Henderson-Dahms, Carol; Menasco, Jackie; Sample, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the two Power of Data (POD) projects was to increase science, technology and math skills through the implementation of project-based learning modules that teach students how to solve problems through data collection and analysis utilizing geospatial technologies. Professional development institutes in two formats were offered to…

  13. Role of Components in the Formation of Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gurram, A. K.; Deshpande, P. B.; Kar, S. S.; Nayak, Usha Y.; Udupa, N.; Reddy, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical research is focused in designing novel drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems, one among the lipid-based dosage forms were proven to be promising in improving the oral bioavailability of such drugs by enhancing solubility, permeability and avoiding first-pass metabolism via enhanced lymphatic transport. Further, they have been successful in avoiding both inter and intra individual variations as well as the dose disproportionality. Aqueous insoluble drugs, in general, show greater solubility in lipid based excipients, and hence they are formulated as lipid based drug delivery systems. The extent of solubility of a hydrophobic drug in lipid excipients i.e. oil, surfactant and co-surfactant (components of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems) greatly affects the drug loading and in producing stable self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. The present review highlighted the influence of physicochemical factors and structural features of the hydrophobic drug on its solubility in lipid excipients and an attempt was made to explore the role of each component of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems in the formation of stable microemulsion upon dilution. PMID:26180269

  14. Mechanism of Membranous Tunnelling Nanotube Formation in Viral Genome Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Bibiana; Gil-Carton, David; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Bertin, Aurelie; Boulogne, Claire; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Abrescia, Nicola G. A.

    2013-01-01

    In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems. PMID:24086111

  15. College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 CME 006 THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION (JUNIOR AND SENIOR). (0) Activities of the Student Chapter of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  16. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for polyunsaturated (?-3) oils: formation using a spontaneous emulsification method.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Alessandro; Saberi, Amir Hossein; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; McClements, David Julian

    2014-02-19

    Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems are finding increasing utilization to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive components in food, personal care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, a spontaneous emulsification method was used to fabricate nanoemulsions from polyunsaturated (?-3) oils, that is, fish oil. This low-energy method relies on formation of fine oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is added to an aqueous solution. The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), oil composition (lemon oil and MCT), and cosolvent composition (glycerol, ethanol, propylene glycol, and water) on the formation and stability of the systems was determined. Optically transparent nanoemulsions could be formed by controlling SOR, oil composition, and aqueous phase composition. The spontaneous emulsification method therefore has considerable potential for fabricating nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for incorporating polyunsatured oils into clear food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24475908

  17. FAST AND EFFECTIVE REMEDIES FOR THE DELIVERY OF WEB-BASED FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT MATERIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Bull; Patrick Zhao; David Binks; Alison Foulkes; Paul Thomas; Clive Young

    Academics at higher education institutions are turning increasingly to web-based technologies to supplement and enhance their existing face-to-face teaching and develop richer learning environments for distance learners. An important part of this online teaching is the delivery of effective formative assessment allowing the student to test their knowledge and manage their learning efficiently. Staff engaged in this activity are faced

  18. The Solar Stormwatch CME catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Since the launch of the twin STEREO satellites in late 2006, the Heliospheric Imagers have been used, with good results, in tracking transients of solar origin, such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), out through the inner heliosphere. A frequently used approach is to build a "J-Map", in which multiple elongation profiles along a constant position angle are stacked in time, building an image in which radially propagating transients form curved tracks in the J-Map. From this the time-elongation profile of a solar transient can be manually identified. This is a time consuming and laborious process, and the results are subjective, depending on the skill and expertise of the investigator. With the Heliospheric Imager data it is possible to follow CMEs from the outer limits of the solar corona all the way to 1AU. Solar Stormwatch is a citizen science project that employs the power of thousands of volunteers to both identify and track CMEs in the Heliospheric Imager data. The CMEs identified by Solar Stormwatch are tracked many times by multiple users and this allows the calculation of consensus time-elongation profiles for each event and also provides an estimate of the error in the consensus profile. Therefore this system does not suffer from the potential subjectivity of individual researchers identifying and tracking CMEs. In this sense, the Solar Stormwatch system can be thought of as providing a middle ground between manually identified CME catalogues, such as the CDAW list, and CME catalogues generated through fully automated algorithms, such as CACtus and ARTEMIS etc. We provide a summary of the reduction of the Solar Stormwatch data into a catalogue of CMEs observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B through the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and review some key statistical properties of these CMEs. Through some case studies of the propagation of CMEs out into the inner heliosphere we argue that the Solar Stormwatch CME catalogue, which publishes the time-elongation profiles of CMEs observed at multiple position angles, is a new and valuable dataset for space weather community.

  19. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  20. Ensemble Modeling of CME Propagation and Geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. Leila; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Pulkkinen, Antti; MacNeice, Peter; Rastätter, Lutz; Odstrcil, Dusan; Jian, Lan; Richardson, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Ensemble modeling of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) provides a probabilistic forecast of CME arrival time which includes an estimation of arrival time uncertainty from the spread and distribution of predictions and forecast confidence in the likelihood of CME arrival. The real-time ensemble modeling of CME propagation uses the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL+Cone model installed at the {Community Coordinated Modeling Center} (CCMC) and executed in real-time at the CCMC/{Space Weather Research Center}. The current implementation of this ensemble modeling method evaluates the sensitivity of WSA-ENLIL+Cone model simulations of CME propagation to initial CME parameters. We discuss the results of real-time ensemble simulations for a total of 35 CME events which occurred between January 2013 - July 2014. For the 17 events where the CME was predicted to arrive at Earth, the mean absolute arrival time prediction error was 12.3 hours, which is comparable to the errors reported in other studies. For predictions of CME arrival at Earth the correct rejection rate is 62%, the false-alarm rate is 38%, the correct alarm ratio is 77%, and false alarm ratio is 23%. The arrival time was within the range of the ensemble arrival predictions for 8 out of 17 events. The Brier Score for CME arrival predictions is 0.15 (where a score of 0 on a range of 0 to 1 is a perfect forecast), which indicates that on average, the predicted probability, or likelihood, of CME arrival is fairly accurate. The reliability of ensemble CME arrival predictions is heavily dependent on the initial distribution of CME input parameters (e.g. speed, direction, and width), particularly the median and spread. Preliminary analysis of the probabilistic forecasts suggests undervariability, indicating that these ensembles do not sample a wide enough spread in CME input parameters. Prediction errors can also arise from ambient model parameters, the accuracy of the solar wind background derived from coronal maps, or other model limitations. Finally, predictions of the KP geomagnetic index differ from observed values by less than one for 11 out of 17 of the ensembles and KP prediction errors computed from the mean predicted KP show a mean absolute error of 1.3. The CCMC, located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is an interagency partnership to facilitate community research and accelerate implementation of progress in research into space weather operations. The CCMC also serves the {Space Weather Scoreboard} website (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/SWScoreBoard) to the research community who may submit CME arrival time predictions in real-time for a variety of forecasting methods. The website facilitates model validation under real-time conditions and enables collaboration. For every CME event table on the site, the average of all submitted forecasts is automatically computed, thus itself providing a community-wide ensemble mean CME arrival time and impact forecast from a variety of models/methods.

  1. pH-sensitive tubular polymersomes: formation and applications in cellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James D; Yealland, Guy; Avila-Olias, Milagros; Chierico, Luca; Bandmann, Oliver; Renshaw, Stephen A; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2014-05-27

    Optimizing the shape of a nanovector influences its interaction with a cell and determines the internalization kinetics. Block copolymer amphiphiles self-assemble into monodisperse structures in aqueous solutions and have been explored extensively as drug delivery vectors. However, the structure of self-assembled block copolymers has mainly been limited to spherical vesicles or spherical and worm-like micelles. Here we show the controlled formation and purification of tubular polymersomes, long cylindrical vesicles. Tubular polymersomes are purified from other structures, and their formation is manipulated by incorporating the biocompatible membrane components cholesterol and phospholipids. Finally we show that these tubular polymersomes have different cellular internalization kinetics compared with spherical polymersomes and can successfully encapsulate and deliver fluorescent bovine serum albumin protein intracellularly. PMID:24724711

  2. What flare and CME parameters control the occurrence of solar proton events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we examine the occurrence probabilities of solar proton events (SPEs) and their peak fluxes depending on both flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters: flare peak flux, longitude, impulsive time, CME linear speed, and angular width. For this we use the NOAA SPEs, their associated X-ray flares, and CME from 1997 to 2011. We divide the data into 16 subgroups according to the flare and CME parameters and estimate the SPE probabilities for the subgroups. The three highest probabilities are found for the following subgroups: (1) fast full halo (55.3%) and fast partial halo (42.9%) CMEs associated with strong flares from the western region and (2) slow full halo CMEs associated with strong flares from the western region (31.6%). It is noted that the events whose SPE probabilities are nearly 0% belong to the following subgroups: (1) slow and fast partial halo CMEs from the eastern region, (2) slow partial halo CMEs from the western region, and (3) slow full halo CMEs from the eastern region. These results show that important parameters to control SPE occurrences are CME linear speed, angular width, and source longitude, which can be understood by the piston-driven shock formation of fast CMEs and magnetic field connectivity from the source site to the Earth. It is also shown that when the subgroups are separately considered by flare impulsive time and source longitude, the correlation coefficients between the observed and the predicted SPE peak fluxes are greatly improved.

  3. HELCATS Prediction of Planetary CME arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakes, Peter; Moestl, Christian; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Byrne, Jason; Barnes, David; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Rollett, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results of CME arrival time prediction at different planetary locations and their comparison to the in situ data within the HELCATS project. The EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis & Techniques Service) is a European effort to consolidate the exploitation of the maturing field of heliospheric imaging. HELCATS aims to catalogue solar wind transients, observed by the NASA STEREO Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments, and validate different methods for the determination of their kinematic properties. This validation includes comparison with arrivals at Earth, and elsewhere in the heliosphere, as well as onsets at the Sun (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/). A preliminary catalogue of manually identified CMEs, with over 1000 separate events, has been created from observations made by the STEREO/HI instruments covering the years 2007-2013. Initial speeds and directions of each CME have been derived through fitting the time elongation profile to the state of the art Self-Similar Expansion Fitting (SSEF) geometric technique (Davies et al., 2012). The technique assumes that, in the plane corresponding to the position angle of interest, CMEs can be modelled as circles subtending a fixed angular width to Sun-center and propagating anti-sunward in a fixed direction at a constant speed (we use an angular width of 30 degrees in our initial results). The model has advantages over previous geometric models (e.g. harmonic mean or fixed phi) as it allows one to predict whether a CME will 'hit' a specific heliospheric location, as well as to what degree (e.g. direct assault or glancing blow). We use correction formulae (Möstl and Davies, 2013) to convert CME speeds, direction and launch time to speed and arrival time at any in situ location. From the preliminary CME dataset, we derive arrival times for over 400 Earth-directed CMEs, and for over 100 Mercury-, Venus-, Mars- and Saturn-directed CMEs predicted to impact each planet. We present statistics of predicted CME arrival properties. In addition, we independently identify CME arrival at in situ locations using magnetic field data from the Venus Express, Messenger, and Ulysses spacecraft and show first comparisons to predicted arrival times. The results hold important implications for space weather prediction at Earth and other locations, allowing model and predicted CME parameters to be compared to their in situ counterparts.

  4. Learning to Collaborate: A Case Study of Performance Improvement CME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shershneva, Marianna B.; Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Loose, Anne-Sophie; Olson, Curtis A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) is a mechanism for joining quality improvement (QI) in health care to continuing medical education (CME) systems together. Although QI practices and CME approaches have been recognized for years, what emerges from their integration is largely unfamiliar, because it…

  5. CME and Change in Practice: An Alternative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wergin, Jon F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Results of a study by the American College of Cardiology revealed that continuing medical education (CME) courses contain relatively little information that is new to the audience, that other influences on practice interact with CME content, and that change attributable to CME is subtle and often delayed. (JOW)

  6. Using Focus Groups for Strategic Planning in a CME Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takhar, Jatinder; Tipping, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The University of Western Ontario, having established a fully functional continuing medical education (CME) office over the last 4 years, needed to plan the future for its academic CME unit. It needs a method for evaluating the progress and shaping the organizational future of the CME unit. A literature search and consultations suggested focus…

  7. Sharing Collaborative Designs of Tobacco Cessation Performance Improvement CME Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Ales, Mary W.; Cho, Jane; Nelson, Teena M.; Rodrigues, Shelly B.; Speight, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) provides an important opportunity for CME providers to combine educational and quality health care improvement methodologies. Very few CME providers take on the challenges of planning this type of intervention because it is still a new practice and there are limited…

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  9. Characteristics of Kinematics of a Coronal Mass Ejection During the 2010 August 1 CME-CME Interaction Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Vrsnak, Bojan; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; de Koning, Curt A.; Liu, Ying; Bosman, Eckhard; Davies, Jackie A.; Mostl, Christian; Zic, Tomislav; Veronig, Astrid M.; Bothmer, Volker; Harrison, Richard; Nitta, Nariaki; Bisi, Mario; Flor, Olga; Eastwood, Jonathan; Odstrcil, Dusan; Forsyth, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and HI data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field-of-view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; (is) approximately 1200 km s-1) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; (is) approximately 700 km s-1). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2 suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  10. www.chop.edu/cme Second Annual

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    www.chop.edu/cme Second Annual Diagnosis and Management of Concussion: Acute and Specialized with concussion. Sessions will provide guidelines for the evaluation and diagnosis of concussion, including athletes in the academic setting from elementary school through college will be presented. Therapeutic

  11. Evaluation of a Thiolated Chitosan Scaffold for Local Delivery of BMP-2 for Osteogenic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Thiolated chitosan (Thio-CS) is a well-established pharmaceutical excipient for drug delivery. However, its use as a scaffold for bone formation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Thio-CS in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery and bone formation. In vitro study showed that BMP-2 interacted with the Thio-CS and did not affect the swelling behavior. The release kinetics of BMP-2 from the Thio-CS was slightly delayed (70%) within 7 days compared with that from collagen gel (Col-gel, 85%), which is widely used in BMP-2 delivery. The BMP-2 released from Thio-CS increased osteoblastic cell differentiation but did not show any cytotoxicity until 21 days. Analysis of the in vivo ectopic bone formation at 4 weeks of posttransplantation showed that use of Thio-CS for BMP-2 delivery induced more bone formation to a greater extent (1.8 fold) than that of Col-gel. However, bone mineral density in both bones was equivalent, regardless of Thio-CS or Col-gel carrier. Taken together, Thio-CS system might be useful for delivering osteogenic protein BMP-2 and present a promising bone regeneration strategy. PMID:24024213

  12. Magnetic cloud and magnetosphere-ionosphere response related to the 6 November 1997 CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochev, A.

    Recently the interest in the problems of coronal mass ejection (CME) - magnetic cloud (MC) relations or CME signatures in the magnetosphere is being increased. The present work investigates the MC and its magnetosphere -ionosphere response, directly related to the 6 November 1997 CME. We analyse the magnetic field and plasma parameters at 1 AU by using the WIND data recorded on 9 November 1997. The appearance of a hotter and dense part (dense filament), radial extent 10 6 km, immediately behind the frontal part of the cloud, is the most distinctive feature of the event. It is shown that the major portion of the power transferred to the magnetosphere -ionosphere is concentrated in the dense filament. The INTERBALL - Auroral Probe had the rare chance to observe field-aligned currents in mid - altitude magnetosphere in the initial phase of the magnetic substorm provoked by the dense filament. We emphasise the appearance of intense "N"- shape magnetic structure, duration about 3 min, at the poleward edge of the Harang discontinuity. Then we examine series of consecutive or simultaneous solar phenomena in AR 8100 starting with a white light flare (WLF), observed in the Haskovo Astronomical Observatory, Bulgaria, and ending with the 6 November 1997 CME registered by the SOHO. We refer to the scenario of CME formation from evaporated chromosphere plasma due to the WLF. This model predicts some features of the observed MC/dense filament at 1 AU which enables us to assume that the CME event generated after the WLF event in AR 8100 preserves its configuration along its way in the interplanetary space.

  13. Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.

  14. Global Trends of CME Deflections Based on CME and Solar Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Evans, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), including any deflections close to the Sun or through interplanetary space. Kay et al. introduced ForeCAT, a model of CME deflection resulting from the background solar magnetic field. For a magnetic field solution corresponding to Carrington Rotation (CR) 2029 (declining phase, 2005 April–May), the majority of the CMEs deflected to the Heliospheric Current Sheet, the minimum in magnetic pressure on global scales. Most of the deflection occurred below 4 {{R}? }. Here we extend ForeCAT to include a three-dimensional description of the deflecting CME. We attempt to answer the following questions: (1) do all CMEs deflect to the magnetic minimum? and (2) does most deflection occur within the first few solar radii (4 {{R}? })? Results for solar minimum and declining-phase CMEs show that not every CME deflects to the magnetic minimum and that typically the majority of the deflection occurs below 10 {{R}? }. Slow, wide, low-mass CMEs in declining-phase solar backgrounds with strong magnetic field and magnetic gradients exhibit the largest deflections. Local gradients related to active regions tend to cause the largest deviations from the deflection predicted by global magnetic gradients, but variations can also be seen for CMEs in the quiet-Sun regions of the declining-phase CR. We show the torques due to differential forces along the CME can cause rotation about the CME’s toroidal axis.

  15. Forecasting Dst index using CME expansion speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Braga, C. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Rawat, R.; Echer, E.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that solar eruptive phenomena, in particular coronal mass ejections (CMEs), their corresponding interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs) and driven shocks are the main origins of southward-directed Bz, which drive geomagnetic disturbances. The ability to predict geomagnetic storms, however, is still a big challenge because details on this Bz fields are difficult to be obtained with a lead time of tens of hours to days. If estimates of Bz and solar wind speed at 1AU are available, it is possible to derive the peak Disturbance Storm-Time Dst index using Burton et al. (1975) formula. Previous works have addressed empirical methods to obtain Bz from total magnetic field strength and solar wind velocity inside interplanetary magnetic clouds. Empirical estimates of ICME speeds at 1AU from CME speeds measured in coronagraphs have also been proposed. In this work, an attempt is made to forecast the geomagnetic Dst index using observations of coronal mass ejection (CME) expansion speed observed in coronagraphs. Only those cases in which a CME was associated with a magnetic cloud at 1 AU are addressed.

  16. Making other earths: dynamical simulations of terrestrial planet formation and water delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean N. Raymond; Thomas R. Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

    2004-01-01

    We present results from 44 simulations of late stage planetary accretion, focusing on the delivery of volatiles (primarily water) to the terrestrial planets. Our simulations include both planetary “embryos” (defined as Moon to Mars sized protoplanets) and planetesimals, assuming that the embryos formed via oligarchic growth. We investigate volatile delivery as a function of Jupiter's mass, position and eccentricity, the

  17. The Search for Correlation Between BISON Smmf Data and Cme's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, William J.; Dumbill, Andy M.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Isaak, George R.; McLeod, Clive P.; Miller, Brek A.; New, Roger; Pinter, Balazs

    The Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON) has acquired high precision solar mean magnetic field (SMMF) data on a 40-second cadence for a decade. We present first attempts to compare such data from recent years with the occurence of CME's as recorded by LASCO using correlation techniques applied to measurements from different BiSON instruments to maximise the sensitivity to CME related SMMF responses. SMMF measurements were recorded at the time of occurence of several hundreds CME's.

  18. Deflected Propagation ---- A Factor Deciding the Geoeffectiveness of A CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, J.; Gui, B.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    To answer the question if a CME can cause a significant change of the states of geo-space, the first issue we have to address is whether or not the CME will intersect with the Earth or what the trajectory of the CME is. From several observational cases and statistical studies, we show that the deflected propagations of CMEs are a common phenomenon. The amount of the deflection could be as large as several tens degrees in either latitude, longitude or both. Thus, an on-disk CME may not necessarily encounter the Earth, while a limb CME may be able to hit the Earth. Roughly, the CMEs' deflections can be classified as two different kinds. One is the deflection occurring in the corona, in which the CME's trajectory is controled by the distribution of the energy density of undisturbed coronal magnetic field. The other is that happenning in the IP space and in the ecliptic plane, in which the direction of the CME's propagation will be changed by the preceding or trailing background solar wind plasma depending on the velocity difference between the CME and ambient solar wind. Two models are proposed to describe the two different CME deflection behaviors, respectively. By applying the models to several cases, we may show that the trajectories of these CMEs predicted by the models match the observations fairly well.

  19. Nanoparticle (star polymer) delivery of nitric oxide effectively negates Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hien T T; Jung, Kenward; Kutty, Samuel K; Agustina, Sri; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Basuki, Johan S; Kumar, Naresh; Davis, Thomas P; Barraud, Nicolas; Boyer, Cyrille

    2014-07-14

    Biofilms are increasingly recognized as playing a major role in human infectious diseases, as they can form on both living tissues and abiotic surfaces, with serious implications for applications that rely on prolonged exposure to the body such as implantable biomedical devices or catheters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutics to effectively eradicate unwanted biofilms. Recently, the biological signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) was identified as a key regulator of dispersal events in biofilms. In this paper, we report a new class of core cross-linked star polymers designed to store and release nitric oxide, in a controlled way, for the dispersion of biofilms. First, core cross-linked star polymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) via an arm first approach. Poly(oligoethylene methoxy acrylate) chains were synthesized by RAFT polymerization, and then chain extended in the presence of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-5-oxazolone monomer (VDM) with N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) employed as a cross-linker to yield functional core cross-linked star polymers. Spermine was successfully attached to the star core by reaction with VDM. Finally, the secondary amine groups were reacted with NO gas to yield NO-core cross-linked star polymers. The core cross-linked star polymers were found to release NO in a controlled, slow delivery in bacterial cultures showing great efficacy in preventing both cell attachment and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa over time via a nontoxic mechanism, confining bacterial growth to the suspended liquid. PMID:24915286

  20. Evaluating Conflicts of Interest in Research Presented in CME Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy L.; Galliher, James M.; Spano, Mindy S.; Main, Deborah S.; Brannigan, Michael; Pace, Wilson D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is much in the literature regarding the potential for commercial bias in clinical research and in continuing medical education (CME), but no studies were found regarding the potential for bias in reporting original research in CME venues. This pilot study investigated the presence of perceived bias in oral and print content of…

  1. Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

  2. Attendees' Perceptions of Commercial Influence in Noncommercially Funded CME Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Baer, Lee; Fromson, John A.; Gorrindo, Tristan; Iodice, Kristin E.; Birnbaum, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The controversy surrounding commercial support for continuing medical education (CME) programs has led to policy changes, but data show no significant difference in perceived bias between commercial and noncommercial CME. Indeed, what attendees perceive as commercial influence is not fully understood. We sought to clarify what…

  3. The Nature of CME-flare Associated Coronal Dimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J.; Qiu, J.; Sullivan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by coronal dimming evident in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray observations. The locations of dimming are sometimes considered to map foot-points of the erupting flux rope. As emitting material expands in the corona, the decreased plasma density leads to reduced emission observed in spectral and irradiance measurements. Therefore, signatures of dimming may be used to diagnose initiation of CMEs. We analyze three events of flare, CME, and coronal dimming. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatorys EUVI, COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity for the associated CMEs. We also calculate the magnetic reconnection rate from the Helioseismic and Magnetic (HMI) combined with AIA 1600. The magnetic reconnection fluxes are correlated well with CME height profiles while the reconnection rate peaks at the CME acceleration maximum. In two events, the dimming light curve also shows good correlation with the CME height evolution. We model the dimming evolution based on several different assumptions of CME expansion: isothermal or adiabatic, self-similar or one-dimensional. The observed dimming light curves agree with the calculations based on one dimensional, isothermal CME expansion model. Dimming in the third event cannot be described by the above CME expansion models, and we speculate that the nature of dimming associated with the third CME event is different from the other two.

  4. Solar cycle variation of real CME latitudes

    E-print Network

    Song Wenbin; Feng Xueshang; Hu Yanqi

    2007-08-02

    With the assumption of radial motion and uniform longitudinal distribution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we propose a method to eliminate projection effects from the apparent observed CME latitude distribution. This method has been applied to SOHO LASCO data from 1996 January to 2006 December. As a result, we find that the real CME latitude distribution had the following characteristics: (1) High-latitude CMEs ($\\theta>60^{\\circ}$ where $\\theta$ is the latitude) constituted 3% of all CMEs and mainly occurred during the time when the polar magnetic fields reversed sign. The latitudinal drift of the high-latitude CMEs was correlated with that of the heliospheric current sheet. (2) 4% of all CMEs occurred in the range $45^{\\circ}\\leq\\theta\\leq60^{\\circ}$. These mid-latitude CMEs occurred primarily in 2000, near the middle of 2002 and in 2005, respectively, forming a prominent three-peak structure; (3) The highest occurrence probability of low-latitude ($\\theta< 45^{\\circ}$) CMEs was at the minimum and during the declining phase of the solar cycle. However, the highest occurrence rate of low-latitude CMEs was at the maximum and during the declining phase of the solar cycle. The latitudinal evolution of low-latitude CMEs did not follow the Sp\\"{o}rer sunspot law, which suggests that many CMEs originated outside of active regions.

  5. Tracking a CME from Cradle to Grave: A Multi-wavelength Analysis of the February 6-7, 1997 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kundu, M. R.; Hanaoka, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Hudson, H.; Nitta, N.; Thompson, B.; Gurman, J.; Plunkett, S.; Howard, R.; Burkepile, J.

    1997-05-01

    The partially earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 1997 February 6-7 originated from the southwest quadrant of the sun. The CME accelerated from 170 km/s to about 830 km/s when it reached a distance of 25 solar radii. The CME was an arcade eruption followed by bright prominence core structures. The prominence core was tracked continuously from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium by combining data from the Nobeyama radioheliograph (microwaves), Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (He 10830 { Angstroms}), SOHO/EIT (EUV) and SOHO/LASCO (white light). The CME was accompanied by an arcade formation, fully observed by the YOHKOH/SXT (soft X-rays) and SOHO/EIT (EUV). The X-ray and EUV observations suggest that the reconnection proceeded from the northwest end to the southeast end of a filament channel. In the SOHO/EIT images, the the feet of the soft X-ray arcade were observed as EUV ribbons. The CME event also caused a medium sized geomagnetic storm: The hourly equatorial Dst values attained storm level during 18:00-19:00 UT on February 09. This means the disturbance took about 2.25 days to reach the Earth. The first signatures of an IP shock was a pressure jump in the WIND data around 13:00 UT on Feb 09, 1997 which lasted for about 14 hours, followed by flux rope signatures. This CME event confirms a number of ideas about CMEs: The three part structure (frontal bright arcade, dark cavity and prominence core), disappearing filament, elongated arcade formation, and terrestrial effects. We make use of the excellent data coverage from the solar surface to the Earth to address a number of issues regarding the origin and propagation of the geoeffective solar disturbances. We benefited from discussions at the first SOHO-Yohkoh Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop, held March 3-7, 1997, at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  6. A statistical study of post-flare-associated CME events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, M.; Mawad, R.; shaltout, Mosalam

    2013-04-01

    We present a statistical study of post-flare-associated CMEs (PFA-CMEs) during the period from 1996 to 2010. By investigating all CMEs and X-ray flares, respectively, in the LASCO and GOES archives, we found 15875 CMEs of which masses are well measured and 25112 X-ray flares of which positions are determined from their optical counterparts. Under certain temporal and spatial criteria of these CMEs and solar flare events, 291PFA-CMEs events have been selected. Linking the flare fluxes with CME speeds of these paired events, we found that there is a reasonable positive linear relation between the CME linear speed and associated flare flux. The results show also the CME width increases as the flux of its associated solar flare increases. Besides we found that there is a fine positive linear relation between the CME mass and its width. Matching the flare fluxes with CME masses of these paired events, we find the CME mass increases as the flux of its associated solar flare increases. Finally we find the PFA-CME events are in regular more decelerated than the other CMEs.

  7. Pre-CME Onset Fuses - Do the STEREO Heliospheric Imagers Hold the Clues to the CME Onset Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Richard A.; Davis, Christopher J.; Davies, Jackie A.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the onset of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is surely one of the holy grails of solar physics today. Inspection of data from the Heliospheric Imagers (HI), which are part of the SECCHI instrument suite aboard the two NASA STEREO spacecraft, appears to have revealed pre-eruption signatures which may provide valuable evidence for identifying the CME onset mechanism. Specifically, an examination of the HI images has revealed narrow rays comprised of a series of outward-propagating plasma blobs apparently forming near the edge of the streamer belt prior to many CME eruptions. In this pilot study, we inspect a limited dataset to explore the significance of this phenomenon, which we have termed a pre-CME ‘fuse’. Although, the enhanced expulsion of blobs may be consistent with an increase in the release of outward-propagating blobs from the streamers themselves, it could also be interpreted as evidence for interchange reconnection in the period leading to a CME onset. Indeed, it is argued that the latter could even have implications for the end-of-life of CMEs. Thus, the presence of these pre-CME fuses provides evidence that the CME onset mechanism is either related to streamer reconnection processes or the reconnection between closed field lines in the streamer belt and adjacent, open field lines. We investigate the nature of these fuses, including their timing and location with respect to CME launch sites, as well as their speed and topology.

  8. Stent-Based Delivery of Sirolimus Reduces Neointimal Formation in a Porcine Coronary Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Suzuki; Greg Kopia; Shin-ichiro Hayashi; Lynn R. Bailey; Gerard Llanos; Robert Wilensky; Bruce D. Klugherz; George Papandreou; Pallassana Narayan; Martin B. Leon; Alan C. Yeung; Fermin Tio; Philip S. Tsao; Robert Falotico; Andrew J. Carter

    Background—The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of stent-based delivery of sirolimus (SRL) alone or in combination with dexamethasone (DEX) to reduce in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. SRL is a potent immunosup- pressive agent that inhibits SMC proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression. Methods and Results—Stents were coated with a nonerodable polymer containing 185 mg SRL, 350 mg DEX,

  9. Two Purdue Teams Compete in the Final Round of the CME Group Trading Competition! Each year the CME Group has a trading challenge where teams trade CME Group products in a simulated

    E-print Network

    Two Purdue Teams Compete in the Final Round of the CME Group Trading Competition! Each year the CME Group has a trading challenge where teams trade CME Group products in a simulated trading environment on a realtime professional trading platform. In 2014, the competition included 390 teams from 207

  10. Local delivery of siRNA using a biodegradable polymer application to enhance BMP-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Manaka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Imai, Yuuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takaoka, Kunio

    2011-12-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful tool for specific and efficient knockdown of disease-related genes. However, in vivo applications of siRNA are limited due to difficulty in its efficient delivery to target cells. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable hydrogel, poly-d,l-lactic acid-p-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block co-polymer (PLA-DX-PEG), as a siRNA carrier. PLA-DX-PEG pellets with or without fluorescein-labeled dsRNA were implanted into mouse dosal muscle pouches. The cellular uptake of dsRNA surround the polymer was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescence intensity was dose-dependent of the dsRNA, and exhibited a time-dependent decrease. To investigate its biological efficiency, noggin (antagonoist to BMPs) gene-silencing with siRNA (siRNA/Noggin) was examined by the amount of suppression of BMP-2-induced noggin expression and the level of performance of BMP, indicated by ectopic bone formation. Noggin gene expression induced by BMP-2 was suppressed by addition of siRNA/Noggin to the implant, and the ectopic bone formation induced by implants with both BMP-2 and siRNA/Noggin was significantly greater than those induced by implants with BMP-2 alone. These results indicate the efficacy of local delivery of siRNAs by PLA-DX-PEG polymer, which intensified bone-inducing effects of BMP and promoted new bone formation by suppressing gene expression of Noggin. PMID:21963281

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Quality, Format and Delivery of Feedback for Written Assignments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopina, Elizaveta; McNeill, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Feedback can have a great impact on student learning. However, in order for it to be effective, feedback needs to be of high quality. Electronic marking has been one of the latest adaptations of technology in teaching and offers a new format of delivering feedback. There is little research investigating the impact the format of feedback has on…

  12. Formation of vitamin D nanoemulsion-based delivery systems by spontaneous emulsification: factors affecting particle size and stability.

    PubMed

    Guttoff, Marrisa; Saberi, Amir Hossein; McClements, David Julian

    2015-03-15

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are particularly suitable for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals because of their ability to form stable and transparent delivery systems with high oral bioavailability. In this study, the influence of system composition and preparation conditions on the particle size and stability of vitamin D nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification (SE) was investigated. SE relies on the formation of small oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is titrated into an aqueous solution. The influence of oil phase composition (vitamin D and MCT), surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), surfactant type (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and 85), and stirring conditions on the initial particle size of vitamin D nanoemulsions was studied. Nanoemulsions with small droplet diameters (d<200 nm) could be formed using Tween 80 at SOR?1 at high stirring speeds (800 rpm). These systems were relatively stable to droplet growth at ambient temperatures (<10% in diameter after 1 month storage), but unstable to heating (T>80°C). The thermal stability of the nanoemulsions could be improved by adding a cosurfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)). The spontaneous emulsification method is simple and inexpensive to carry out and therefore has great potential for forming nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for food, personal care, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25308650

  13. CME Onset and Take-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    For understanding and eventually predicting coronal mass ejections/eruptive flares, two critical questions must be answered: What is the mechanism for eruption onset, and what is the mechanism for the rapid acceleration? We address these questions in the context of the breakout model using 2.5D MHD simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The AMR capability allowed us to achieve ultra-high numerical resolution and, thereby, determine the influence of the effective Lundquist number on the eruption. Our calculations show that, at least, for the breakout model, the onset of reconnection external to the highly sheared filament channel is the onset mechanism. Once this reconnection turns on, eruption is inevitable. However, as long as this is the only reconnection in the system, the eruption remains slow. We find that the eruption undergoes an abrupt "take-off" when the flare reconnection below the erupting plasmoid develops significant reconnection jets. We conclude that in fast CMEs, flare reconnection is the primary mechanism responsible for both flare heating and CME acceleration. We discuss the implications of these results for SDO observations and describe possible tests of the model.

  14. CME Propagation Characteristics from Radio Observations

    E-print Network

    S. Pohjolainen; L. van Driel-Gesztelyi; J. L. Culhane; P. K. Manoharan; H. A. Elliott

    2007-11-20

    We explore the relationship among three coronal mass ejections (CMEs), observed on 28 October 2003, 7 November 2004, and 20 January 2005, the type II burst-associated shock waves in the corona and solar wind, as well as the arrival of their related shock waves and magnetic clouds at 1 AU. Using six different coronal/interplanetary density models, we calculate the speeds of shocks from the frequency drifts observed in metric and decametric radio wave data. We compare these speeds with the velocity of the CMEs as observed in the plane-of-the-sky white-light observations and calculated with a cone model for the 7 November 2004 event. We then follow the propagation of the ejecta using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) measurements, which were available for the 7 November 2004 and 20 January 2005 events. Finally, we calculate the travel time of the interplanetary (IP) shocks between the Sun and Earth and discuss the velocities obtained from the different data. This study highlights the difficulties in making velocity estimates that cover the full CME propagation time.

  15. Asymmetry in the CME-CME interaction process for the events from 2011 February 14-15

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Peinhart, V. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vršnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Ka?i?eva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-04-20

    We present a detailed study of the interaction process of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) successively launched on 2011 February 14 (CME1) and 2011 February 15 (CME2). Reconstructing the three-dimensional shape and evolution of the flux ropes, we verify that the two CMEs interact. The frontal structure of both CMEs, measured along different position angles (PAs) over the entire latitudinal extent, reveals differences in the kinematics for the interacting flanks and the apexes. The interaction process is strongly PA-dependent in terms of timing as well as kinematical evolution. The central interaction occurs along PA-100°, which shows the strongest changes in kinematics. During interaction, CME1 accelerates from ?400 km s{sup –1} to ?700 km s{sup –1} and CME2 decelerates from ?1300 km s{sup –1} to ?600 km s{sup –1}. Our results indicate that a simplified scenario such as inelastic collision may not be sufficient to describe the CME-CME interaction. The magnetic field structures of the intertwining flux ropes and the momentum transfer due to shocks each play an important role in the interaction process.

  16. Effect of gravitational stratification on the propagation of a CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomenon found on the Sun. One model that explains their occurrence is the flux rope ejection model. A magnetic flux rope is ejected from the solar corona and reaches the interplanetary space where it interacts with the pre-existing magnetic fields and plasma. Both gravity and the stratification of the corona affect the early evolution of the flux rope. Aims: Our aim is to study the role of gravitational stratification on the propagation of CMEs. In particular, we assess how it influences the speed and shape of CMEs and under what conditions the flux rope ejection becomes a CME or when it is quenched. Methods: We ran a set of MHD simulations that adopt an eruptive initial magnetic configuration that has already been shown to be suitable for a flux rope ejection. We varied the temperature of the backgroud corona and the intensity of the initial magnetic field to tune the gravitational stratification and the amount of ejected magnetic flux. We used an automatic technique to track the expansion and the propagation of the magnetic flux rope in the MHD simulations. From the analysis of the parameter space, we evaluate the role of gravitational stratification on the CME speed and expansion. Results: Our study shows that gravitational stratification plays a significant role in determining whether the flux rope ejection will turn into a full CME or whether the magnetic flux rope will stop in the corona. The CME speed is affected by the background corona where it travels faster when the corona is colder and when the initial magnetic field is more intense. The fastest CME we reproduce in our parameter space travels at ~850 km s-1. Moreover, the background gravitational stratification plays a role in the side expansion of the CME, and we find that when the background temperature is higher, the resulting shape of the CME is flattened more. Conclusions: Our study shows that although the initiation mechanisms of the CME are purely magnetic, the background coronal plasma plays a key role in the CME propagation, and full MHD models should be applied when one focuses especially on the production of a CME from a flux rope ejection. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Modulating hydrogel crosslink density and degradation to control bone morphogenetic protein delivery and in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julianne L; Ma, Henry; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A

    2014-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) show promise in therapies for improving bone formation after injury; however, the high supraphysiological concentrations required for desired osteoinductive effects, off-target concerns, costs, and patient variability have limited the use of BMP-based therapeutics. To better understand the role of biomaterial design in BMP delivery, a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel was used for BMP-2 delivery to evaluate the influence of hydrogel degradation rate on bone repair in vivo. Specifically, maleimide-modified HA (MaHA) macromers were crosslinked with difunctional MMP-sensitive peptides to permit protease-mediated hydrogel degradation and growth factor release. The compressive, rheological, and degradation properties of MaHA hydrogels were characterized as a function of crosslink density, which was varied through either MaHA concentration (1-5wt.%) or maleimide functionalization (10-40%f). Generally, the compressive moduli increased, the time to gelation decreased, and the degradation rate decreased with increasing crosslink density. Furthermore, BMP-2 release increased with either a decrease in the initial crosslink density or an increase in collagenase concentration (non-specific MMP degradation). Lastly, two hydrogel formulations with distinct BMP-2 release profiles were evaluated in a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats. After six weeks, minimal evidence of bone repair was observed within defects left empty or filled with hydrogels alone. For hydrogels that contained BMP-2, similar volumes of new bone tissue were formed; however, the faster degrading hydrogel exhibited improved cellular invasion, bone volume to total volume ratio, and overall defect filling. These results illustrate the importance of coordinating hydrogel degradation with the rate of new tissue formation. PMID:24905414

  18. Analyzing Reasons for Non-Adoption of Distance Delivery Formats in Occupational Therapy Assistant (OTA) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Theresa; Roblyer, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Though distance education formats could help address an urgent need for growth in the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) workforce, distance methods are not as accepted in these programs as they are in other professional and clinical programs. This study investigated whether beliefs and levels of experience of OTA program directors shaped their…

  19. Effect of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine content on the formation of microemulsions and the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Juric, Sonja; Ettl, Hanna; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    The choice of appropriate excipients is crucial for the success of a dermal drug delivery system. Especially surfactants should be chosen carefully, because of their possible interactions with the skin or the applied drug. Since monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) exhibits great emulsification properties and can be derived from natural sources, it is of great interest as surfactant in microemulsions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MAPL content on the formation of microemulsions. The great emulsification power of MAPL was confirmed by increased isotropic areas with increasing MAPL content. Moreover, a decrease in particle size, particle size distribution and viscosity with increasing MAPL content was determined. Besides its effects on microemulsion structure, MAPL exhibited a significant influence on the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. Interestingly, the higher the MAPL content, the lower was the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. A possible explanation might be that the hydrophilic MAPL could hinder the permeation of the lipophilic drug. In contrast, the skin permeation enhancing effects of the microemulsion with the lowest MAPL content might be attributed to formation of a patch-like structure and therefore better contact between the formulation and the skin. PMID:25542986

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Slow Streamer-Blowout CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Benjamin J.; Masson, Sophie; Li, Yan; DeVore, C. Richard; Luhmann, Janet; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-06-01

    We present a 3D numerical MHD simulation of the 2008 Jun 2 gradual streamer blowout CME that had virtually no identifiable low coronal signatures. We energize the field by simple footpoint shearing along the source region's polarity inversion line and model the background solar wind structure using an ?2MK isothermal wind and a low-order potential field source surface representation of the CR2070 synoptic magnetogram. Our results show that the CME ``initiation’’ is obtained by slowly disrupting the quasi-steady-state configuration of the helmet streamer, resulting in the standard eruptive flare picture that ejects the sheared fields, but very slowly, on a relatively large scale, and with very little magnetic energy release. We obtain a relatively slow CME eruption of order the background solar wind speed and argue that these slow streamer blowout CMEs (now also known as ``stealth CMEs’’) are simply at the lowest end of the CME energy distribution. We present comparisons of the CME propagation through the corona (?15Rs) in synthetic white-light images derived from the simulation density structure with multi-spacecraft coronagraph data from STEREO/SECCHI and SOHO/LASCO.

  1. Properties and processes that influence CME geo-effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, Benoit; Rouillard, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    The geo-effectiveness of coronal mass ejections (CME) is determined by a complex chain of processes. This fact will be highlighted by reviewing CME's (1) intrinsic properties set at the Sun (e.g., orientation, trajectory, velocity, etc.), (2) processes that may occur during propagation (e.g., shocks, compressions, magnetic erosion, etc.), and (3) in the specific interaction with Earth's magnetosphere (e.g., preconditioning mechanisms), and which sequentially have a significant influence on their final geo-effectiveness. Their relative importance is discussed. While the CME's trajectory, magnetic field orientation, velocity and their duration as set at the Sun certainly are key ingredients to geo-effectiveness, other processes and properties that at first appear secondary often may be as important.

  2. Didactic CME and Practice Change: Don't Throw that Baby out Quite yet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.

    2012-01-01

    Skepticism exists regarding the role of continuing medical education (CME) in improving physician performance. The harshest criticism has been reserved for didactic CME. Reviews of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of CME conclude that formal or didactic modes of education have little or no impact on clinical practice. This has led…

  3. Suggested Timeline for Executing A CME Conference 12-15 Months Prior

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    . Finalize the agenda 4. Identify and purchase mailing lists 5. Submit educational grant requests from audience. 9­12 Months Prior: 1. Apply for CME accreditation 2. Apply for CE for nurses, pharmacists, etc. 3 budget 2. Reconcile commercial grants 3. CME post-activity documentation to the Office of CME #12;

  4. Obstetrician/Gynecologists and Postpartum Mental Health: Differences between CME Course Takers and Nontakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Meaghan A.; Farrow, Victoria A.; Joseph, Gerald F., Jr.; Schulkin, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an essential component of professional development. Research indicates a continued need for understanding how and why physicians select certain CME courses, as well as the differences between CME course takers and nontakers. Purpose: Obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are health care…

  5. Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality measures is a significantly better CME predictor than the others. (3) The active-region phi shows some correlation with CME productivity, but well below a statistically significant level (correlation confidence level less than approximately 80%; CME prediction success rate less than approximately 65%). (4) In addition to depending on magnetic twist, CME productivity appears to have some direct dependence on active-region size (rather than only an indirect dependence through a correlation of magnetic twist with active-region size), but it will take a still larger sample of active regions (50 or more) to certify this. (5) Of the five nonpotentiality measures, L(sub SG) appears to be the best for operational CME forecasting because it is as good or better a CME predictor than the others and it alone does not require a vector magnetogram; L(sub SG) can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram such as from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

  6. THE 2010 AUGUST 1 TYPE II BURST: A CME-CME INTERACTION AND ITS RADIO AND WHITE-LIGHT MANIFESTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Raftery, Claire L.; Bain, Hazel M.; Liu Ying; Bale, Stuart; Krucker, Saem [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Krupar, Vratislav [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-03-20

    We present observational results of a type II burst associated with a CME-CME interaction observed in the radio and white-light (WL) wavelength range. We applied radio direction-finding techniques to observations from the STEREO and Wind spacecraft, the results of which were interpreted using WL coronagraphic measurements for context. The results of the multiple radio direction-finding techniques applied were found to be consistent both with each other and with those derived from the WL observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The results suggest that the type II burst radio emission is causally related to the CMEs interaction.

  7. Elemental composition of the January 6, 1997, CME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Wurz; F. M. Ipavich; A. B. Galvin; P. Bochsler; M. R. Aellig; R. Kallenbach; D. Hovestadt; H. Grünwaldt; M. Hilchenbach; W. I. Axford; H. Balsiger; A. Bürgi; M. A. Coplan; J. Geiss; F. Gliem; G. Gloeckler; S. Hefti; K. C. Hsieh; B. Klecker; M. A. Lee; G. G. Managadze; E. Marsch; E. Möbius; M. Neugebauer; K.-U. Reiche; M. Scholer; M. I. Verigin; B. Wilken

    1998-01-01

    Using solar wind particle data from the CELIAS\\/MTOF sensor on the SOHO mission, we studied the abundance of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe for the time period around the January 6, 1997, coronal mass ejection event (CME). In the interstream and coronal hole regions before and after this event we found elemental abundances consistent with

  8. CME-induced Outflows Observed with Hinode\\/EIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jin; C. Fang; M. D. Ding; P. F. Chen; S. Imada

    2009-01-01

    Using the Hinode\\/EIS observations, we investigate the outflows associated with two halo CMEs occurred on 2006 December 13 and 14 in NOAA 10930, Each CME was followed by an EIT wave and coronal dimming. Dopplergrams in the dimming regions are obtained from the spectra of 7 EIS lines. Our results show that strong outflows are visible in the dimming regions

  9. STEREO Captures Fastest CME to Date - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the sun from July 22, 2012 at 10:00 PM EDT until 2 AM on July 23 as captured by NASA's Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A). Be...

  10. 4Name ________________________________ Sun -CME Earth -Aurora Saturn -Aurora

    E-print Network

    4Name ________________________________ Sun - CME Earth - Aurora Saturn - Aurora On November 8, 2000, the Hubble Space Telescope detected an aurora on Saturn. During the period from November to December, 2000, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn were almost lined-up with each other. Assuming that the three planets were

  11. Improving CME: Using Participant Satisfaction Measures to Specify Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Jason J.; Regala, Roderick P.

    2013-01-01

    Imagine having developed a continuing medical education (CME) initiative to educate physicians on updated guidelines regarding high cholesterol in adults. This initiative consisted of didactic presentations and case-based discussions offered in 5 major US cities, followed by a Web-based enduring component to distill key points of the live…

  12. The new CORIMP CME catalog & 3D reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason; Morgan, Huw; Gallagher, Peter; Habbal, Shadia; Davies, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    A new coronal mass ejection catalog has been built from a unique set of coronal image processing techniques, called CORIMP, that overcomes many of the limitations of current catalogs in operation. An online database has been produced for the SOHO/LASCO data and event detections therein; providing information on CME onset time, position angle, angular width, speed, acceleration, and mass, along with kinematic plots and observation movies. The high-fidelity and robustness of these methods and derived CME structure and kinematics will lead to an improved understanding of the dynamics of CMEs, and a realtime version of the algorithm has been implemented to provide CME detection alerts to the interested space weather community. Furthermore, STEREO data has been providing the ability to perform 3D reconstructions of CMEs that are observed in multipoint observations. This allows a determination of the 3D kinematics and morphologies of CMEs characterised in STEREO data via the 'elliptical tie-pointing' technique. The associated observations of SOHO, SDO and PROBA2 (and intended use of K-Cor) provide additional measurements and constraints on the CME analyses in order to improve their accuracy.

  13. CMEs and CME Shock Evolution on Different Background Winds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Van der Holst; S. Poedts; C. Jacobs; E. Chane; I. Chattopadhyay; D. Shapakidze; D. Banerjee

    2004-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) play a key role in many Space Weather phenomena and are important for prediction models as well. A short overview is given of the different types of CME models and different triggering mechanisms currently under study. The shocks in the solar corona and interplanetary (IP) space caused by fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are simulated numerically

  14. Transition of a traditional pharmacology course for dental students to an online delivery format: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Brockman, William G

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the rationale and subsequent transition of a pharmacology course for dental students from a traditional face-to-face lecture format to online delivery using a course management system (CMS). A dental school faculty member with dental and pharmacology degrees and a Ph.D. was asked to serve as course director and to develop and implement a nontraditional course using the Blackboard CMS technology, which houses asynchronous course content materials, study guides, and online resource materials. Respondus software was used to create, manage, and administer weekly online quizzes. A comprehensive midterm and final examination were conducted in a traditional face-to-face setting. A survey was used to capture student satisfaction with this self-directed introductory pharmacology course. Participants were second-year dental students (Classes of 2011 and 2012). There was a survey response rate of 91 percent (179/197). The Likert-style survey questions produced ordinal data from which the median and interquartile range were calculated. On a scale in which 1=Poor, 5=Excellent, the median evaluation for the instructor was 4 (IQR=1.5). On a global question that asked how students rate the course overall, the median score was 4 (IQR=1.0). Results show that a majority of students were positive about the online delivery of the introductory pharmacology course and for many students this was their first online course experience. Resistance to self-directed learning was a theme with those students who rated the course poorly. In a comparison of overall course grades from the previous year, student performance in this course was much stronger. As a result of student feedback seeking more interaction with the course director, it was determined that the next time the course is offered there will be additional opportunities for greater face-to-face time with the instructor. Ongoing evaluation will be important as new teaching technologies emerge and are adopted for teaching and learning. PMID:21546597

  15. Preparation of a Matrix Type MultipleUnit Gastro Retentive Floating Drug Delivery System for Captopril Based on Gas Formation Technique: In Vitro Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingam Meka; Bhaskar Kesavan; Krishna Mohan Chinnala; Venkateswarlu Vobalaboina; Madhusudan Rao Yamsani

    2008-01-01

    A gastro retentive floating drug delivery system with multiple-unit minitab’s based on gas formation technique was developed\\u000a in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the drug. The system consists\\u000a of the drug-containing core units prepared by direct compression process, which are coated with three successive layers of\\u000a an inner seal coat, effervescent

  16. Academic podcasting: quality media delivery.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jacob S; Duvall, Scott L; Cowan, Derek L; Kamauu, Aaron W C

    2006-01-01

    A video podcast of the CME-approved University of Utah Department of Biomedical Informatics seminar was created in order to address issues with streaming video quality, take advantage of popular web-based syndication methods, and make the files available for convenient, subscription-based download. An RSS feed, which is automatically generated, contains links to the media files and allows viewers to easily subscribe to the weekly seminars in a format that guarantees consistent video quality. PMID:17238744

  17. CME Topologies and Observed Flare Features: Extending the Standard Flare/CME Model to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the topology of erupting non-linear force-free configurations of five sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA. The magnetic field models are computed using the flux rope insertion method and unstable models are utilized to represent the erupting configurations. Analysis of the topology shows that the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the chromosphere match well the flare ribbons observed in these regions. The evolution of the flare ribbons is captured by the a sequence of QSLs from unstable NLFFF solutions. Post-flare loops are fit well by field lines lying under the hyperbolic flux tube in the models. We show a correspondence in the evolution of the post-flare loops from a strong to weak sheared state and the behavior of the field lines as the flux rope expands in the model. We use this kind of topology analysis to extend the standard CME/flare model to full 3D in observed configurations and find implications to reconnection in 3D. In addition we compute the reconnected flux in one of the regions region and using information from the models constrain how much energy has been released during the event.

  18. Coronal Magnetic Field Measurement Using CME-Driven Shock Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswarmy, Nat; Nitta, N.; Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collisionless shocks form ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) when the CME speed exceeds the Alfven speed of the ambient plasma in the corona and interplanetary medium. The shock stands at a distance from the CME flux rope that depends on the shock Mach number, the geometry of the driver, and the adiabatic index. While the shock ahead of the CME has been observed for a long time in the in situ data, it has been identified recently near the Sun in the coronagraphic and EUV images. Unlike in situ observations, the imaging observations are two dimensional, so one can better discern the CME-shock relationship near the Sun. Gopalswamy and Yashiro demonstrated that the coronal magnetic field can be derived from the shock standoff distance measured in coronagraphic images. The method involves measuring the standoff distance, the radius of curvature of the flux rope, and assuming the value of the adiabatic index and deriving the Alfvenic Mach number. The next step is to derive the Alfvenic Mach number from the measured shock speed and an estimate of the local solar wind speed. The final step involves deriving the magnetic field from the Alfven speed by measuring the local plasma density either from coronagraphic (polarized brightness) images or from the band-splitting of type II radio bursts. In this paper, we derive the combined magnetic field profile from near the Sun to the edge of the LASCO field of view (1.5 to 30 solar radii) and compare it with the current model profiles.

  19. CME Prediction from Line-of-Sight Magnetogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown for bipolar active regions that measures of active-region nonpotentiality from vector magnetograms are correlated with active-region CME productivity. We have now obtained a measure from line-of-sight magnetograms that is well correlated both with our measures of active-region nonpotentiality from vector magnetograms and with active-region CME productivity. The measure is the length of strong-gradient main neutral line (L(sub G)). This is the length of the bipolar region's main neutral line on which the potential transverse field is greater than 150G, and the gradient in the line-of-sight field is greater than 50G/Mm. From the sample of 17 MSFC magnetograms of 12 basically bipolar active regions used in our previous paper, we find that L(sub G) is strongly correlated with one of our vector-magnetogram measures of nonpotentiality, the length of strong-gradient main neutral line L(sub SS) (99.7%). We also find that L(sub G) is as strongly correlated with CME productivity (99.7%) as is L(sub SS). Being obtainable from line-of-sight magnetograms, L(sub G) makes the much larger data set of line-of-sight magnetograms (i.e. from SOHO/MDI and Kitt Peak) available for CME prediction study. This is especially important for evolutionary studies, with SOHO/MDI having no daylight, cloudy weather, or atmospheric seeing problems. This work was supported by funding from NSF's division of Atmospheric Sciences (Space Weather and Shine Programs) and by NASA's office of Space Science (Living with a Star program Solar and Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research and Technology program).

  20. Speed of Compression of Magnetosphere by CME Clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nanan; H. Alleyne; S. Walker; E. Lucek; H. Reme; A. Fazakerley

    2007-01-01

    The multi-point Cluster observations provide the opportunity to study the speed of compression of the magnetosphere at the impact of extreme solar events such as CMEs. The four-point Cluster FGM (high resolution), CIS and PEACE data during the passage of 17 CME clouds during 2001-2005, together with models of magnetosphere and magnetopause, are used to obtain the speed of compression

  1. Numerical Simulation of Multi-CME Events in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odstrcil, Dusan; Luhmann, Janet G.; Jian, Lan; Mays, Leila; Xie, Hong; Taktakishvilli, Aleksandre

    The ENLIL-based modeling system enables faster-than-real time simulations of corotating and transient heliospheric disturbances. This “hybrid” system does not simulate origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but uses appearance in coronagraphs, fits geometric and kinematic parameters, and launches a CME-like structure into the solar wind computed using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model. Numerical heliospheric simulation then provides global context of CMEs propagating in the inner heliosphere and interacting with structured background solar wind and with other CMEs. In this presentation, we introduce the recent improvements that support modeling of the evolving background solar wind and continuous modeling of multiple-CME events. We simulated over 700 CMEs in 2011-2013 to validate and calibrate our new modeling system. In this presentation, we will show examples of multi-CME events in March 2012 and July 2012 periods of enhanced solar activity. We will present results of 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and compare them with remote white-light observations, with in-situ measurements of plasma parameters and detection of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at various spacecraft.

  2. Dependence of Geomagnetic Storms on Their Associated Halo CME Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, R.-S.

    2014-06-01

    We compare the geoeffective parameters of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We consider 50 front-side full-halo CMEs (FFH CMEs), which are from the list of Michalek, Gopalswamy, and Yashiro ( Solar Phys. 246, 399, 2007), whose asymmetric-cone model parameters and earthward-direction parameter were available. For each CME we use its projected velocity [ V p], radial velocity [ V r], angle between cone axis and sky plane [ ?] from the cone model, earthward-direction parameter [ D], source longitude [ L], and magnetic-field orientation [ M] of its CME source region. We make a simple linear-regression analysis to find out the relationship between CME parameters and Dst index. The main results are as follows: i) The combined parameters [( V r D)1/2 and V r ?] have higher correlation coefficients [cc] with the Dst index than the other parameters [ V p and V r]: cc=0.76 for ( V r D)1/2, cc=0.70 for V r ?, cc=0.55 for V r, and cc=0.17 for V p. ii) Correlation coefficients between V r ? and Dst index depend on L and M; cc=0.59 for 21 eastern events [E], cc=0.80 for 29 western events [W], cc=0.49 for 17 northward magnetic-field events [N], and cc=0.69 for 33 southward magnetic-field events [S]. iii) Super geomagnetic storms (Dst?-200 nT) only appear in the western and southward magnetic-field events. The mean absolute Dst values of geomagnetic storms (Dst?-50 nT) increase with an order of E+N, E+S, W+N, and W+S events; the mean absolute Dst value (169 nT) of W+S events is significantly larger than that (75 nT) of E+N events. Our results demonstrate that not only do the cone-model parameters together with the earthward-direction parameter improve the relationship between CME parameters and Dst index, but also the longitude and the magnetic-field orientation of a FFH CME source region play a significant role in predicting geomagnetic storms.

  3. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsion-based vitamin E delivery systems using natural biopolymers: Whey protein isolate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI (d32=0.11?m, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA (d32=0.38?m, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60°C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems. PMID:26041190

  4. Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR from Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ruoyu; Su, Chih-Chia; Shi, Feng; Li, Ming; McDermott, Gerry; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 Å) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 Å long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation. PMID:17686491

  5. The Search for Correlation between BiSON SMMF Data and CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, William J.; Dumbill, Andrew M.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Isaak, George R.; McLeod, Clive P.; Miller, Brek A.; New, Roger; Pintér, Balázs

    2005-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON) has acquired high precision solar mean magnetic field (SMMF) data on a 40-second cadence for a decade. We present first attempts to compare such data from recent years with the occurence of CME's as recorded by LASCO using correlation techniques applied to measurements from different BiSON instruments to maximise the sensitivity to CME related SMMF responses. SMMF measurements were recorded at the time of occurence of several hundreds CME's.

  6. Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR From Campylobacter Jejuni

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, R.; Su, C.-C.; Shi, F.; McDermott, G.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, E.W.

    2009-06-01

    The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 {angstrom}) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 {angstrom} long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation.

  7. Genetic Basis and Functional Consequences of Differential Expression of the CmeABC Efflux Pump in Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Grinnage-Pulley, Tara; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-01-01

    The CmeABC multidrug efflux transporter of Campylobacter jejuni plays a key role in antimicrobial resistance and is suppressed by CmeR, a transcriptional regulator of the TetR family. Overexpression of CmeABC has been observed in laboratory-generated mutants, but it is unknown if this phenotype occurs naturally in C. jejuni isolates and if it has any functional consequences. To answer these questions, expression of cmeABC in natural isolates obtained from broiler chickens, turkeys and humans was examined, and the genetic mechanisms and role of cmeABC differential expression in antimicrobial resistance was determined. Among the 64 C. jejuni isolates examined in this study, 43 and 21 were phenotypically identified as overexpression (OEL) and wild-type expression (WEL) levels. Representative mutations of the cmeABC promoter and/or CmeR-coding sequence were analyzed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. Reduced CmeR binding to the mutated cmeABC promoter sequences or decreased CmeR levels increased cmeABC expression. Several examined amino acid substitutions in CmeR did not affect its binding to the cmeABC promoter, but a mutation that led to C-terminal truncation of CmeR abolished its DNA-binding activity. Interestingly, some OEL isolates harbored no mutations in known regulatory elements, suggesting that cmeABC is also regulated by unidentified mechanisms. Overexpression of cmeABC did not affect the susceptibility of C. jejuni to most tested antimicrobials except for chloramphenicol, but promoted the emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants under antibiotic selection. These results link CmeABC overexpression in natural C. jejuni isolates to various mutations and indicate that this phenotypic change promotes the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants under selection pressure. Thus, differential expression of CmeABC may facilitate Campylobacter adaptation to antibiotic treatments. PMID:26132196

  8. Conducting a University Career and Technical Education Degree Program through Multiple Technology Delivery Formats: A Working Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkle, Chris

    The Department of Industrial Technology Education (ITE) at Indiana State University offers approximately 20 courses per semester, split equally between undergraduate and graduate courses. Although all classes are offered on campus, almost half of the ITE courses are also taught using these three alternative simultaneous delivery methods: (1) for…

  9. Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2008-12-01

    We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree? 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

  10. Scientific goals of the Cooperative Multiscale Experiment (CME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William

    1993-01-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) form the focus of CME. Recent developments in global climate models, the urgent need to improve the representation of the physics of convection, radiation, the boundary layer, and orography, and the surge of interest in coupling hydrologic, chemistry, and atmospheric models of various scales, have emphasized the need for a broad interdisciplinary and multi-scale approach to understanding and predicting MCS's and their interactions with processes at other scales. The role of mesoscale systems in the large-scale atmospheric circulation, the representation of organized convection and other mesoscale flux sources in terms of bulk properties, and the mutually consistent treatment of water vapor, clouds, radiation, and precipitation, are all key scientific issues concerning which CME will seek to increase understanding. The manner in which convective, mesoscale, and larger scale processes interact to produce and organize MCS's, the moisture cycling properties of MCS's, and the use of coupled cloud/mesoscale models to better understand these processes, are also major objectives of CME. Particular emphasis will be placed on the multi-scale role of MCS's in the hydrological cycle and in the production and transport of chemical trace constituents. The scientific goals of the CME consist of the following: understand how the large and small scales of motion influence the location, structure, intensity, and life cycles of MCS's; understand processes and conditions that determine the relative roles of balanced (slow manifold) and unbalanced (fast manifold) circulations in the dynamics of MCS's throughout their life cycles; assess the predictability of MCS's and improve the quantitative forecasting of precipitation and severe weather events; quantify the upscale feedback of MCS's to the large-scale environment and determine interrelationships between MCS occurrence and variations in the large-scale flow and surface forcing; provide a data base for initialization and verification of coupled regional, mesoscale/hydrologic, mesoscale/chemistry, and prototype mesoscale/cloud-resolving models for prediction of severe weather, ceilings, and visibility; provide a data base for initialization and validation of cloud-resolving models, and for assisting in the fabrication, calibration, and testing of cloud and MCS parameterization schemes; and provide a data base for validation of four dimensional data assimilation schemes and algorithms for retrieving cloud and state parameters from remote sensing instrumentation.

  11. Particle Acceleration by Cme-driven Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1999-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Peak particle intensities are a strong function of CME speed, although the intensities, spectra, and angular distributions of particles escaping the shock are highly modified by scattering on Alfven waves produced by the streaming particles themselves. Element abundances vary in complex ways because ions with different values of Q/A resonate with different parts of the wave spectrum, which varies with space and time. Just recently, we have begun to model these systematic variations theoretically and to explore other consequences of proton-generated waves.

  12. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vani?, Željka; Planinšek, Odon; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. PMID:24929211

  13. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed. PMID:25703045

  14. Controlling Quality in CME/CPD by Measuring and Illuminating Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David; Takhar, Jatinder; Macnab, Jennifer; Eadie, Jason; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Stenerson, Heather; Francois, Jose; Bell, Mary; Monette, Celine; Campbell, Craig; Marlow, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There has been a surge of interest in the area of bias in industry-supported continuing medical education/continuing professional development (CME/CPD) activities. In 2007, we published our first study on measuring bias in CME, demonstrating that our assessment tool was valid and reliable. In light of the increasing interest in this…

  15. Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of the CME Reconnection Outflow Layer in the Low Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin; Nykyri, Katariina; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Hannah, Iain G.

    2013-04-01

    New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature (~11.6 MK), and high flow shear (~680 km s-1) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

  16. Geometry of an interplanetary CME on October 29, 2003 deduced from cosmic rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuwabara; K. Munakata; S. Yasue; C. Kato; S. Akahane; M. Koyama; J. W. Bieber; P. Evenson; R. Pyle; Z. Fujii; M. Tokumaru; M. Kojima; K. Marubashi; M. L. Duldig; J. E. Humble; M. R. Silva; N. B. Trivedi; W. D. Gonzalez; N. J. Schuch

    2004-01-01

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an X17 solar flare reached Earth on October 29, 2003, causing an ~11% decrease in the intensity of high-energy Galactic cosmic rays recorded by muon detectors. The CME also produced a strong enhancement of the cosmic ray directional anisotropy. Based upon a simple inclined cylinder model, we use the anisotropy data to derive

  17. Of Horses' Mouths and Toothpick Houses. A Devil's Advocate Position vis-a-vis CME Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith Ribble; Pennington, Floyd A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors argue that continuing medical education (CME) research fails to prove its effectiveness in patient outcomes, that there is no theory from which to generate measurable hypotheses and that questionable methodology, dubious applicability, and misleading conclusions pervade CME research. (SK)

  18. Dual Delivery of rhPDGF-BB and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing the BMP2 Gene Enhance Bone Formation in a Critical-Sized Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis. PMID:23901900

  19. Target optimization for peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated antisense inhibition of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Euna; Zhang, Qijing; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives CmeABC is a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Campylobacter. This study aimed to identify the optimal target sites for the inhibition of CmeABC with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Methods Eighteen PNAs were designed to bind to the translational initiation regions of cmeABC, spanning the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon of the cmeABC genes. Campylobacter jejuni was treated with CmeABC-specific PNAs (CmeABC-PNAs) at various concentrations and subjected to western blotting to measure changes in the level of CmeABC expression. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were measured to evaluate the impact of CmeABC knockdown on antibiotic susceptibility. Results While antisense PNA significantly affected CmeA and CmeB expression, interestingly, CmeC expression was not altered by any of the CmeC-PNAs used in this study. A CmeA-PNA targeting the RBS of cmeA and its upstream region reduced CmeA expression most efficiently, and CmeB expression was most significantly decreased by PNA binding to the RBS of cmeB and its downstream region. CmeA- and CmeB-PNAs increased the susceptibility of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in proportion to the inhibition levels observed in western blotting. Conclusions The cmeA gene is the best target to knockdown CmeABC with antisense PNA. The RBS is the major target for the PNA-mediated antisense inhibition of CmeABC. However, regions in its vicinity also significantly influence the effectiveness of the PNA-based knockdown of CmeABC. PMID:24084637

  20. Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Roseamry M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind. fast wind. solar energetic particle (SEP) population. and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He(++) component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the etfect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

  1. Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He++ component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the effect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

  2. The CME event on 07 January 2014: Why was it a geomagnetic dud?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Colaninno, R. C.; Vourlidas, A.; Stenborg, G.; Lario, D.; Merkin, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The X-class flare-associated CME event on 07 January 2014 originated from a large sunspot group near disk center and reached > 2000 km s-1 at its initial phases. In-situ measurements at 1 AU show a strong solar proton event. The CME was expected to cause a significant geomagnetic response. However, arriving at 1 AU the CME was significantly slower than expected (~500 km s-1) and was a complete dud in terms of geomagnetic activity. We present a comprehensive analysis of the CME using EUV and white light observations as well as in-situ measurements to understand why it was not geo-effective. We particularly study CME deflection caused by coronal holes and eventual interaction with other pre-existing and slower CMEs.

  3. Local delivery of siRNA using a biodegradable polymer application to enhance BMP-induced bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoya Manaka; Akinobu Suzuki; Kazushi Takayama; Yuuki Imai; Hiroaki Nakamura; Kunio Takaoka

    2011-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful tool for specific and efficient knockdown of disease-related genes. However, in vivo applications of siRNA are limited due to difficulty in its efficient delivery to target cells. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable hydrogel, poly-d,l-lactic acid-p-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block co-polymer (PLA-DX-PEG), as a siRNA carrier. PLA-DX-PEG pellets with or without fluorescein-labeled dsRNA

  4. The Width of a CME and the Source of the Driving Magnetic Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Sterling, A. C.; Suess, S. T.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the strength of the magnetic field in the area covered by the flare arcade following a CME-producing ejective solar eruption can be estimated from the final angular width of the CME in the outer corona and the final angular width of the flare arcade. We assume (1) the flux-rope plasmoid ejected from the flare site becomes the interior of the CME plasmoid, (2) in the outer corona the CME is roughly a "spherical plasmoid with legs" shaped like a light bulb, and (3) beyond some height in or below the outer corona the CME plasmoid is in lateral pressure balance with the surrounding magnetic field. The strength of the nearly radial magnetic field in the outer corona is estimated from the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field measured by Ulysses. We apply this model to three well-observed CMEs that exploded from flare regions of extremely different size and magnetic setting. In each event, the estimated source-region field strength is appropriate for the magnetic setting of the flare. This agreement indicates via the model that CMEs (1) are propelled by the magnetic field of the CME plasmoid pushing against the surrounding magnetic field, and (2) can explode from flare regions that are laterally far offset from the radial path of the CME in the outer corona.

  5. Magnetic Flux Erosion and Redistribution during CME Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Ruffenach, A.; Manchester, W.; Farrugia, C. J.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Foullon, C.; Owens, M. J.; Savani, N.; Kajdic, P.; Luhmann, J. G.; Galvin, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    We will review recent works which highlight the occurrence of magnetic flux erosion and redistribution at the front of coronal mass ejections (when they have the structure of a well-defined magnetic cloud). Two main processes have been found and will be presented. The first comes from the occurrence of magnetic reconnection between the magnetic cloud and its sheath ahead, leading to magnetic flux erosion and redistribution, with associated large scale topological changes. The second may occur when dense filament material in the coronal mass ejection pushes its way through the structure and comes in direct contact with the shocked plasma in the sheath ahead. This leads to diverging non-radial flows in front of the CME which transport poloidal flux of the flux rope to the sides of the magnetic cloud.

  6. Effects of the 5 October 1996 CME at 4.4 AU: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, R.G.; Desai, M.I.; Sanderson, T.R. [Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept. of ESA; Forsyth, R.J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom); Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The authors present observations from Ulysses associated with a large coronal mass ejection (CME) that lifted off the west limb of the Sun on 5 October, 1996. The study focuses on the effects of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME on the energetic particle populations at the location of Ulysses, in particular the effect on the sequence of corotating enhancements that had been observed prior to its arrival. They conclude that, despite its large spatial extent, the CME caused no permanent deformation of the heliospheric current sheet.

  7. Radio Observations of the CME-poor region AR2192: a type II burst with no CME driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh; Vilmer, Nicole; Wakeford, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The remarkable sunspot group NOAA AR 2192 (October 2014) produced X-class flares without CMEs, and in general was large and powerful but with little heliospheric interaction. We discuss radio perspectives on the development of this region. In particular there were decametric type II bursts observed in association with jet-like flares SOL2014-10-21T12:28 (C4.4) and SOL2014-10-21T13:38 (M1.2), as first noted in the Glasgow Callisto observatory and confirmed via the Meudon decametric array. In cases such as this, the global coronal wave responsible for the type II emission seems to originate from an ejection of material flowing along a previously established field structure, rather than perpendicular to it as in a CME.

  8. CD151 gene delivery increases eNOS activity and induces ECV304 migration, proliferation and tube formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-zhong Zheng; Zheng-xiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of CD151 on the activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and ECV304 migration, proliferation and tube formation.Methods:pAAV-CD151 and pAAV-anti-CD151 were constructed and used to transiently transfect ECV304 mediated with Lipofectamine 2000. After transfection, the expression of CD151 was measured by Western blotting. Cell migration assay was performed using Boyden transwell; proliferation assay was evaluated using the

  9. Web-Based Delivery System for Disaster Prevention Information Using a New Jma Dpi Xml Format and Amedas Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) Data is used along with compound disaster information for a geographic information system (GIS) by integration into the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) disaster prevention information XML data. A JMA XML format is a next generation format that contains weather warnings, tsunami warnings, and earthquake information, etc. However, it is not possible to process it by reading disaster prevention information XML Data and AMeDAS Data directly to the GIS system. Therefore, development of a program that converts the data structure is important to consolidate a variety of disaster prevention information on the GIS system. Information on escape routes and evacuation sites, etc. were given as points for regional meteorological observation forecasts using AMeDAS Data by disaster prevention information XML data and integrating it where the disaster was generated, giving a range of expansion of damage and a damage level. There are two main aims; the first is to deliver these compound data of disaster prevention information XML data and AMeDAS Data via the Internet. The second aim is to provide GIS files (shapefile format) of these data to such as local governments for their individual analysis. This was furthermore confirmed to enable the construction of a system using WebGIS (Google Maps) and Open Source Software GIS to monitor disaster information at low cost.

  10. Solar Wind Electron Strahls Associated with a High-Latitude CME: \\emph{Ulysses} Observations

    E-print Network

    Lazar, M; Poedts, S; Dumitrache, C; Popescu, N A

    2014-01-01

    Counterstreaming beams of electrons are ubiquitous in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - although their existence is not unanimously accepted as a necessary and/or sufficient signature of these events. We continue the investigations of a high-latitude CME registered by the \\emph{Ulysses} spacecraft on January 18\\,--\\,19, 2002 (Dumitrache, Popescu, and Oncica, Solar Phys. {\\bf 272}, 137, 2011), by surveying the solar wind electron distributions associated with this event. The temporal-evolution of the pitch-angle distributions reveal populations of electrons distinguishable through their anisotropy, with clear signatures of i) electron strahls, ii) counter-streaming in the magnetic clouds and their precursors, and iii) unidirectional in the fast wind preceding the CME. The analysis of the counter-streams inside the CME allows us to elucidate the complexity of the magnetic-cloud structures embeded in the CME and to refine the borders of the event. Identifying such strahls in CMEs, which preserve properties of the ...

  11. CME, Physicians, and Pavlov: Can We Change What Happens When Industry Rings the Bell?

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To show how physicians’ conditioned response to “keeping up” has helped industry’s opportunistic funding of continuing medical education (CME) and to propose ways to counter the conditioned response to the benefit of patients and the public. Methods Review of the literature and commentary on it. Results The pharmaceutical and device industries (hereafter referred to as industry) have a long history of bribing physicians to prescribe and use their products. Increasing pressure from Congress and the public has been brought to bear on industry gifting. This pressure, coinciding with increasing financial problems for the providers of CME, provided industry with reason and opportunity to expand its role in the financing of CME. Industry’s incentive to make its CME funding appear to be an arm’s-length transaction has spawned medical education service supplier (MESS) companies. Industry makes “unrestricted grants” to the MESS, and the MESS puts on the CME program. Helped by these CME programs, industry is able to subtly “buy” physicians one at a time, so that under the cover of “education” they and their academic institutions and medical organizations lose sight of being CME pawns in industry’s sole objective: profit. Conclusions Despite a vast literature showing how physician integrity is easy prey to industry, the medical profession continues to allow industry to have a detrimental influence on the practice of medicine and on physician respectability. It will take resolute action to change the medical profession’s conditioned response to industry’s CME bell and its negative effect on patients and the public. PMID:19277219

  12. The Relationship Between Solar X-Ray Flux and Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberger, M.; Damas, M. C.; O'Connell, M.; Mezzafonte, D.; Marchese, A.; Carbone, A.; Chen, K.; Marchese, P.

    2013-12-01

    Solar flares and their associated CMEs are an integral part of solar weather that can have profound effects on Earth's atmosphere. The charged particles emitted by strong CMEs and strong x-ray fluxes produced by solar flares can cause damage to satellites, disrupt radio and GPS signals, and strain power grids. It is critical to understand how solar flare intensity influences the magnitude of CMEs so as to minimize and prevent these consequential negative effects. This study investigated the hypothesis that solar x-ray flux has a direct correlation to CME energy. Total daily x-ray flux was correlated with CME energy for the years 2000-2012. X-ray flux data consisted of background and solar flare flux obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). CME energy was obtained by squaring the 2nd-order speed at 20 Rs (solar radii) and summing these squared values for each day of each year. CME speed data was obtained from the NASA Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) located on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite (SOHO). Results indicate significant correlations between solar x-ray flux and CME energy for the various years. Other factors that influence CME energy were also investigated.

  13. Induction of reparative dentin formation by ultrasound-mediated gene delivery of growth/differentiation factor 11.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Tachibana, Katsuro; Iohara, Koichiro; Ito, Masataka; Ishikawa, Masaki; Akamine, Akifumi

    2003-04-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are morphogens implicated in embryonic and regenerative odontogenic differentiation. Gene therapy has the potential to induce reparative dentin formation for potential pulp capping. We have optimized the gene transfer of Growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11)/Bmp11 plasmid DNA into dental pulp stem cells by sonoporation in vivo. Dental pulp tissue treated with plasmid pEGFP or CMV-LacZ in 5-10% Optison (Molecular Biosystems Inc., San Diego, CA) and stimulated by ultrasound (1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 30 sec) showed significant efficiency of gene transfer and high level of protein production selectively in the local region, within 500 microm of the amputated site of the pulp tissue. The Gdf11 cDNA plasmid transferred into dental pulp tissue by sonoporation in vitro, induced the expression of dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), a differentiation marker for odontoblasts. The transfection of Gdf11 by sonoporation stimulated a large amount of reparative dentin formation on the amputated dental pulp in canine teeth in vivo. These results suggest the possible use of BMPs using ultrasound-mediated gene therapy for endodontic dental treatment. PMID:12718768

  14. Compressed antisolvent precipitation and photopolymerization for the formation of crosslinked polymer microparticles useful for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jennifer Lani

    This work presents novel antisolvent processing technique entitled Compressed Antisolvent Precipitation and Photopolymerization (CAPP) useful for forming crosslinked polymer microparticles. In this process, an organic solvent dissolves monomer and polymerization photoinitiators to form a homogeneous solution. Photopolymerization and microparticle formation occur when the homogeneous solution is sprayed into a compressed antisolvent while being simultaneously exposed to initiating light. We investigated the method of particle formation in the CAPP process to explain the repeatable bimodal particle size distribution obtained under a variety of operating conditions. Ternary phase diagrams of antisolvent, monomer, and solvent solutions were constructed and specific spray paths from the resulting ternary phase diagrams were investigated and the significance of crossing the binodal, as well as the importance of where the binodal was crossed, was discovered. In addition, manipulation of injection conditions, varying process residence times, and nucleation rate calculations were explored to further investigate the means of particle formation. We demonstrate the feasibility of encapsulating therapeutic agents into highly crosslinked polymer particles using the CAPP process. Ion-paired tacrine, erythromycin, erythromycin estolate, and erythromycin ethyl succinate were CAPP processed with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate monomers of several molecular weights so that the resulting particles would entrap different sized drugs in networks with varying mesh sizes. In vitro drug release profiles were obtained for all of the various drug-monomer combinations. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a short time approximation of Fickian release from a sphere of fixed diameter to the release data and were applied to a model of Fickian release from polydisperse spheres, and the results were compared to the in vitro release data. CAPP particle processing was explored in acetone, ethanol, and methanol with respect to reaction kinetics, particle size and morphology, particle double bond conversion, and in vitro drug release. A multifunctional anhydride monomer was also applied to the CAPP process and ion-paired tacrine was successfully encapsulated in the resulting surface eroding, crosslinked polymer microparticles. Degradation of and release from thin disks of photopolymerized monomer, poly(sebacic anhydride dimethacrylate), gave a kinetic constant for surface erosion, which was applied to predict the release of ion-paired tacrine from the CAPP-processed, degradable particles.

  15. Forecast of a Daily Halo CME Occurrence Probability Depending on Class and Area Change of the Associated Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangjin; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Jin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the halo (partial and full) coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrence probability depending on class and area change of the associated sunspot using front-side halo CMEs from 1996 to 2011. We select the most halo CME-productive 14 sunspot classifications: Cao, Cko, Dai, Dao, Dko, Dki, Dkc, Eao, Eai, Eko, Eki, Ekc, Fki, and Fkc. For each class, we assign three subgroups according to sunspot class area change: "Decrease", "Steady", or "Increase". As a result, in the case of asymmetric (k) and compact (c) groups, their CME occurrence probabilities increase. We also find that the halo-CME occurrence probabilities for the "Increase" subgroups are noticeably higher than those for the other subgroups. Our results demonstrate statistically that magnetic-flux emergence or cancellation enhances CME occurrence. We expect that this model can be routinely operated to forecast the halo-CME occurrence probability.

  16. The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta

    E-print Network

    Turrini, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and...

  17. The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement.

  18. The formation of jupiter, the jovian early bombardment and the delivery of water to the asteroid belt: the case of (4) vesta.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement. PMID:25370027

  19. Delivery methods for LVSD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.

  20. Strong coronal deflection of a CME and its interplanetary evolution to Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, Christian; Rollett, Tanja; Frahm, Rudy A.; Liu, Ying D.; Long, David M.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Farrugia, Charles J.; Posner, Arik; Dumbovic, Mateja; Janvier, Miho; Demoulin, Pascal; Boakes, Peter; Devos, Andy; Kraaikamp, Emil; Mays, Mona L.; Vrsnak, Bojan

    2015-04-01

    We discuss multipoint imaging and in situ observations of the coronal mass ejection (CME) on January 7 2014 which resulted in a major false alarm. While the source region was almost at disk center facing Earth, the eruption was strongly deflected in the corona, and in conjunction with its particular orientation this CME missed Earth almost entirely, leading to no significant geomagnetic effects. We demonstrate this by a synthesis of data from 7 different heliospheric and planetary space missions (STEREO-A/B, SOHO, SDO, Wind, Mars Express, Mars Science Laboratory). The CMEs ecliptic part was deflected by 37 ± 10° in heliospheric longitude, a value larger than previously thought. Multipoint in situ observations at Earth and Mars confirm the deflection, and are consistent with an elliptical interplanetary shock shape of aspect ratio 1.4 ± 0.4. We also discuss our new method, the Ellipse Evolution (ElEvo) model, which allows us to optimize the global shape of the CME shock with multipoint in situ observations of the interplanetary CME arrival. ElEvo, which is an extension to the Drag-Based-Model by Vrsnak et al., may also be used for real time space weather forecasting. The presented results enhance our understanding of CME deflection and shape, which are fundamental ingredients for improving space weather forecasts.

  1. The Pre- and Post-Launch Configuration of a CME Flux Rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    While the standard picture of a coronal mass ejection (CME) remains largely unchanged from the early 1990s, we continue to develop our understanding of the finer structures comprising the CME anatomy. Our efforts are impeded by an assortment of inconveniences involving the detection and tracking of CMEs: namely that they are two-dimensional manifestations of an extended three-dimensional structure, they are optically-thin, have asymmetric geometries that evolve at different kinematic rates, and when observed by coronagraphs their appearances are subject to the laws of Thomson scattering. Even in the STEREO era we have rarely had an opportunity to explore in 3-D the finer structures comprising CMEs and their greater counterparts. Through careful analysis of a CME observed during such an opportunity, we have constructed a detailed narrative describing the pre-launch configuration of the magnetic configuration that gave rise to the CME, and its launch and evolution through the corona and solar wind. We present our narrative using observational evidence from EUV imagers, coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers. We offer insight into the implications of its 3-D structure for CME observation, including the difficulties presented by geometry, kinematics and Thomson scattering.

  2. Teaching tools useful to understand the Space Weather, through kinematic analysis of some CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amazo-Gomez, Eliana

    The earth is a planet belonging to a medium dynamic, interacting, is not restricted a closed system, but it is affected by her multiple external phenomena, storms geomagnetic, coronal mass ejections, spatial tremors, changes in the environment plasma and magnetic fields near the sun and affecting the planet and overall radiation from other parts of space are subject study space weather. In this work I teach to my school students some tools and main ideas about some things about the Space Weather, through the analysis to five CME events and the localization the CMEs sources. We use Stereo and ISWA tools and datasets, also SOHO and STEREO Within the missions (Cor 1.2, HI 1.2, of A & B and SOHO spacecraft/LASCO C2 & C3), we proceed to calibrate the data, and make movies of the CME seen from of all 3 spacecrafts, then we can estimate the CME front (position), calculate the velocity of the CME and plot the velocity/time diagram, create J-plots, and finally, we Infer the velocity of the CME out of the J-plot. The coronal mass ejections measures were compared with records and this got us some a description of the stage in which the dynamic system is they belong to the earth and the sun, the idea of this work was show and describe some of the measurements that are used to develop the study of Space Weather.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF THE FORMATION AND SEPARATION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM THE EXPANSION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Olmedo, O. [NRC, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We address the nature of EUV waves through direct observations of the formation of a diffuse wave driven by the expansion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and its subsequent separation from the CME front. The wave and the CME on 2011 June 7 were well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Following the solar eruption onset, marked by the beginning of the rapid increasing of the CME velocity and the X-ray flux of accompanying flare, the CME exhibits a strong lateral expansion. During this impulsive expansion phase, the expansion speed of the CME bubble increases from 100 km s{sup -1} to 450 km s{sup -1} in only six minutes. An important finding is that a diffuse wave front starts to separate from the front of the expanding bubble shortly after the lateral expansion slows down. Also a type II burst is formed near the time of the separation. After the separation, two distinct fronts propagate with different kinematic properties. The diffuse front travels across the entire solar disk, while the sharp front rises up, forming the CME ejecta with the diffuse front ahead of it. These observations suggest that the previously termed EUV wave is a composite phenomenon and driven by the CME expansion. While the CME expansion is accelerating, the wave front is cospatial with the CME front, thus the two fronts are indiscernible. Following the end of the acceleration phase, the wave moves away from the CME front with a gradually increasing distance between them.

  4. The Solar Stormwatch CME catalogue: Results from the first space weather citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, L.; Scott, C.; Owens, M.; Lockwood, M.; Tucker-Hood, K.; Thomas, S.; Crothers, S.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R.; Lintott, C.; Simpson, R.; O'Donnell, J.; Smith, A. M.; Waterson, N.; Bamford, S.; Romeo, F.; Kukula, M.; Owens, B.; Savani, N.; Wilkinson, J.; Baeten, E.; Poeffel, L.; Harder, B.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Stormwatch was the first space weather citizen science project, the aim of which is to identify and track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the Heliospheric Imagers aboard the STEREO satellites. The project has now been running for approximately 4 years, with input from >16,000 citizen scientists, resulting in a data set of >38,000time-elongation profiles of CME trajectories, observed over 18 preselected position angles. We present our method for reducing this data set into a CME catalogue. The resulting catalogue consists of 144 CMEs over the period January 2007 to February 2010, of which 110 were observed by STEREO-A and 77 were observed by STEREO-B. For each CME, the time-elongation profiles generated by the citizen scientists are averaged into a consensus profile along each position angle that the event was tracked. We consider this catalogue to be unique, being at present the only citizen science-generated CME catalogue, tracking CMEs over an elongation range of 4° out to a maximum of approximately 70°. Using single spacecraft fitting techniques, we estimate the speed, direction, solar source region, and latitudinal width of each CME. This shows that at present, the Solar Stormwatch catalogue (which covers only solar minimum years) contains almost exclusively slow CMEs, with a mean speed of approximately 350 km s-1. The full catalogue is available for public access at www.met.reading.ac.uk/~spate/solarstormwatch. This includes, for each event, the unprocessed time-elongation profiles generated by Solar Stormwatch, the consensus time-elongation profiles, and a set of summary plots, as well as the estimated CME properties.

  5. Analysis and study of the in situ observation of the June 1st 2008 CME by STEREO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nieves-Chinchilla; R. Gómez-Herrero; A. F. Viñas; O. Malandraki; N. Dresing; M. A. Hidalgo; A. Opitz; J.-A. Sauvaud; B. Lavraud; J. M. Davila

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a combined study of the counterpart of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been largely studied because of its peculiar initiation and its possible forecasting consequences for space weather. We show an in situ analysis (on days June 6th–7th of 2008) of the CME

  6. Enhancing quality improvements in cancer care through CME activities at a nationally recognized cancer center.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Marc; Morgan, Robert; Mendelsohn, Mary; Kagan, Jean; Saavedra, Crystal; Leong, Lucille

    2013-06-01

    Changing healthcare policy will undoubtedly affect the healthcare environment in which providers function. The current Fee for Service reimbursement model will be replaced by Value-Based Purchasing, where higher quality and more efficient care will be emphasized. Because of this, large healthcare organizations and individual providers must adapt to incorporate performance outcomes into patient care. Here, we present a Continuing Medical Education (CME)-based initiative at the City of Hope National Cancer Center that we believe can serve as a model for using CME as a value added component to achieving such a goal. PMID:23608956

  7. Role of Ambient Solar Wind Conditions in CME evolution (P21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadav, R.; Jadeja, A. K.; Iyer, K. N.

    2006-11-01

    ipsraj@yahoo.com Solar events are mainly responsible for producing storms at the Earth. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is a major cause for this. In this paper, Coronal Mass Ejections occurred during 1998-2004 are studied. Ambient solar wind does play some role in determining the effect of a CME. The effects produced at the Earth during the period 1999 2004 are considered and an attempt has been made to understand the role of ambient solar wind. This is to draw some conclusion about how some of the events become geo- effective.

  8. The Great "Non-Event" of 7 January 2014: Challenges in CME Arrival Time and Geomagnetic Storm Strength Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L.; Evans, R. M.; Savani, N.; Odstrcil, D.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Richardson, I. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case study of the 7 January 2014 event in order to highlight current challenges in space weather forecasting of CME arrival time and geomagnetic storm strength. On 7 January 2014 an X1.2 flare and CME with a radial speed ~2400 km/s was observed from active region 11943. The flaring region was only ten degrees southwest of disk center with extensive dimming south of the active region and preliminary analysis indicated a fairly rapid arrival at Earth (~36 hours). Of the eleven forecasting groups world-wide who participated in CCMC's Space Weather Scoreboard (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/SWScoreBoard), nine predicted early arrivals and six predicted dramatic geomagnetic storm impacts (Kp predictions ranged from 6 to 9). However, the CME only had a glancing blow arrival at Earth - Kp did not rise above 3 and there was no geomagnetic storm. What happened? One idea is that the large coronal hole to the northeast of the active region could have deflected the CME. This coronal hole produced a high speed stream near Earth reaching an uncommon speed of 900 km/s four days after the observed CME arrival. However, no clear CME deflection was observed in the outer coronagraph fields of view (~5-20Rs) where CME measurements are derived to initiate models, therefore deflection seems unlikely. Another idea is the effect of the CME flux rope orientation with respect to Earth orbit. We show that using elliptical major and minor axis widths obtained by GCS fitting for the initial CME parameters in ENLIL would have improved the forecast to better reflect the observed glancing blow in-situ signature. We also explore the WSA-ENLIL+Cone simulations, the background solar wind solution, and compare with the observed CME arrival at Venus (from Venus Express) and Earth.

  9. 2nd Annual Multidisciplinary Prostate Cancer Symposium Planning and Assessment of New Prostate Cancer Therapies CME

    E-print Network

    Jadvar, Hossein

    emergent approaches for managing early-stage prostate cancer, including new surgical, radiation therapy and targeted molecular therapies in the treatment of prostate cancer. Learning Objectives for this CME Activity, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy for treating early-stage prostate cancer. 2. Discuss the role

  10. A CME-driven solar wind distrubance observed at both low and high heliographic latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); and others

    1995-07-01

    A solar wind disturbance produced by a fast coronal mass ejection, CME, that departed from the Sun on Feburary 20, 1994 was observed in the ecliptic plane at 1 AU by IMP 8 and at high heliographic latitudes at 3.53 AU by Ulysses. In the ecliptic the disturbance included a strong forward shock but no reverse shock, while at high latitudes the disturbance was bounded by a relatively weak forward-reverse shock pair. It is clear that the disturbance in the ecliptic plane was driven primarily by the relative speed between the CME and a slower ambient solar wind ahead, whereas at higher latitudes the disturbance was driven by expansion of the CME. The combined IMP 8 and Ulysses observations thus provide a graphic illustration of how a single fast CME can produce very different types of solar wind disturbances at low and high heliographic latitudes. Simple numerical simulations help explain observed differences at the two spacecraft. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) Solar Wind 3-D Analysis of the January 20, 2005 CME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Jackson; A. Buffington; P. P. Hick; Y. Yu; D. Webb

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has observed the inner heliospheric response in white light from over 200 CMEs. One of these, on January 20, 2005, produced one of the largest Solar Energetic Particle events ever recorded. We show SMEI orbital difference images and the 3D solar wind reconstruction of this well-observed CME, and demonstrate how we can track its

  12. When to Recommend Compulsory versus Optional CME Programs? A Study to Establish Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Brailovsky, Carlos; Sindon, Andre; Bordage, Georges

    1997-01-01

    A study designed to establish criteria for requiring continuing medical education (CME) for family physicians by analyzing 14 structured oral interviews (SOIs) with physicians. The SOI consists of 40 cases, focuses on 10 aspects of physician competence required to face critical practice issues. Judges determined from the interviews a number of…

  13. The Integrated Joslin Performance Improvement/CME Program: A New Paradigm for Better Diabetes Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie A.; Beaser, Richard S.; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of…

  14. Validity of Self-Reports of Behavior Changes by Participants After a CME Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Lynn; Purkis, Ian E.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation procedure designed to measure the effects of university-organized continuing medical education (CME) courses on participants' prescribing behavior was examined. Copies of prescriptions were analyzed to establish real behavior compared with the physicians' self-reports. (Author/MLW)

  15. Modeling Extreme Space Weather Scenarios: July 23, 2012 Rare-Type CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather is a major concern for modern day society because of its adverse impacts on technological infrastructure such as power grids, oil pipelines, and global navigation systems. Particularly, earth directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of the most extreme geomagnetic storms in the near-Earth space environment. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast CME that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (~1 AU) in about 19 h. In our study, we use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), a 3-D MHD based code, to perform simulations of this rare CME by considering STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of the study is to investigate what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that the July 23 CME would have produced ground effects comparable to previously observed extreme geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm. In addition, we discuss how this study compares to other independent studies on this same event.

  16. CME Activity Proposal Appendix 10-22-12 A. Proposal Contacts

    E-print Network

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    -based CME Print Monograph Other Enduring Materials Regularly Scheduled Series (RSS) In-Hospital Community. To accommodate their numbers of participants and complex schedules, these activities typically take place or off site in hotels/and or conference centers. There is either no charge to attendees or a nominal

  17. Are CME 'interactions' Really Important for Accelerating Major Solar Energetic Particle Events?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Lawrence, G. R.; Haggerty, D. K.; Kucera, T.; Szabo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that the presence or absence of an interaction with a preceding coronal mass ejection (CME) or other coronal structure within approximately 50R(sub s), of the Sun discriminates large, fast CMEs associated with major solar energetic particle (SEP) events from those that are not. We conclude that there is no compelling evidence that, if such interactions take place, they play an important role in SEP acceleration. Reasons include: The reported statistical results are consistent with a chance association between interacting CMEs and SEP events; Energetic SEPs are detected at Earth typically before or around the time when the primary CME enters the LASCO C2 field of view - interactions higher in the corona cannot play a role in acceleration of these particles; For approximately 60% of major SEP events in 1997-2001, the preceding CME fades into the background corona or is relatively narrow (less than 40 deg), suggesting any interaction will be weak; Radio signatures attributed to CME interaction occur after SEP acceleration has commenced.

  18. Interrater Reliability to Assure Valid Content in Peer Review of CME-Accredited Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, Mark; Lado, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) provides guidelines for continuing medical education (CME) materials to mitigate problems in the independence or validity of content in certified activities; however, the process of peer review of materials appears largely unstudied and the reproducibility of…

  19. Correlated Flare and CME Energies for the October/November 2003 Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Medlin, Drew; Tolbert, A. Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    We find a strong correlation between the kinetic energies (KEs) of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the radiated energies of the associated solar flares for the events that occurred during the period of intense solar activity between 18 October and 08 November 2003. CME start times, speeds, mass, and KEs were taken from Gopalswamy et al. (2005), who used SOHO/LASCO observations. The GOES observations of the associated flares were analyzed to find the peak SXR flux, the radiated energy in SXRs (L(sub sxr)), and the radiated energy from the SXR emitting plasma across all wavelengths (L(sub hot)). RHESSI observations were also used to find the energy in non-thermal electrons, ions, and the plasma thermal energy for some events. For two events, SORCE/TIM observations of the total solar irradiance during a flare were also available to give the total radiated flare energy (L(sub total)). We find that the total flare energies of the larger events are of the same order of magnitude as the CME KE with a stronger correlation than has been found in the past for other time intervals. The following rule-of-thumb (good to an order of magnitude for the larger events} can be used to relate flare and CME energies: CME KE l(sub total) 10 L(sub hot) 100 L(sub SXR).

  20. Constraints on CME Evolution from in situ Observations of Ionic Charge States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel procedure for deriving the physical properties of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMES) in the corona. Our methodology uses in-situ measurements of ionic charge states of C, O, Si and Fe in the heliosphere and interprets them in the context of a model for the early evolution of ICME plasma, between 2 - 5 R-solar. We find that the data can be fit only by an evolution that consists of an initial heating of the plasma, followed by an expansion that ultimately results in cooling. The heating profile is consistent with a compression of coronal plasma due to flare reconnect ion jets and an expansion cooling due to the ejection, as expected from the standard CME/flare model. The observed frozen-in ionic charge states reflect this time-history and, therefore, provide important constraints for the heating and expansion time-scales, as well as the maximum temperature the CME plasma is heated to during its eruption. Furthermore, our analysis places severe limits on the possible density of CME plasma in the corona. We discuss the implications of our results for CME models and for future analysis of ICME plasma composition.

  1. Organizational Change in Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluation of a CME Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L.; Durfee, Janet M.; Ho, Samuel B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment…

  2. Effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity: modeling the 2012-March-07 SEP event with ENLIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong; Gopalswamy, N.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2013-07-01

    We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T programAbstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T program

  3. Probing the Role of Magnetic-Field Variations in NOAA AR 8038 in Producing a Solar Flare and CME on 12 May 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K.; Chandel, Babita; Bharti, Lokesh; Hanaoka, Y.; Kiplinger, A. L.

    2011-07-01

    We carried out a multi-wavelength study of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and an associated flare, occurring on 12 May 1997. We present a detailed investigation of magnetic-field variations in NOAA Active Region 8038 which was observed on the Sun during 7 - 16 May 1997. This region was quiet and decaying and produced only a very small flare activity during its disk passage. However, on 12 May 1997 it produced a CME and associated medium-size 1B/C1.3 flare. Detailed analyses of H? filtergrams and SOHO/MDI magnetograms revealed continual but discrete surge activity, and emergence and cancellation of flux in this active region. The movie of these magnetograms revealed the two important results that the major opposite polarities of pre-existing region as well as in the emerging-flux region were approaching towards each other and moving magnetic features (MMF) were ejected from the major north polarity at a quasi-periodicity of about ten hours during 10 - 13 May 1997. These activities were probably caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere driven by photospheric convergence motions, which were evident in magnetograms. The quantitative measurements of magnetic-field variations such as magnetic flux, gradient, and sunspot rotation revealed that in this active region, free energy was slowly being stored in the corona. Slow low-layer magnetic reconnection may be responsible for the storage of magnetic free energy in the corona and the formation of a sigmoidal core field or a flux rope leading to the eventual eruption. The occurrence of EUV brightenings in the sigmoidal core field prior to the rise of a flux rope suggests that the eruption was triggered by the inner tether-cutting reconnection, but not the external breakout reconnection. An impulsive acceleration, revealed from fast separation of the H ? ribbons of the first 150 seconds, suggests that the CME accelerated in the inner corona, which is also consistent with the temporal profile of the reconnection electric field. Based on observations and analysis we propose a qualitative model, and we conclude that the mass ejections, filament eruption, CME, and subsequent flare were connected with one another and should be regarded within the framework of a solar eruption.

  4. An Investigation of the CME of 3 November 2011 and its Associated Widespread Solar Energetic Particle Event

    E-print Network

    Prise, A J; Matthews, S A; Long, D M; Aylward, A D

    2013-01-01

    Multi-spacecraft observations are used to study the in-situ effects of a large CME erupting from the farside of the Sun on 3 November 2011, with particular emphasis on the associated solar energetic particle (SEP) event. At that time both Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft were located more than 90 degrees from Earth and could observe the CME eruption directly, with the CME visible on-disk from STEREO-B and off the limb from STEREO-A. Signatures of pressure variations in the corona such as deflected streamers were seen, indicating the presence of a coronal shock associated with this CME eruption. The evolution of the CME and an associated EUV wave were studied using EUV and coronagraph images. It was found that the lateral expansion of the CME low in the corona closely tracked the propagation of the EUV wave, with measured velocities of 240+/-19 km/s and 221+/-15 km/s for the CME and wave respectively. Solar energetic particles were observed arriving first at STEREO-A, followed by ele...

  5. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  6. Simultaneous Transmission of Point-to-Point Data and Selective Delivery of Video Services in a WDM-PON Using ASK\\/SCM Modulation Format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingjiang Chang; Junming Gao; Qiang Li; Yikai Su

    2008-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate simultaneous transmission of point-to- point data signals and selective delivery of point-to-multipoint video services based on extinction ratio control of ASK data and subsequent SCM modulation in a WDM-PON system. copy2008 Optical Society of America.

  7. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment(SCEC/CME): A Collaboratory for Seismic Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, J. B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) Project is an NSF-supported Geosciences/IT partnership that is actively developing an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This partnership includes SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed on the Project include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERFs). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) codes have also been developed that simulate friction-based fault slip. The SCEC/CME collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of these SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based scientific workflow system. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC and TeraGrid High Performance Computing Centers. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB). This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data seta and their metadata. To provide an easy-to-use system for constructing SHA computations, a browser-based workflow assembly web portal has been developed. Users can compose complex SHA calculations, specifying SCEC/CME data sets as inputs to calculations, and calling SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. Knowledge-based software tools have been implemented that utilize ontological descriptions of SHA software and data can validate workflows created with this pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration supports analysis and validation of data sets. Several programs have been developed to visualize SCEC/CME data including GMT-based map making software for PSHA codes, 4D wavefield propagation visualization software based on OpenGL, and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes, faults, and seismic wave propagation. The SCEC/CME Project also helps to sponsor the SCEC UseIT Intern program. The UseIT Intern Program provides research opportunities in both Geosciences and Information Technology to undergraduate students in a variety of fields. The UseIT group has developed a 3D data visualization tool, called SCEC-VDO, as a part of this undergraduate research program.

  8. Using Ionic Charge States to Investigate the Relationship Between Eruptive Flare Emission and the Heating of CME Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Kazachenko, M.; Li, Y.; Reinard, A.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Suites of instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft offer a set of new observations from multiple viewpoints that can be combined with theory and numerical modeling to provide a better understanding of CME initiation and energy release in eruptive flares. In situ observations of heavy ion charge state composition are a direct measure of the plasma properties in the CME source region in the corona. The ionic charge state composition of ejecta material is determined by the temperature and density evolution of plasma during eruptive flares. We will investigate the flare contribution to CME heating by examining the relationship between observed profiles of flare emission and the corresponding in situ ionic charge state observations. We will demonstrate the feasibility of using multi-wavelength EUV observations of the eruptive flare as constraints in the modeling of CME plasma evolution and its ionic charge state composition.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN EUV CORONAL WAVE BASED ON THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 CME EVENT OBSERVED BY STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Ofer; Attrill, Gemma D. R.; Wills-Davey, Meredith J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Manchester, Ward B. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    On 2009 February 13, a coronal wave-CME-dimming event was observed in quadrature by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. We analyze this event using a three-dimensional, global magnetohydrodynamic model for the solar corona. The numerical simulation is driven and constrained by the observations, and indicates where magnetic reconnection occurs between the expanding CME core and surrounding environment. We focus primarily on the lower corona, extending out to 3 R{sub sun}; this range allows simultaneous comparison with both EUVI and COR1 data. Our simulation produces a diffuse coronal bright front remarkably similar to that observed by STEREO/EUVI at 195 A. It is made up of two components, and is the result of a combination of both wave and non-wave mechanisms. The CME becomes large-scale quite low (< 200 Mm) in the corona. It is not, however, an inherently large-scale event; rather, the expansion is facilitated by magnetic reconnection between the expanding CME core and the surrounding magnetic environment. In support of this, we also find numerous secondary dimmings, many far from the initial CME source region. Relating such dimmings to reconnecting field lines within the simulation provides further evidence that CME expansion leads to the 'opening' of coronal field lines on a global scale. Throughout the CME expansion, the coronal wave maps directly to the CME footprint. Our results suggest that the ongoing debate over the 'true' nature of diffuse coronal waves may be mischaracterized. It appears that both wave and non-wave models are required to explain the observations and understand the complex nature of these events.

  10. Deriving the radial distances of wide coronal mass ejections from elongation measurements in the heliosphere - Application to CME-CME interaction

    E-print Network

    Lugaz, N; Roussev, I I

    2009-01-01

    We present general considerations regarding the derivation of the radial distances of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from elongation angle measurements such as those provided by SECCHI and SMEI, focusing on measurements in the Heliospheric Imager 2 (HI-2) field of view (i.e. past 0.3 AU). This study is based on a three-dimensional (3-D) magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of two CMEs observed by SECCHI on January 24-27, 2007. Having a 3-D simulation with synthetic HI images, we are able to compare the two basic methods used to derive CME positions from elongation angles, the so-called "Point-P" and "Fixed-Phi" approximations. We confirm, following similar works, that both methods, while valid in the most inner heliosphere, yield increasingly large errors in HI-2 field of view for fast and wide CMEs. Using a simple model of a CME as an expanding self-similar sphere, we derive an analytical relationship between elongation angles and radial distances for wide CMEs. This relationship is simply the harmonic mean...

  11. A Comprehensive View of the 2006 December 13 CME: From the Sun to Interplanetary Space

    E-print Network

    Y. Liu; J. G. Luhmann; R. Müller-Mellin; P. C. Schroeder; L. Wang; R. P. Lin; S. D. Bale; Y. Li; M. H. Acuña; J. -A. Sauvaud

    2008-07-18

    The biggest halo coronal mass ejection (CME) since the Halloween storm in 2003, which occurred on 2006 December 13, is studied in terms of its solar source and heliospheric consequences. The CME is accompanied by an X3.4 flare, EUV dimmings and coronal waves. It generated significant space weather effects such as an interplanetary shock, radio bursts, major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, and a magnetic cloud (MC) detected by a fleet of spacecraft including STEREO, ACE, Wind and Ulysses. Reconstruction of the MC with the Grad-Shafranov (GS) method yields an axis orientation oblique to the flare ribbons. Observations of the SEP intensities and anisotropies show that the particles can be trapped, deflected and reaccelerated by the large-scale transient structures. The CME-driven shock is observed at both the Earth and Ulysses when they are separated by 74$^{\\circ}$ in latitude and 117$^{\\circ}$ in longitude, the largest shock extent ever detected. The ejecta seems missed at Ulysses. The shock arrival time at Ulysses is well predicted by an MHD model which can propagate the 1 AU data outward. The CME/shock is tracked remarkably well from the Sun all the way to Ulysses by coronagraph images, type II frequency drift, in situ measurements and the MHD model. These results reveal a technique which combines MHD propagation of the solar wind and type II emissions to predict the shock arrival time at the Earth, a significant advance for space weather forecasting especially when in situ data are available from the Solar Orbiter and Sentinels.

  12. The ModelAssembler Community Modeling Environment (MA-CME): Expanded Access to Advanced Seismic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Larsen, S.

    2006-12-01

    We introduce MA-CME, an open-source environment for all PCs, Macs, and workstations that configures advanced seismic modeling runs. It is intended for use by seismologists, engineers, and students. The environment combines geologic and geotechnical data sets with gridding, modeling, and output specifications into portal packs for execution on standalone workstations, clusters, and mega-facilities such as Sun Grid. A tutorial interface helps the user scale the grid to the facilities available, from small test runs to efforts requiring major resources. The input geologic data are kept in open, editable forms to promote the creation of models for new areas, the regional extension of existing grids, and the detailing of critical features within current models. MA-CME currently drives computations with the E3D and the open-source E3D/CODE3 advanced simulation platforms; additional platforms will be added. The ability of MA-CME to configure computations at a range of scales and model complexity is intended to promote wide use of advanced seismic modeling. Wide community use may lead to breakthrough insights into how geology controls earthquake ground motion. Advanced seismic modeling platforms, coupled with increasing availability of faster clusters, have rapidly improved the realism of such deterministic simulations. Yet the number of people able to configure and successfully run simulations through complex geology has not grown. Ground-motion simulations have been published only for a few scenarios in a limited number of urban areas. MA-CME has been used to configure simulations to 2-Hz frequency for the Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada; Grenoble, France; and Wellington, New Zealand regions including multiple basins, detailed geotechnical maps, and attenuation. The package is freely available on the web. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. The ModelAssembler Community Modeling Environment (MA-CME): Expanded Access to Advanced Seismic Computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Louie; S. Larsen

    2006-01-01

    We introduce MA-CME, an open-source environment for all PCs, Macs, and workstations that configures advanced seismic modeling runs. It is intended for use by seismologists, engineers, and students. The environment combines geologic and geotechnical data sets with gridding, modeling, and output specifications into portal packs for execution on standalone workstations, clusters, and mega-facilities such as Sun Grid. A tutorial interface

  14. Modeling the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a very fast CME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W MANCHESTERIV; A. J. Ridley; T. I. Gombosi; D. L. DeZeeuw

    2006-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent propagation of a CME from the solar corona to Earth in just 18h. The simulations are performed using the BATS-R-US (Block Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe Upwind Scheme) code. We begin by developing a global steady-state model of the corona that possesses high-latitude coronal holes and a helmet

  15. Modeling a space weather event from the Sun to the Earth: CME generation and interplanetary propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ward B. Manchester; Tamas I. Gombosi; Ilia Roussev; Aaron Ridley; Darren L. De Zeeuw; I. V. Sokolov; Gábor Tóth

    2004-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the solar corona propagating to 1 astronomical unit (AU). The simulations are performed using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. We begin by developing a global steady-state model of the corona that possesses high-latitude coronal

  16. Three-dimensional MHD simulation of a flux rope driven CME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ward B. Manchester; Tamas I. Gombosi; Ilia Roussev; Darren L. De Zeeuw; I. V. Sokolov; Kenneth G. Powell; Gábor Tóth; Merav Opher

    2004-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, describing the time-dependent expulsion of plasma and magnetic flux from the solar corona that resembles a coronal mass ejection (CME). We begin by developing a global steady-state model of the corona and solar wind that gives a reasonable description of the solar wind conditions near solar minimum. The model magnetic

  17. Geometric Localization and Polarimetric Localization: Space Weather Tools to Calculate CME Propagation Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Pizzo; C. A. de Koning

    2008-01-01

    The geometric localization technique [Pizzo and Biesecker, 2004] utilizes a series of lines of sight from two space-based coronagraphs to determine gross propagation characteristics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in three-dimensional space. The polarimetric localization technique [Moran and Davila, 2004] uses the percent polarization observed by a single coronagraph to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of a CME. Both techniques can

  18. Topological Evolution of a Fast Magnetic Breakout CME in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-08-01

    We present the extension of the magnetic breakout model for CME initiation to a fully three-dimensional, spherical geometry. Given the increased complexity of the dynamic magnetic field interactions in three dimensions, we first present a summary of the well known axisymmetric breakout scenario in terms of the topological evolution associated with the various phases of the eruptive process. In this context, we discuss the analogous topological evolution during the magnetic breakout CME initiation process in the simplest three-dimensional multipolar system. We show that an extended bipolar active region embedded in an oppositely directed background dipole field has all the necessary topological features required for magnetic breakout, i.e., a fan separatrix surface between the two distinct flux systems, a pair of spine field lines, and a true three-dimensional coronal null point at their intersection. We then present the results of a numerical MHD simulation of this three-dimensional system where boundary shearing flows introduce free magnetic energy, eventually leading to a fast magnetic breakout CME. The eruptive flare reconnection facilitates the rapid conversion of this stored free magnetic energy into kinetic energy and the associated acceleration causes the erupting field and plasma structure to reach an asymptotic eruption velocity of >~1100 km s-1 over an ~15 minute time period. The simulation results are discussed using the topological insight developed to interpret the various phases of the eruption and the complex, dynamic, and interacting magnetic field structures.

  19. Validation of a priori CME arrival predictions made using real-time heliospheric imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker-Hood, Kimberley; Scott, Chris; Owens, Mathew; Jackson, David; Barnard, Luke; Davies, Jackie A.; Crothers, Steve; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Savani, Neel P.; Wilkinson, J.; Harder, B.; Eriksson, G. M.; L Baeten, E. M.; Wan Wah, Lily Lau

    2015-01-01

    Between December 2010 and March 2013, volunteers for the Solar Stormwatch (SSW) Citizen Science project have identified and analyzed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the near real-time Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imager observations, in order to make "Fearless Forecasts" of CME arrival times and speeds at Earth. Of the 60 predictions of Earth-directed CMEs, 20 resulted in an identifiable Interplanetary CME (ICME) at Earth within 1.5-6 days, with an average error in predicted transit time of 22 h, and average transit time of 82.3 h. The average error in predicting arrival speed is 151 km s-1, with an average arrival speed of 425km s-1. In the same time period, there were 44 CMEs for which there are no corresponding SSW predictions, and there were 600 days on which there was neither a CME predicted nor observed. A number of metrics show that the SSW predictions do have useful forecast skill; however, there is still much room for improvement. We investigate potential improvements by using SSW inputs in three models of ICME propagation: two of constant acceleration and one of aerodynamic drag. We find that taking account of interplanetary acceleration can improve the average errors of transit time to 19 h and arrival speed to 77 km s-1.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Multiple-CME Events in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odstrcil, Dusan; Jian, Lan; Luhmann, Janet; Mays, Leila; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Xie, Hong

    2014-05-01

    The ENLIL-based heliospheric modeling system enables faster-than-real time simulations of corotating and transient disturbances. This hybrid system does not simulate origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but uses appearance in coronagraphs, its geometric and kinematic parameters, and launches a CME-like structure into the solar wind computed using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model. Propagation and interaction in the heliosphere is solved by a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. In this presentation, we introduce the recent improvements that support modeling of the evolving background solar wind and modeling of multiple-CME events. These enhancements are needed especially for simulations of complex scenarios of multiple-transients interacting with each other and with corotating solar wind stream structures. We simulated over 700 CMEs in 2011-2013 to validate and calibrate new modeling system, and we will show examples of multi-CME events during August 2010. March 2012, and July 2012 periods of enhanced solar activity. We will present results of numerical simulations and compare them with remote white-light observations, with in-situ measurements of plasma parameters, and with detection of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at various spacecraft.

  1. A Comprehensive View of the 13 December 2006 CME: From the Sun to Interplanetary Space

    E-print Network

    Liu, Y; Schroeder, P C; Wang, L; Li, Y; Lin, R P; Bale, S D; Müller-Mellin, R; Acuña, M H; Sauvaud, J -A

    2008-01-01

    The biggest halo coronal mass ejection (CME) since the Halloween storm in 2003, which occurred on 13 December 2006, is studied in terms of its solar source and heliospheric consequences. The CME is accompanied by an X3.4 flare, EUV dimmings and coronal waves. It generated significant space weather effects such as an interplanetary shock, radio bursts, major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, and a magnetic cloud (MC) detected by a fleet of spacecraft including STEREO, ACE, Wind and Ulysses. Reconstruction of the MC with the Grad-Shafranov (GS) method yields an axis orientation oblique to the flare ribbons. Observations of the SEP intensities and anisotropies show that the particles can be trapped, deflected and reaccelerated by the large-scale transient structures. The CME preceding shock is also observed at Ulysses which is 74$^{\\circ}$ south of the Earth, indicative of a surprisingly large latitudinal extent of the shock. The shock arrival time at Ulysses is well predicted by an MHD model which can prop...

  2. Radio signatures of CME-streamer interaction and source diagnostics of type II radio burst

    E-print Network

    Feng, S W; Kong, X L; Li, G; Song, H Q; Feng, X S; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolutions to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this paper, we discuss a promising approach to infer the electron acceleration location by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g. spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts, to imaging features (e.g. CME going into a streamer) along the CME (and its driven shock) propagation. In this study, we examine the CME-streamer interaction for the solar eruption dated on 2003 November 1. The presence of spectral bump in the relevant type II radio burst is identified, which is interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. The study is useful for further determinations of the location of type II radio burst and the associated el...

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of a Grand Rounds CME activity for health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Terry Ann; Nevins, P Holder; Williamson, J Chad; Tomlinson, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The Lymphoma Research Foundation offers Grand Rounds continuing medical education (CME) activities on specific issues related to advances in the management of patients with lymphoma. The 2012 activity comprised interactive case studies presented by local lymphoma experts. A case-based survey was designed to assess whether the management choices of program participants are consistent with the evidence-based content of the CME activity. This survey was administered to participants 1 month after completion of the CME activity and also to a control group who did not participate in the educational program. Participants were more aware of the epidemiology of CD20-positive tumors than were controls and were more likely to appropriately diagnose primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMBCL), use evidence-based second-line therapy for PMBCL, and properly manage a patient with classic Hodgkin lymphoma that did not respond to standard therapy. Participants were also more confident than controls in their ability to interpret histology and cytogenetic testing for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:23801053

  4. Quasi-periodic Fast-mode Magnetosonic Wave Trains Inside and Outside CME Bubbles Detected by SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, L.; Downs, C.; Title, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Quasi-periodic fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains both inside and outside expanding CME bubbles have recently been discovered by SDO/AIA (Liu et al. 2011, 2012; Shen & Liu 2012). In general, a wave train inside a CME bubble originates from a flare site and propagates along a funnel of coronal loops at typically 1000-2000 km/s (Ofman et al. 2011). A wave train outside a CME usually originates from a CME flank and propagates in the low corona along the solar surface following the leading front of a global EUV wave at typically 500-1000 km/s. The former is primarily seen in the cooler 171 Angstrom channel with a characteristic temperature of 0.8 MK, while the latter is pronounced in the hotter 193 and 211 Angstrom channels of typically 1.6-2.0 MK. What is the relationship between the two types of wave trains? Why do they appear differently in location and wavelength (temperature)? To answer these questions, we report here for the first time the evidence that the wave train beyond the CME bubble is the continuation of the same wave train along the funnel within the CME. The continuous deceleration of the waves is consistent with the expected decrease of the local fast-mode speed with distance from the active region (e.g., Ofman et al. 2011; Downs et al. 2012). There is an abrupt change of the wave speed at the topological interface where the expanding CME flank is located, indicative of contrasting magnetic and plasma conditions, which can give rise to different (fast-mode) speeds and wavelength (temperature) dependent appearances of these wave trains.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Quasi-periodic fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains both inside and outside expanding CME bubbles have recently been discovered by SDO/AIA (Liu et al. 2011, 2012; Shen & Liu 2012). In general, a wave train inside a CME bubble originates from a flare site and propagates along a funnel of coronal loops at typically 1000-2000 km/s (Ofman et al. 2011). A wave train outside a CME usually originates from a CME flank and propagates in the low corona along the solar surface following the leading front of a global EUV wave at typically 500-1000 km/s. The former is primarily seen in the cooler 171 Angstrom channel with a characteristic temperature of 0.8 MK, while the latter is pronounced in the hotter 193 and 211 Angstrom channels of typically 1.6-2.0 MK. What is the relationship between the two types of wave trains? Why do they appear differently in location and wavelength (temperature)? To answer these questions, we report here for the first time the evidence that the wave train beyond the CME bubble is the continuation of the same wave train along the funnel within the CME. The continuous deceleration of the waves is consistent with the expected decrease of the local fast-mode speed with distance from the active region (e.g., Ofman et al. 2011; Downs et al. 2012). There is an abrupt change of the wave speed at the topological interface where the expanding CME flank is located, indicative of contrasting magnetic and plasma conditions, which can give rise to different (fast-mode) speeds and wavelength (temperature) dependent appearances of these wave trains.

  5. On the Statistical Relationship Between CME Speed and Soft X-Ray Flux and Fluence of the Associated Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Matamoros, C.; Klein, K.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Observation and theory both reveal a close relationship between the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the thermal energy release traced by the related soft X-ray (SXR) emission. A major problem of empirical studies of this relationship is the distortion of the CME speed by the projection effect in the coronagraphic measurements. We present a re-assessment of the statistical relationship between CME velocities and SXR parameters using the SOHO/LASCO catalog and GOES whole-Sun observations during the period 1996 to 2008. Forty-nine events were identified in which CMEs originated near the limb, at central meridian distances between 70? and 85?, and had a reliably identified SXR burst, the parameters of which - peak flux and fluence - could be determined with some confidence. We find similar correlations between the logarithms of CME speed and of SXR peak flux and fluence as several earlier studies, with correlation coefficients of 0.48 for the flux and 0.58 for the fluence. Correlations are slightly improved over an unrestricted CME sample when only limb events are used. However, a broad scatter persists. We derive the parameters of the CME-SXR relationship and use them to predict ICME arrival times at Earth. We show that the CME speed inferred from SXR fluence measurements tends to perform better than SoHO/LASCO measurements in predicting ICME arrival times near 1 AU. The estimation of the CME speed from SXR observations can therefore make a valuable contribution to space weather predictions.

  6. Characteristics of Polar Cap Patches and Shear Flows Inferred from GPS Scintillation Spectra following the CME Impact on 22 January 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Basu, S.; MacKenzie, E.; Groves, K. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Holmes, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Polar cap patches are localized enhancements in ionospheric density which originate from solar EUV ionization on the dayside, enter the polar cap at the dayside cusp, convect anti-sunward at km/s velocities, and then exit the polar cap near midnight to merge with sunward returning flow patterns. Plasma irregularities associated with patches are the leading cause of high-latitude scintillations at L-band, and fast shear flows near the dayside cusp are thought to be integral to patch formation. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of polar cap patches and fast flows inferred from the spectra of GPS scintillations recorded at Longyearbyen, Svalbard, following the CME impact on 22 January 2012. Following the CME impact, elevated GPS TEC values indicate the passage of patches through the cusp between 11-15 MLT, accompanied by significant GPS phase scintillations (?? ~ 0.5 radians) but minimal amplitude scintillations (S4 < 0.05). We demonstrate that the relative lack of amplitude scintillations is consistent with Fresnel filtering of the path integrated irregularity spectrum with a relatively high cutoff frequency (8 Hz). This filtering is consistent with weak scatter of the satellite signals by irregularities scanning past the ray path with a velocity approaching 3 km/s. We exploit the Fresnel filtering effect and introduce a technique to deduce the flow velocity by reconciling the phase and amplitude spectra with weak scatter theory. We apply this technique to investigate the noontime entrance of patches into the dayside cusp and the midnight exit of patches from the polar cap. The scan velocity increased from about 500-1000 m/s following the initial CME impact at ~6:00 UT, to sustained velocities between 1500-3000 m/s measured by GPS satellites whose ray paths intersected fast plasma flows near the cusp. In this sector, the phase spectral index (p) generally ranged between 2.4-2.8, with a tendency for somewhat larger values when the flow was faster. Weaker irregularities were detected in the outflow sector between 20-24 MLT, when p generally ranged from 2.6-3.0. The scan velocities measured in the outflow sector were slower, generally between 400-600 m/s. These velocity estimates compare favorably with ion drift measurements made by the DMSP satellites. Our analysis technique is automated and could potentially enable continuous monitoring of flow patterns in the polar cap using a relatively inexpensive GPS scintillation monitor. These measurements could then complement measurements from space-based platforms that sample the polar cap only intermittently and incoherent scatter radars which provide excellent diagnostics but cannot operate continuously.

  7. AN INTERPRETATION OF GLE71 CONCURRENT CME-DRIVEN SHOCK WAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Firoz, Kazi A.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J. [Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Zhang, Q. M.; Gan, W. Q.; Li, Y. P. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Moon, Y.-J. [School of Space Science, Kyung-Hee University, 446-701 Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kudela, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Park, Y.-D. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dorman, Lev I., E-mail: kazifiroz2002@gmail.com, E-mail: firoz.kazi@uah.es [Israel Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center with Emilio Segré Observatory on Mt. Hermon, Tel Aviv University, Golan Research Institute, Israel Space Agency (Israel)

    2014-08-01

    Particle accelerations in solar flares and CME-driven shocks can sometimes result in very high-energy particle events (?1 GeV) that are known as ground level enhancements (GLEs). Recent studies on the first GLE event (GLE71 2012 May 17 01:50 UT) of solar cycle 24 suggested that CME-driven shock played a leading role in causing the event. To verify this claim, we have made an effort to interpret the GLE71 concurrent shock wave. For this, we have deduced the possible speed and height of the shock wave in terms of the frequency (MHz) of the solar radio type II burst and its drift rate (MHz min{sup –1}), and studied the temporal evolution of the particle intensity profiles at different heights of the solar corona. For a better perception of the particle acceleration in the shock, we have studied the solar radio type II burst with concurrent solar radio and electron fluxes. When the particle intensity profiles are necessarily shifted in time at ?1 AU, it is found that the growth phases of the electron and cosmic ray intensity fluxes are strongly correlated (>0.91; ?0.87) with the frequency drift rate of the type II burst, which is also consistent with the intensive particle accelerations at upper coronal heights (??0.80 R {sub S} < 1.10 R {sub S}). Thus, we conclude that the CME-driven shock was possibly capable of producing the high-energy particle event. However, since the peaks of some flare components are found to be strongly associated with the fundamental phase of the type II burst, the preceding flare is supposed to contribute to the shock acceleration process.

  8. The Driving Magnetic Field and Reconnection in CME/Flare Eruptions and Coronal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Signatures of reconnection in major CME (coronal mass ejection)/flare eruptions and in coronal X-ray jets are illustrated and interpreted. The signatures are magnetic field lines and their feet that brighten in flare emission. CME/flare eruptions are magnetic explosions in which: 1. The field that erupts is initially a closed arcade. 2. At eruption onset, most of the free magnetic energy to be released is not stored in field bracketing a current sheet, but in sheared field in the core of the arcade. 3. The sheared core field erupts by a process that from its start or soon after involves fast "tether-cutting" reconnection at an initially small current sheet low in the sheared core field. If the arcade has oppositely-directed field over it, the eruption process from its start or soon after also involves fast "breakout" reconnection at an initially small current sheet between the arcade and the overarching field. These aspects are shown by the small area of the bright field lines and foot-point flare ribbons in the onset of the eruption. 4. At either small current sheet, the fast reconnection progressively unleashes the erupting core field to erupt with progressively greater force. In turn, the erupting core field drives the current sheet to become progressively larger and to undergo progressively greater fast reconnection in the explosive phase of the eruption, and the flare arcade and ribbons grow to become comparable to the pre-eruption arcade in lateral extent. In coronal X-ray jets: 1. The magnetic energy released in the jet is built up by the emergence of a magnetic arcade into surrounding unipolar "open" field. 2. A simple jet is produced when a burst of reconnection occurs at the current sheet between the arcade and the open field. This produces a bright reconnection jet and a bright reconnection arcade that are both much smaller in diameter that the driving arcade. 3. A more complex jet is produced when the arcade has a sheared core field and undergoes an ejective eruption in the manner of a miniature CME/flare eruption. The jet is then a combination of a miniature CME and the products of more widely distributed reconnection of the erupting arcade with the open field than in simple jets.

  9. The effect of rhBMP-2 and PRP delivery by biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds on new bone formation in a non-through rabbit cranial defect model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Mercado-Pagan, Angel E.; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Taek-Hue; Bishop, Julius; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Maloney, William; Lee, Kwang-Min; Yang, Yunzhi; Park, Sang-Won

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the combination of biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could accelerate bone formation and increase bone height using a rabbit non-through cranial bone defect model. Four non-through cylindrical bone defects with a diameter of 8-mm were surgically created on the cranium of rabbits. ?-TCP scaffolds in the presence and absence of impregnated rhBMP-2 or PRP were placed into the defects. At 8 and 16 weeks after implantation, samples were dissected and fixed for analysis by microcomputed tomography and histology. Only defects with rhBMP-2 impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds showed significantly enhanced bone formation compared to non-impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds (p<0.05). Although new bone was higher than adjacent bone at 8 weeks after implantation, vertical bone augmentation was not observed at 16 weeks after implantation, probably due to scaffold resorption occurring concurrently with new bone formation. PMID:23779152

  10. Magnetosphere ionosphere coupling during the CME events of 07 12 November 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Alleyne, H.; Walker, S.; Reme, H.; McCrea, I.; Aylward, A.

    2008-12-01

    The response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere to the coronal mass ejection (CME) events during the period 07-12 November 2004 is studied using Cluster and ground-based (ESR, EISCAT and Jicamarca radars and magnetometer) observations. The coordinated observations provide a good example of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through prompt penetration electric field (PPEF). The strongest PPEF ever recorded appears to be generated in the magnetosphere by the v×B effect, which is mapped to the high latitude ionosphere along the geomagnetic field lines and promptly penetrated to low latitudes. The CMEs, though started with a weak front end ( and 3.3 nPa), attained velocities up to , pressure up to 60 nPa and IMF components up to . The impact of the CME compressed and deformed the magnetosphere such that Cluster, which was in the southern magnetospheric lobe, suddenly found itself in the magnetosheath. While crossing a compressed magnetosheath under steady solar wind pressure and steady velocity components, the magnetosphere shifted back to the Cluster position for about 1.5 h when IMF By, which was negative before and after, became zero. The high latitude ionosphere over the ESR radar responded directly to the CMEs mainly through particle precipitation that resulted in strong ionisation and thermal expansion of the ionosphere.

  11. Initiation of CME and Associated Flare Caused by Helical Kink Instability Observed by SDO/AIA

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bong, S -C; Park, Sung-Hong; Kim, Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present multiwavelength observations of helical kink instability as a trigger of a CME which occurred in AR NOAA 11163 on 24 February 2011. The CME was associated with a M3.5 limb flare. High resolution observations from SDO/AIA suggest the development of helical kink instability in the erupting prominence, which implies a flux rope structure of the magnetic field. A brightening starts below the apex of the prominence with its slow rising motion (~100 km/s) during the activation phase. A bright structure, indicative of a helix with ~3-4 turns, was transiently formed at this position. The corresponding twist of ~$6\\pi-8\\pi$ is sufficient to generate the helical kink instability in a flux rope according to recently developed models. A slowly rising blob structure was subsequently formed at the apex of the prominence, and a flaring loop was observed near the footpoints. Within two minutes, a second blob was formed in the northern prominence leg. The second blob erupts (like a plasmoid ejection)...

  12. Solar Source and CME Properties of Solar Cycle 23 Ground Level Enhancement Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Usoskin, I.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the most complete set of observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events. GLE events are extreme cases of solar energetic particle (SEP) events in that the energetic particles penetrate Earth's neutral atmosphere to be detected by neutron monitors. In this paper we present the CME and their source properties that seem to be equally extreme. These observations are consistent with the idea that the GLE particles are accelerated in the same way as the regular SEP events by CME-driven shocks. While we cannot rule out the possibility of the presence of a flare component during GLE events, we can definitely say that a shock component is present in all the GLE events. We provide additional information on the GLE-associated type II radio bursts, complex type III radio bursts, and soft X-ray flares, which are not very different from those associated with large SEP events. Finally we compare the properties of GLEassociated CMEs in cycle 23 with those in cycle 22.

  13. PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

    2009-12-01

    In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the magnetic cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the interplanetary medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.

  14. Multi-Wavelength Observations of an Unusual Impulsive Flare Associated with Cme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Wahab; Jain, Rajmal; Yoshimura, Keiji; Chandra, Ramesh; Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Joshi, Anita; Despande, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a very impulsive solar flare 1B/M6.7, which occurred on 10 March, 2001 in NOAA AR 9368 (N27 W42). The observations show that the flare is very impulsive with a very hard spectrum in HXR that reveal that non-thermal emission was most dominant. On the other hand, this flare also produced a type II radio burst and coronal mass ejections (CME), which are not general characteristics for impulsive flares. In H? we observed bright mass ejecta (BME) followed by dark mass ejecta (DME). Based on the consistency of the onset times and directions of BME and CME, we conclude that these two phenomena are closely associated. It is inferred that the energy build-up took place due to photospheric reconnection between emerging positive parasitic polarity and predominant negative polarity, which resulted as a consequence of flux cancellation. The shear increased to >80° due to further emergence of positive parasitic polarity causing strongly enhanced cancellation of flux. It appears that such enhanced magnetic flux cancellation in a strongly sheared region triggered the impulsive flare.

  15. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has formed a Geoscience/IT partnership to develop an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This SCEC/ITR partnership comprises SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. This collaboration recently completed the second year in a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ITR project called the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME). The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed by project collaborators include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA [Field et al., this meeting]. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERF's). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. A Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) has also been developed that couples a rupture dynamics simulation into an anelastic wave model. The collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based system utilizing Globus software [Kesselman et al., this meeting]. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC, NPACI and Teragrid High Performance Computing Centers. We have developed a SCEC Community Velocity Model server based on Internet standards (XML, SOAP, and WSDL) to provide access to the SCEC Community Velocity Model. We have also continued development of the SCEC Fault Information System (SCEC/FIS) to provide access to the SCEC Community Fault Model and the SCEC Fault Activity Database. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) [Minster et al., this meeting]. This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data sets and their metadata. A browser-based computational pathway assembly web site has been developed [Gupta et al., this meeting]. Users can compose SHA calculations and call SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. By assembling a series of computational steps, users can develop complex computational pathways the validity of which can be verified with an ontology-based pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration to support analysis and validation of data sets includes 4D wave propagation visualization software based on OpenGL [Thiebaux et al., this meeting] and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes and faults.

  16. Driving cartilage formation in high-density human adipose-derived stem cell aggregate and sheet constructs without exogenous growth factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phuong N; Solorio, Loran D; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-12-01

    An attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can be easily expanded and signaled to differentiate into chondrocytes. This study explores the influence of growth factor distribution and release kinetics on cartilage formation within 3D hASC constructs incorporated with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-loaded gelatin microspheres. The amounts of microspheres, TGF-?1 concentration, and polymer degradation rate were varied within hASC aggregates. Microsphere and TGF-?1 loading concentrations were identified that resulted in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production comparable to those of control aggregates cultured in TGF-?1-containing medium. Self-assembling hASC sheets were then engineered for the production of larger, more clinically relevant constructs. Chondrogenesis was observed in hASC-only sheets cultured with exogenous TGF-?1 at 3 weeks. Importantly, sheets with incorporated TGF-?1-loaded microspheres achieved GAG production similar to sheets treated with exogenous TGF-?1. Cartilage formation was confirmed histologically via observation of cartilage-like morphology and GAG staining. This is the first demonstration of the self-assembly of hASCs into high-density cell sheets capable of forming cartilage in the presence of exogenous TGF-?1 or with TGF-?1-releasing microspheres. Microsphere incorporation may bypass the need for extended in vitro culture, potentially enabling hASC sheets to be implanted more rapidly into defects to regenerate cartilage in vivo. PMID:24873753

  17. C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training

    PubMed Central

    Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members. PMID:18286178

  18. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 Extreme Space Weather Event: What if This Extremely Rare CME Was Earth Directed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (approx. 1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the SpaceWeather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME.We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  19. Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

  20. Numerical Simulation of an EUV Coronal Wave Based on the February 13, 2009 CME Event Observed by STEREO

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ofer; Manchester, Ward B; Wills-Davey, Meredith J

    2009-01-01

    On 13 February 2009, a coronal wave -- CME -- dimming event was observed in quadrature by the STEREO spacecraft. We analyze this event using a three-dimensional, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the solar corona. The numerical simulation is driven and constrained by the observations, and indicates where magnetic reconnection occurs between the expanding CME core and surrounding environment. We focus primarily on the lower corona, extending out to $3R_{\\odot}$; this range allows simultaneous comparison with both EUVI and COR1 data. Our simulation produces a diffuse coronal bright front remarkably similar to that observed by STEREO/EUVI at 195 \\AA. It is made up of \\emph{two} components, and is the result of a combination of both wave and non-wave mechanisms. The CME becomes large-scale quite low ($<$ 200 Mm) in the corona. It is not, however, an inherently large-scale event; rather, the expansion is facilitated by magnetic reconnection between the expanding CME core and the surrounding magnetic en...

  1. Quantitative Imaging of the Solar Wind: CME Mass Evolution and the Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig

    2012-05-01

    We recently developed post-processing techniques for heliospheric images from the STEREO spacecraft; the new data sets enable, for the first time, quantitative photometric studies of evolving wind features at distances up to 1 A.U. from the Sun. We have used the new data to trace several CMEs and magnetic disconnection events to their origins in the solar corona, and to infer the force balance and entrained magnetic flux in those features. We present recent results showing the relationship between ICME and CME anatomy, in particular the origin of an observed interplanetary flux rope and the relationship between original launched solar material and piled-up sheath material and flux in the storm at 1. A.U. We discuss implications for understanding space weather physics and predicting individual events, and point out the importance of future imaging technologies such as polarized heliospheric imaging.

  2. On-board CME detection algorithm for the Solar Orbiter-METIS coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemporad, A.; Andretta, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Focardi, M.; Straus, T.; Sasso, C.; Spadaro, D.; Uslenghi, M.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Nicolini, G.; Landini, F.; Romoli, M.; Naletto, G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2014-07-01

    The METIS coronagraph is one of the instruments part of the payload of the ESA - Solar Orbiter mission to be launched in 2017. The spacecraft will operate much like a planetary encounter mission, with the main scientific activity taking place with the remote-sensing instruments during three 10-days intervals per orbit: optimization of the different instrument observing modes will be crucial. One of the key scientific targets of METIS will be the study of transient ejections of mass through the solar corona (Coronal Mass Ejections - CMEs) and their heliospheric evolution. METIS will provide for the first time imaging of CMEs in two different wavelengths: VL (visible light 580- 640 nm) and UV (Lyman-? line of HI at 121.6 nm). The detection of transient phenomena shall be managed directly by the METIS Processing and Power Unit (MPPU) by means of both external triggers ("flags") coming from other Solar Orbiter instruments, and internal "flags" produced directly by the METIS on-board software. METIS on-board algorithm for the automatic detection of CMEs will be based on running differences between consecutive images re-binned to very low resolution and thresholded for significant changes over a minimum value. Given the small relative variation of white light intensity during CMEs, the algorithm will take advantage of VL images acquired with different polarization angles to maximize the detection capability: possible false detections should be automatically managed by the algorithm. The algorithm will be able to provide the CME first detection time, latitudinal direction of propagation on the plane of the sky (within 45 degrees), a binary flag indicating whether a "halo CME" has been detected.

  3. Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Search form Search Search Healthcare Delivery Research Blog Toggle navigation Healthcare Delivery Research Blog Home Blog Purpose and Policies About HDRP Contact Us Subscribe

  4. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. II. CME-Induced Ion Pick Up of Earth-like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Lammer; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; Yuri N. Kulikov; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; N. Terada; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Helfried K. Biernat; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Thomas Penz; Franck Selsis

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2 -rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for

  5. Elemental composition before, during and after the January 6, 1997, CME event measured by CELIAS/SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurz, P.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Bochsler, P.; Aellig, M. R.; Kallenbach, R.; Hovestadt, D.; Gruenwaldt, H.; Hilchenbach, M.; Axford, W. I.; Balsiger, H.; Buergi, A.; Coplan, M. A.; Geiss, J.; Gliem, F.; Gloeckler, G.; Hefti, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Klecker, B.; Lee, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using solar wind particle data from the charge, element and isotope analysis system (CELIAS) experiment on the SOHO mission, densities of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe are derived, and their abundance is analyzed before, during and after the 6 Janaury 1997 coronal mass ejection event (CME). In the interstream and coronal hole regions before and after this event, typical solar wind abundances for the elements investigated were found. However, during the passage of the coronal mass ejection and during the passage of the erupted filament, the elemental composition differed markedly from typical solar wind. For the passage of the CME and for the passage of the erupted filament, a mass-dependent enhancement of the elements was found, with a monotonic increase towards heavier elements. Si/O and Fe/O ratios of the order of one during these time periods were observed.

  6. Evolution of Three Geoeffective Shock-CME pairs in September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Liou, K.; Wu, C. C.; Vourlidas, A.; Plunkett, S. P.; Dryer, Ph D., M.; Socker, D. G.; Wood, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Three sizable geomagnetic storms were recorded in September 2011. The intensity of geomagnetic storms (Dstmin: minimum Dst) are -69, -70, -101 nT and the storms' onset time are September 9, 17, and 26, respectively. A sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) correspond causing these three geomagnetic storms. The severe geomagnetic storm (Dstmin < -100 nT) on 26 September was caused by a couple of CMEs erupted on 24 September. Wind spacecraft detected an interplanetary (IP) shock at ~11:18 UT on 26 September but no magnetic cloud was recorded behind the IP shock. A severe geomagnetic storm was recorded ~6 hours after the IP shock passed through the Wind spacecraft. Geomagnetic index (Dst) dropped to -101 nT which was due to the z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) dropped to ~ -20 nT. Both September 9th and 17th IP shocks have followed by a magnetic hole with a very sharp change in both magnetic field and density. Inside the magnetic holes, both solar wind velocity and temperature are almost constant, and the peak of density and dip of magnetic field occurred near the centre of the magnetic field hole. Peak densities were close to ~94, ~60 cm-3 near the centre of the hole on Sept. 09, 17, respectively. A global, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model with inputs based on actual solar observations (e.g., velocity of the CME) is used to simulate the responses of the 3-D heliosphere. These velocity pulses are deduced from STEREO-A which are used to minic the initiation of the observed 15 CMEs at lower boundary (2.5 Rs) to investigate the CME evolution from the Sun to the Earth during September 03-30, 2011.Simulated background solar wind parameters (velocity, density, magnetic field, and temperature) are matched well with 1 AU in-situ measurement from Wind spacecraft. In summary, we have successfully simulated these CMEs' evolution and the IP shocks arrival time at 1 AU by comparison with Wind measurement.It is found that background solar wind is an important factor on the propagation of IP shocks and CMEs. The simulation results are also useful for explaining "How were the magnetic holes formed behind the IP shocks?" *Work of CCW was supported by ONR 6.1 program

  7. Inner Heliospheric Evolution of a 'Stealth' CME Derived From Multi-view Imaging and Multipoint In-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Stenborg, G.; Savani, N.; Koval, A.; Szabo, A.; Jian, L.; Hidalgo, M.; Lepping, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of Space Weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single view-point observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs. Before of the STEREO mission, the most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different view-points shows that at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. Typical attributes that can now been confirmed to exist are departures from radial propagation, over-expansion, and rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding of the 3D development and evolution of the CME features is therefore of utmost importance to help establish the connection between remote and in-situ observations, and hence help forecast Space Weather. We present on analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By means of a comprehensive analysis of remote imaging observations provided by SOHO, STEREO and SDO missions, and in-situ measurements recorded by Wind, ACE, and Messenger, we prove in this paper that the event exhibits signatures of rotation, changes in the direction of propagation, and/or interaction with other magnetic obstacles. We propose a method to investigate the change of the CME Tilt from the analysis of Height-Time measurements and we found that the results are consistent with in-situ reconstructions and solar source analysis. If this result is validated in further work, it may have important implications for space weather studies and new generation of inner heliospheric missions because it will allow us to infer the ICME orientation at 1 AU using remote sensing observations of the first stages of the CME.

  8. Tracking the Momentum Flux of a CME and Quantifying Its Influence on Geomagnetically Induced Currents at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lavraud, B.; Owens, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward Earth on 29 March 2011. This event is specifically chosen for its predominately northward directed magnetic field, so that the influence from the momentum flux onto Earth can be isolated. We focus our study on understanding how a small Earth-directed segment propagates. Mass images are created from the white-light cameras onboard STEREO which are also converted into mass height-time maps (mass J-maps). The mass tracks on these J-maps correspond to the sheath region between the CME and its associated shockfront as detected by in situ measurements at L1. A time series of mass measurements from the STEREOCOR-2A instrument is made along the Earth propagation direction. Qualitatively, this mass time series shows a remarkable resemblance to the L1 in situ density series. The in situ measurements are used as inputs into a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetospheric space weather simulation from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. These simulations display a sudden compression of the magnetosphere from the large momentum flux at the leading edge of the CME, and predictions are made for the time derivative of the magnetic field (dBdt) on the ground. The predicted dBdt values were then compared with the observations from specific equatorially located ground stations and showed notable similarity. This study of the momentum of a CME from the Sun down to its influence on magnetic ground stations on Earth is presented as a preliminary proof of concept, such that future attempts may try to use remote sensing to create density and velocity time series as inputs to magnetospheric simulations.

  9. Polarimetric localization: A new tool for calculating the CME speed and direction of propagation in near-real time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curt A. de Koning; V. J. Pizzo

    2011-01-01

    The polarimetric localization technique uses the percent polarization observed by a single coronagraph to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use this technique to analyze STEREO\\/SECCHI\\/COR2 beacon data for 12 different events at spacecraft separations ranging from 9° to 127°. To determine if the technique is efficacious, we compare the three-dimensional location and velocity, including

  10. Impacts of CME on the TEC at middle and low latitudes during maximum of the 24th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca Olivia; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Radicella, Sandro; Nava, Bruno; Kashcheyev, Anton

    2015-04-01

    In this study we analyzed the impacts on the GNSS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) of four selected CME hitting the Earth during the year 2013 at different stations of middle and low latitudes (Ebre, Rabat, Alexandria, San Fernando, M'barara, Matera and Dakar). In order to analyzed the seasonal behavior of TEC under these disturbed conditions in the mentioned stations we have selected four CME events occurred during the different seasons (January 19, March 17, July 9 and October 2) of year 2013, at a maximum of the sunspot cycle 24. At the beginning of each event there is an increase of TEC followed by a decrease. The first increase of TEC is a consequence of the Prompt Penetration of the Electric Field (PPEF). The depletion of the TEC is associated to the Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF). In order to interpret the observations we analyzed the convection patterns at high latitudes given by the radar SUPERDARN. At low latitudes, we derived the ionospheric electric current disturbance Diono from ground magnetic variations. Diono is the sum of the DP2 (PPEF) and Ddyn (DDEF) electric current systems. Finally we found that the strength of the impact at middle and low latitudes depends on the time of the impact of the CME and the season.

  11. The Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Event-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections Reported in Different CME Catalogs

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Ian G; Cane, Hilary V

    2015-01-01

    We compare estimates of the speed and width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in several catalogs for the CMEs associated with ~200 solar energetic particle (SEP) events in 2006-2013 that included 25 MeV protons. The catalogs used are: CDAW, CACTUS, SEEDS and CORIMP, all derived from observations by the LASCO coronagraphs on the SOHO spacecraft, the CACTUS catalog derived from the COR2 coronagraphs on the STEREO-A and -B spacecraft, and the DONKI catalog, which uses observations from SOHO and the STEREO spacecraft. We illustrate how, for this set of events, CME parameters can differ considerably in each catalog. The well-known correlation between CME speed and proton event intensity is shown to be similar for most catalogs, but this is largely because it is determined by a few large particle events associated with fast CMEs, and small events associated with slow CMEs. Intermediate particle events "shuffle" in position when speeds from different catalogs are used. Quadrature spacecraft CME speeds do not improve...

  12. Information Delivery Systems: The Future Is Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Penelope Grenoble

    1993-01-01

    Looks at developments in information delivery (including new interactive media formats, vastly increased channel capacity for standard cable television, and the development of wireless cable and other distribution technologies) that are revolutionizing the communications industry. Raises questions about the role technical communicators are being…

  13. An Asynchronous Augmentation to Traditional Course Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Marvin L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    Asynchronous augmentation facilitates distributed learning, which relies heavily on technology and self-learning. This paper reports the results of delivering a real estate principles course using an asynchronous course delivery format. It highlights one of many ways to enhance learning using technology, and it provides information concerning how…

  14. Why S, Not X, Marks the Spot for CME/Flare Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse; Gary, Allen; Cirtain, Jonathan; Falconer, David

    2010-01-01

    For any major CME/flare eruption: I. The field that erupts is an arcade in which the interior is greatly sheared and twisted. Most of the free magnetic energy to be released: a) Is in the shear and twist of the interior field. b) Is Not due to a big current sheet. The eruption is unleashed by reconnection at a growing current sheet. The current sheet is still little when the reconnection turns on. The unleashed eruption then makes the current sheet much bigger by building it up faster than the reconnection can tear it down. II. Most X-ray jets work the opposite way: a) Tapped free energy is in the field of a pre-jet current sheet. b) Current sheet built by small arcade emerging into ambient field. c) Current sheet still much smaller than the arcade when reconnection turns on and tears it down, producing a jet. III. These rules reflect the low-beta condition in the eruptive magnetic field

  15. The storm-time plasma sheet at geosynchronous orbit : CME- and CIR-dominated solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Skoug, R. M.; Borovsky, J. E.; Henderson, M. G.; McPherron, R. L.; Pollock, C.

    2005-05-01

    The plasma sheet provides the primary source population for the storm-time ring current, and characteristic storm signatures are produced by the plasma sheet penetrating deep into the inner magnetosphere. Geosynchronous orbit offers an excellent vantage point from which to monitor the plasma sheet population that ultimately becomes the storm-time ring current. For well over a complete solar cycle, Los Alamos has been fielding magnetospheric plasma analyzers at geosynchronous orbit, creating an extensive multi-point database of plasma sheet conditions. Previous statistical analyses of these data have revealed important information about the access that the plasma sheet has to the inner magnetosphere. More recently, we have performed superposed epoch studies of the variation of plasma sheet properties as a function of storm phase. In the current study, we examine the storm-time behaviour for storms sorted according to the likely solar wind driver, i.e., CME-driven and CIR high-speed-stream-driven, and according to the phase of the solar cycle. We compare the geosynchronous data with data from the MENA instrument on-board the IMAGE satellite to investigate the global distribution of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere during such events.

  16. The Solar Corona and a CME at the 2010 Total Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga, M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.; Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.

    2011-05-01

    The 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse was observed on the ground from French Polynesia and, 83 minutes later, from Easter Island, and near-simultaneous images were made with spacecraft instruments including AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, SWAP/PROBA2, EIT/SOHO, and LASCO/SOHO. We report on changes in the corona detectable with high-resolution image processing of the ground-based eclipse coronal imaging, including two CME's that were seen to evolve. We compare with the spacecraft images to give a complete depiction of coronal structure at the time of the eclipse, which corresponded to a low but rising phase of the solar-activity cycle. We acknowledge the support of NASA's MSFC NNX10AK47A, NSF REU AST-1005024 with DoD ASSURE, VEGA 2/0098/10 of the Slovak Acad. Sci, 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation, PRODEX C90345 of ESA/BELSPO, FP7/2007-2013/218816 SOTERIA, Lockheed Martin; for equipment: Nikon Professional Services, ASTELCO Systems GmbH (Germany), and National Geographic Society's Photographic Division; and colleagues Y.-M. Wang (NRL), S. Habbal (U. Hawaii), H. Lanteires (Tatakoto), and J. Kern (Carnegie Obs.).

  17. Numerical experiments of magnetic reconnection in the solar flare and CME current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhixing; Lin, Jun; Shen, Chengcai

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in the energy conversion in the solar eruption. This paper performs a set of MHD experiments for the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet formed in a disrupting magnetic configuration. The eruption results from the loss of equilibrium in the magnetic configuration that includes a current-carrying flux rope, which is used to model the filament floating in the corona. In order to study the fine structure and micro process inside the current sheet (CS), the mesh refinement technology is used to depress the numerical diffusion. A uniform physical diffusion is applied and results in a Lundquist number S=10^4 in the vicinity of CS. Because of the advantage of the foregoing setting, some features appear with high resolution, including plasmoids due to the tearing mode and the plasmoid instabilities, turbulence regions, and the slow mode shocks. Inside CS, magnetic reconnection goes through the Sweet-Parker and the fractal fashions, and eventually, it displays a time-dependent Petschek pattern. Our results seem to support the concept of fractal reconnection suggested by Shibata et al. (1995) and Shibata & Tanuma (2001). And our results suggest that the CS evolves through a Sweet-Parker reconnection prior to the fast reconnection stage. For the first time, the detailed features and/or fine structures inside the CME/flare CS in the eruption were investigated in this work.

  18. Solar type II radio bursts associated with CME expansions as shown by EUV waves

    E-print Network

    Cunha-Silva, R D; Selhorst, C L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the sources of two metric Type-II bursts associated with CME expansions with the aim of verifying the relationship between the shocks and the CMEs, comparing the heights of the radio sources and the heights of the EUV waves associated with the CMEs. The heights of the EUV waves associated with the events were determined in relation to the wave fronts. The heights of the shocks were estimated by applying two different density models to the frequencies of the Type-II emissions and compared with the heights of the EUV waves. For the 13 June 2010 event, with band-splitting, the shock speed was estimated from the frequency drifts of the upper and lower branches of the harmonic lane, taking into account the H/F frequency ratio fH/fF = 2. Exponential fits on the intensity maxima of the branches revealed to be more consistent with the morphology of the spectrum of this event. For the 6 June 2012 event, with no band-splitting and with a clear fundamental lane on the spectrum, ...

  19. The Evolution of the Inner Magnetosphere during CME- and CIR-Driven Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroomian, V.; El-Alaoui, M.; Garg, S.; Freitas, S.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the access of ions of ionospheric and solar wind origin to the near-Earth magnetotail and inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms caused by the impact of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and high-speed streams, and the acceleration these ions undergo during their transport. We carried out a large-scale kinetic simulation of the magnetosphere for each of the storms examined, using time-dependent global electric and magnetic fields obtained from a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of each storm events. Oxygen ions were launched from the ionosphere, and protons from the solar wind for several hours prior to storm onset and well into the recovery phase of each storm. For each storm, we delineate the response of the MHD simulation to solar wind driving, the geoeffective access of solar wind and ionospheric ions to the inner magnetosphere, and the characteristics of these ions, including density, pressure, temperature, and temperature anisotropy. We also delineate the physical processes responsible for ion acceleration during each storm event by examining the evolution of entropy for each ion species during each storm.

  20. The Production of Near-Relativistic Electrons by CME-Driven Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Aurass, H.; Mann, G.; Klassen, A.

    The solar sources of near-relativistic (E > 30 keV) electron events observed at 1 AU are poorly understood. In general, the solar injection times deduced from the observed 1 AU onset times and assumed 1.2 AU travel distances yield injection times about 10 minutes after the associated flare impulsive phases and type III radio burst times. One interpretation is that the apparent delays occur in the interplanetary medium, probably due to scattering of the electrons. If the injection times are delayed from the impulsive phases, the electron acceleration might take place in CME-driven shocks. Here a large number of electron events observed with the UC/Berkeley 3DP detector on the Wind spacecraft are compared with CMEs observed by the Lasco coronagraph on SOHO and with type II bursts observed by the 40 to 800 MHz radio receiver at the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP) and by the 20 kHz to 14 MHz WAVES instrument on the Wind spacecraft. The acceleration of at least some of the electron events is not consistent with the shock hypothesis.

  1. Polymeric micelles as drug delivery systems: a reactive polymeric micelle carrying aldehyde groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Scholz; Michihiro Iijima; Yukio Nagasaki; Kazunori Kataoka

    1998-01-01

    WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW Nanospheric particles as drug delivery systems are gaining increasing interest in the biomedical field. Nanospheres have been proven as efficient drug delivery systems for intravenous administration because of their comparatively long bloodstream circulation. A novel approach in the field of polymeric drug delivery systems was introduced by the formation of polymeric micelles and subsequently by functionalized

  2. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was also explored. Positively charged CPPs were complexed with pDNA or siRNA, which resulted in 'loose' (˜1 micron) particles. These were then condensed into small nanoparticles by using calcium, which formed "soft" crosslinks by interacting with both phosphates on nucleic acids and amines on CPPs. An optimal amount of CaCl2 produced stable, ˜100 nm complexes that exhibited higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than PEI polyplexes. CPPs also displayed negligible cytotoxicity up to 5 mg/mL. Biophysical studies of the pDNA structure within complexes suggested that pDNA within CPP complexes (condensed with calcium) had similar structure, but enhanced thermal stability compared to PEI complexes. Thus, CPP complexes emerged as simple, attractive candidates for future studies on nonviral gene delivery in vivo.

  3. THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24: DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SHOCK FORMATION AND PARTICLE RELEASE HEIGHTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Davila, J. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, MD (United States); Usoskin, I. G. [Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit) and Department of Physics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2013-03-10

    We report on the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement (GLE) event, which is the first of its kind in solar cycle 24. This is the first GLE event to be fully observed close to the surface by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission. We determine the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst (i.e., shock formation height) as 1.38 Rs (from the Sun center). The CME height at the time of GLE particle release was directly measured from a STEREO image as 2.32 Rs, which agrees well with the estimation from CME kinematics. These heights are consistent with those obtained for cycle-23 GLEs using back-extrapolation. By contrasting the 2012 May 17 GLE with six other non-GLE eruptions from well-connected regions with similar or larger flare sizes and CME speeds, we find that the latitudinal distance from the ecliptic is rather large for the non-GLE events due to a combination of non-radial CME motion and unfavorable solar B0 angle, making the connectivity to Earth poorer. We also find that the coronal environment may play a role in deciding the shock strength.

  4. Amphiplex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Shannon; Laaser, Jennifer; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-micelle complexes are currently under heavy investigation due to their potential applications in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy, yet the dynamics of the complex formation is still relatively unstudied. By varying the ratios of poly(styrene sulfonate) chains and cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(styrene) micelles and the ionic strength of the system, we created a variety of complex configurations of different sizes and charges. The complexes were characterized dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements which provided information regarding the hydrodynamic radius, distribution of sizes, and effective charge.

  5. Using email reminders to engage physicians in an Internet-based CME intervention

    PubMed Central

    Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Collins, Blanche C; Casebeer, Linda; Wall, Terry; Spettell, Claire; Ray, Midge N; Weissman, Norman W; Allison, Jeroan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Engaging practicing physicians in educational strategies that reinforce guideline adoption and improve the quality of healthcare may be difficult. Push technologies such as email offer new opportunities to engage physicians in online educational reinforcing strategies. The objectives are to investigate 1) the effectiveness of email announcements in engaging recruited community-based primary care physicians in an online guideline reinforcement strategy designed to promote Chlamydia screening, 2) the characteristics of physicians who respond to email announcements, as well as 3) how quickly and when they respond to email announcements. Methods Over a 45-week period, 445 recruited physicians received up to 33 email contacts announcing and reminding them of an online women's health guideline reinforcing CME activity. Participation was defined as physician log-on at least once to the website. Data were analyzed to determine participation, to compare characteristics of participants with recruited physicians who did not participate, and to determine at what point and when participants logged on. Results Of 445 recruited physicians with accurate email addresses, 47.2% logged on and completed at least one module. There were no significant differences by age, race, or specialty between participants and non-participants. Female physicians, US medical graduates and MDs had higher participation rates than male physicians, international medical graduates and DOs. Physicians with higher baseline screening rates were significantly more likely to log on to the course. The first 10 emails were the most effective in engaging community-based physicians to complete the intervention. Physicians were more likely to log on in the afternoon and evening and on Monday or Thursday. Conclusions Email course reminders may enhance recruitment of physicians to interventions designed to reinforce guideline adoption; physicians' response to email reminders may vary by gender, degree, and country of medical training. Repetition of email communications contributes to physician online participation. PMID:15453911

  6. Ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Gaudana, Ripal; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Parenky, Ashwin; Mitra, Ashim K

    2010-09-01

    Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segment. Identification of influx transporters on various ocular tissues and designing a transporter-targeted delivery of a parent drug has gathered momentum in recent years. Parallelly, colloidal dosage forms such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, liposomes, and microemulsions have been widely explored to overcome various static and dynamic barriers. Novel drug delivery strategies such as bioadhesive gels and fibrin sealant-based approaches were developed to sustain drug levels at the target site. Designing noninvasive sustained drug delivery systems and exploring the feasibility of topical application to deliver drugs to the posterior segment may drastically improve drug delivery in the years to come. Current developments in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery promise a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges posed by various anterior and posterior segment diseases. PMID:20437123

  7. Transdermal Delivery by Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Swati; Vengurlekar, Sudha; Rakesh, B.; Jain, S.; Srikarti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in using iontophoretic technique for the transdermal delivery of medications, both ionic and nonionic. This article is an overview of the history of iontophoresis and factors affecting iontophoretic drug transfer for the systemic effects and laws for development of Transdermal delivery system are discussed. PMID:20390073

  8. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O

    2007-02-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  9. The relationship between CME speed and soft X-ray emission and the prediction of the arrival times of ICMEs near Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Salas Matamoros, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    While STEREO observations provided a major step forward in our understanding of the interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CME), the basic observational input to the forecasting of CME arrival at Earth has for a long time been the CME speed estimated from coronagraphic measurements on the Sun-Earth line. In this contribution the performance of these measurements is compared with a proxy approach: the speed of Earth-directed CMEs in the corona is inferred from the fluence of the associated soft X-ray bursts, using an empirical relationship that we established considering CMEs originating near the solar limb in solar cycle 23. We use both the CME speed measured in the plane of the sky by SoHO/LASCO and the speed estimated from the soft X-rays as an input to the simple empirical interplanetary propagation model devised by Gopalswamy and coworkers, and compared the predicted arrival times of the interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) near 1 AU with in situ measurements in the case of 26 well-observed events. We show that for a range of CME speeds between about 700 and 1700 km/s the soft X-ray proxy gives a better prediction of the ICME arrival than the use of the plane-of-the-sky speed measured by the coronagraph on the Sun-Earth line.

  10. The solar minimum X2.6/1B flare and CME of 9 July 1996. Pt. 1; Solar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, M. D.; Dryer, M.; Aurass, H.; DeForest, C.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Meisner, R.; Paswaters, S. E.; Smith, Z.; Tappin, S. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Watari, S.-I.; Lamy, P.; Mann, G.; Schwenn, R.; Michels, D. J.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solar observations from GOES-8, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Yohkoh satellite concerning the events of the X-class flare are discussed. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) magnetometer shows a new region of magnetic activity in AR 7978. The rapid development and evolution of this region is shown by the MDI and the extreme-ultraviolet Doppler telescope (EDT) data. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed using coronagraphs are presented. The possible association between the CME and the X-flare is considered.

  11. Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Campbell, Heather L. (Baltimore, MD); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on the location of routes of access. To enhance the systemic or local delivery of the therapeutic compounds, high frequency acoustic waves are generated locally near the target site, and preferably near the site of compound administration. The acoustic waves are produced via laser radiation interaction with an absorbing media and can be produced via thermoelastic expansion, thermodynamic vaporization, material ablation, or plasma formation. Acoustic waves have the effect of temporarily permeabilizing the membranes of local cells, increasing the diffusion of the therapeutic compound into the cells, allowing for decreased total body dosages, decreased side effects, and enabling new therapies.

  12. Solar type II radio bursts associated with CME expansions as shown by EUV waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Silva, R. D.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Selhorst, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical conditions of the sources of two metric type II bursts associated with coronal mass ejection (CME) expansions with the aim of verifying the relationship between the shocks and the CMEs by comparing the heights of the radio sources and of the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves associated with the CMEs. Methods: The heights of the EUV waves associated with the events were determined in relation to the wave fronts. The heights of the shocks were estimated by applying two different density models to the frequencies of the type II emissions and compared with the heights of the EUV waves. For the event on 13 June 2010 that included band-splitting, the shock speed was estimated from the frequency drifts of the upper and lower frequency branches of the harmonic lane, taking into account the H/F frequency ratio fH/fF = 2. Exponential fits on the intensity maxima of the frequency branches were more consistent with the morphology of the spectrum of this event. For the event on 6 June 2012 that did not include band-splitting and showed a clear fundamental lane on the spectrum, the shock speed was directly estimated from the frequency drift of the fundamental emission, determined by linear fit on the intensity maxima of the lane. For each event, the most appropriate density model was adopted to estimate the physical parameters of the radio source. Results: The event on 13 June 2010 had a shock speed of 590-810 km s-1, consistent with the average speed of the EUV wave fronts of 610 km s-1. The event on 6 June 2012 had a shock speed of 250-550 km s-1, also consistent with the average speed of the EUV wave fronts of 420 km s-1. For both events, the heights of the EUV wave revealed to be compatible with the heights of the radio source, assuming a radial propagation of the type-II-emitting shock segment.

  13. A Parametric Study of Erupting Flux Rope Rotation: Modeling the 'Cartwheel CME' on 9 April 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of erupting filaments in the solar corona is addressed through a parametric simulation study of unstable, rotating flux ropes in bipolar force-free initial equilibrium. The Lorentz force due to the external shear-field component and the relaxation of tension in the twisted field are the major contributors to the rotation in this model, while reconnection with the ambient field is of minor importance, due to the field's simple structure. In the low-beta corona, the rotation is not guided by the changing orientation of the vertical field component's polarity inversion line with height. The model yields strong initial rotations which saturate in the corona and differ qualitatively from the profile of rotation vs. height obtained in a recent simulation of an eruption without preexisting flux rope. Both major mechanisms writhe the flux rope axis, converting part of the initial twist helicity, and produce rotation profiles which, to a large part, are very similar within a range of shear-twist combinations. A difference lies in the tendency of twist-driven rotation to saturate at lower heights than shear-driven rotation. For parameters characteristic of the source regions of erupting filaments and coronal mass ejections, the shear field is found to be the dominant origin of rotations in the corona and to be required if the rotation reaches angles of order 90 degrees and higher; it dominates even if the twist exceeds the threshold of the helical kink instability. The contributions by shear and twist to the total rotation can be disentangled in the analysis of observations if the rotation and rise profiles are simultaneously compared with model calculations. The resulting twist estimate allows one to judge whether the helical kink instability occurred. This is demonstrated for the erupting prominence in the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008, which has shown a rotation of approximately 115 deg. up to a height of 1.5 Solar R above the photosphere. Out of a range of initial equilibria which include strongly kink-unstable (Phi = 5 pi), weakly kink-unstable (Phi = 3.5 pi), and kink-stable (Phi = 2.5 pi) configurations, only the evolution of the weakly kink-unstable flux rope matches the observations in their entirety.

  14. Use of Yohkoh SXT in Measuring the Net Current and CME Productivity of Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In our investigation of the correlation of global nonpotentiality of active regions to their CME productivity (Falconer, D.A. 2001, JGR, in press, and Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2000, EOS 82, 20 S323), we use Yohkoh SXT images for two purposes. The first use is to help resolve the 180 degree ambiguity in the direction of the observed transverse magnetic field. Resolution of the 180 degree ambiguity is important, since the net current, one of our measures of global nonpotentiality, is derived from integrating the dot product of the transverse field around a contour (I(sub N)=(integral)BT(raised dot)dl). The ambiguity results from the observed transverse field being determined from the linear polarization, which gives the plane of the direction, but leaves a 180 degrees ambiguity. Automated methods to resolve the ambiguity ranging from the simple acute angle rule (Falconer, D.A. 2001) to the more sophisticated annealing method (Metcalf T.R. 1994). For many active regions, especially ones that are nearly potential these methods work well. But for very nonpotential active regions where the shear angle (the angle between the observed and potential transverse field) is near 90 degrees throughout large swaths along the main neutral line, both methods can resolve the ambiguity incorrectly for long segments of the neutral line. By determining from coronal images, such as those from Yohkoh/SXT, the sense of shear along the main neutral line in the active region, these cases can be identified and corrected by a modification of the acute angle rule described here. The second use of Yohkoh/SXT in this study is to check for the cusped coronal arcades of long-duration eruptive flares. This signature is an excellent proxy for CMEs, and was used by Canfield, Hudson, and McKenzie (1999 GRL V26, 6, 627-630). This work is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program and by NASA through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  15. Project Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  16. Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Over the course of my career I have often been frustrated with the gap between the research I was conducting and the clinical operations of the health care delivery systems with which I was affiliated.

  17. 2.5D MHD Simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at CME-Boundaries in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, Ute; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory from 2011 February 24. This CME with an embedded filament shows periodic vortex-like structures at the northern side of the filament boundary with a wavelength of approximately 14.4 Mm and a propagation speed of about 310 ± 20 km/s. The morphological analysis hints at structures produced by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability on the boundary of the filament. We conduct 2.5D numerical simulations of the KH instability, whose results yield qualitative as well as quantitative agreements with the observations. Furthermore, we study the absence of KH vortex-like structures on the southern side of the filament boundary and find that a magnetic field component parallel to the boundary with a strength of about 20% of the total magnetic field has stabilizing effects resulting in an asymmetric development of the instability. This work receives funding from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P21051-N16, V195-N16 and P24092-N16.

  18. Rationale for reducing the spread of human papillomavirus in adolescents: strategies to improve outcomes (CME multimedia activity).

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kenneth; Daley, Alison Moriarty; Dempsey, Amanda Frisch

    2012-05-01

    As detailed in this online CME activity (http://cmeaccess.com/cme/JAH_HPV_program/index.asp?link_id=2), human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of cervical cancer and neoplasias in women, and genital warts in men and women. In addition, 35%-85% of vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers are attributable to HPV. An estimated 80% of females and 50% of males in the United States will become infected at some point in their lives; however, the incidence of this highly prevalent infection peaks in adolescents and young adults. Owing to the importance of vaccination before this elevated risk of exposure, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends HPV vaccination for girls aged 11-12 years with either the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Recently, the quadrivalent vaccine, which also protects against genital warts and anal neoplasias and cancer, was approved for use in boys as well. Although the coverage rate has increased steadily in the 5 years since the vaccine's introduction, it remains below 50%. To overcome barriers to vaccination, including lack of awareness about adolescents' HPV risk and challenges associated with preventive care in this age group in general, healthcare providers must be able to educate parents/patients about HPV and the vaccine, as well as maximize opportunities to vaccinate adolescents at every office visit. PMID:22525122

  19. RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS AND CURRENT SHEET OBSERVED WITH HINODE/XRT IN THE 2008 APRIL 9 'CARTWHEEL CME' FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Sabrina L.; McKenzie, David E.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Forbes, Terry G. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS), University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2010-10-10

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) have been observed with Yohkoh/SXT (soft X-rays (SXR)), TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (SXR). Characteristics such as low emissivity and trajectories, which slow as they reach the top of the arcade, are consistent with post-reconnection magnetic flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona until they reach a lower-energy magnetic configuration. Viewed from a perpendicular angle, SADs should appear as shrinking loops rather than downflowing voids. We present X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) following a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2008 April 9 and show that their speeds and decelerations are consistent with those determined for SADs. We also present evidence for a possible current sheet observed during this flare that extends between the flare arcade and the CME. Additionally, we show a correlation between reconnection outflows observed with XRT and outgoing flows observed with LASCO.

  20. Modeling the radiation belt electron response to CME-driven storms: the first year of the Van Allen Probes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Brito, T. V.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Toffoletto, F.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent geomagnetic storms at solar maximum have produced dynamic variations in outer zone radiation belt electron flux measured in detail by the Van Allen Probe twin spacecraft, launched August 30, 2012. Both enhanced flux and sudden dropouts have been observed, which characterize CME-driven storms dominating variability around solar maximum. High time resolution measurements of waves which modulate that variability are also made by the Van Allen Probes. In addition to strong evidence of prompt magnetopause loss provided by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS spacecraft, enhanced atmospheric precipitation has been observed by the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), launched from Antarctica in January to mid-February 2013. Results will be shown from modeling flux enhancements due to plasmasheet electron injection during the October 7 - 9 storm, which produced the largest enhancement seen since launch, along with ULF wave mediated magnetopause loss and loss to the atmosphere. The technique described follows electron test particles in global MHD fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD code driven by upstream solar wind measurements. Magnetopause location is investigated with the coupled LFM-RCM model. Plasmasheet electrons can be transported inside geosynchronous orbit, acquiring energies ~ 1 MeV, after loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere depletes the outer zone immediately following the arrival of CME shocks. The cycle of flux dropout and enhancement during storm intervals is followed by radial diffusion over quiet periods, which can be modeled by a diffusion code.

  1. Intranasal delivery of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Michael C; Kubek, Daniel J; Kubek, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    A major barrier to entry of neuropeptides into the brain is low bioavailability and presence of the blood-brain barrier. Intranasal delivery of neuropeptides provides a potentially promising alternative to other routes of administration, since a direct pathway exists between the olfactory neuroepithelium and the brain. Use of the rat as an animal model in nose to brain delivery of neuropeptides allows for several advantages, including a large surface area within the nasal cavity dedicated to olfactory epithelium and robust neuronal pathways extending to and from most areas of the brain from the nose via the olfactory cortex. A major disadvantage to using rats for nose to brain delivery is the difficulty in selectively targeting the posterior olfactory epithelium (which facilitates delivery to the brain) over the more anterior respiratory epithelium (which facilitates delivery to the lungs and secondarily to the peripheral blood) in the nasal cavity. We have developed a novel delivery system that consists of surgically implanting stainless-steel cannulas in the dorsal aspect of the nasal cavity overlying the olfactory neuroepithelium, thereby allowing neuropeptide compounds to bypass the respiratory epithelium. PMID:21922417

  2. Changes in Altitude Cause Unintended Insulin Delivery From Insulin Pumps

    PubMed Central

    King, Bruce R.; Goss, Peter W.; Paterson, Megan A.; Crock, Patricia A.; Anderson, Donald G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Children and adults with type 1 diabetes who receive insulin pump therapy have reported hypoglycemia during air travel. We studied the effects of atmospheric pressure on insulin pump delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten insulin pumps were connected to capillary tubes. The effects of changes in ambient pressure on insulin delivery, bubble formation, bubble size, and cartridge plunger movement were analyzed. RESULTS During a flight (200 mmHg pressure decrease), excess insulin delivery of 0.623% of the cartridge volume occurred (P < 0.001, Student t test). In hypobaric chamber studies, bubbles developed in the insulin when the pressure decreased and displaced the insulin out of the cartridge. Pre-existing bubbles changed in size consistent with Boyle law. Cartridge plunger movement did not occur in normal flight conditions but did occur when catastrophic plane depressurization was mimicked. CONCLUSIONS Atmospheric pressure reduction causes predictable, unintended insulin delivery in pumps by bubble formation and expansion of existing bubbles. PMID:21816978

  3. An operational software tool for the analysis of coronagraph images: Determining CME parameters for input into the WSA-Enlil heliospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, G.; Biesecker, D.; Pizzo, V.; Koning, C. A.

    2013-02-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs)—massive explosions of dense plasma that originate in the lower solar atmosphere and propagate outward into the solar wind—are the leading cause of significant space weather effects within Earth's environment. Computational models of the heliosphere such as WSA-Enlil offer the possibility of predicting whether a given CME will become geo-effective and, if so, the likely time of arrival at Earth. To be meaningful, such a forecast model is dependent upon accurately characterizing key parameters for the CME, notably its speed and direction of propagation, and its angular width. Studies by Zhao et al. (2002) and Xie et al. (2004) suggest that these key CME parameters can be deduced from geometric analysis of the elliptical "halo" forms observed in coronagraph images on spacecraft such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and which result from a CME whose propagation is roughly toward or away from the observer. Both studies assume that the CME presents a circular cross-section and maintains a constant angular width during its radial expansion, the so called "cone model." Development work at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) has been concerned with building and testing software tools to allow forecasters to determine these CME parameters routinely within an operational context, a key aspect of transitioning the WSA-Enlil heliospheric model into operations at the National Weather Service. We find "single viewpoint" cone analysis, while a useful start, to be highly problematic in many real-world situations. In particular, it is extremely difficult to establish objectively the correct ellipse that should be applied to a given halo form and that small changes in the exact ellipse chosen can lead to large differences in the deduced CME parameters. The inaccuracies in the technique are particularly evident for analysis of the "nearly circular" elliptical forms which result from CMEs that are propagating directly toward the observer and are therefore the most likely to be geo-effective. In working to resolve this issue we have developed a new three-dimensional (3-D) graphics-based analysis system which seeks to reduce inaccuracies by analyzing a CME using coronagraph images taken concurrently by SOHO and also by the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft, which provide additional viewing locations well away from the Sun-Earth line. The resulting "three view" technique has led to the development of the CME Analysis Tool (CAT), an operational software system in routine use at the SWPC as the primary means to determine CME parameters for input into the WSA-Enlil model. Results from the operational WSA-Enlil system are presented: utilizing CAT to provide CME input parameters, we show that, during the first year of operations at SWPC, the WSA-Enlil model has forecasted the arrival of CMEs at Earth with an average error 7.5 h.

  4. Auto-associative amphiphilic polysaccharides as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Leila N; Hendra, Frédéric; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2012-06-01

    Self-assembly of amphiphilic polysaccharides provides a positive outlook for drug delivery systems without the need for solvents or surfactants. Various polymeric amphiphilic polysaccharides undergo intramolecular or intermolecular associations in water. This type of association, promoted by hydrophobic segments, led to the formation of various drug delivery systems such as micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes and hydrogels. Here, we review a selection of the most important amphiphilic polysaccharides used as drug delivery systems and their pharmaceutical applications. Attention focuses on amphiphilic chitosan owing to its unique properties such as excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity and antimicrobial and bioadhesive properties. PMID:22305936

  5. Matrix-based gene delivery for tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Cynthia; Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue repair must provide structural and biochemical cues to initiate the complex cascade of events that lead to proper tissue formation. Incorporating genes into these scaffolds is an attractive alternative to protein delivery since gene delivery can be tunable to any DNA sequence and genes utilize the cells’ machinery to continuously produce therapeutic proteins, leading to longer lasting transgene expression and activation of autocrine and paracrine signaling that are not activated with bulk protein delivery. In this review, we discuss the importance of scaffold design and the impact of its design parameters (e.g. material, architecture, vector incorporation, biochemical cue presentation) on transgene expression and tissue repair. PMID:23680305

  6. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  7. Comparative Guide to DCE Marketing Services Tiers All live CME courses accredited by HMS DCE receive Base Marketing Services.1 These newly streamlined

    E-print Network

    Paulsson, Johan

    Comparative Guide to DCE Marketing Services Tiers All live CME courses accredited by HMS DCE receive Base Marketing Services.1 These newly streamlined services offer Course Directors and Administrators a standardized, comprehensive and economical solution for email and print marketing. Strategic

  8. Evolution of the 2012 July 12 CME from the Sun to the Earth: Data-Constrained Three-Dimensional MHD Simulations

    E-print Network

    Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip; Wang, Yuming; Feng, Xueshang; Cheng, Hongze; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the heliosphere provides us the key information for evaluating CMEs' geo-effectiveness and improving the accurate prediction of CME induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at the Earth. We present a data constrained three dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of the CME in a realistic ambient solar wind for the July 12-16, 2012 event by using the 3D COIN-TVD MHD code. A detailed comparison of the kinematic evolution of the CME between the observations and the simulation is carried out, including the usage of the time-elongation maps from the perspectives of both Stereo A and Stereo B. In this case study, we find that our 3D COIN-TVD MHD model, with the magnetized plasma blob as the driver, is able to re-produce relatively well the real 3D nature of the CME in morphology and their evolution from the Sun to Earth. The simulation also provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the in-situ plasma data from the Wind spacecraf...

  9. EUV Dimmings: Formation Mechanisms and Associated Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Mays, M. L.; West, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale coronal EUV dimmings, developing on timescales of minutes to hours in association with a flare or filament eruption, are known to exhibit a high correlation with coronal mass ejections. While most observations indicate that the decrease in emission in a dimming is due, at least in part, to a density decrease, a complete understanding requires us to examine at least four mechanisms that have been observed to cause darkened regions in the corona: 1) mass loss, 2) cooling, 3) heating, and 4) absorption/obscuration. Recent advances in automatic detection, observations with improved cadence and resolution, multi-viewpoint imaging, and spectroscopic studies have continued to shed light on dimming formation, evolution, and recovery. However, there are still some outstanding questions, including 1) Why do some CMEs show dimming and some do not? 2) What determines the location of a dimming? 3) What determines the temporal evolution of a dimming? 4) How does the post-eruption dimming connect to the ICME? 5) What is the relationship between dimmings and other CME-associated phenomena? The talk will emphasize the different formation mechanisms of dimmings and their relationship to CMEs and CME-associated phenomena.

  10. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Correlation of the CME Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.; Gary, G. Allen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images, it is known qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions in which the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. In this paper, we present measurements from active-region vector magnetograms that begin to quantify the dependence of the CME productivity of an active region on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we obtain a measure of the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three different measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line; I(sub N), the net electric current arching from one polarity to the other; and alpha = muI(subN/phi), a flux-normalized measure of the field twist).

  12. H2A Delivery H2A Hydrogen Delivery

    E-print Network

    -life development of hydrogen storage and delivery infrastructure in a demand market #12;H2A Delivery Consistent depreciation period ­ Includes standard MACRS table · Color-coded to facilitate user input Information Optional Input User Input Required Calculated Cells #12;H2A Delivery Component Model Hierarchy Component Design

  13. Educational Telecommunications Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John A., Ed.; Biedenbach, Joseph M., Ed.

    This monograph is a single volume reference manual providing an overall review of the current status and likely near future application of six major educational telecommunications delivery technologies. The introduction provides an overview to the usage and potential for these systems in the context of the major educational issues involved. Each…

  14. Intercontinental Document Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satenik Avakian; Ken Frankel

    2003-01-01

    Describes a pilot project in overseas document delivery via Ariel, conducted by the American University of Armenia (AUA) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU). Background information on the history of Armenia and AUA is provided, followed by discussions of the origins of the project, the development of a formal agreement to provide guidelines, implementation of Ariel at AUA, and evaluation and

  15. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  16. Choosing Training Delivery Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hybert, Peter R.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on decisionmaking about delivery media, and introduces CADDI's Performance-based, Accelerated, Customer-Stakeholder-driven Training & Development(SM) (PACT) Processes for training and development (T&D). Describes the media decisions that correspond with the design three levels of PACT: Curriculum Architecture Design, Modular Curriculum…

  17. Organogels in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2005-05-01

    In the last decade, interest in physical organogels has grown rapidly with the discovery and synthesis of a very large number of diverse molecules, which can gel organic solvents at low concentrations. The gelator molecules immobilise large volumes of liquid following their self-assembly into a variety of aggregates such as rods, tubules, fibres and platelets. The many interesting properties of these gels, such as their thermoreversibility, have led to much excitement over their industrial applications. However, only a few organogels are currently being studied as drug/vaccine delivery vehicles as most of the existing organogels are composed of pharmaceutically unacceptable organic liquids and/or unacceptable/untested gelators. In this paper a brief overview of organogels is presented, followed by a more in-depth review of the gels that have been investigated for drug and/or vaccine delivery. These include microemulsion-based gels and lecithin gels (studied for transdermal delivery), sorbitan monostearate organogels and amphiphilogels (studied as vaccine adjuvants and for oral and transdermal drug delivery, respectively), gels composed of alanine derivatives (investigated as in situ forming gels) and Eudragit organogels (studied as a matrix for suppositories). Finally, pluronic lecithin organogels, descendents of lecithin gels but which are not really organogels, are briefly discussed for their interesting history, their root and the wide interest in these systems. PMID:16296770

  18. Mobile video delivery with HTTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Ma; Radim Bartos; Swapnil Bhatia; Raj Nair

    2011-01-01

    Expansion in 3G cellular coverage and the emergence of more powerful mobile devices has increased demand for massively scalable mobile video delivery. The rapid adoption of the third screen as a primary screen for video has highlighted inefficiencies in the mobile delivery ecosystem and scalability issues in the mobile delivery infrastructure. This article provides an overview of the current mobile

  19. Rational Manipulation of Oxygen Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thane Blinman; Melinda Maggard

    2000-01-01

    Background. Optimization of oxygen delivery remains the best method to prevent and the only way to treat common intensive care unit syndromes such as sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction, and acute lung injury. This paper reviews the elements of oxygen delivery, describes how clinical interventions work through those elements to alter oxygen delivery, reviews theoretical and empirical data relating to manipulation

  20. Needle-free vaccine delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin L. Giudice; James D. Campbell

    2006-01-01

    The search for methods of vaccine delivery not requiring a needle and syringe has been accelerated by recent concerns regarding pandemic disease, bioterrorism, and disease eradication campaigns. Needle-free vaccine delivery could aid in these mass vaccinations by increasing ease and speed of delivery, and by offering improved safety and compliance, decreasing costs, and reducing pain associated with vaccinations. In this

  1. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery. PMID:23662604

  2. Nanofibers used for the delivery of analgesics.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yuan-Yun; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Nanofibers are extremely advantageous for drug delivery because of their high surface area-to-volume ratios, high porosities and 3D open porous structures. Local delivery of analgesics by using nanofibers allows site-specificity and requires a lower overall drug dosage with lower adverse side effects. Different analgesics have been loaded onto various nanofibers, including those that are natural, synthetic and copolymer, for various medical applications. Analgesics can also be singly or coaxially loaded onto nanofibers to enhance clinical applications. In particular, analgesic-eluting nanofibers provide additional benefits to preventing wound adhesion and scar formation. This paper reviews current research and breakthrough discoveries on the innovative application of analgesic-loaded nanofibers that will alter the clinical therapy of pain. PMID:26080700

  3. Transdermal delivery from eutectic systems: enhanced permeation of a model drug, ibuprofen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W Stott; Adrian C Williams; Brian W Barry

    1998-01-01

    The formation of eutectic systems between ibuprofen (ibu) and seven terpene skin penetration enhancers was studied and, by using the eutectic systems as donors, the effects of melting point depression of the delivery system on transdermal delivery were investigated. A range of ibu:terpene binary mixtures were melted together, cooled, and recrystallised. Composition\\/melting point phase diagrams were determined by DSC and

  4. Modeling the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a very fast CME W.B. Manchester IV *, A.J. Ridley, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. DeZeeuw

    E-print Network

    De Zeeuw, Darren L.

    structure with a current sheet at the equator. The Archimedian spiral topology of the interplanetary.elsevier.com/locate/asr Advances in Space Research 38 (2006) 253­262 #12;challenge to any existing CME model (e.g., Amari et aModeling the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a very fast CME W.B. Manchester IV *, A.J. Ridley, T

  5. Inner Heliospheric Evolution of a "Stealth" CME Derived from Multi-view Imaging and Multipoint in Situ observations. I. Propagation to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Stenborg, G.; Savani, N. P.; Koval, A.; Szabo, A.; Jian, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of space weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single viewpoint observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs. The most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different viewpoints shows that, at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. From radial propagation, typical attributes that can now be confirmed to exist are over-expansion and/or rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding the 3D development and evolution of the CME features will help to establish the connection between remote and in situ observations, and hence help forecast space weather. We present an analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO-B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By means of a comprehensive analysis of remote imaging observations provided by the SOHO, STEREO, and SDO missions, and in situ measurements recorded by Wind, ACE, and MESSENGER, we prove in this paper that the event exhibits signatures of deflection, which are usually associated with changes in the direction of propagation and/or also with rotation. The interaction with other magnetic obstacles could act as a catalyst of deflection or rotation effects. We also propose a method to investigate the change of the CME tilt from the analysis of height-time direct measurements. If this method is validated in further work, it may have important implications for space weather studies because it will allow for inference of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME's orientation.

  6. Inner heliospheric evolution of a 'STEALTH' CME derived from multi-view imaging and multipoint in situ observations. I. Propagation to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Stenborg, G. [George Mason University, College of Science, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Savani, N. P.; Koval, A.; Szabo, A.; Jian, L. K., E-mail: Teresa.Nieves@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of space weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single viewpoint observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs. The most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different viewpoints shows that, at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. From radial propagation, typical attributes that can now be confirmed to exist are over-expansion and/or rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding the 3D development and evolution of the CME features will help to establish the connection between remote and in situ observations, and hence help forecast space weather. We present an analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO-B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By means of a comprehensive analysis of remote imaging observations provided by the SOHO, STEREO, and SDO missions, and in situ measurements recorded by Wind, ACE, and MESSENGER, we prove in this paper that the event exhibits signatures of deflection, which are usually associated with changes in the direction of propagation and/or also with rotation. The interaction with other magnetic obstacles could act as a catalyst of deflection or rotation effects. We also propose a method to investigate the change of the CME tilt from the analysis of height-time direct measurements. If this method is validated in further work, it may have important implications for space weather studies because it will allow for inference of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME's orientation.

  7. Reinventing multimedia delivery with MPEG-DASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodagar, Iraj; Pyle, Harry

    2011-09-01

    This paper reviews the design concepts of the MPEG-DASH standard and how it can be employed for the delivery of live multimedia content over the Internet. MPEG-DASH is the MPEG's newest standard for streaming of multimedia content and is designed to leverage the extensive HTTP infrastructure that has evolved with the growth of the World Wide Web. The standard defines specifications for manifest and segment formats used between the content servers and the client devices. This paper focuses on the live streaming of video content, its challenges and how MPEG-DASH can be used for this application.

  8. Transgenic expression of trypsin inhibitor CMe from barley in indica and japonica rice, confers resistance to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rubí, Julio; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro; Carbonero, Pilar; Díaz, Isabel

    2003-02-01

    Indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were transformed by particle bombardment with the Itr1 gene encoding the barley trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe, under the control of its own promoter that confers endosperm specificity, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. From 38 independent transgenic lines of indica (breeding line IR58) and 15 of the japonica (cv Senia) selected, 22 and 11, respectively, expressed the barley inhibitor at detectable levels. The transgene was correctly translated as indicated by western blot analysis with a level of expression in R3 seeds up to 0.31% (IR58) and 0.43% (Senia) of the total extracted protein. The functional integrity of BTI-CMe was confirmed by trypsin activity assays in liquid media and by activity staining gels, performed with seed extracts. The significant reduction of the survival rate of the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on homozygous transgenic indica and japonica rice seeds expressing the BTI-CMe, compared to non-transformed controls, and the decrease in the trypsin-like activity of insect crude midgut extracts, confirmed the utility of this proteinase inhibitor gene for the control of important storage pests. PMID:12650522

  9. Birth delivery trauma and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa; Streni, Oriana; Serafino, Vittorio; Giannoni, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to determine the dynamic of birth delivery and relate to dental occlusion among a group of adult subjects. The group studied was made up of 106 subjects (57 females and 49 males) referred for dental diagnosis and treatment. The average age was 26 with a range 22 to 30 years. In data collection and analysis the following were used as measures: dental occlusion (Angle Class I, II div 1, II div 2 and III) and type of delivery (normal, short, long, caesarean and other). Results showed that among 106 subjects 72 (68%) had malocclusion versus 34 (32%) with normal occlusion; 24 subjects (22.6%) have been normal delivery versus 82 (77.4%) with non-normal delivery. Class I is present in 34 subjects (32%), class II division 1 in 26 (24%), class II division 2 in 22. (20%), class III in 16 (14%), and 8 subjects (6%) fall in the section "other". Among 24 subjects with normal delivery 100% presented class I occlusion. However, among 82 subjects with non-normal delivery 10 subjects had a class I (12.2%) and the 72 (87.8%) had in the other classes, are distributed in the various subgroups of non-normal labor/delivery. None of the subjects with a malocclusion have a normal labor/delivery. Better understanding of the connections among osteopathic theory, craniosacral treatment and the outcomes upon dental occlusion, more rigorous evaluations are warranted. PMID:15926431

  10. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery

    E-print Network

    Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, nonbinding, and nonlegal). The Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is one of 12 U.S. DRIVE technical teams ("tech teams") whose mission

  11. Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Oh You; Dariela Almeda; George JC Ye; Debra T Auguste

    2010-01-01

    For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger

  12. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  13. Economical ground data delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, Richard W.; Byrne, Russell H.; Bromberg, Daniel E.

    1994-01-01

    Data delivery in the Deep Space Network (DSN) involves transmission of a small amount of constant, high-priority traffic and a large amount of bursty, low priority data. The bursty traffic may be initially buffered and then metered back slowly as bandwidth becomes available. Today both types of data are transmitted over dedicated leased circuits. The authors investigated the potential of saving money by designing a hybrid communications architecture that uses leased circuits for high-priority network communications and dial-up circuits for low-priority traffic. Such an architecture may significantly reduce costs and provide an emergency backup. The architecture presented here may also be applied to any ground station-to-customer network within the range of a common carrier. The authors compare estimated costs for various scenarios and suggest security safeguards that should be considered.

  14. Innovative commercial retrofit delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, N.; Woods, B.; Potter, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a comprehensive review of firms in the energy-conservation industry that offer their services or products to potential clients through innovative financing approaches as opposed to working on a standard fee or net purchase basis. Generally all of these innovative financing approaches involve a building owner sharing the dollars saved from a building retrofit with the firm that supplied the product or provided the design service. The report includes a profile of firms offering innovative financing approaches for commercial building retrofits (based on a statistical analysis of 64 firms); a net benefit and cash flow analysis of five innovative delivery approaches; a discussion of products and services offered, and descriptions of six firms visited, including their similarities and differences. Conclusions drawn from the research and recommendations for further research are included. The questionnaire developed for this research and a list of firms responding to the questionnaire are provided.

  15. EUTOX CME course: Progression in CKD and management of the risk factors in dialysis patients (Meeting Report).

    PubMed

    Polenakovic, M; Spasovski, G

    2011-12-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). On September 8, 1991, Macedonian citizens voted unanimously to have an independent state and to separate from Yugoslavia. This year, on September 8, we celebrated 20 years of independent Republic of Macedonia. The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (MSNDTAO) and the EUTOX group as an endorsed group at the European Renal Association on October 22, 2011 organized a one-day scientific meeting (as a continuous medical education - CME course) on the topic of Progression in CKD and Management of the Risk Factors in Dialysis Patients. The meeting was held in the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The speakers at the meeting and the titles of their presentations were: Momir Polenakovic, Member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honorary President of MSNDTAO: Nephrology in the 20 years of the independent Republic of Macedonia, Harald MISCHAK, Professor at the University of Glasgow, proteomics research within the British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of mosaiques diagnostics and therapeutics AG, Professor in the Department of Nephrology at the Medical School of Hannover, Germany: Do we have markers on CKD progression and possibilities on mass screening? Goce SPASOVSKI, Professor, Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, R. Macedonia, President of the MSNDTAO, Chairmen of the ERA-EDTA CME Committee: Ca and P in the progression of CKD, Raymond VANHOLDER, Professor of Medicine at the University of Ghent, Belgium, Head of the Nephrology Division of the Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, Past President of ESAO, President of ERA-EDTA: Can we prevent CKD progression by various adsorbing methods? Andrzej WIECEK, Professor, Silesian Medical Academy, Director, Department of Nephrology, Katowice, Poland: Anaemia as a cause of CKD progression, Alessandra PERNA, Professor, Second University of Naples, First Division of Nephrology - Faculty of Medicine, Naples, Italy: The role of low protein diet in the progression of CKD, Philippe BRUNET, Professor, University Aix - Marseille and INSERM 608 Nephrology - Hospital Conception, Marseille, France: Vascular dysfunction in dialysis patients, Angel ARGILÉS, Professor, Research Director of CNRS RD - Nephrology, Montpellier, France: Vascular calcification as a risk factor in dialysis patients, Ziad A. MASSY, Professor, MD, PhD, Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Nephrology INSERM ERI-12, University of Picardie and Amiens University Hospital Avenue Rene Laennec, France: Vascular calcification management in CKD patients, Juan Mariano RODRIGUEZ-PORTILLO, Professor, University Hospital Reina Sofia, Research Unit, Cordoba, Spain: FGF23 and Klotho. 70 participants from the Republic of Macedonia and neighbouring countries attended the meeting. The lectures were interesting and were followed by lively discussion among the participants. At the end it was concluded that chronic kidney diseases and chronic kidney insufficiency are problems in the whole world as well as in the Republic of Macedonia; early diagnosis and prevention of kidney diseases are necessary, as well as a stimulation of scientific research in nephrology. PMID:22286636

  16. Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

  17. Diffusive Electron Acceleration at Interplanetary CME Shocks: Comparison between events on 21 Feb 1994 and 15 July 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, T.; Shimada, N.; Takei, Y.; Kawada, S.; Oka, M.; Den, M.; Mukai, T.; Saito, Y.

    2001-12-01

    While the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process of electrons has significant astrophysical importance, reports of in situ observations of such process accompanying with interplanetary CME shocks at 1 AU have been limited to several big events, such as those on 21 Feb 1994 and 15 July 2000 [Shimada et al., ASS, 1999; Terasawa et al., ICRC, 2001]. In this presentation, we will present the results of comparative studies of these important events based on the GEOTAIL measurements. Common features of these events are, (1) high average propagation speeds from the sun to 1AU ( ~1300 km/s and ~1500 km/s), (2) high local propagation speeds at 1 AU ( ~920 km/s and ~1100 km/s), (3) exponential upstream time profiles of nonthermal electrons (up to 40 keV), and (4) nearly power-law energy spectrum. Despite these similarities, one noticeable difference among them was the relative flux increases of accelerated electrons: In the energy range of several keV to 20 keV nearly two-order of magnitude flux increases were observed at the former shock, while the corresponding increase at the latter shock was only a factor of ~3. We are now trying to identify the origin of this difference: One possibility is the different shock angles ( ~68 deg for the former, and ~48 deg for the latter). Further search for the difference in scattering agents of these electrons is also under way (For the former shock, intensification of whistler waves of several Hz was identified.)

  18. Pulsatile Drug Delivery System Based on Electrohydrodynamic Method

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Gao, Wenle

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsatile drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2\\times2\\times3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between two electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method experimentally as well as theoretically.

  19. DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR A FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTION DRIVEN BY THE PRIOR FORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT DESTABILIZATION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece)] [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)] [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Stenborg, G. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Magnetic flux ropes play a central role in the physics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although a flux-rope topology is inferred for the majority of coronagraphic observations of CMEs, a heated debate rages on whether the flux ropes pre-exist or whether they are formed on-the-fly during the eruption. Here, we present a detailed analysis of extreme-ultraviolet observations of the formation of a flux rope during a confined flare followed about 7 hr later by the ejection of the flux rope and an eruptive flare. The two flares occurred during 2012 July 18 and 19. The second event unleashed a fast (>1000 km s{sup -1}) CME. We present the first direct evidence of a fast CME driven by the prior formation and destabilization of a coronal magnetic flux rope formed during the confined flare on July 18.

  20. Introducing the Healthcare Delivery Research Program | Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the many challenges of cancer care is the focus of the new Healthcare Delivery Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences at the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  1. The formation heights of coronal shocks from 2D density and Alfvén speed maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, Pietro; Carley, Eoin P.; Bloomfield, D. Shaun; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Super-Alfvénic shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can produce radio emission known as Type II bursts. In the absence of direct imaging, accurate estimates of coronal electron densities, magnetic field strengths, and Alfvén speeds are required to calculate the kinematics of shocks. To date, 1D radial models have been used, but these are not appropriate for shocks propagating in non-radial directions. Aims: Here, we study a coronal shock wave associated with a CME and Type II radio burst using 2D electron density and Alfvén speed maps to determine the locations that shocks are excited as the CME expands through the corona. Methods: Coronal density maps were obtained from emission measures derived from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and polarized brightness measurements from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Alfvén speed maps were calculated using these density maps and magnetic field extrapolations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI). The computed density and Alfvén speed maps were then used to calculate the shock kinematics in non-radial directions. Results: Using the kinematics of the Type II burst and associated shock, we find our observations to be consistent with the formation of a shock located at the CME flanks where the Alfvén speed has a local minimum. Conclusions: The 1D density models are not appropriate for shocks that propagate non-radially along the flanks of a CME. Rather, the 2D density, magnetic field and Alfvén speed maps described here give a more accurate method for determining the fundamental properties of shocks and their relation to CMEs.

  2. H2A Delivery: H2A Delivery

    E-print Network

    H2A Delivery: H2A Delivery: GH2 and LH2 Forecourt GH2 and LH2 Forecourt Land Areas Land Areas significant impact on overall land area requirements at the forecourt 5/8/2007 4 #12;Example of Model Structure /day 300 500 1000 1500 180 270 l in 16 16 16 16 i in 2 2 2 2 ls 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 in 20 20 20 20 1

  3. Long-term vaginal antibody delivery: delivery systems and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W M; Sherwood, J K; Adams, D R; Castle, P; Haller, P

    2000-02-01

    Topical delivery systems can provide prolonged delivery of antibodies to the vaginal mucosal surface for long-term protection against infectious diseases. We examined the biodistribution of antibodies during 30 days of vaginal antibody delivery in mice. Different antibody preparations (including monoclonal IgG and IgM, as well as several different (125)I-labeled IgGs) were administered by polymer vaginal rings, which were designed to provide continuous antibody delivery. Antibody concentrations remained high in the vaginal secretions for up to 30 days after disk insertion; radiolabeled antibody was also found, at approximately 100 times lower concentration, in the blood and other tissues. The measured concentrations agreed reasonably well with a simple pharmacokinetic model, which was used to calculate mucosal and systemic concentrations as a function of antibody delivery and elimination rates. Results from the model were consistent with previously reported antibody pharmacokinetic measurements: the half-life for antibody elimination for the vagina was approximately 3 h; the half-life for IgG(1) clearance from the blood was >1 day; and the overall permeability constant for vaginal uptake of IgG was approximately 0.01 to 0.03 h(-1). These results provide important information for the design of controlled antibody delivery devices for vaginal use, and suggest that high-dose, long-term vaginal administration of antibodies may be a reasonable approach for achieving sustained mucosal and systemic antibody levels. PMID:10620255

  4. Matrices and Scaffolds for DNA Delivery in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    De Laporte, Laura; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to create functional tissue replacements, typically through creating a controlled environment that promotes and directs the differentiation of stem or progenitor cells, either endogenous or transplanted. Scaffolds serve a central role in many strategies by providing the means to control the local environment. Gene delivery from the scaffold represents a versatile approach to manipulating the local environment for directing cell function. Research at the interface of biomaterials, gene therapy, and drug delivery has identified several design parameters for the vector and the biomaterial scaffold that must be satisfied. Progress has been made towards achieving gene delivery within a tissue engineering scaffold, though the design principles for the materials and vectors that produce efficient delivery require further development. Nevertheless, these advances in obtaining transgene expression with the scaffold have created opportunities to develop greater control of either delivery or expression and to identify the best practices for promoting tissue formation. Strategies to achieve controlled localized expression within the tissue engineering scaffold will have broad application to the regeneration of many tissues, with great promise for clinical therapies. PMID:17512630

  5. Why new delivery systems?

    PubMed

    Calkins, J M

    1984-01-01

    Although anesthetists have accomplished a remarkable safety record with commercially available anesthetic machines, these results have been obtained in spite of machine design, which could best be described as a nonsystem. In cases involving severely compromised patients, surgical procedures that severely alter patient physiology, and untoward events during "routine" anesthesia, it is a tribute to the flexibility and resourcefulness of anesthetists that more incidents do not occur. Industry has long sought precision, reliability, automatic control, and human-factors engineering in nonmedical applications, such as aircraft cockpit design, word-processing stations, and manufacturing processes. The relentless accretion of more and more nonintegrated gadgets onto an antiquated technology has exceeded the boundaries of proper function. Neither the patient nor the anesthetist is being served well by failure to implement state-of-the-art technology in anesthesic delivery systems. Anesthesiologists and others who are vitally interested in the welfare of their patients must insist that development of radically new integrated modular systems proceed at full speed. Their checkbooks can speak as loudly as the facts; it is time the manufacturers are aware that deep concern will be translated into purchasing decisions. PMID:6692678

  6. Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli. PMID:21114841

  7. conferences | Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Over the course of my career I have often been frustrated with the gap between the research I was conducting and the clinical operations of the health care delivery systems with which I was affiliated.

  8. Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    E-print Network

    Chow, Gan-Moog

    Nanoparticles were synthesized and modified for target drug delivery. The research involved the aqueous synthesis of near infrared (NIR) sensitive Au-Au2S nanoparticles. An anti-cancer drug (cis-platin) ...

  9. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    E-print Network

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-04-26

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize...

  10. Best antibiotics for buccal delivery

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

  11. Delivery verification in sequential and helical tomotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Kapatoes; G. H. Olivera; P. J. Reckwerdt; E. E. Fitchard; E. A. Schloesser; T. R. Mackie

    1999-01-01

    Conformal and conformal avoidance radiation therapy are new therapeutic techniques that are generally characterized by high dose gradients. The success of this kind of treatment relies on quality assurance procedures in order to verify the delivery of the treatment. A delivery verification technique should consider quality assurance procedures for patient positioning and radiation delivery verification. A methodology for radiation delivery

  12. Gold Nanoparticles for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ya; Jiang, Ziwen; Saha, Krishnendu; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Sung Tae; Landis, Ryan F; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles provide an attractive and applicable scaffold for delivery of nucleic acids. In this review, we focus on the use of covalent and noncovalent gold nanoparticle conjugates for applications in gene delivery and RNA-interference technologies. We also discuss challenges in nucleic acid delivery, including endosomal entrapment/escape and active delivery/presentation of nucleic acids in the cell. PMID:24599278

  13. Active Warming During Cesarean Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst-Peter Horn; Frank Schroeder; Daniel I. Sessler; Natascha Hiltmeyer; Thomas Standl; Jochen Schulte Esch

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 15 min of forced-air prewarming, combined with intraoperative warm- ing, prevents hypothermia and shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. We simulta- neously tested the hypothesis that maintaining ma- ternal normothermia increases newborn tempera- ture, umbilical vein pH, and Apgar scores. Thirty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to forced-air warming or to

  14. Liposomes for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janani Swaminathan; Carsten Ehrhardt

    \\u000a Liposomes have been widely used in pulmonary drug delivery for ­multiple applications including solubilization, sustained\\u000a release, cellular and intracellular ­targeting, minimization of toxicity, and facilitation of absorption. In this chapter,\\u000a formulation aspects, aerosolization, and an extensive overview of the use of pulmonary drug delivery of liposomes for disease\\u000a and drug classes are provided. Specifically, this chapter examines liposomes from in

  15. Advances in Gene Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of genes into cells, both in vitro and in vivo, is critical for studying gene function and conducting gene therapy. Methods that utilize viral and nonviral vectors, as well as physical approaches, have been explored. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer employs replication-deficient viruses such as retro-virus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. A major advantage of viral vectors is their high gene delivery efficiency. The nonviral vectors developed so far include cationic liposomes, cationic polymers, synthetic peptides and naturally occurring compounds. These nonviral vectors appear to be highly effective in gene delivery to cultured cells in vitro but are significantly less effective in vivo. Physical methods utilize mechanical pressure, electric shock or hydrodynamic force to transiently permeate the cell membrane to transfer DNA into target cells. They are simpler than viral- and nonviral-based systems and highly effective for localized gene delivery. The past decade has seen significant efforts to establish the most desirable method for safe, effective and target-specific gene delivery, and good progress has been made. The objectives of this review are to (i) explain the rationale for the design of viral, nonviral and physical methods for gene delivery; (ii) provide a summary on recent advances in gene transfer technology; (iii) discuss advantages and disadvantages of each of the most commonly used gene delivery methods; and (iv) provide future perspectives. PMID:22200988

  16. Transcutaneous immunization with Intercell's vaccine delivery system.

    PubMed

    Seid, Robert C; Look, Jee Loon; Ruiz, Christian; Frolov, Vladimir; Flyer, David; Schafer, Jason; Ellingsworth, Larry

    2012-06-19

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) has become an attractive alternate route of immunization due to increase understanding of the skin immune system and to recent technical innovations in skin patch delivery systems. Basic principles of TCI have been demonstrated in animal and human studies, covering a variety of bacterial, viral, and cancer diseases. At Intercell, we have advanced two major platforms of TCI: 1) a needle-free vaccine delivery patch (VDP) and 2) a vaccine enhancement patch (VEP). Simplified, the VDP contains an antigen with or without an adjuvant that is administered on the skin; while the VEP contains only the adjuvant and is used in combination with an injected vaccine. In many of our TCI studies, the VDP or VEP is routinely applied on pretreated skin, in which the stratum corneum has been partially removed by mild abrasion. Recently, we have achieved technical breakthroughs in formulating and stabilizing vaccines in a dry patch format. For instance, a microplate-based screening process has been implemented to rapidly identify excipients, singularly or in combination, to stabilize biological macromolecules in patch blend formulations. A second technical innovation is our nonwoven (patch) disc matrix-supported drying technology, which allows efficient drying of our patch formulation blend to produce dry stable dosage forms of VDP or VEP. The low cost and the facileness in the manufacturing of VDP (or VEP) combined with the development of thermostable dry patches should improve the supply chain efficiency and reduce the dependence on cold chain. PMID:22682290

  17. Controlled release polymeric ocular delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Dandagi, Panchaxari; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Gopal, Shavi V; Jain, Samata S; Vasanth, Surenalli G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate controlled release polymeric ocular delivery of acyclovir. Reservoir-type ocular inserts were fabricated by sandwiching hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film containing acyclovir between two rate controlling membranes of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble acyclovir was enhanced by preparing binary systems with beta-cyclodextrin and then incorporated into HPMC matrix. Nine formulations (AB-1 to AB-9) with varying ratio of HPMC (drug matrix) and CAP (rate controlling membrane) were developed and sterilized by gamma radiation. The formulations were subjected to various physico-chemical evaluations. The in vitro release profile of all the formulations showed a steady, controlled drug release up to 20 h with non-Fickian diffusion behavior. A high correlation coefficient found between in vitro/in vivo release rate studies. Formation of acyclovir complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, dissolution rate studies revealed improved solubility of acyclovir when complexed with beta-cyclodextrin. Stability studies showed that the ocular inserts could be stored safely at study storage conditions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated controlled release formulation of acyclovir inserts for ocular delivery using biodegradable polymers. PMID:19772377

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Sarah E.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K. Michael; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. Purpose Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries. Methods Data come from Wave 8 of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, collected July 2010 to June 2011 and analyzed through June 2012. Respondents included 5939 current and former smokers in Canada (n=1581); the U.S. (n=1520); the United Kingdom (UK; n=1325); and Australia (n=1513). Results Overall, 46.6% were aware of ENDS (U.S.: 73%, UK: 54%, Canada: 40%, Australia: 20%); 7.6% had tried ENDS (16% of those aware of ENDS); and 2.9% were current users (39% of triers). Awareness of ENDS was higher among younger, non-minority smokers with higher incomes who were heavier smokers. Prevalence of trying ENDS was higher among younger, nondaily smokers with a high income and among those who perceived ENDS as less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Current use was higher among both nondaily and heavy (?20 cigarettes per day) smokers. In all, 79.8% reported using ENDS because they were considered less harmful than traditional cigarettes; 75.4% stated that they used ENDS to help them reduce their smoking; and 85.1% reported using ENDS to help them quit smoking. Conclusions Awareness of ENDS is high, especially in countries where they are legal (i.e., the U.S. and UK). Because trial was associated with nondaily smoking and a desire to quit smoking, ENDS may have potential to serve as a cessation aid. PMID:23415116

  19. Inner Heliospheric Evolution of a "Stealth" CME Derived From Multi-view Imaging and Multipoint In--situ observations: I. Propagation to 1 AU

    E-print Network

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T; Stenborg, G; Savani, N P; Koval, A; Szabo, A; Jian, L K

    2013-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of Space Weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single view-point observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs, the most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different view-points shows that at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. From radial propagation, typical attributes that can now been confirmed to exist are; over-expansion, and/or rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding of the 3D development and evolution of the CME features will help to establish the connection between remote and in-situ observations, and hence help forecast Space Weather. We present an analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By mean...

  20. Empirical Relationship Between CME Parameters and Geo-effectiveness of Halo CMEs in the Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 24 (2011 - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Syed Ibrahim, M.; Moon, Y.-J.; Mujiber Rahman, A.; Umapathy, S.

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the physical characteristics of 40 halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their geo-effective parameters observed during the period 2011 to 2013 in the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24. Out of all halo CMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO, we selected 40 halo CMEs and investigated their geomagnetic effects. In particular, we estimated the CME direction parameter (DP) from coronagraph observations, and we obtained the geomagnetic storm disturbance index ( Dst) value corresponding to each event by following certain criteria. We studied the correlation between near-Sun parameters of CMEs such as speed and DP with Dst. For this new set of events in the current solar cycle, the relations are found to be consistent with those of previous studies. When the direction parameter increases, the Dst value also increases for symmetrical halo CME ejections. If DP>0.6, these events produce high Dst values. In addition, the intensity of geomagnetic storm calculated using an empirical model with the near-Sun parameters is nearly equal to the observed values. More importantly, we find that the geo-effectiveness in the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 is much weaker than that in Cycle 23.

  1. Determination of the Heliospheric Radial Magnetic Field from the Standoff Distance of a CME-Driven Shock Observed by the Stereo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poomvises, Watanachak; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Kwon, Ryun-Young; Olmedo, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We report on the determination of radial magnetic field strength in the heliocentric distance range from 6 to 120 solar radii (R-solar) using data from Coronagraph 2 (COR2) and Heliospheric Imager I (HI1) instruments on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft following the standoff-distance method of Gopalswamy & Yashiro. We measured the shock standoff distance of the 2008 April 5 coronal mass ejection (CME) and determined the flux-rope curvature by fitting the three-dimensional shape of the CME using the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model. The radial magnetic field strength is computed from the Alfven speed and the density of the ambient medium. We also compare the derived magnetic field strength with in situ measurements made by the Helios spacecraft, which measured the magnetic field at the heliocentric distance range from 60 to 215 R-solar.We found that the radial magnetic field strength decreases from 28 mG at 6 R-solar to 0.17 mG at 120 R-solar. In addition, we found that the radial profile can be described by a power law.

  2. Therapeutic angiogenesis: controlled delivery of angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hunghao; Wang, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis aims at treating ischemic diseases by generating new blood vessels from existing vasculature. It relies on delivery of exogenous factors to stimulate neovasculature formation. Current strategies using genes, proteins and cells have demonstrated efficacy in animal models. However, clinical translation of any of the three approaches has proved to be challenging for various reasons. Administration of angiogenic factors is generally considered safe, according to accumulated trials, and offers off-the-shelf availability. However, many hurdles must be overcome before therapeutic angiogenesis can become a true human therapy. This article will highlight protein-based therapeutic angiogenesis, concisely review recent progress and examine critical challenges. We will discuss growth factors that have been widely utilized in promoting angiogenesis and compare their targets and functions. Lastly, since bolus injection of free proteins usually result in poor outcomes, we will focus on controlled release of proteins. PMID:22838066

  3. Viral delivery of superoxide dismutase gene reduces cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Zhong; Henry D. Connor; Ming Yin; Michael D. Wheeler; Ronald P. Mason; Ronald G. Thurman

    2001-01-01

    Viral delivery of superoxide dismutase gene reduces cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity.BackgroundCyclosporine A (CsA) increases free radical formation in the kidney. Accordingly, this study investigated whether gene delivery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced radical production and nephrotoxicity caused by CsA.MethodsRats were given adenovirus (Ad) carrying lacZ or Cu\\/Zn-SOD genes three days prior to CsA treatment. Histology, glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) and free

  4. Belgium. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    From the end of World War II to 1964, immigration trends in Belgium were largely governed by the need to supply workers for the coal industry, which led to an influx of Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Turks, and Morrocans. In 1971 there were approximately 200,000 foreign workers in Belgium; the majority of these were Italian. Relying heavily on…

  5. Spain. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Initially, the Spanish Emigration Institute (Ministry of Labour) endeavored to meet the educational needs of Spanish emigrants. However, this proved to be inadequate as the number of emigrants rose. Therefore, in 1969 the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Education and Science divided the responsibility between them and set up a Schools…

  6. Microelectronic control of drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Dong; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Microelectronic control of drug delivery devices enables precise management of drug delivery profiles. Iontophoresis patches offer microelectronic control over delivery in a noninvasive manner, but these are limited to the administration of relatively small molecules at small doses. Infusion pumps are widely used for delivery of insulin and other drugs; however, they require an invasive catheter that many patients find inconvenient and can be a site of infection. Implanted pumps avoid these problems, but they require long-term commitment associated with surgical implantation. An alternative is an implanted microchip containing many protected reservoirs filled with drug powder that is selectively released under microelectronic control. This device offers the promise of long-term drug stability in the solid state and precise digital drug dosing. Building on more than 10 years of preclinical studies, this wirelessly controlled microchip technology recently underwent a first-in-human clinical study. The microchip was implanted subcutaneously in the abdomen of eight female patients with osteoporosis. A remote operator was able to establish a wireless link with the microchip to program the schedule of human parathyroid hormone dosing from the device. This study showed that the wireless microchips produced pharmacokinetics similar to those from subcutaneous injections of the drug and produced less variable drug levels in the blood. There were also no toxic or adverse events due to the microchip or drug. This study represents an important step towards more widespread use of microelectronic control of drug delivery to improve pharmaceutical therapies. PMID:22905837

  7. Controlled delivery of biotechnological products.

    PubMed

    Conti, S; Polonelli, L; Frazzi, R; Artusi, M; Bettini, R; Cocconi, D; Colombo, P

    2000-12-01

    Peptides, proteins, and nucleotides or DNA fragments are the new generation of drugs. They are becoming attractive owing to the fast development of biotechnology. The admnistration of such molecules, however, may be a problem as sensitivity to temperature, instability at some physiological pH values, short plasma half-life, and high molecular dimension, which hinders the diffusive transport, make, at the moment, parenteral route the only possible way of administration of such molecules. Controlled drug delivery that comprises the development of new administration routes could be the answer to the problems for administration of biotechnological molecules. The rational of drug delivery is to change the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of drugs by controlling their absorption and distribution. Rate and time of drug release at absorption site could be programmed using a so called delivery system. Different technologies, such as chemical (pro-drugs), biological, polymers, lipids (liposomes, LDL), have been proposed to obtain controlled drug release. Also the use of new administration routes is part of controlled drug delivery. In fact, it could increase the drug absorption and reduce the effects of the active ingredient in those districts not interested in the therapy. Drug delivery systems allowing for an effective release in vivo of new biotechnological molecules, such as recombinant antiidiotypic antibodies with antibiotic activity, devoted to the treatment of pulmonary (tuberculosis and pneumocystosis) and mucosal (candidiasis) diseases are discussed under that perspective. PMID:11467329

  8. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  9. Composite nanoparticles for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated gene and siRNA delivery has been an appealing area to gene therapists when they attempt to treat the diseases by manipulating the genetic information in the target cells. However, the advances in materials science could not keep up with the demand for multifunctional nanomaterials to achieve desired delivery efficiency. Researchers have thus taken an alternative approach to incorporate various materials into single composite nanoparticle using different fabrication methods. This approach allows nanoparticles to possess defined nanostructures as well as multiple functionalities to overcome the critical extracellular and intracellular barriers to successful gene delivery. This chapter will highlight the advances of fabrication methods that have the most potential to translate nanoparticles from bench to bedside. Furthermore, a major class of composite nanoparticle-lipid-based composite nanoparticles will be classified based on the components and reviewed in details. PMID:25409605

  10. Fetal outcomes of elective delivery.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matthew K; Merriam, Audrey A; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2014-06-01

    Retrospective observational studies have suggested that delivery at or beyond 39 weeks has numerous neonatal benefits including less need for respiratory support, fewer neurodevelopmental delays and lower health care costs. This has lead governmental agencies, and professional organizations to endorse a policy of limiting elective delivery prior to 39 weeks. Nonetheless, studies which have examined the implications of instituting such policies, have demonstrated mixed benefits and signaled some concerns about unintended outcomes, such as stillbirth. This chapter will detail the evidence that these policies have on certain neonatal outcomes and examine why the promise of such policies may remain unfilled. PMID:24709710

  11. Advances in fish vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Plant, Karen P; Lapatra, Scott E

    2011-12-01

    Disease prevention is essential to the continued development of aquaculture around the world. Vaccination is the most effective method of combating disease and currently there are a number of vaccines commercially available for use in fish. The majority of aquatic vaccines are delivered by injection, which is by far the most effective method when compared to oral or immersion deliveries. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible for large numbers of fish under 20 g. Attempts to develop novel oral and immersion delivery methods have resulted in varying degrees of success but may have great potential for the future. PMID:21414351

  12. Proniosomes in transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Proniosomes are liquid crystalline-compact niosomal hybrid that can be hydrated to form niosomal dispersion instantly before use. It is a promising drug carrier with better physical and chemical stability than niosomes. Proniosomes have the potential to be scaled up for industrial purposes. They have been remarkably considered for transdermal drug delivery because of their competences, including the penetration enhancing ability of surfactants and their non-toxic characteristics. This review offers current approaches in the research and development of proniosomal formulations for the transdermal delivery of drugs with a focus on therapeutic applications. PMID:25925111

  13. Two Distinct Course Formats in the Delivery of Connectivist MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, C. Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses based on the principles of connectivist educational pedagogy known as connectivist MOOCs (c-MOOCs) have been carried out with great success during the last years with hundreds of registered participants. Examples are CCK08 (2008), PLENK2010 (2010), MobiMOOC (2011), EduMOOC (2011), Change11 (2011/12), and LAK12 (2012).…

  14. Efficient Formation of Edge Cache Groups for Dynamic Content Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmish Ramaswamy; Ling Liu; Jianjun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Cost-effective cooperation among a network of edge caches is widely accepted as an effective mechanism for enhancing the scalability, performance, and reliability of edge cache networks. However, the problem of how to form cache groups for achieving effective and efficient coopera- tion in edge cache networks has largely been unexplored. In this paper, we identify two important factors that need

  15. This CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well-being of urban residents. We will discuss latest practices, policies, and research on the social determinants of urban mental health at community,

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    This CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well of urban mental health at community, regional, national, and international levels. Intended for mental presents The Social Determinants of URBAN MENTAL HEALTH: Paving the Way Forward This conference is jointly

  16. Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery Part 2: Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson A Ochekpe; Patrick O Olorunfemi; Ndidi C

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on nanotechnology in general and particularly as it pertains to drug deliver. In the earlier paper (Part 1), nanotechnology in nature, its history as well as design and methods were discussed. Its applications, benefits and risks were also outlined. In this paper (Part 2), various nanostructures employed in drug delivery, their methods

  17. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  18. Compose tips | Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Search form Search Search Healthcare Delivery Research Blog Toggle navigation Healthcare Delivery Research Blog Home Blog Purpose and Policies About HDRP Contact Us Subscribe

  19. Packaging for a drug delivery microelectromechanical system

    E-print Network

    Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Local drug delivery is a fast expanding field, and has been a center of attention for researchers in medicine in the last decade. Its advantages over systemic drug delivery are clear in cancer therapy, with localized tumors. ...

  20. AUTONOMIC MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY SERVICES SELF-CONFIGURATION

    E-print Network

    AUTONOMIC MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY SERVICES SELF-CONFIGURATION I. Al-oqily1 , A. Alshtnawi2 , K.M. Al-configuration architecture for multimedia delivery services. Index Terms-- self-configuration, autonomic computing, overlay

  1. Teleteach Expanded Delivery System: Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, G. Ronald; Milam, Alvin L.

    In order to meet the demand for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) professional continuing education (PCE) courses within the School of Systems and Logistics and the School of Engineering, the Teleteach Expanded Delivery System (TEDS) for instruction of Air Force personnel at remote locations was developed and evaluated. TEDS uses a device…

  2. Nanosuspension Technology for Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiraporn CHINGUNPITUK

    The poor water solubility of drugs is major problem for drug formulation. To date, nanoscale systems for drug delivery have gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. The reduction of drug particles into the sub-micron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are promising candidates that can be

  3. Innovations in Rural Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magel, Don; Price, Cheryl

    1979-01-01

    Describes an Arizona State School of Social Work training program which utilizes "Teaching Learning Centers" in four rural communities as places where students, community residents, agency personnel, and university faculty are working together to develop social service delivery systems responsive to the expressed needs and desires of each…

  4. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis

    E-print Network

    Operation in US 220 million cars for 280 million people = roughly 1 car/person Gasoline dispensed per station = 2,000 gallons/d Gasoline filled in the station = 8-10 gallons/car Cars pulled in per station if the government and public mandates GHG reduction and/or zero emissions By then, if H2 cost (production & delivery

  5. New Methods of Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Langer

    1990-01-01

    Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments

  6. Document Delivery and Interlibrary Loan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Senecal

    1993-01-01

    The service provided by interlibrary loan departments is lagging behind the technological advances seen in cataloging and public service. The introduction of the ILL subsystem on OCLC significantly improved the speed of sending ILL requests, but there has been no corresponding improvement in document delivery. Utilization of FAX machines to send periodical articles can drastically cut the turnaround time of

  7. Delivery System, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This workshop guide for financial aid administrators provides training in the federal student financial aid delivery system. An introduction enables the participant to share some information about his or her responsibilities and to reflect on the relevance of the training to the job. Session 1, "Application Systems," identifies methods of applying…

  8. An analysis of Internet content delivery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Saroiu; Krishna P. Gummadi; Richard J. Dunn; Steven D. Gribble; Henry M. Levy

    2002-01-01

    In the span of only a few years, the Internet has experienced an astronomical increase in the use of specialized content delivery systems, such as content delivery networks and peer-to-peer file sharing systems. Therefore, an understanding of content delivery on the lnternet now requires a detailed understanding of how these systems are used in practice.This paper examines content delivery from

  9. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

  10. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

  11. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 true Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

  12. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

  13. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

  14. November 15, 2012 When You Need Delivery, You Need DeliveryCrowd

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    -sourced delivery, where smart phone-enabled drivers are connected, real-time, with businesses. The innovative cell as a blip on our map and we track them real-time using their GPS-enabled smart phone," said Gillot. "And phone app matches restaurant owners looking for delivery options, with delivery drivers. "The Delivery

  15. Annual Delivery Plan Report STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 2008/09

    E-print Network

    Annual Delivery Plan Report 2008/09 July 2009 #12;#12;STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 2008/09 1 .................................................................................... 12 #12;STFC Annual Delivery Plan Report 2008/09 2 STFC ANNUAL DELIVERY PLAN REPORT 2008/09 EXECUTIVE and internally with staff; · The new STFC website was implemented; · Anomaly Detection workshop held with US

  16. A vector-free microfluidic platform for intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharei, Armon; Zoldan, Janet; Adamo, Andrea; Sim, Woo Young; Cho, Nahyun; Jackson, Emily; Mao, Shirley; Schneider, Sabine; Han, Min-Joon; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Basto, Pamela A; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Lee, Jungmin; Heller, Daniel A; Kang, Jeon Woong; Hartoularos, George C; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-02-01

    Intracellular delivery of macromolecules is a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Existing vector-based and physical methods have limitations, including their reliance on exogenous materials or electrical fields, which can lead to toxicity or off-target effects. We describe a microfluidic approach to delivery in which cells are mechanically deformed as they pass through a constriction 30-80% smaller than the cell diameter. The resulting controlled application of compression and shear forces results in the formation of transient holes that enable the diffusion of material from the surrounding buffer into the cytosol. The method has demonstrated the ability to deliver a range of material, such as carbon nanotubes, proteins, and siRNA, to 11 cell types, including embryonic stem cells and immune cells. When used for the delivery of transcription factors, the microfluidic devices produced a 10-fold improvement in colony formation relative to electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. Indeed, its ability to deliver structurally diverse materials and its applicability to difficult-to-transfect primary cells indicate that this method could potentially enable many research and clinical applications. PMID:23341631

  17. Controlled Release Systems for DNA Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela K. Pannier; Lonnie D. Shea

    2004-01-01

    Adapting controlled release technologies to the delivery of DNA has the potential to overcome extracellular barriers that limit gene therapy. Controlled release systems can enhance gene delivery and increase the extent and duration of transgene expression relative to more traditional delivery methods (e.g., injection). These systems typically deliver vectors locally, which can avoid distribution to distant tissues, decrease toxicity to

  18. Decentralizing antipoverty program delivery in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranab Bardhan; Dilip Mookherjee

    We study the effects on accountability in government service delivery of decentralizing administration of an antipoverty program. While governments at both central and local levels are vulnerable to antipoor policy biases owing to political capture, centralized delivery systems are additionally prone to bureaucratic corruption, owing to problems in monitoring bureaucratic performance. Decentralizing the delivery system promotes cost-effectiveness and improves intra-

  19. Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles Using a Microfluidic Flow-Focusing Device for Controlled Drug Delivery Qiaobing Xu, Michinao Hashimoto, Tram T. Dang, Todd microparticles have broad utility as vehicles for drug delivery and form the basis of several therapies approved

  20. Cavitation-enhanced extravasation for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Costas D; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; Rifai, Bassel; Seymour, Leonard W; Coussios, Constantin C

    2011-11-01

    A flow-through tissue-mimicking phantom composed of a biocompatible hydro-gel with embedded tumour cells was used to assess and optimize the role of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the extravasation of a macromolecular compound from a channel mimicking vessel in the gel, namely a non-replicating luciferase-expressing adenovirus (Ad-Luc). Using a 500 KHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer confocally aligned with a focussed passive cavitation detector, different exposure conditions and burst mode timings were selected by performing time and frequency domain analysis of passively recorded acoustic emissions, in the absence and in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents acting as cavitation nuclei. In the presence of Sonovue, maximum ultraharmonic emissions were detected for peak rarefactional pressures of 360 kPa, and maximum broadband emissions occurred at 1250 kPa. The energy of the recorded acoustic emissions was used to optimise the pulse repetition frequency and duty cycle in order to maximize either ultraharmonic or broadband emissions while keeping the acoustic energy delivered to the focus constant. Cell viability measurements indicated that none of the insonation conditions investigated induces cell death in the absence of a therapeutic agent (i.e. virus). Phase contrast images of the tissue-mimicking phantom showed that short range vessel disruption can occur when ultra-harmonic emissions (nf0/2) are maximised whereas formation of a micro-channel perpendicular to the flow can be obtained in the presence of broadband acoustic emissions. Following Ad-Luc delivery, luciferase expression measurements showed that a 60-fold increase in its bioavailability can be achieved when broadband noise emissions are present during insonation, even for modest contrast agent concentrations. The findings of the present study suggest that drug delivery systems based on acoustic cavitation may help enhance the extravasation of anticancer agents, thus increasing their penetration distance to hypoxic regions and poorly vascularised tumour regions. PMID:21963037

  1. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610°C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  2. Management of twins: vaginal or cesarean delivery?

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N

    2015-06-01

    Recent level I evidence from a single randomized-controlled trial has shown that there is no difference in fetal or neonatal outcomes (composite of fetal/neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity) between planned cesarean delivery and planned vaginal delivery for twins between 32 and 38 6/7 weeks. As long as the presenting twin is vertex, vaginal delivery should be considered regardless of the presentation of the second twin. To avoid unnecessary cesarean deliveries and maternal morbidity, it is important to continue to train residents to perform obstetrics maneuvers necessary for vaginal delivery of twins such as vaginal breech extraction. PMID:25851847

  3. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nayerossadat, Nouri; Maedeh, Talebi; Ali, Palizban Abas

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells) and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein–Barr virus)] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection) and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers). In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed. PMID:23210086

  4. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

  5. Low overhead container format for adaptive streaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haakon Riiser; Pål Halvorsen; Carsten Griwodz; Dag Johansen

    2010-01-01

    Current segmented HTTP streaming systems provide scalable and quality adaptive video delivery services to a huge number of users. However, while they support a wide range of bandwidths and enable arbitrary content-based composition, their current formats have shortcomings like large overheads, live streaming delays, etc. We have therefore developed an adaptive media player that works around these problems while still

  6. Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sha; Leach, John C.; Ye, Kaiming

    Nonviral gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. Although the efficacy of DNA transfection, which is a major concern, is low in nonviral vector-mediated gene transfer compared with viral ones, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to prepare, less immunogenic and oncogenic, and have no potential of virus recombination and no limitation on the size of a transferred gene. The ability to incorporate genetic materials such as plasmid DNA, RNA, and siRNA into functionalized nanoparticles with little toxicity demonstrates a new era in pharmacotherapy for delivering genes selectively to tissues and cells. In this chapter, we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized silica nanoparticles. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in the chapter.

  7. Gelatin Used for Drug Delivery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Southern Mississippi

    2003-01-01

    In this activity, learners discover how gelatin can be used as a medium for drug delivery. Learners create colored gelatin and then cut out pieces of the gelatin to simulate medicine (pills). Learners then put their simulated pills in a pan of hot water. Since gelatin is a thermoreversible or cold-setting polymer, gelatin will convert back to a liquid if put in a hot environment. As the gelatin returns to its liquid form, it releases its embedded dye. The dye eventually diffuses completely out of the gelatin which simulates the slow release of a drug from a pill. From this activity, learners learn more about diffusion and drug delivery. Adult supervision recommended.

  8. Photochemical delivery of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ford, Peter C

    2013-11-01

    There remains considerable interest in developing methods for the targeted delivery of nitric oxide and other small molecule bioregulators such as carbon monoxide to physiological targets. One such strategy is to use a "caged" NO that is "uncaged" by excitation with light. Such photochemical methods convey certain key advantages such as the ability to control the timing, location and dosage of delivery, but also have some important disadvantages, such as the relatively poor penetration of the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths often necessary for the uncaging process. Presented here is an overview of ongoing studies in the author's laboratory exploring new photochemical NO precursors including those with nanomaterial antennas designed to enhance the effectiveness of these precursors with longer excitation wavelengths. PMID:23416089

  9. Topical Delivery of Retinyl Ascorbate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasem Abdulmajed; Charles M. Heard

    2008-01-01

    This influence of skin stretching and hair follicle sealing on the delivery of retinyl ascorbate (RA-AsA) to the epidermis was probed in vitro. Porcine ear skin was subjected to stretching by 2 and 4 mm (3.3 and 6.7%, respectively); the hair follicles of other skin sections were located and painstakingly sealed using adhesive. After mounting in Franz cells the skin

  10. Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rai, Awani K.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market. PMID:21814436

  11. CCMR: Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lin, Joyce

    2005-08-17

    Safe and nontoxic drug delivery is an ongoing area of research. Some current methods of drug delivery include the use of nanoparticles, hydrogels, dendrimers, and micelles. Nanoparticles can be used as vehicles in which to transport certain drugs to cancerous cells. A certain class of nanoparticles called clays is especially useful in synthesizing these drug delivery vehicles. Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) are a type of hydrotalcite clay with a structure similar to smectite clays. They have a general structure that consists of layers of metal hydroxides connected to a layer of another metal hydroxide by hydrogen bonding. LDHs are made up of layers of a trivalent and a divalently charged cation coordinated by six oxygen atoms. The resulting structure consists of two-dimensional sheets with positively charged faces and negatively charged edges that are stacked together via hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups on adjacent sheets. These sheets generally have a very high aspect ratio, resulting in a large surface area. The positively charged layers are balanced by the presence of anions between them. A wide variety of LDHs can be synthesized depending on the various cations and interlayer anions used. Characterization of the LDHs themselves as well as LDHs intercalated with the drugs was performed using X-ray diffraction and TEM and SEM microscopy.

  12. Caudal analgesia for quadruplet delivery.

    PubMed

    Abouleish, E

    1976-01-01

    During the period January 1969 to November 1974, in a total of 39,800 deliveries, there were two sets of quadruplets. Both parturients had been taking ovulation-inducing drugs. Maternal problems were distended abdomen and heavy uterus, causing supine hypotension and lordosis; toxemia of pregnancy; increased possibility of hemorrhage before, during and/or after delivery; edema of the back; mental depression. The fetal problems were prematurity; intrauterine growth retardation; increased possibility of transfusion syndrome and prolapsed cord; increased obstetric manipulation. An adequate number of obstetricians, pediatricians, anesthesiologists, and nurses, necessary equipment, and blood and blood components should be available. Early hospitalization is necessary. Close observation of the patient before, during, and after delivery is essential. The patient should stay on her side throughout the labor. General anesthesia may add to fetal depression and increase the possibility of uterine atony. Spinal or lumbar epidural anesthesia may be difficult because of the associated lordosis and back edema. Caudal block allowed intrauterine manipulation; provided adequate analgesia, permitted high FIO2 administration, and did not interfere with voluntary bearing down when required. PMID:942832

  13. ELVYN: The Delivery of an Electronic Version of a Journal from the Publisher to Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Fytton; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the ELVYN project in the United Kingdom that investigated the scenario of dual publishing (in electronic and print formats) of journals in the physical sciences by delivery of the electronic file from the publisher to academic libraries. Topics include implementation, use of the World Wide Web and electronic mail, usage data, and cost…

  14. Technical Instrument Report CDBS 2005-01 Assessment and Delivery of

    E-print Network

    Sirianni, Marco

    the reference files header properly (including header keywords and history lines). 2. Rename working copies of the files to "waiver" FITS format. 3. Run the CDBS certify tool on the standard FITS or header GEIS files. 4 for delivery. Detailed description of the preparation steps 1. Update all the reference files header properly

  15. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  16. A Blended Learning Lecture Delivery Model for Large and Diverse Undergraduate Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Wendy A.; Perini, Eloise; Rohlf, Vanessa; Toukhsati, Samia; Conduit, Russell; Sanson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    A blended learning model was developed to enhance lecture delivery in a large, diverse introductory psychology unit, introducing the use of an online, personalized learning system for lecture preparation and using lecture time to extend students' understanding. Changes to the assessment included diagnostic, formative and summative online quizzes.…

  17. Sustained Subconjunctival Protein Delivery Using a Thermosetting Gel Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: An effective treatment modality for posterior eye diseases would provide prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules, to eye tissues using a safe and minimally invasive method. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a thermosetting gel to deliver a fluorescently labeled protein, Alexa 647 ovalbumin, to the choroid and retina of rats following a single subconjunctival injection of the gel. Additional experiments were performed to compare in vitro to in vivo ovalbumin release rates from the gel. Methods: The ovalbumin content of the eye tissues was monitored by spectrophotometric assays of tissue extracts of Alexa 647 ovalbumin from dissected sclera, choroid, and retina at time points ranging from 2 h to 14 days. At the same time points, fluorescence microscopy images of tissue samples were also obtained. Measurement of intact ovalbumin was verified by LDS-PAGE analysis of the tissue extract solutions. In vitro release of Alexa 488 ovalbumin into 37°C PBS solutions from ovalbumin-loaded gel pellets was also monitored over time by spectrophotometric assay. In vivo ovalbumin release rates were determined by measurement of residual ovalbumin extracted from gel pellets removed from rat eyes at various time intervals. Results: Our results indicate that ovalbumin concentrations can be maintained at measurable levels in the sclera, choroid, and retina of rats for up to 14 days using the thermosetting gel delivery system. The concentration of ovalbumin exhibited a gradient that decreased from sclera to choroid and to retina. The in vitro release rate profiles were similar to the in vivo release profiles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the thermosetting gel system may be a feasible method for safe and convenient sustained delivery of proteins to choroidal and retinal tissue in the posterior segments of the eye. PMID:20148655

  18. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this fall back material will be augered out during auger re-insertion. The next bite will be taken only once the auger has reached the true bottom. In the bite sampling approach the stratigraphy is somewhat preserved since every time the sample is taken, it more or less represents the depth interval in the hole. There is going to be some level of cross contamination due to smearing of cuttings on the flutes against the borehole as the auger is being pulled out, or when formation is very porous and unstable. The goal of the first drill campaign in Atacama in May of 2012 was to demonstrate successful operation of the bite sampling method and to learn about diversity of soils and rocks in the Atacama. In 2013, the sampling system has been integrated onto the CMU Zoe rover and autonomously deployed in Atacama. The drill penetrated various formations and delivered samples to a carousel. When soil was very porous, poor sample recovery was observed. When the soil was dense and cohesive, sample recovery was 100% with little cross contamination. To enable greater sample recovery in loose and unstable formations, the auger diameter will be increased from the current 12.5 mm to 19 mm. Acknowledgements: The project has been funded by the NASA ASTEP program.

  19. Localized drugs delivery hydroxyapatite microspheres for osteoporosis therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ko, I. H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Chae, J. H.; Lee, E. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of hydroxyapatite microspheres for local drugs delivery. The formation of the hydroxyapatite microspheres was initiated by enzymatic decomposition of urea and accomplished by emulsification process (water-in-oil). The microspheres obtained were sintered at 500°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the microspheres have various porous with random size, which maximizes the surface area. Cytotoxicity was not observed after sintering. Osteoporosis drugs, alendronate and BMP-2, were loaded into HAp microspheres and the releases of both molecules showed sustained releasing profiles.

  20. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2011-01-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on the use of various nanoparticulate and polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed. PMID:21718728

  1. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  2. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  3. Drug delivery systems: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Sriwastawa, Birendra; Bhati, L; Pandey, S; Pandey, P; Bannerjee, Saurabh K

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time. PMID:23071954

  4. Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jean C; Pulliam, Brian L; Edwards, David A

    2007-12-01

    The lungs are an attractive route for non-invasive drug delivery with advantages for both systemic and local applications. Incorporating therapeutics with polymeric nanoparticles offers additional degrees of manipulation for delivery systems, providing sustained release and the ability to target specific cells and organs. However, nanoparticle delivery to the lungs has many challenges including formulation instability due to particle-particle interactions and poor delivery efficiency due to exhalation of low-inertia nanoparticles. Thus, novel methods formulating nanoparticles into the form of micron-scale dry powders have been developed. These carrier particles exhibit improved handling and delivery, while releasing nanoparticles upon deposition in the lungs. This review covers the development of nanoparticle formulations for pulmonary delivery as both individual nanoparticles and encapsulated within carrier particles. PMID:17997181

  5. Diclofenac enables unprecedented week-long microneedle-enhanced delivery of a skin impermeable medication in humans

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, Nicole K.; Banks, Stan L.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microneedles applied to the skin create micropores, allowing transdermal drug delivery of skin-impermeable compounds. The first human study with this technique demonstrated delivery of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) for two to three days. Rapid micropore closure, however, blunts the delivery window. Application of diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory) allows seven days of naltrexone delivery in animals. Purpose the purpose of the current work was to demonstrate delivery of naltrexone for seven days following one microneedle treatment in humans. Methods Human subjects were treated with microneedles, diclofenac (or placebo), and naltrexone. Impedance measurements were used as a surrogate marker to measure micropore formation, and plasma naltrexone concentrations were measured for seven days post-microneedle application. Results Impedance dropped significantly from baseline to post-microneedle treatment, confirming micropore formation. Naltrexone was detected for seven days in Group 1 (diclofenac + naltrexone, n = 6), vs. 72 hours in Group 2 (placebo + naltrexone, n = 2). At study completion, a significant difference in impedance was observed between intact and microneedle-treated skin in Group 1 (confirming the presence of micropores). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating week-long drug delivery after one microneedle application, which would increase patient compliance and allow delivery of therapies for chronic diseases. PMID:23761054

  6. Casein/pectin nanocomplexes as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-30

    Delivery systems prepared with natural biopolymers are of particular interests for applications in food, pharmaceutics and biomedicine. In this study, nanocomplex particles of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin were fabricated and investigated as potential oral delivery vehicles. Nanocomplexes were prepared with three mass ratios of NaCas/pectin by acidification using glucono-?-lactone and thermal treatment. NaCas/pectin at 1:1 mass ratio resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and the smallest and most uniform nanocomplexes. Thermal treatment at 85°C for 30min facilitated the formation of stable, compact, and spherical nanocomplexes. Heating not only greatly increased the yield of nanocomplexes but also significantly improved the encapsulation capability of rutin studied as a model compound. Pectin in nanocomplexes delayed the hydrolysis of NaCas by pepsin at gastric conditions and enabled the controlled release of most rutin in simulated intestinal conditions. The nanocomplexes based on food-sourced biopolymers have promising features for oral delivery of nutrients and medicines. PMID:25800678

  7. Targeted Delivery of NK007 to Macrophages to Treat Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siming; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Hao; Guo, Wenjun; Yu, Min; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Liqing; Yin, Zhinan; Hong, Zhangyong

    2015-07-01

    Macrophages are important therapeutic targets for various disorders, including infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. In this study, we report a novel oral delivery system for the targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory therapeutics to macrophages. Using this formulation, the model drug tylophorine malate (NK007) was tightly incorporated inside beta-glucan particle shells by the formation of colloidal particles with chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and alginate via electrostatic interactions. This formulation specifically delivered NK007 to macrophages in vivo after oral gavage and effectively cured colitis in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis model, highlighting the utility of beta-glucan particles as an oral anti-inflammation drug delivery system by targeting macrophages. In this work, NK007 was selected as the model drug. However, this novel oral carrier system has the potential to be applied as a platform for the treatment of many other diseases for which macrophages are the therapeutic targets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2276-2284, 2015. PMID:25964181

  8. Extremely preterm vaginal breech delivery en caul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane R Richmond; Lucie Morin; Alice Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To describe an alternative method of vaginal birth to the conventional assisted delivery for extremely preterm breech infants within intact amnions, and to compare the immediate neonatal outcomes with those delivered by cesarean.METHODS:Retrospective review of singleton breech deliveries under 26 weeks’ gestation after spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Nine “en caul” vaginal births after tocolysis and six cesarean deliveries performed

  9. Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge faced by today’s pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments. Also, recent developments with other ocular drug delivery strategies employing in situ gels, implants, contact lens and microneedles have been discussed. PMID:25590022

  10. Targeted Delivery Systems for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Yu; Xiaobin Zhao; L. James Lee; Robert J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Oligonucleotides including antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA are emerging as promising therapeutic agents against a variety\\u000a of diseases. Effective delivery of these molecules is critical to their successful clinical application. Targeted systems\\u000a can greatly improve the efficiency and specificity of oligonucleotides delivery. Meanwhile, an effective delivery system must\\u000a successfully overcome a multitude of biological barriers to enable the oligonucleotides to reach

  11. Emergency delivery of Vasopressin from an implantable MEMS rapid drug delivery device

    E-print Network

    Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    An implantable rapid drug delivery device based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology was designed, fabricated and validated for the in vivo rapid delivery of vasopressin in a rabbit model. In vitro ...

  12. Gene Delivery to the Airway

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Nicholas W.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes generation of and gene transfer to several commonly used airway models. Isolation and transduction of primary airway epithelial cells are first described. Next, the preparation of polarized airway epithelial monolayers is outlined. Transduction of these polarized cells is also described. Methods are presented for generation of tracheal xenografts as well as both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer to these xenografts. Finally, a method for in vivo gene delivery to the lungs of rodents is included. Methods for evaluating transgene expression are given in the support protocols. PMID:23853081

  13. Opportunities in respiratory drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N; Giles, Rachael D

    2014-12-01

    A wide range of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease products are soon to be released onto the inhaled therapies market and differentiation between these devices will help them to gain market share over their competitors. Current legislation is directing healthcare towards being more efficient and cost-effective in order to continually provide quality care despite the challenges of aging populations and fewer resources. Devices and drugs that can be differentiated by producing improved patient outcomes would, therefore, be likely to win market share. In this perspective article, the current and potential opportunities for the successful delivery and differentiation of new inhaled drug products are discussed. PMID:25531928

  14. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  15. Medical care delivery in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Don F.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the delivery of medical care in space. The history of aviation medicine is reviewed. Medical support for the early space programs is discussed, including the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab programs. The process of training crew members for basic medical procedures for the Space Shuttle program is briefly described and medical problems during the Shuttle program are noted. Plans for inflight medical care on the Space Station are examined, including the equipment planned for the Health Maintenance Facility, the use of exercise to help prevent medical problems.

  16. Payment for deliveries in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, N. C.; Birkett, N. J.; Sengeh, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    The type and amount of payment for deliveries were investigated in 1982 during a survey on health status in two districts. Data on the payments made for 83.5% of the 2591 deliveries in 535 randomly selected study villages showed that the most common method of payment was in cash only. Payments in kind were mostly given to trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (for 38.1% of their deliveries) and rare for professional staff (2.9% of deliveries). The total amount paid for a delivery differed significantly with the type of birth attendant (P less than 0.00001) and the place of delivery (hospital, peripheral health unit or home) (P less than 0.00001). The total average payment for a delivery was highest for professional birth attendants (Le 16.60) and lowest for untrained TBAs (Le 4.85) (Le 2 = approx. US+ 1 at the time of the study). The outcome of a delivery had a significant effect on the amount paid. Payments were significantly higher for stillbirths than for live births among professional and auxiliary birth attendants (P less than 0.0001). However, the trained and untrained TBAs received less payment for stillbirths (Le 2.25) than for live births (Le 4.89) (P = 0.0146). The results show that there are several levels of financial disincentives for pregnant women requiring the services of trained auxiliary or professional health workers at the time of delivery. PMID:2787215

  17. Strategies for microsphere-mediated cellular delivery 

    E-print Network

    Cardenas-Maestre, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-23

    Amino-functionalised polystyrene microspheres are promising candidates as delivery systems due to their unique features, tunable surface functionalities, and controllable release of the cargo. Herein several strategies ...

  18. CCMR: Controlled Drug Delivery From New Biomaterials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rhodes, Steven D.

    2005-08-17

    The development of controlled release systems for drug delivery is an area that has generated considerable research interest over the past decade. Biodegradable polymers, which degrade naturally via hydrolysis or enzymatic digestion, have demonstrated great potential for use in the preparation of controlled drug delivery systems. Biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems hold several distinct advantages over more conventional oral and inhalation routes, including enhanced site specificity of drug delivery, reduced side effects, improved patient compliance, and greater overall efficacy. The primary objective of this work was to synthesize biodegradable polyesters based on a locked dimer of dihydroxyacetone (DHA).

  19. The impact of treatment complexity and computer-control delivery technology on treatment delivery errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedick A Fraass; Kathy L Lash; Gwynne M Matrone; Susan K Volkman; Daniel L McShan; Marc L Kessler; Allen S Lichter

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery errors for three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation and complexity, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS).Methods and Materials: All treatment delivery errors which occurred in our department during a 15-month period were analyzed. Approximately 34,000 treatment sessions

  20. Impact of clean delivery kit use on clean delivery practices in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z P Balsara; M H Hussein; P J Winch; R Gipson; M Santosham; G L Darmstadt

    2009-01-01

    Objective:A major factor contributing to neonatal and maternal infections is unhygienic delivery practices. This study explores the impact of clean delivery kit (CDK) use on clean delivery practices during home and facility deliveries.Design:Kits were distributed from primary care facilities and mothers and birth attendants received training on kit importance and use. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study.

  1. Recovering Delivery for Digital Rhetoric and Human-Computer Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Porter

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a rhetorical theory of delivery for Internet-based communications. Delivery, one of the five key canons of classical rhetoric, is still an important topic for rhetorical analysis and production. However, delivery needs to be re-theorized for the digital age. In Part 1, the article notes the importance of delivery in traditional rhetoric and argues that delivery should be

  2. Drug delivery across the skin.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Elka

    2002-10-01

    For more than two decades, researchers have attempted to find a way to use the skin as a portal of entry for drugs in order to overcome problems associated with traditional modes of drug administration. This has been a complicated task due to the highly effective barrier properties of the skin. In order to deliver drugs through the skin, most compounds require various degrees of permeation enhancement. Classic enhancement methods focused primarily on chemical enhancement or modulation of interactions between the drug and the vehicle. More recent research makes use of innovative vesicular carriers, electrically assisted delivery and various microinvasive methods, some incorporating technologies from other fields. These new and exciting methods for drug delivery are already increasing the number and quality of dermal and transdermal therapies. This review discusses the different types of permeation enhancement, both classic and innovative, and summarises the current strengths and shortcomings in the field with an emphasis on those that have led to products on the market or in the pipeline. PMID:12387671

  3. Microneedle patches for vaccine delivery

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyemee; Shin, Juhyung

    2014-01-01

    In today's medical industry, the range of vaccines that exist for administration in humans represents an eclectic variety of forms and immunologic mechanisms. Namely, these are the live attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses, subunit proteins, and virus-like particles for treating virus-caused diseases, as well as the bacterial-based polysaccharide, protein, and conjugated vaccines. Currently, a new approach to vaccination is being investigated with the concept of DNA vaccines. As an alternative delivery route to enhance the vaccination efficacy, microneedles have been devised to target the rich network of immunologic antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin. Numerous studies have outlined the parameters of microneedle delivery of a wide range of vaccines, revealing comparable or higher immunogenicity to conventional intramuscular routes, overall level of stability, and dose-sparing advantages. Furthermore, recent mechanism studies have begun to successfully elucidate the biological mechanisms behind microneedle vaccination. This paper describes the current status of microneedle vaccine research. PMID:24427762

  4. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; White, Rebekah R.

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  5. Gantries and dose delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, David; Psoroulas, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Particle therapy is a field in remarkable development, with the goal of increasing the number of indications which could benefit from such treatments and the access to the therapy. The therapeutic usage of a particle beam defines the technical requirements of all the elements of the therapy chain: we summarize the main characteristics of accelerators, the beam line, the treatment room, the integrated therapy and imaging systems used in particle therapy. Aiming at a higher flexibility in the choice of treatments, an increasing number of centers around the world have chosen to equip their treatment rooms with gantries, rotating beam line structures that allow a complete flexibility in the choice of the treatment angle. We review the current designs. A particle therapy gantry though is a quite expensive structure, and future development will increasingly consider reducing the cost and the footprint. Increasing the number of indications also means development in the delivery techniques and solving some of the issues which traditionally affected particle therapy, for example the precision of the delivery in presence of motion and the large penumbras for low depths. We show the current strategies in these fields, focusing on pencil beam scanning (PBS), and give some hints about future developments.

  6. CME Expansion as the Driver of Metric Type II Shock Emission as Revealed by Self-Consistent Analysis of High Cadence EUV Images and Radio Spectrograms

    E-print Network

    Kouloumvakos, A; Hillaris, A; Vourlidas, A; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Caroubalos, C; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A

    2013-01-01

    On 13 June 2010, an eruptive event occurred near the solar limb. It included a small filament eruption and the onset of a relatively narrow coronal mass ejection (CME) surrounded by an extreme ultraviolet wave front recorded by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) at high cadence. The ejection was accompanied by a GOES M1.0 soft X-ray flare and a Type-II radio burst; high-resolution dynamic spectra of the latter were obtained by the ARTEMIS IV radio spectrograph. The combined observations enabled a study of the evolution of the ejecta and the EUV wavefront and its relationship with the coronal shock manifesting itself as metric Type-II burst. By introducing a novel technique, which deduces a proxy of the EUV compression ratio from AIA imaging data and compares it with the compression ratio deduced from the band-split of the Type-II metric radio burst, we are able to infer the potential source locations of the radio emission of the shock on that AIA images. Our results indi...

  7. [Mn12O12(O2CMe)12(NO3)4(H2O)4]: facile synthesis of a new type of Mn12 complex.

    PubMed

    Thuijs, Annaliese E; Christou, George; Abboud, Khalil A

    2015-03-01

    The title dodecanuclear Mn complex, namely dodeca-?(2)-acetato-?(24)O:O'-tetraaquatetra-?(2)-nitrato-?(8)O:O'-tetra-?(4)-oxido-octa-?(3)-oxido-tetramanganese(IV)octamanganese(III) nitromethane tetrasolvate, [Mn(12)(CH(3)COO)(12)(NO(3))(4)O(12)(H(2)O)(4)]·4CH(3)NO(2), was synthesized by the reaction of Mn(2+) and Ce(4+) sources in nitromethane with an excess of acetic acid. This compound is distinct from the previously known single-molecule magnet [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)], synthesized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2044]. It is the first Mn(12)-type molecule containing nitrate ligands to be directly synthesized without the use of a preformed cluster. Additionally, this molecule is distinct from all other known Mn(12) complexes due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the nitrate and water ligands, which give rise to a three-dimensional network. The complex is compared to other known Mn(12) molecules in terms of its structural parameters and symmetry. PMID:25734846

  8. Exploring the first delay: a qualitative study of home deliveries in Makwanpur district Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries women tend to deliver at home, and delays in receiving appropriate maternal care can be fatal. A contextual understanding of these delays is important if countries are to meet development targets for maternal health. We present qualitative research with women who delivered at home in rural Nepal, to gain a contemporary understanding of the context where we are testing the effectiveness of an intervention to increase institutional deliveries. Methods We purposively sampled women who had recently delivered at home and interviewed them to explore their reasons for home delivery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. We used the ‘delays’ model discussed in the literature to frame our analysis. Results Usually a combination of factors prevented women from delivering in health institutions. Many women were aware of the benefits of institutional delivery yet their status in the home restricted their access to health facilities. Often they did not wish to bring shame on their family by going against their wishes, or through showing their body in a health institution. They often felt unable to demand the organisation of transportation because this may cause financial problems for their family. Some felt that government incentives were insufficient. Often, a lack of family support at the time of delivery meant that women delivered at home. Past bad experience, and poor quality health services, also prevented women from having an institutional delivery. Conclusions Formative research is important to develop an understanding of local context. Sociocultural issues, perceived accessibility of health services, and perceived quality of care were all important barriers preventing institutional delivery. Targeting one factor alone may not be effective in increasing institutional deliveries. Our intervention encourages communities to develop local responses to address the factors preventing institutional delivery through women’s groups and improved health facility management. We will monitor perceptions of health services over time to help us understand the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:24576187

  9. Floating drug delivery of nevirapine as a gastroretentive system.

    PubMed

    Vedha, Hari Bn; Brahma, Reddy A; Samyuktha, Rani B

    2010-10-01

    A multiple-unit floating drug delivery system based on gas formation technique was developed, in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the dosage form. The floating bead formulations were prepared by dispersing nevirapine together with calcium carbonate in a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution and then dripping the dispersion into an acidified solution of calcium chloride. Calcium alginate beads were formed, as the alginate underwent ionotropic gelation by calcium ions, and carbon dioxide developed from the reaction of carbonate salts with acid. The obtained beads were able to float due to CO(2)-gas formation and the gas entrapment by the polymeric membrane. The prepared beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, morphology, surface topography, buoyancy, in-vitro release, and release kinetics. The formulations were optimized for different weight ratios of the gas-forming agent and sodium alginate. The beads containing higher amounts of calcium carbonate demonstrated an instantaneous, complete, and excellent floating ability over a period of 24 hours. The increased amount of the gas forming agent did not affect the time to float, but increased the drug release from the floating beads, while increasing the coating level of the gas-entrapped membrane, increased the time to float, and slightly retarded the drug release. Good floating properties and sustained drug release were achieved. Finally, these floating beads seemed to be a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system. PMID:21264092

  10. Galaxy Formation

    E-print Network

    Eric Gawiser

    2005-12-15

    I summarize current knowledge of galaxy formation with emphasis on the initial conditions provided by the Lambda CDM cosmology, integral constraints from cosmological quantities, and the demographics of high-redshift protogalaxies. Tables are provided summarizing the number density, star formation rate and stellar mass per object, cosmic star formation rate and stellar mass densities, clustering length and typical dark matter halo masses for Lyman break galaxies, Lyman alpha emitting galaxies, Distant red galaxies, Sub-millimeter galaxies, and Damped Lyman alpha absorption systems. I also discuss five key unsolved problems in galaxy formation and prognosticate advances that the near future will bring.

  11. Convection-enhanced delivery for glioblastoma: targeted delivery of antitumor therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ung, Timothy H; Malone, Hani; Canoll, Peter; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2015-07-01

    SUMMARY? Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis despite advancements in treatment. Diffuse tumor infiltration precludes curative surgical resection and necessitates advancements in drug delivery mechanisms. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) enables continuous local drug delivery for a diverse population of antitumor agents. Importantly, CED circumvents therapeutic challenges posed by the blood-brain barrier by facilitating concentrated local therapeutic drug delivery with limited systemic effects. Here, we present a concise review of properties essential for safe and efficient convection-enhanced drug delivery, as well as a focused review of clinical studies evaluating CED in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26103989

  12. Status of Statewide Career Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Wynonia L.

    Intended as a resource document as well as a status report on all the statewide career information delivery systems (CIDS) in operation, this report examines the status of 39 statewide information systems. (Career information delivery systems are computer-based systems that provide national, state, and local information to individuals who are in…

  13. A Walk through Content Delivery Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Novella Bartolini; Emiliano Casalicchio; Salvatore Tucci

    2003-01-01

    Content Delivery Networks (CDN) aim at overcoming the inherent limitations of the Internet. The main concept at the basis of this technology is the delivery at edge points of the network, in proximity to the request areas, to improve the user's perceived performance while limiting the costs. This paper focuses on the main research areas in the field of CDN,

  14. Communication Delivery Services in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert; And Others

    These five papers discuss the use of communication delivery systems in developing nations. Four of the papers stress the need for developing nations to adapt delivery systems to their national and cultural interests, to receive training in the management and use of the systems, without undue influence from the developing nations whose technology…

  15. Technology for Career Information Delivery. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Karen S., Ed.; Blank, Joan C., Ed.

    These proceedings contain 27 papers developed for a conference at which information was provided on currently available and future technological alternatives for delivery of career information. The presentations by staff of State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees, Career Information Delivery Systems, and hardware vendors are grouped…

  16. Polymeric Micellar Delivery Systems in Oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Matsumura

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of drug delivery systems in cancer chemotherapy is to achieve selective delivery of anti-cancer agents to cancer tissue at an effective concentrations for the appropriate dur- ation of time, so that we may be able to reduce the adverse effects of a drug and simul- taneously enhance the anti-tumor effect. Polymeric micelles were expected to increase the accumulation

  17. Negotiating the Digital Library: Document Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Neil; Morris, Anne

    1999-01-01

    The eLib-funded FIDDO (Focused Investigation of Document Delivery Options) project provides library managers/others with information to support policy decisions. Senior libraries were interviewed about the future of document delivery and interviews were analyzed with the support of NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data by Indexing, Searching and…

  18. The Split Delivery Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem

    E-print Network

    Hertz, Alain

    The Split Delivery Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem C. Archetti(1) N. Bianchessi(1) A. Hertz(2.hertz@gerad.ca October 5, 2010 Abstract In this paper we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit

  19. Development of the Choctaw Health Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Binh N.

    The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…

  20. The rise and rise of drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Rosen; Thierry Abribat

    2005-01-01

    Drug delivery has typically focused on optimizing marketed compounds, improving their effectiveness or tolerability, and simplifying their administration. This role now includes the first biopharmaceuticals as well as more conventional drugs. As drug-delivery technologies come into play earlier in the development cycle, however, they can also enhance the screening and evaluation of new compounds and 'rescue' failed compounds, such as

  1. Funhaler spacer: improving adherence without compromising delivery

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P; Clements, B; Devadason, S; Chaney, G

    2003-01-01

    A novel asthma spacer device, the "Funhaler", incorporates incentive toys which are isolated from the main inspiratory circuit by a valve. Here we show that its use does not compromise drug delivery. Improved adherence combined with satisfactory delivery characteristics suggest that the Funhaler may be useful for management of young asthmatics. PMID:12818901

  2. Primary Science Delivery: A Procedure for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Peggy; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Investigates outcomes of the systematic identification of the broad and complex factors influencing primary science program delivery at the classroom and school level. Uses the Science Curriculum Implementation Questionnaire (SCIQ) and identifies strategies for the improvement of science curriculum delivery. (Author/YDS)

  3. International Document Delivery: The ADONIS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Barrie; Campbell, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of a project to test whether publishers can gain copyright revenue by supplying their journals in machine readable form for document delivery centers. Areas discussed include technical considerations; document delivery centers involved; workstation development; and statistical analyses to be reported at the end of the…

  4. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Etter; Chris Bullen; Andreas D Flouris; Murray Laugesen; Thomas Eissenberg

    2011-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been

  5. Adenovirus Dodecahedron, as a Drug Delivery Vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Zochowska; Agnieszka Paca; Guy Schoehn; Jean-Pierre Andrieu; Jadwiga Chroboczek; Bernard Dublet; Ewa Szolajska; Ganesh Chandra Jagetia

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundBleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer antibiotic used in many cancer regimens. Its utility is limited by systemic toxicity and dose-dependent pneumonitis able to progress to lung fibrosis. The latter can affect up to nearly 50% of the total patient population, out of which 3% will die. We propose to improve BLM delivery by tethering it to an efficient delivery vector.

  6. Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liangfang

    Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle Dual-Drug Delivery Santosh Aryal, Che-Ming Jack Hu, and Liangfang Zhang* A new approach to loading multiple drugs onto the same drug through hydrolyzable linkers to form drug conjugates, is reported. In contrast to loading individual types

  7. Consumer Choice, Consumer Control in Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenaghan, Thomas M.; Mascari, Michael

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses patterns in the delivery of social welfare services, with reference to the specific service area of mental retardation. The authors propose a model that adds two vital elements to present service delivery patterns, a benefit system and a plan for consumer organization. (Author)

  8. 37 CFR 255.4 - Definition of digital phonorecord delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Definition of digital phonorecord delivery. 255...Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION... § 255.4 Definition of digital phonorecord delivery. A “digital phonorecord delivery ”...

  9. Tissue-Specific Gene Delivery via Nanoparticle Coating

    E-print Network

    Harris, Todd J.

    The use of biomaterials for gene delivery can potentially avoid many of the safety concerns with viral gene delivery. However, the efficacy of polymeric gene delivery methods is low, particularly in vivo. One significant ...

  10. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  11. Nanoparticle mediated non-covalent drug delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) for enhanced drug delivery has been heavily explored during the last decade. Within the field, it is has become increasingly apparent that the physical properties of the particles themselves dictate their efficacy, and the relevant non-covalent chemistry at the NP interface also influences how drugs are immobilized and delivered. In this review, we reflect on the physical chemistry of NP mediated drug delivery (and more specifically, non-covalent drug delivery) at the three main experimental stages of drug loading, NP–drug conjugate transport, and the resulting cellular drug delivery. Through a critical evaluation of advances in drug delivery within the last decade, an outlook for biomedical applications of nanoscale transport vectors will be presented. PMID:22664231

  12. Self-assembling materials for therapeutic delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Monica C.; Schneider, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of medications must be administered through parenteral delivery, i.e., intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection, to ensure effectiveness of the therapeutic. For some therapeutics, the use of delivery vehicles in conjunction with this delivery mechanism can improve drug efficacy and patient compliance. Macromolecular self-assembly has been exploited recently to engineer materials for the encapsulation and controlled delivery of therapeutics. Self-assembled materials offer the advantages of conventional crosslinked materials normally used for release, but also provide the ability to tailor specific bulk material properties, such as release profiles, at the molecular level via monomer design. As a result, the design of materials from the “bottom up” approach has generated a variety of supramolecular devices for biomedical applications. This review provides an overview of self-assembling molecules, their resultant structures, and their use in therapeutic delivery. It highlights the current progress in the design of polymer- and peptide-based self-assembled materials. PMID:19010748

  13. 76 FR 12358 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...safety and quality of healthcare delivery. In August...Health Information Technology--to capture information...generic formats are: Healthcare Event Reporting Form...Health Information Technology; Fall; Healthcare-Associated...

  14. The delivery commitment schedule process

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract) tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system.

  15. The delivery commitment schedule process

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, S.A.

    1991-07-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract'') tasked the Department of Energy with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system. This paper highlights the aspects of the DCS process that will be beneficial to the development of the transportation system. 4 refs.

  16. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy. PMID:23901186

  17. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  18. Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

  19. Soil Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Humans use soil for their daily needs but do not sufficiently take account of its slow formation and fast loss. Discover the amazing geology of soil formation and the basic rock and soil types.Although soil seems the end product from weathering rocks, it is merely a stage in the gigantic cycle of mineral recycling by the movement of tectonic plates.

  20. Drop Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the University of Bristolâ??s Mathematics department contains an explanation of drop formation and its applications. A description of studies of drop separation and its applications in medicine and technology are provided. The site also contains photographs, including a series of images showing the formation of a satellite drop.

  1. PREFERENCE FORMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Druckman; Arthur Lupia

    2000-01-01

    ? Abstract This review concerns political preferences—what they are and where they come from. We begin by documenting the close relationship between processes of preference formation and change. Rather than suddenly appearing, most preferences emerge from interactions between individuals and their environment. This aspect of preference formation poses a concrete challenge: to uncover the mechanics of these interactions in important

  2. Regenerable biocide delivery unit, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV), which is currently used aboard the Shuttle Orbiter for disinfection of the potable water supply, is an expendable flow-through canister containing iodinated ion exchange resin. Means for extension of MCV life are desirable to avoid resupply penalties. The Phase 1 Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit program demonstrated the feasibility of regenerating an MCV in situ, using a strong aqueous elemental iodine solution resulting from diversion of the MCV influent to a packed bed containing iodine crystals. In small column tests, eight manual regenerations of an MCV resin were accomplished. The term Regenerative Microbial Check Valve (RMCV) was adopted describing this new technology. The Phase 2 program resulted in the development of a full scale and fully autonomous prototype RMCV, capable of maintaining residual I(sub 2) levels between 2.0 - 4.0 mg/L for prolonged periods. During six months of testing at the Space Station baseline flow rate of 120 cm(sup 3)/min, the prototype RMCV underwent nine regenerations. RMCV life cycle tests, using a variety of influent streams, were conducted over an eighteen month period to determine the useful lives of MCV's incorporating this new technology and to determine ultimate failure mechanisms. MCV life extensions of 130 fold were demonstrated, limited only by the Phase 2 performance period. Based upon this work, it is certain that RMCV units can be developed to provide unattended biocide addition for the thirty year life of Space Station Freedom, or for other longer duration applications such as a Lunar Base or Mars mission. RMCV technology was also demonstrated capable of delivering, on demand, a concentrated aqueous I(sub 2) solution for potential use as a disinfectant during transient episodes of microbial surface contamination, for the control of biofilm formation, or as a preventative measure in systems which are particularly susceptible to the growth of microorganisms.

  3. Biomolecular Corona on Nanoparticles: A Survey of Recent Literature and its Implications in Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Ryan; Juettner, Vanessa; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-11-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the ‘biomolecular’ corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems.

  4. Biomolecular corona on nanoparticles: a survey of recent literature and its implications in targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ryan M.; Juettner, Vanessa V.; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the “biomolecular” corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems. PMID:25506050

  5. Disturbed anal sphincter function following vaginal delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, J M; Myles, J L; Jones, I; Sapsford, R; Young, R E; Hattam, A; Cantamessa, S E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently interest in idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence has swung from denervation of the external anal sphincter to the internal sphincter. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of vaginal delivery on the internal sphincter. SUBJECTS: 1372 mothers were studied antenatally and 1202 were accepted into the study. METHODS: Sphincter pressures were measured antenatally, in the early postnatal period, and six to 10 weeks later in selected patients. RESULTS: 755 of 1202 subjects assessed antenatally were primiparous women and 447 multiparous women. Some 320 previous spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) (mean 59 mm Hg) and 67 previous forceps deliveries (mean 58 mm Hg) had lower resting pressures than 755 primiparous women (mean 66 mm Hg) (p < 0.01). A total of 493 subjects were reassessed postnatally. There were 372 SVDs, 47 vacuum extractions, 20 forceps, and 54 caesarean deliveries. All vaginal deliveries but not caesarean sections dropped their resting anal pressures from antenatal values (p < 0.001). Some 227 first SVDs had a much greater fall than 145 subsequent SVDs. In 162 subjects who had undergone their first vaginal delivery and who were followed up there was some recovery but the resting pressures were still lowered at six to 10 weeks post partum. CONCLUSIONS: The first vaginal delivery causes a permanent lowering of resting anal pressures. The possible reasons for this are discussed. PMID:8881822

  6. Lipid nanoparticles for dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kakadia, Pratibha G; Conway, Barbara R

    2015-01-01

    Lipid based drug delivery systems have been widely studied and reported over the past decade and offer a useful alternative to other colloidal drug delivery systems. Skin is a popular route of drug delivery for locally and systemically acting drugs and nanoparticles are reported as a potential formulation strategy for dermal delivery. Although the skin acts as a natural physical barrier against penetration of foreign materials, including particulates, opportunities exist for the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles, especially in diseased and damaged skin and via appendageal routes such as the openings of hair follicles. The extent and ability of nanoparticles to penetrate into the underlying viable tissue is still the subject of debate although recent studies have identified the follicular route as the most likely route of entry; this influences the potential applications of these dosage forms as a drug delivery strategy. This paper reviews present state of art of lipid-based nanocarriers focussing on solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsions, their production methods, potential advantages and applications in dermal drug delivery. PMID:25925115

  7. Once more unto the breech: planned vaginal delivery compared with planned cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K S; Pressey, Tracy; Lyons, Janet; Bartholomew, Sharon; Liu, Shiliang; Muraca, Giulia; Liston, Robert M

    2015-05-01

    This article provides a knowledge-based assessment of planned cesarean delivery compared with planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term gestation. The most critical evidence on this issue is the intention-to-treat analysis from the Term Breech Trial, which showed that planned cesarean delivery reduced composite perinatal death and serious neonatal morbidity. Although there was no difference in composite death or neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years of age, this finding was based on only 44% of randomized patients and was not an analysis by intention to treat. On the other hand, the design of the nonexperimental Presentation et Mode d'Accouchement: presentation and mode of delivery (PREMODA) study (which showed no difference in composite perinatal mortality or morbidity after planned cesarean delivery compared with planned vaginal delivery), likely favored the planned vaginal delivery group; lack of exclusion criteria led to higher risk women (with contraindications to vaginal delivery) being included in the planned cesarean delivery group. Such selection bias notwithstanding, both the Term Breech Trial and the PREMODA study showed significantly higher rates of 5-minute Apgar score less than 4, 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, intubation, and birth trauma in the planned vaginal delivery group. Finally, studies from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Canada have shown that increases in planned cesarean delivery after the Term Breech Trial led to improved neonatal outcomes. Nevertheless, planned vaginal delivery continues to be associated with higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes in these countries. The totality of the evidence therefore unequivocally shows the relatively greater safety of planned cesarean delivery for breech presentation at term gestation. PMID:25932844

  8. Predictions and observations of HF radio propagation in the northerly ionosphere: The effect of the solar flares and a weak CME in early January 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, Jonathan; Stocker, Alan J.; Warrington, Mike; Siddle, Dave; Zaalov, Nikolay; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil; Boteler, David; Danskin, Donald

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported on a significant new multi-national project to provide improved predictions and forecasts of HF radio propagation for commercial aircraft operating on trans-polar routes. In these regions, there are limited or no VHF air-traffic control facilities and geostationary satellites are below the horizon. Therefore HF radio remains important in maintaining communications with the aircraft at all times. Space weather disturbances can have a range of effects on the ionosphere and hence HF radio propagation - particularly in the polar cap. While severe space weather effects can lead to a total loss of communications (i.e. radio blackout), less intense events can still cause significant disruption. In this paper we will present the effect of a series of M and X class solar flares and a relatively weak CME on HF radio performance from 6 to 13 January 2014. This is an interesting interval from the point of view of HF radio propagation because while the solar effects on the ionosphere are significant, except for an interval of approximately 12 hours duration, they are not so intense as to produce a complete radio blackout on all paths. Observations of the signal-to-noise ratio, direction of arrival, and time of flight of HF radio signals on six paths (one entirely within the polar cap, three trans-auroral, and two sub-auroral) will be presented together with riometer measurements of the ionospheric absorption. Global maps of D-region absorption (D-region absorption prediction, DRAP) inferred from satellite measurements of the solar wind parameters will be compared with the HF and riometer observations. In addition, a ray-tracing model using a realistic background ionosphere and including localised features found in the ionospheric polar cap (e.g. polar patches and arcs) will be used to model the expected and observed HF radio propagation characteristics.

  9. Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Subinoy; Bajaj, Avinash; Mout, Rubul; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) provide attractive vehicles for delivery of drugs, genetic materials, proteins, and small molecules. AuNPs feature low core toxicity coupled with the ability to parametrically control particle size and surface properties. In this review, we focus on engineering of the AuNP surface monolayer, highlighting recent advances in tuning monolayer structures for efficient delivery of drugs and biomolecules. This review covers two broad categories of particle functionalization, organic monolayers and biomolecule coatings, and discusses their applications in drug, DNA/RNA, protein and small molecule delivery. PMID:21925556

  10. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  11. Regolith Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the formation of regolith, the loose fragmental material on the Moon's surface. Learners will engage in a series of hands-on activities comparing and contrasting regolith formation processes on the Moon and on Earth. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  12. In silico models of aerosol delivery to the respiratory tract - development and applications.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon T

    2012-03-30

    This review discusses the application of computational models to simulate the transport and deposition of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols from the site of particle or droplet formation to deposition within the respiratory tract. Traditional one-dimensional (1-D) whole-lung models are discussed briefly followed by a more in-depth review of three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The review of CFD models is organized into sections covering transport and deposition within the inhaler device, the extrathoracic (oral and nasal) region, conducting airways, and alveolar space. For each section, a general review of significant contributions and advancements in the area of simulating pharmaceutical aerosols is provided followed by a more in-depth application or case study that highlights the challenges, utility, and benefits of in silico models. Specific applications presented include the optimization of an existing spray inhaler, development of charge-targeted delivery, specification of conditions for optimal nasal delivery, analysis of a new condensational delivery approach, and an evaluation of targeted delivery using magnetic aerosols. The review concludes with recommendations on the need for more refined model validations, use of a concurrent experimental and CFD approach for developing aerosol delivery systems, and development of a stochastic individual path (SIP) model of aerosol transport and deposition throughout the respiratory tract. PMID:21640772

  13. In Silico Models of Aerosol Delivery to the Respiratory Tract – Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon T.

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the application of computational models to simulate the transport and deposition of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols from the site of particle or droplet formation to deposition within the respiratory tract. Traditional one-dimensional (1-D) whole-lung models are discussed briefly followed by a more in-depth review of three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The review of CFD models is organized into sections covering transport and deposition within the inhaler device, the extrathoracic (oral and nasal) region, conducting airways, and alveolar space. For each section, a general review of significant contributions and advancements in the area of simulating pharmaceutical aerosols is provided followed by a more in-depth application or case study that highlights the challenges, utility, and benefits of in silico models. Specific applications presented include the optimization of an existing spray inhaler, development of charge-targeted delivery, specification of conditions for optimal nasal delivery, analysis of a new condensational delivery approach, and an evaluation of targeted delivery using magnetic aerosols. The review concludes with recommendations on the need for more refined model validations, use of a concurrent experimental and CFD approach for developing aerosol delivery systems, and development of a stochastic individual path (SIP) model of aerosol transport and deposition throughout the respiratory tract. PMID:21640772

  14. Delivery of a therapeutic protein for bone regeneration from a substrate coated with graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    La, Wan-Geun; Park, Saibom; Yoon, Hee-Hun; Jeong, Gun-Jae; Lee, Tae-Jin; Bhang, Suk Ho; Han, Jeong Yeon; Char, Kookheon; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of drugs often depends on the drug delivery carrier. For efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins, delivery carriers should enable the loading of large doses, sustained release, and retention of the bioactivity of the therapeutic proteins. Here, it is demonstrated that graphene oxide (GO) is an efficient carrier for delivery of therapeutic proteins. Titanium (Ti) substrates are coated with GO through layer-by-layer assembly of positively (GO-NH??) and negatively (GO-COO?) charged GO sheets. Subsequently, a therapeutic protein (bone morphogenetic protein-2, BMP-2) is loaded on the GO-coated Ti substrate with the outermost coating layer of GO-COO? (Ti/GO?). The GO coating on Ti substrate enables loading of large doses and the sustained release of BMP-2 with preservation of the structure and bioactivity of the drug. The extent of in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is higher when they are cultured on Ti/GO- carrying BMP-2 than when they are cultured on Ti with BMP-2. Eight weeks after implantation in mouse models of calvarial defects, the Ti/GO-/BMP-2 implants show more robust new bone formation compared with Ti, Ti/GO-, or Ti/BMP-2 implants. Therefore, GO is an effective carrier for the controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as BMP-2, which promotes osteointegration of orthopedic or dental Ti implants. PMID:23839958

  15. Development of a tailorable and tunable mechanism for cell-responsive substrate-mediated gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blocker, Kory M.

    Due to the spatial and temporal control as well as the cell-type specificity necessary to extend gene delivery to therapeutic applications, there exists a need to create systems capable of gene transfer that are well-understood and easily manipulated. Furthermore, the creation of such materials will enable further exploration of the correlation between biochemical cues and the resulting cellular responses. In response to this as yet unmet need, a method to promote cell-responsive substrate-mediated gene delivery was developed for this dissertation. Through the use of non-viral gene delivery, flexibility of the vehicle design was incorporated into the system. Using PNA technology, pDNA was able to be specifically tethered to a self-assembled monolayer via an enzymatically-labile peptide tether. This construct was shown to promote cell-responsive delivery while retaining flexibility over the chemical and physical properties of the vehicle and substrate. By alteration of some design parameters including tether number, pDNA surface coverage, and complexation agent, temporal control over the release profile was demonstrated. Furthermore, the ability to extend the applicability of the system was detailed by transitioning to a poly-D-lysine coated substrate upon which the pDNA is immobilized. This dissertation details proof-of-principle work in the formation of a controlled release gene delivery mechanism that may be used to promote understanding of cellular responses to biochemical signaling as well as be extended to use in tissue engineering applications.

  16. Can SPOC (Self-Paced Online Course) Live Long and Prosper? A Comparison Study of a New Species of Online Course Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Sheryne; Meddaugh, Joshua; France-Harris, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Numerous formats exist for online course delivery: pure online, blended or hybrid, flipped and web-enhanced. The literature is replete with comparison studies on the efficacy of online, hybrid and traditional format courses. However, the self-paced online course, a relatively new and rare variation, has received very little coverage in the body of…

  17. The intraperitoneal delivery of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: studies on the regional delivery advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Wahl; Jeffrey Barrett; Onelio Geatti; Monica Liebert; Barry S. Wilson; Susan Fisher; John G. Wagner

    1988-01-01

    The i.p. delivery of murine monoclonal antibody was compared with i.v. delivery in normal mice and rats, in normal nude mice and in those with i.p. human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. In normal rats, all classes of antibodies and antibody fragments evaluated were cleared from the peritoneal cavity at comparable rates. The regional delivery (Rd1) advantage to the peritoneal cavity following

  18. Sequential delivery of angiogenic growth factors improves revascularization and heart function after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Awada, Hassan K; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2015-06-10

    Treatment of ischemia through therapeutic angiogenesis faces significant challenges. Growth factor (GF)-based therapies can be more effective when concerns such as GF spatiotemporal presentation, bioactivity, bioavailability, and localization are addressed. During angiogenesis, vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) is required early to initiate neovessel formation while platelet-derived GF (PDGF-BB) is needed later to stabilize the neovessels. The spatiotemporal delivery of multiple bioactive GFs involved in angiogenesis, in a close mimic to physiological cues, holds great potential to treat ischemic diseases. To achieve sequential release of VEGF and PDGF, we embed VEGF in fibrin gel and PDGF in a heparin-based coacervate that is distributed in the same fibrin gel. In vitro, we show the benefits of this controlled delivery approach on cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and capillary formation. A rat myocardial infarction (MI) model demonstrated the effectiveness of this delivery system in improving cardiac function, ventricular wall thickness, angiogenesis, cardiac muscle survival, and reducing fibrosis and inflammation in the infarct zone compared to saline, empty vehicle, and free GFs. Collectively, our results show that this delivery approach mitigated the injury caused by MI and may serve as a new therapy to treat ischemic hearts pending further examination. PMID:25836592

  19. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides. PMID:26004140

  20. Transorbital therapy delivery: phantom testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Martha-Conley; Atuegwu, Nkiruka; Mawn, Louise; Galloway, Robert L.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a combined image-guided and minimally invasive system for the delivery of therapy to the back of the eye. It is composed of a short 4.5 mm diameter endoscope with a magnetic tracker embedded in the tip. In previous work we have defined an optimized fiducial placement for accurate guidance to the back of the eye and are now moving to system testing. The fundamental difficulty in testing performance is establishing a target in a manner which closely mimics the physiological task. We have to have a penetrable material which obscures line of sight, similar to the orbital fat. In addition we need to have some independent measure of knowing when a target has been reached to compare to the ideal performance. Lastly, the target cannot be rigidly attached to the skull phantom since the optic nerve lies buried in the orbital fat. We have developed a skull phantom with white cloth stellate balls supporting a correctly sized globe. Placed in the white balls are red, blue, orange and yellow balls. One of the colored balls has been soaked in barium to make it bright on CT. The user guides the tracked endoscope to the target as defined by the images and tells us its color. We record task accuracy and time to target. We have tested this with 28 residents, fellows and attending physicians. Each physician performs the task twice guided and twice unguided. Results will be presented.

  1. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  2. Aptamer-targeted Antigen Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wengerter, Brian C; Katakowski, Joseph A; Rosenberg, Jacob M; Park, Chae Gyu; Almo, Steven C; Palliser, Deborah; Levy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapeutic vaccines often require activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Robust T cell activation, including CD8 T cell responses, can be achieved using antibodies or antibody fragments to direct antigens of interest to professional antigen presenting cells. This approach represents an important advance in enhancing vaccine efficacy. Nucleic acid aptamers present a promising alternative to protein-based targeting approaches. We have selected aptamers that specifically bind the murine receptor, DEC205, a C-type lectin expressed predominantly on the surface of CD8?+ dendritic cells (DCs) that has been shown to be efficient at facilitating antigen crosspresentation and subsequent CD8+ T cell activation. Using a minimized aptamer conjugated to the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA), DEC205-targeted antigen crosspresentation was verified in vitro and in vivo by proliferation and cytokine production by primary murine CD8+ T cells expressing a T cell receptor specific for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I-restricted OVA257–264 peptide SIINFEKL. Compared with a nonspecific ribonucleic acid (RNA) of similar length, DEC205 aptamer-OVA-mediated antigen delivery stimulated strong proliferation and production of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2. The immune responses elicited by aptamer-OVA conjugates were sufficient to inhibit the growth of established OVA-expressing B16 tumor cells. Our results demonstrate a new application of aptamer technology for the development of effective T cell-mediated vaccines. PMID:24682172

  3. Using analytics to improve delivery performance

    E-print Network

    Napolillo, Tacy J. (Tacy Jean)

    2014-01-01

    Delivery Precision is a key performance indicator that measures Nike's ability to deliver product to the customer in full and on time. The objective of the six-month internship was to quantify areas in the supply chain ...

  4. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Abuhano?lu, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (?) and beta (?) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by ? irradiation. PMID:24936306

  5. Growth factor delivery approaches in hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda K Andriola; Richard, Cyrille; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2009-01-12

    The controlled delivery of growth factors is a very challenging task because many different issues have to be addressed to develop the best suited system. A wide range of approaches have been employed for the controlled delivery of growth factors by hydrogels. Direct loading, electrostatic interaction, covalent binding, and the use of carriers are the main strategies presented in the literature. They are all detailed in the first part of this review. Recent work emphasizing biologically inspired strategies is also included. Also, both natural and synthetic materials are discussed. The second part comprises the methods to evaluate such delivery approaches. Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are presented. Improvements based on the discussed approaches may illustrate future paths toward the development of an ideal growth factor delivery system. PMID:19032110

  6. Web Portal for Multicast Delivery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannaert, H.; De Gruyter, B.; Adriaenssens, P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a Web portal for multicast communication management, which provides fully automatic service management with integrated provisioning of hardware equipment. Describes the software architecture, the implementation, and the application usage of the Web portal for multicast delivery. (Author/AEF)

  7. Document Delivery: An Annotated Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mounir A.; Katz, Suzanne R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a selective annotated bibliography of 61 items that deal with topics related to document delivery, including networks; hypertext; interlibrary loan; computer security; electronic publishing; copyright; online catalogs; resource sharing; electronic mail; electronic libraries; optical character recognition; microcomputers; liability issues;…

  8. Synthetic micro/nanomotors in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Nanomachines offer considerable promise for the treatment of diseases. The ability of man-made nanomotors to rapidly deliver therapeutic payloads to their target destination represents a novel nanomedicine approach. Synthetic nanomotors, based on a multitude of propulsion mechanisms, have been developed over the past decade toward diverse biomedical applications. In this review article, we journey from the use of chemically powered drug-delivery nanovehicles to externally actuated (fuel-free) drug-delivery nanomachine platforms, and conclude with future prospects and challenges for such practical propelling drug-delivery systems. As future micro/nanomachines become more powerful and functional, these tiny devices are expected to perform more demanding biomedical tasks and benefit different drug delivery applications.

  9. Controlling subcellular delivery to optimize therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Dixon, Andrew S; Lim, Carol S

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on drug targeting to specific cellular organelles for therapeutic purposes. Drugs can be delivered to all major organelles of the cell (cytosol, endosome/lysosome, nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes and proteasomes) where they exert specific effects in those particular subcellular compartments. Delivery can be achieved by chemical (e.g., polymeric) or biological (e.g., signal sequences) means. Unidirectional targeting to individual organelles has proven to be immensely successful for drug therapy. Newer technologies that accommodate multiple signals (e.g., protein switch and virus-like delivery systems) mimic nature and allow for a more sophisticated approach to drug delivery. Harnessing different methods of targeting multiple organelles in a cell will lead to better drug delivery and improvements in disease therapy. PMID:21113240

  10. Composite gelatin delivery system for bone regeneration

    E-print Network

    Hager, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Ann)

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical/mechanical properties and biocompatibility of gelatin were investigated to produce a gelatin scaffold for the release of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from composite particles. This delivery ...

  11. Fabrication of drug delivery MEMS devices

    E-print Network

    Lei, Wang S

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable amount of interest in the immediate treatment of personnel involved in high risk situations on the battlefield. A novel approach to drug delivery on the battlefield based on MEMS technology is discussed. ...

  12. Incorporating traffic patterns to improve delivery performance

    E-print Network

    Dickinson, Melody J

    2010-01-01

    Traffic, construction and other road hazards impact the on-time performance of companies that operate delivery fleets. This study examines how incorporating traffic patterns in vehicle route development compares with ...

  13. Coordinated part delivery using distributed planning

    E-print Network

    Bolger, Adrienne (Adrienne M.)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop a distributed mobile robot platform to deliver parts around a model construction site. The platform's robots, specialized into delivery robots and assembly robots, use a distributed coverage ...

  14. PLGA: a unique polymer for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Deepak N; Bhatia, Amit; Kaur, Ripandeep; Sharma, Ruchi; Kaur, Gurvinder; Dhawan, Sanju

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers have played an important role in the delivery of drugs in a controlled and targeted manner. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the extensively researched synthetic biodegradable polymers due to its favorable properties. It is also known as a 'Smart Polymer' due to its stimuli sensitive behavior. A wide range of PLGA-based drug delivery systems have been reported for the treatment or diagnosis of various diseases and disorders. The present review provides an overview of the chemistry, physicochemical properties, biodegradation behavior, evaluation parameters and applications of PLGA in drug delivery. Different drug-polymer combinations developed into drug delivery or carrier systems are enumerated and discussed. PMID:25565440

  15. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  16. clinical care | Healthcare Delivery Research Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Over the course of my career I have often been frustrated with the gap between the research I was conducting and the clinical operations of the health care delivery systems with which I was affiliated.

  17. 42 CFR 460.98 - Service delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...against any participant in the delivery of required PACE services based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, age, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or source of payment. (c) Minimum services furnished at...

  18. 42 CFR 460.98 - Service delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...against any participant in the delivery of required PACE services based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, age, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or source of payment. (c) Minimum services furnished at...

  19. Functional Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxanes for Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Nobuhiko; Katoono, Ryo; Yamashita, Atsushi

    The mobility of cyclodextrins (CDs) threaded onto a linear polymeric chain and the dethreading of the CDs from the chain are the most fascinating features seen in polyrotaxanes. These structural characteristics are very promising for their possible applications in drug delivery. Enhanced multivalent interaction between ligand-receptor systems by using ligand-conjugated polyrotaxanes would be just one of the excellent properties related to the CD mobility. Gene delivery using cytocleavable polyrotaxanes is a more practical but highly crucial issue in drug delivery. Complexation of the polyrotaxanes with DNA and its intracellular DNA release ingeniously utilizes both CD mobility and polyrotaxane dissociation to achieve effective gene delivery. Such a supramolecular approach using CD-containing polyrotaxanes is expected to exploit a new paradigm of biomaterials.

  20. WEDDS: The WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J.; Backes, P.

    1999-01-01

    WEDDS, the WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System, is a framework for supporting distributed mission operations by automatically transferring sensitive mission data in a secure and efficient manner to and from remote mission participants over the internet.

  1. Microspheres for controlled release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Varde, Neelesh K; Pack, Daniel W

    2004-01-01

    Controlled release drug delivery employs drug-encapsulating devices from which therapeutic agents may be released at controlled rates for long periods of time, ranging from days to months. Such systems offer numerous advantages over traditional methods of drug delivery, including tailoring of drug release rates, protection of fragile drugs and increased patient comfort and compliance. Polymeric microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled delivery applications due to their ability to encapsulate a variety of drugs, biocompatibility, high bioavailability and sustained drug release characteristics. Research discussed in this review is focused on improving large-scale manufacturing, maintaining drug stability and enhancing control of drug release rates. This paper describes methods of microparticle fabrication and the major factors controlling the release rates of encapsulated drugs. Furthermore, recent advances in the use of polymer microsphere-based systems for delivery of single-shot vaccines, plasmid DNA and therapeutic proteins are discussed, as well as some future directions of microsphere research. PMID:14680467

  2. Designing Bioactive Delivery Systems for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hillary E.

    2010-01-01

    The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies. PMID:20676773

  3. Essays on health care delivery and financing

    E-print Network

    Chan, David C. (David Cchimin)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains essays on health care delivery and financing. Chapter 1 studies the effect of organizational structure on physician behavior. I investigate this by studying emergency department (ED) physicians who ...

  4. Synthetic micro/nanomotors in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-09-21

    Nanomachines offer considerable promise for the treatment of diseases. The ability of man-made nanomotors to rapidly deliver therapeutic payloads to their target destination represents a novel nanomedicine approach. Synthetic nanomotors, based on a multitude of propulsion mechanisms, have been developed over the past decade toward diverse biomedical applications. In this review article, we journey from the use of chemically powered drug-delivery nanovehicles to externally actuated (fuel-free) drug-delivery nanomachine platforms, and conclude with future prospects and challenges for such practical propelling drug-delivery systems. As future micro/nanomachines become more powerful and functional, these tiny devices are expected to perform more demanding biomedical tasks and benefit different drug delivery applications. PMID:25096021

  5. A practical approach for intracellular protein delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire O. Weill; Stéphanie Biri; Abdennaji Adib; Patrick Erbacher

    2008-01-01

    Protein delivery represents a powerful tool for experiments in live cells including studies of protein-protein interactions,\\u000a protein interference with blocking antibodies, intracellular trafficking and protein or peptide biological functions. Most\\u000a available reagents dedicated to the protein delivery allow efficient crossing of the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, the major\\u000a disadvantage for these reagents is a weak release of the delivered protein into

  6. Nanomedicine and drug delivery: a mini review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The field of nanotechnology now has pivotal roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery systems.

  7. Thermosensitive Polymers for Controlled Delivery of Hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Tang; Mayura Oak; Rhishikesh Mandke; Buddhadev Layek; Gitanjali Sharma; Jagdish Singh

    \\u000a Thermosensitive polymeric systems, which remain as solution at room temperature and transform into gel at body temperature,\\u000a have been extensively investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The gel depot formed at the site of injection\\u000a after the administration of an aqueous polymeric solution provides several benefits over the conventional delivery systems.\\u000a These thermosensitive drug delivery systems are easy to formulate

  8. Ultrasonic Drug Delivery – A General Review

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, William G.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Staples, Bryant J.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has an ever-increasing role in the delivery of therapeutic agents including genetic material, proteins, and chemotherapeutic agents. Cavitating gas bodies such as microbubbles are the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is concentrated to produce forces that permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry drugs. Thus the presence of microbubbles enormously enhances delivery of genetic material, proteins and smaller chemical agents. Delivery of genetic material is greatly enhanced by ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles. Attaching the DNA directly to the microbubbles or to gas-containing liposomes enhances gene uptake even further. US-enhanced gene delivery has been studied in various tissues including cardiac, vascular, skeletal muscle, tumor and even fetal tissue. US-enhanced delivery of proteins has found most application in transdermal delivery of insulin. Cavitation events reversibly disrupt the structure of the stratus corneum to allow transport of these large molecules. Other hormones and small proteins could also be delivered transdermally. Small chemotherapeutic molecules are delivered in research settings from micelles and liposomes exposed to ultrasound. Cavitation appears to play two roles: it disrupts the structure of the carrier vesicle and releases the drug; it also makes the cell membranes and capillaries more permeable to drugs. There remains a need to better understand the physics of cavitation of microbubbles and the impact that such cavitation has upon cells and drug-carrying vesicles. PMID:16296719

  9. [Neonatal outcomes after instrumental vaginal delivery].

    PubMed

    Baud, O

    2008-12-01

    Instrumental vaginal delivery is currently widely used among obstetrical practices and leads to significant decrease in fetal mortality and morbidity. However, these practices could be associated with several neonatal adverse effects. Very few of these complications are specific and most of them could be observed during normal vaginal delivery. Neonatal mortality is not changed by forceps or vacuum use if no other risk factors are associated. The main neonatal adverse outcomes described with both techniques are extra and intracranial haemorrhages. Usually, intra-cerebral haemorrhages have good neurological prognosis. However, few longitudinal studies are available in the literature on long term outcome of exposed newborns. Other traumatic complications observed when using forceps (facial nerve palsy, cranial skull) are not associated with long term functional consequences. Many of the most severe neonatal complications are observed when perinatal asphyxia has occurred. Extractor types and quality of use under defined criteria are closely associated with neonatal adverse outcomes in operative vaginal delivery. Forceps deliveries are as safe as vacuum deliveries to the neonate. In conclusion, operative vaginal delivery performed for maternal or fetal reasons are associated with several neonatal adverse events, usually non specific and with a short term good prognosis. PMID:19268202

  10. Recent advances in ophthalmic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kompella, Uday B; Kadam, Rajendra S; Lee, Vincent HL

    2011-01-01

    Topical ocular drug bioavailability is notoriously poor, in the order of 5% or less. This is a consequence of effective multiple barriers to drug entry, comprising nasolacrimal drainage, epithelial drug transport barriers and clearance from the vasculature in the conjunctiva. While sustained drug delivery to the back of the eye is now feasible with intravitreal implants such as Vitrasert™ (~6 months), Retisert™ (~3 years) and Iluvien™ (~3 years), currently there are no marketed delivery systems for long-term drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye. The purpose of this article is to summarize the resurgence in interest to prolong and improve drug entry from topical administration. These approaches include mucoadhesives, viscous polymer vehicles, transporter-targeted prodrug design, receptor-targeted functionalized nanoparticles, iontophoresis, punctal plug and contact lens delivery systems. A few of these delivery systems might be useful in treating diseases affecting the back of the eye. Their effectiveness will be compared against intravitreal implants (upper bound of effectiveness) and trans-scleral systems (lower bound of effectiveness). Refining the animal model by incorporating the latest advances in microdialysis and imaging technology is key to expanding the knowledge central to the design, testing and evaluation of the next generation of innovative ocular drug delivery systems. PMID:21399724

  11. Nanogels for delivery, imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Amal J; Rajitha, P; Maya, S; Jayakumar, R; Sabitha, M

    2015-07-01

    Nanogels are hydrogels having size in nanoregime, which is composed of cross-linked polymer networks. The advantages of nanogels include stimuli-responsive nature, easy drug loading, and higher drug-loading capacity, physical stability, versatility in design, stability of entrapped drug, and controlled release of the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, protein, peptide and anticancer drugs. Stimuli-responsive nature of nanogel is of particular importance in anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug delivery, as cancer and inflammation are associated with acidic pH, heat generation, and change in ionic content. Nanogels composed of muco-adhesive polymers provide prolonged residence time and increase the ocular availability of loaded drugs. By forming suitably sized complex with proteins or by acting as artificial chaperones, they thus help to keep the proteins and enzymes in proper confirmation necessary for exerting biological activity; nanogels can increase the stability and activity of protein/peptide drugs. Better drug penetrations achieved by prolonged contact with skin contribute much in transdermal drug delivery. When it comes to cancer drug delivery, the presence of multiple interactive functional groups in nanogels different targeting agents can be conjugated for delivery of the selective drugs. This review focuses on applications of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-psoriatic, transdermal, ocular and protein/peptide drug delivery and therapy. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:509-533. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1328 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25581024

  12. Transdermal drug delivery system: patent reviews.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdus; Ullah, Zabih; Alam, Mohammad I; Wais, Mohd; Shams, Mohammad Shabaz

    2009-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. Although the concept of transdermal drug delivery has been known since 1924, it took until 1979, as FDA approved the transdermal delivery of scopolamine, that transdermal delivery systems [TDDS] received broad attention as novel tool for controlled release. These drug delivery systems are designed for controlled release of drug through the skin into systemic circulation maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing dose of the drug and its related side effects. More than 200 patents have been granted by the United State patent alone, of which more than 35 TDD products have now been approved for sale in the US, and approximately 16 active ingredients have been approved for use globally. Statistics reveal a market of $ 12.7 billion in the year 2005 which is expected to increase by $ 21.5 billion in the year 2010 and $ 31.5 billion in the year 2015. Almost all major and minor pharmaceutical companies are developing TDDS. There is not a single review article which describes patents on different types of TDDS. Thus this review is designed for patents on the different type of TDDS which would be helpful for the researcher in the field of TDDS. PMID:19519574

  13. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression. PMID:18053152

  14. Advantages of liposomal delivery systems for anthracyclines.

    PubMed

    Allen, Theresa M; Martin, Francis J

    2004-12-01

    Liposomes, closed vesicular structures consisting of one or more lipid bilayers, have generated a great deal of interest as drug delivery vehicles. In particular, they have been investigated for their ability to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors, in efforts to increase therapeutic efficacy and decrease toxicity to normal cells. Development of liposomal chemotherapeutic agents has, in the past, been hindered primarily by the rapid uptake of liposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Numerous strategies that seek to either exploit or avoid this phenomenon have been used. As a result, several liposomal chemotherapeutic agents are now available in the clinic. STEALTH, a novel liposomal system coated with polyethylene glycol, avoids uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, thus improving drug delivery to the tumor while decreasing toxicity. In pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx [PLD]), this delivery system encapsulates doxorubicin within polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes, leading to promising new applications for a well-established drug. Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin citrate complex (Myocet [NPLD]), another liposomal delivery system for doxorubicin, lacks the polyethylene glycol coating, resulting in much shorter circulation times than those of PLD. Daunorubicin citrate liposome (DaunoXome [DNX]) contains daunorubicin encapsulated in a smaller liposome of a different lipid composition. It has circulation times between those of PLD and NPLD. This article reviews the advantages of liposomal delivery systems in general and the divergent approaches that have been taken in developing these agents. PMID:15717735

  15. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel; M Foldvari

    2011-12-31

    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein and nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

  16. Design of a Smart Transdermal Insulin Drug Delivery System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenqing Hou; Chenghong Lin; Qiqing Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-needle array combined with transdermal delivery, as well as the detection of micro-sensors intelligent transdermal insulin delivery systems was designed with characteristics of pain-free, smart, timing, positioning, quantitative drug delivery. Transdermal delivery of the requirements for the design of the transdermal delivery of the microneedle array structure, and UV-LIGA process for the production of polymer micro-needle

  17. Tissue plasminogen activator-based clot busting: Controlled delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Elkholi, Islam E.; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Thrombosis, the formation of blood clot (thrombus) in the circulatory system obstructing the blood flow, is one of the main causes behind various ischemic arterial syndromes such as ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction, as well as vein syndromes such as deep vein thrombosis, and consequently, pulmonary emboli. Several thrombolytic agents have been developed for treating thrombosis, the most common being tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), administrated systemically or locally via IV infusion directly proximal to the thrombus, with the aim of restoring and improving the blood flow. TPA triggers the dissolution of thrombi by inducing the conversion of plasminogen to protease plasmin followed by fibrin digestion that eventually leads to clot lysis. Although tPA provides powerful thrombolytic activity, it has many shortcomings, including poor pharmacokinetic profiles, impairment of the reestablishment of normal coronary flow, and impairment of hemostasis, leading to life-threatening bleeding consequences. The bleeding consequence is ascribed to the ability of tPA to circulate throughout the body and therefore can lysis all blood clots in the circulation system, even the good ones that prevent the bleeding and promote injury repair. This review provides an overview of the different delivery approaches for tPA including: liposomes, ultrasound-triggered thrombolysis, anti-fibrin antibody-targeted tPA, camouflaged-tPA, tpA-loaded microcarriers, and nano-modulated delivery approaches. PMID:25780787

  18. Two Photon Polymerization of Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Chichkov, Boris N.; Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Microneedles are small-scale devices that are finding use for transdermal delivery of protein-based pharmacologic agents and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents; however, microneedles prepared using conventional microelectronics-based technologies have several shortcomings, which have limited translation of these devices into widespread clinical use. Areas covered in this review Two photon polymerization is a laser-based rapid prototyping technique that has been recently used for direct fabrication of hollow microneedles with a wide variety of geometries. In addition, an indirect rapid prototyping method that involves two photon polymerization and polydimethyl siloxane micromolding has been used for fabrication of solid microneedles with exceptional mechanical properties. What the reader will gain In this review, the use of two photon polymerization for fabricating in-plane and out-of-plane hollow microneedle arrays is described. The use of two photon polymerization-micromolding for fabrication of solid microneedles is also reviewed. In addition, fabrication of microneedles with antimicrobial properties is discussed; antimicrobial microneedles may reduce the risk of infection associated with formation of channels through the stratum corneum. Take home message It is anticipated that the use of two photon polymerization as well as two photon polymerization-micromolding for fabrication of microneedles and other microstructured drug delivery devices will increase over the coming years. PMID:20205601

  19. Galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1984-01-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies.

  20. Cyclodextrin-containing poly(ethyleneoxide) tablets for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs: potential as buccal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Brunella; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Giannini, Lucia; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Miro, Agnese; Quaglia, Fabiana; Russo, Roberto

    2006-08-17

    The aim of this work was to develop a tablet for the buccal delivery of the poorly soluble drug carvedilol (CAR), based on poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) as bioadhesive sustained-release platform and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) as modulator of drug release. As first, PEO tablets loaded with CAR/HPbetaCD binary systems with different dissolution properties were tested for CAR and HPbetaCD release features and compared to PEO tablets containing only CAR. When the drug was incorporated as CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried product, all CAR content was released from the tablet in about 10 h, displaying a constant release regimen after a transient. The effect of HPbetaCD incorporation on the release mechanism, was rationalized on the basis of the interplay of different physical phenomena: erosion and swelling of the tablet, drug dissolution, drug counter-diffusion and complex formation. In the second part of the study, the potential of HPbetaCD-containing PEO tablets as buccal delivery system for CAR was tested. It was found that the incorporation of HPbetaCD in the tablet did not alter significantly its good adhesion properties. The feasibility of buccal administration of CAR was assessed by permeation experiments on pig excised mucosa. The amount of CAR permeated from PEO tablet was higher in the case of HPbetaCD-containing tablets, the maximum value being obtained for CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried system. Our results demonstrate that, when the tablet is employed as transmucosal system, the role of drug dissolution enhancement in the hydrated tablet is much more relevant than in solution for increasing the delivery rate. PMID:16650700

  1. Insulin delivery with plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Abai, A M; Hobart, P M; Barnhart, K M

    1999-11-01

    Success in controlling hyperglycemia in type I diabetics will require a restoration of basal insulin. To this end, three plasmid DNAs (pDNA) encoding preproinsulin were compared for constitutive expression and processing to insulin in nonendocrine cells in vitro. The pDNAs were designed to express rat proinsulin I (VR-3501), rat proinsulin I with the B10 aspartic acid point mutation (VR-3502), and a derivative of VR-3502 with a furin cleavage site added at the B-chain and C-peptide junction (VR-3503). Cells transfected with VR-3501 or VR-3502 were able to secrete only proinsulin, whereas transfection with VR-3503 yielded 30-70% mature insulin, which could be increased to >99% by cotransfection with a furin expression plasmid (VR-3505). The insulin produced was biologically active. The bilateral injection of 100 microg of VR-3502 plasmid into the tibialis anterior muscles of mice on two consecutive days yielded, on average, several hundred picograms of heterologous proinsulin per milliliter of serum. In BALB/c mice, serum proinsulin peaked 7-14 days postinjection and declined to preinjection levels by days 21-28. In athymic nude mice, serum proinsulin was sustained for at least 6 weeks. The therapeutic efficacy of delivering insulin via muscle injection of pDNA was evaluated in athymic nude mice made diabetic with the beta cell toxin streptozotocin (STZ). All animals given control DNA died within 1 week of receiving STZ while 40% of the mice coinjected with plasmids VR-3503 and VR-3505 lived through the duration of the 4-week experiment. Muscles of the surviving animals contained 17-100 ng of immune-reactive insulin (IRI), 86-94% of which was mature insulin. The results suggest that heterologous insulin made in muscle increased the survival rate. We propose that insulin plasmid expression in skeletal muscle may be a valid approach to basal insulin delivery. The feasibility of plasmid DNA-based delivery of basal insulin was investigated. An expression system consisting of pDNAs encoding a selectively mutated rat preproinsulin and mouse furin was developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. When injected with preproinsulin pDNA, the mouse tibialis anterior muscle expressed and released proinsulin into serum at levels comparable to normal basal insulin in rodents. These heterologous proinsulin levels were sustained for several weeks in immune-compromised nondiabetic mice. Mouse muscle coinjected with a pDNA encoding the endopeptidase furin and a pDNA encoding a pre-proinsulin modified to contain two furin cleavage sites produced fully processed insulin. This muscle-made insulin appears to have contributed to the survival of mice treated with a highly diabetogenic dose of streptozotocin, a beta cell toxin. The results demonstrate that skeletal muscle is able to express and deliver therapeutic insulin from plasmid DNA. PMID:10566891

  2. Engineering strategies for the design of plant nutrient delivery systems for use in space: Approaches to countering microbiological contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Gonzales; A. C. Schuerger; C. Barford; R. Mitchell

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of crops within space-based plant growth research chambers has been postulated as a potentially significant problem. Microbial infestations; fouling of Nutrient Delivery System (NDS) fluid loops; and the formation of biofilms have been suggested as the most obvious and important manifestations of the problem. Strict sanitation and quarantine procedures will reduce, but not eliminate, microbial species introduced into

  3. Synthetic biodegradable polymers as drug delivery systems for bone morphogenetic proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Saito; N. Murakami; J. Takahashi; H. Horiuchi; H. Ota; H. Kato; T. Okada; K. Nozaki; K. Takaoka

    2005-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) induce bone formation in vivo, and clinical application in repair of bone fractures and defects is expected. However, appropriate systems to deliver BMP for clinical use need to be developed. We synthesized a new synthetic biodegradable polymer, poly-d,l-lactic acid-para-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block copolymer (PLA-DX-PEG), to serve as a biocompatible, biodegradable polymer for recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 delivery

  4. Use of supercritical fluid solution expansion processes for drug delivery, particle synthesis, and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hybertson, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of the gases and aerosols resulting from the expansion of supercritical fluid solutions were studied. Film deposition, particle formation, and drug delivery processes using supercritical fluids were developed. Thin films of palladium, copper, aluminum, silver, and silicon dioxide were deposited by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical deposition (SFT-CD). In each case, a precursor compound was dissolved in a supercritical fluid and the solution was allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle into a reaction chamber at subcritical pressure, resulting in the formation of aerosol particles of the precursor. A chemical reaction was induced to occur at the surface of a substrate, resulting in deposition of a thin film. Micron-sized particles of aluminum fluoride and copper oxide were synthesized by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical formation of particles (SFT-CFP). The process was similar to that in SFT-CD, but the chemical reactions were induced to occur in the gas phase instead of at a substrate surface, resulting in the formation of fine particles. A new method of pulmonary drug delivery called supercritical fluid drug delivery (SFDD) was conceived and demonstrated. In SFDD a drug compound is dissolved in a supercritical fluid, and the solution is allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle. The resultant aerosol is directly inhaled by a human or animal subject and the fine drug particles are deposited in the lungs. Menthol, vanillin, camphor, cholesterol, Sudan III, and Oil Blue N were used as model drug compounds for SFDD. Delivery of [alpha]-tocopherol to rat lung tissue was demonstrated, with observed increases of 80-290% above background levels.

  5. Prospero: An Open Source Internet Document Delivery (IDD) System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The John A. Prior Health Sciences Library of Ohio State University has recently released Prospero 2.0, an open source Internet Document Delivery (IDD) system that allows libraries to send and receive documents in electronic format from Prospero or Ariel workstations and patrons to retrieve these documents using any Web browser. This innovative tool is separated into two modules (a library staff module and a user interface module) and is operable on any Windows (NT/2000/XP/98) machine. The tool takes up 10 MB of disc space and uses a 5-15 MB memory footprint. The server-side module should run properly on any platform with a Web server and support for perl scripting. Non-Windows users will need to rely on a program such as SAMBA to provide SMB shares that the Ariel/Prospero workstation can map locally.

  6. Adaptively biased sequential importance sampling for rare events in reaction networks with comparison to exact solutions from finite buffer dCME method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Youfang; Liang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Critical events that occur rarely in biological processes are of great importance, but are challenging to study using Monte Carlo simulation. By introducing biases to reaction selection and reaction rates, weighted stochastic simulation algorithms based on importance sampling allow rare events to be sampled more effectively. However, existing methods do not address the important issue of barrier crossing, which often arises from multistable networks and systems with complex probability landscape. In addition, the proliferation of parameters and the associated computing cost pose significant problems. Here we introduce a general theoretical framework for obtaining optimized biases in sampling individual reactions for estimating probabilities of rare events. We further describe a practical algorithm called adaptively biased sequential importance sampling (ABSIS) method for efficient probability estimation. By adopting a look-ahead strategy and by enumerating short paths from the current state, we estimate the reaction-specific and state-specific forward and backward moving probabilities of the system, which are then used to bias reaction selections. The ABSIS algorithm can automatically detect barrier-crossing regions, and can adjust bias adaptively at different steps of the sampling process, with bias determined by the outcome of exhaustively generated short paths. In addition, there are only two bias parameters to be determined, regardless of the number of the reactions and the complexity of the network. We have applied the ABSIS method to four biochemical networks: the birth-death process, the reversible isomerization, the bistable Schlögl model, and the enzymatic futile cycle model. For comparison, we have also applied the finite buffer discrete chemical master equation (dCME) method recently developed to obtain exact numerical solutions of the underlying discrete chemical master equations of these problems. This allows us to assess sampling results objectively by comparing simulation results with true answers. Overall, ABSIS can accurately and efficiently estimate rare event probabilities for all examples, often with smaller variance than other importance sampling algorithms. The ABSIS method is general and can be applied to study rare events of other stochastic networks with complex probability landscape.

  7. Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: Strategy for Improving Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-ling Tang; Jin Sun; Zhong-Gui He

    2007-01-01

    Drugs are most often administered by the oral route. However, more than 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility, resulting in unsatisfactory oral drug delivery. Recently, much attention has been focused on self- emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents\\/surfactants.

  8. Planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack J. Lissauer

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the

  9. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  10. Formative Evaluation of the Canada Student Loans Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The "Formative Evaluation of the Canada Student Loans Program" was undertaken to assess issues of program relevance, design and delivery and for the purposes of examining the early impacts of changes made to the program since 1998. The evaluation also reviewed the Performance Measurement Strategy contained in the July 2002 Results-Based Management…

  11. Access to institutional delivery care and reasons for home delivery in three districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Globally, health facility delivery is encouraged as a single most important strategy in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, access to facility-based delivery care remains low in many less developed countries. This study assesses facilitators and barriers to institutional delivery in three districts of Tanzania. Methods Data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households on health behaviours and service utilization patterns among women and children aged less than 5 years. The survey was conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania, using a closed-ended questionnaire. This analysis focuses on 915 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the two years prior to the survey. Chi-square test was used to test for associations in the bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors that influence institutional delivery. Results Overall, 74.5% of the 915 women delivered at health facilities in the two years prior to the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the better the quality of antenatal care (ANC) the higher the odds of institutional delivery. Similarly, better socioeconomic status was associated with an increase in the odds of institutional delivery. Women of Sukuma ethnic background were less likely to deliver at health facilities than others. Presence of couple discussion on family planning matters was associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. Conclusion Institutional delivery in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga district of Tanzania is relatively high and significantly dependent on the quality of ANC, better socioeconomic status as well as between-partner communication about family planning. Therefore, improving the quality of ANC, socioeconomic empowerment as well as promoting and supporting inter-spousal discussion on family planning matters is likely to enhance institutional delivery. Programs should also target women from the Sukuma ethnic group towards universal access to institutional delivery care in the study area. PMID:24934657

  12. Proliposomes for oral delivery: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Venkatesan, Natarajan; Betageri, Guru V

    2015-01-01

    Proliposomes are phospholipid based drug delivery systems that are finding important applications in the field of pharmaceutics. Proliposomes have been extensively studied as a potential carrier for oral delivery of drugs with poor bioavailability, but the mechanism of absorption and cellular uptake pathways has not yet been clearly understood. An in-depth insight into the physical and biological behavior of proliposomes is necessary for designing an effective delivery system for enhancing the availability of drug at the intended site. Reformulation of sub optimal drugs using proliposomes has given an opportunity to improve the therapeutic indices of various drugs predominantly by altering their uptake mechanism. This work reviews the proliposomal drug delivery field, summarizes the success of proliposomes for the oral delivery of drugs with poor bioavailability; indicating the key issues to be addressed to affirm that proliposomes can effectively work as a drug carrier in clinical settings with a clear understanding of its behavior in biological environment, as they are now an established platform technology with considerable clinical acceptance. PMID:25601600

  13. Light induced drug delivery into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Yosi; Adar, Lily; Ashkenasy, Gonen; David, Ayelet

    2011-02-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can be used for intracellular delivery of a broad variety of cargoes, including various nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers. However, the cationic nature of all CPP sequences, and thus lack of cell specificity, limits their in vivo use for drug delivery applications. Here, we have devised and tested a strategy for site-specific delivery of dyes and drugs into cancer cells by using polymers bearing a light activated caged CPP (cCPP). The positive charge of Lys residues on the minimum sequence of the CPP penetratin ((52)RRMKWKK(58)) was masked with photo-cleavable groups to minimize non-specific adsorption and cellular uptake. Once illuminated by UV light, these protecting groups were cleaved, the positively charged CPP regained its activity and facilitated rapid intracellular delivery of the polymer-dye or polymer-drug conjugates into cancer cells. We have found that a 10-min light illumination time was sufficient to enhance the penetration of the polymer-CPP conjugates bearing the proapoptotic peptide, (D)(KLAKLAK)(2), into 80% of the target cells, and to promote a 'switch' like cytotoxic activity resulting a shift from 100% to 10% in cell viability after 2 h. This report provides an example for tumor targeting by means of light activation of cell-penetrating peptides for intracellular drug delivery. PMID:21074848

  14. ENDOCYTIC MECHANISMS FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, Lisa M.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the delivery of targeted drug systems have evolved to enable highly regulated site specific localization to subcellular organelles. Targeting therapeutics to individual intracellular compartments has resulted in benefits to therapies associated with these unique organelles. Endocytosis, a mechanism common to all cells in the body, internalizes macromolecules and retains them in transport vesicles which traffic along the endolysosomal scaffold. An array of vesicular internalization mechanisms exist, therefore understanding the key players specific to each pathway has allowed researchers to bioengineer macromolecular complexes for highly specialized delivery. Membrane specific receptors most frequently enter the cell through endocytosis following the binding of a high affinity ligand. High affinity ligands interact with membrane receptors, internalize in membrane bound vesicles, and traffic through cells in different manners to allow for accumulation in early endosomal fractions or lysosomally associated fractions. Although most drug delivery complexes aim to avoid lysosomal degradation, more recent studies have shown the clinical utility in directed protein delivery to this environment for the enzymatic release of therapeutics. Targeting nanomedicine complexes to the endolysosomal pathway have serious potential for improving drug delivery for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Although several issues remain for receptor specific targeting, current work is investigating a synthetic receptor approach for high affinity binding of targeted macromolecules. PMID:17659804

  15. Intracellular trafficking of hybrid gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Rahul K; Lazebnik, Mihael; Pack, Daniel W

    2015-06-10

    Viral and non-viral gene delivery vectors are in development for human gene therapy, but both exhibit disadvantages such as inadequate efficiency, lack of cell-specific targeting or safety concerns. We have recently reported the design of hybrid delivery vectors combining retrovirus-like particles with synthetic polymers or lipids that are efficient, provide sustained gene expression and are more stable compared to native retroviruses. To guide further development of this promising class of gene delivery vectors, we have investigated their mechanisms of intracellular trafficking. Moloney murine leukemia virus-like particles (M-VLPs) were complexed with chitosan (Chi) or liposomes (Lip) comprising DOTAP, DOPE and cholesterol to form the hybrid vectors (Chi/M-VLPs and Lip/M-VLPs, respectively). Transfection efficiency and cellular internalization of the vectors were quantified in the presence of a panel of inhibitors of various endocytic pathways. Intracellular transport and trafficking kinetics of the hybrid vectors were dependent on the synthetic component and used a combination of clathrin- and caveolar-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Chi/M-VLPs were slower to transfect compared to Lip/M-VLPs due to the delayed detachment of the synthetic component. The synthetic component of hybrid gene delivery vectors plays a significant role in their cellular interactions and processing and is a key parameter for the design of more efficient gene delivery vehicles. PMID:25883029

  16. Mammalian cell delivery via aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Veazey, William S; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Moore, Karen

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that bovine dermal fibroblasts can survive aerosol delivery via an airbrush with mean cell survival rates greater than 50%. This technology has great implications for burn and other wound therapies, for delivery of genetically altered cells in gene therapies, and for tissue engineering with tissue scaffolds. Bovine dermal fibroblasts were suspended at a concentration of 200,000 cells/mL in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, and delivered into six-well tissue culture plates using a Badger 100G airbrush. Cells were delivered through three nozzle diameters (312, 484, and 746 microm) at five different air pressures (41, 55, 69, 96, and 124 kPa). Nine repetitions were performed for each treatment group, and cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion assay. Mean cell viability ranged from 37 to 94%, and depended on the combination of nozzle diameter and delivery pressure (p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis was used to develop a stochastic model of cell delivery viability as a function of nozzle diameter and delivery air pressure. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using an airbrush to deliver viable cells in an aerosol to a substrate. PMID:15546150

  17. Investigating Transdermal Delivery of Vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Alsaqr, Ahmed; Rasoully, Mohammed; Musteata, Florin Marcel

    2015-08-01

    Transdermal delivery of therapeutic amounts of vitamin D3 is proposed to overcome its variable oral bioavailability, especially for people who suffer from fat malabsorption. The main challenge for this delivery route is to overcome the barrier properties of skin, especially for very lipophilic compounds such as vitamin D3. In this study, the effect of different penetration enhancers, such as oleic acid, dodecylamine, ethanol, oleic acid in propylene glycol, isopropyl myristate, octyldodecanol, and oleyl alcohol in propylene glycol were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness in delivering vitamin D3 through polyamide filter, polydimethylsiloxane membrane, and porcine skin. A diffusion cell was used to study the transdermal permeability of vitamin D3. Ointment formulations of vitamin D3 were prepared containing the most widely used penetration enhancers, oleic acid, and dodecylamine. The ointment containing oleic acid as chemical penetration enhancer did not improve delivery compared to control. On the other hand, the formulation containing dodecylamine as a penetration enhancer did improve the transdermal delivery of vitamin D3. However, statistical significance and an amount high enough for nutritional supplementation purposes were reached only when the skin was pretreated with 50% ethanol. In these conditions, the ointment delivered an amount of 760-ng vitamin D3 per cm(2) of skin. The research shows promise that transdermal delivery could be an effective administration route for vitamin D3 when ethanol and dodecylamine are used as penetration enhancers. PMID:25609377

  18. Progress in microRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zaijie; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2013-12-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding endogenous RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by several mechanisms. Activity is primarily through binding to the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNA) resulting in degradation and translation repression. Unlike other small-RNAs, miRNAs do not require perfect base pairing, and thus, can regulate a network of broad, yet specific, genes. Although we have only just begun to gain insights into the full range of biologic functions of miRNA, their involvement in the onset and progression of disease has generated significant interest for therapeutic development. Mounting evidence suggests that miRNA-based therapies, either restoring or repressing miRNAs expression and activity, hold great promise. However, despite the early promise and exciting potential, critical hurdles often involving delivery of miRNA-targeting agents remain to be overcome before transition to clinical applications. Limitations that may be overcome by delivery include, but are not limited to, poor in vivo stability, inappropriate biodistribution, disruption and saturation of endogenous RNA machinery, and untoward side effects. Both viral vectors and nonviral delivery systems can be developed to circumvent these challenges. Viral vectors are efficient delivery agents but toxicity and immunogenicity limit their clinical usage. Herein, we review the recent advances in the mechanisms and strategies of nonviral miRNA delivery systems and provide a perspective on the future of miRNA-based therapeutics. PMID:24075926

  19. Progress in MicroRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zaijie; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding endogenous RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by several mechanisms. Activity is primarily through binding to the 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNA) resulting in degradation and translation repression. Unlike other small-RNAs, miRNAs do not require perfect base pairing, and thus, can regulate a network of broad, yet specific, genes. Although we have only just begun to gain insights into the full range of biologic functions of miRNA, their involvement in the onset and progression of disease has generated significant interest for therapeutic development. Mounting evidence suggests that miRNA-based therapies, either restoring or repressing miRNAs expression and activity, hold great promise. However, despite the early promise and exciting potential, critical hurdles often involving delivery of miRNA-targeting agents remain to be overcome before transition to clinical applications. Limitations that may be overcome by delivery include, but are not limited to, poor in vivo stability, inappropriate biodistribution, disruption and saturation of endogenous RNA machinery, and untoward side effects. Both viral vectors and nonviral delivery systems can be developed to circumvent these challenges. Viral vectors are efficient delivery agents but toxicity and immunogenicity limit their clinical usage. Herein, we review the recent advances in the mechanisms and strategies of nonviral miRNA delivery systems and provide a perspective on the future of miRNA-based therapeutics. PMID:24075926

  20. Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sizovs, Antons; McLendon, Patrick M.; Srinivasachari, Sathya

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have been investigated and developed as delivery vehicles for shuttling nucleic acids into cells. In this review, we present the state of the art in carbohydrate-based polymeric vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, with the focus on the recent successes in preclinical models, both in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric scaffolds based on the natural polysaccharides chitosan, hyaluronan, pullulan, dextran, and schizophyllan each have unique properties and potential for modification, and these results are discussed with the focus on facile synthetic routes and favorable performance in biological systems. Many of these carbohydrates have been used to develop alternative types of biomaterials for nucleic acid delivery to typical polyplexes, and these novel materials are discussed. Also presented are polymeric vehicles that incorporate copolymerized carbohydrates into polymer backbones based on polyethylenimine and polylysine and their effect on transfection and biocompatibility. Unique scaffolds, such as clusters and polymers based on cyclodextrin (CD), are also discussed, with the focus on recent successes in vivo and in the clinic. These results are presented with the emphasis on the role of carbohydrate and charge on transfection. Use of carbohydrates as molecular recognition ligands for cell-type specific delivery is also briefly reviewed. We contend that carbohydrates have contributed significantly to progress in the field of non-viral DNA delivery, and these new discoveries are impactful for developing new vehicles and materials for treatment of human disease. PMID:21504102

  1. Nanoliposomal minocycline for ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, James M.; Imai, Hisanori; Haakenson, Jeremy K.; Brucklacher, Robert M.; Fox, Todd E.; Shanmugavelandy, Sriram S.; Unrath, Kellee A.; Pedersen, Michelle M.; Dai, Pingqi; Freeman, Willard M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Kester, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nanoliposomal technology is a promising drug delivery system that could be employed to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of clearance and distribution in ocular drug delivery to the retina. We developed a nanoscale version of an anionic, cholesterol-fusing liposome that can encapsulate therapeutic levels of minocycline capable of drug delivery. We demonstrate that size extrusion followed by size-exclusion chromatography can form a stable 80-nm liposome that encapsulates minocycline at a concentration of 450 ± 30 ?M, which is 2% to 3% of loading material. More importantly, these nontoxic nanoliposomes can then deliver 40% of encapsulated minocycline to the retina after a subconjunctival injection in the STZ model of diabetes. Efficacy of therapeutic drug delivery was assessed via transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker panels. For both the free minocycline and encapsulated minocycline treatments, proinflammatory markers of diabetes were downregulated at both the messenger RNA and protein levels, validating the utility of biomarker panels for the assessment of ocular drug delivery vehicles. PMID:22465498

  2. Microneedles for intradermal and transdermal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tuan-Mahmood, Tuan-Mazlelaa; McCrudden, Maeliosa T.C.; Torrisi, Barbara M.; McAlister, Emma; Garland, Martin J; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-01-01

    The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of a broad range of therapeutic molecules, particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle delivery has been proposed as a strategy to breach the SC barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves the use of micron sized needles fabricated from different materials and using different geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. Microneedles in isolation, or in combination with other enhancing strategies, have been shown to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo. Progress in the areas of microneedle design, development and manufacture have proven promising in terms of the potential use of this emerging delivery method in clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. This review article focuses on recent and potential future developments in microneedle technologies. This will include the detailing of progress made in microneedle design, an exploration of the challenges faced in this field and potential forward strategies to embrace the exploitation of microneedle methodologies, while considering the inherent safety aspects of such therapeutic tools. PMID:23680534

  3. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  4. MedscapeCME Physician Connect

    E-print Network

    Jadvar, Hossein

    ;250:145-151 Summary The goal of this retrospective study was to assess the incremental value of an apparent diffusion underwent endorectal MRI and step- section histologic examination. The T2-weighted images, ADC maps limitations of ADC include its dynamic variability in relation to body temperature, patient age, and other

  5. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ? 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  6. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  7. Height of Shock Formation in the Solar Corona Inferred from Observations of Type II Radio Bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections

    E-print Network

    Gopalswamy, N; Mäkelä, P; Yashiro, S; Akiyama, S; Srivastava, W Uddin A K; Joshi, N C; Chandra, R; Manoharan, P K; Mahalakshmi, K; Dwivedi, V C; Awasthi, R Jain A K; Nitta, N V; Aschwanden, M J; Choudhary, D P

    2013-01-01

    Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequ...

  8. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. II. The formation of unstable coronal flux ropes and the initiation of coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Linton, Mark G. [U.S. Naval Research Lab 4555 Overlook Ave., SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Antiochos, Spiro K., E-mail: jleake@gmu.edu [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20711 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (?36 Mm above the surface). We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as 'magnetic breakout', are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  9. Planet Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Motivating the study of planet formation is not difficult for any curious audience. One of the fundamental human questions\\u000a is that of origins: “where did I come from?„. Breaking this down into constituents produces a series of questions. How did\\u000a the Universe begin? How did stars form? How did planets form? How did life begin? How did intelligent life develop?

  10. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  11. Oral drug delivery research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mrsny, Randall J

    2012-07-20

    The oral delivery of drugs is considered by decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry to be the most appealing route of administration. This belief has led to the identification of many very successful drugs, but also to the downfall of some promising therapeutics that failed to meet criteria required for sufficient oral bioavailability. Efforts to correct these deficiencies have led to a plethora of creative strategies to overcome the physical, chemical, and biological barriers that limit the efficient and consistent delivery of drugs that are not readily absorbed following oral administration. The goal of this perspective is to describe these barriers to oral drug delivery in relation to some of the work currently being undertaken by the community of European scientists. This perspective is not intended to be inclusive and the author apologizes in advance to the many scientists working in Europe whose recent work was not included. PMID:22342473

  12. Intravenous drug delivery in neonates: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Medlicott, Natalie J; Reith, David M; Broadbent, Roland S

    2014-06-01

    Intravenous drug administration presents a series of challenges that relate to the pathophysiology of the neonate and intravenous infusion systems in neonates. These challenges arise from slow intravenous flow rates, small drug volume, dead space volume and limitations on the flush volume in neonates. While there is a reasonable understanding of newborn pharmacokinetics, an appreciation of the substantial delay and variability in the rate of drug delivery from the intravenous line is often lacking. This can lead to difficulties in accurately determining the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship of drugs in the smallest patients. The physical variables that affect the passage of drugs through neonatal lines need to be further explored in order to improve our understanding of their impact on the delivery of drugs by this route in neonates. Through careful investigation, the underlying causes of delayed drug delivery may be identified and administration protocols can then be modified to ensure predictable, appropriate drug input kinetics. PMID:24482352

  13. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Marcel R; Klibanov, Alexander L; Tiemann, Klaus; Hall, Christopher S; Gruell, Holger; Steinbach, Oliver C

    2009-05-01

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaging has been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Important advances in this field are based on a combination of progress in guiding and monitoring ultrasound energy, novel drug classes becoming available, the development of smart delivery vehicles, and more in depth understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular and molecular basis of diseases. Recent research demonstrates that both pressure sensitive and temperature sensitive delivery systems hold promise for local treatment. The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs has been demonstrated in particular the field of cardiology and oncology for a variety of therapeutics ranging from small drug molecules to biologics and nucleic acids. PMID:19272727

  14. Silk constructs for delivery of musculoskeletal therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Lorenz; Kaplan, David L

    2012-09-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a biopolymer with distinguishing features from many other bio- as well as synthetic polymers. From a biomechanical and drug delivery perspective, SF combines remarkable versatility for scaffolding (solid implants, hydrogels, threads, solutions), with advanced mechanical properties and good stabilization and controlled delivery of entrapped protein and small molecule drugs, respectively. It is this combination of mechanical and pharmaceutical features which renders SF so exciting for biomedical applications. This pattern along with the versatility of this biopolymer has been translated into progress for musculoskeletal applications. We review the use and potential of silk fibroin for systemic and localized delivery of therapeutics in diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. We also present future directions for this biopolymer as well as the necessary research and development steps for their achievement. PMID:22522139

  15. Nucleic acid delivery with microbubbles and ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rychak, Joshua J.; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. Major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery. PMID:24486388

  16. Colloidal microgels in drug delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal microgels have recently received attention as environmentally responsive systems and now are increasingly used in applications as carriers for therapeutic drugs and diagnostic agents. Synthetic microgels consist of a crosslinked polymer network that provides a depot for loaded drugs, protection against environmental hazards and template for post-synthetic modification or vectorization of the drug carriers. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent attempts to develop new microgel formulations for oral drug delivery, to design metal-containing microgels for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and to advance approaches including the systemic administration of microgels. Novel nanogel drug delivery systems developed in the authors’ laboratory are discussed in details including aspects of their synthesis, vectorization and recent applications for encapsulation of low molecular weight drugs or formulation of biological macromolecules. The findings reviewed here are encouraging for further development of the nanogels as intelligent drug carriers with such features as targeted delivery and triggered drug release. PMID:17168773

  17. Deep Space Systems Technology Program Future Deliveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvo, Christopher G.; Keuneke, Matthew S.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is in a period of frequent launches of low cost deep space missions with challenging performance needs. The modest budgets of these missions make it impossible for each to develop its own technology, therefore, efficient and effective development and insertion of technology for these missions must be approached at a higher level than has been done in the past. The Deep Space Systems Technology Program (DSST), often referred to as X2000, has been formed to address this need. The program is divided into a series of "Deliveries" that develop and demonstrate a set of spacecraft system capabilities with broad applicability for use by multiple missions. The First Delivery Project, to be completed in 2001, will provide a one MRAD-tolerant flight computer, power switching electronics, efficient radioisotope power source, and a transponder with services at 8.4 GHz and 32 GHz bands. Plans call for a Second Delivery in late 2003 to enable complete deep space systems in the 10 to 50 kg class, and a Third Delivery built around Systems on a Chip (extreme levels of electronic and microsystems integration) around 2006. Formulation of Future Deliveries (past the First Delivery) is ongoing and includes plans for such developments as highly miniaturized digital/analog/power electronics, optical communications, multifunctional structures, miniature lightweight propulsion, advanced thermal control techniques, highly efficient radioisotope power sources, and a unified flight ground software architecture to support the needs of future highly intelligent space systems. All developments are targeted at broad applicability and reuse, and will be commercialized within the US.

  18. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Lane, Majella E

    2015-07-25

    Caffeine is administered topically and transdermally for a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and it is also used as a model hydrophilic compound in dermal risk assessment studies. This review considers the physicochemical and permeation properties of caffeine with reference to its delivery to and through the skin. Since it has been used as a model compound the findings have implications for the delivery of many hydrophilic compounds having similar properties. Various passive and active formulation strategies to promote enhanced skin permeation of caffeine are considered. Models to study percutaneous caffeine penetration are also discussed in detail. PMID:26004004

  19. High power fiber optic laser beam delivery.

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K. H.; Hunter, B. V.; Technology Development

    1996-05-01

    Fiber-optic beam delivery is commonly used on industrial laser systems. This article examines the conditions for the optimal propagation of high power beams through optical fibers. Beam quality effects by step and gradient index fibers of different lengths are considered. The differences between the diverging beam from a fiber and the beam at focus and on the fiber face are illustrated. Estimates are provided of the worst-case beam quality to be expected from fibers. Guidelines are also provided for the selection of beam delivery components based on the limitations of the optical system and the tasks to be performed.

  20. Polymethacrylate Microparticles Gel for Topical Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagar Ibrahim Labouta; Labiba K. El-Khordagui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Evaluating the potentials of particulate delivery systems in topical drug delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Polymethacrylate microparticles (MPs) incorporating verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model hydrophilic drug with potential\\u000a topical clinical uses, using Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit L100 were prepared for the formulation of a composite topical gel.\\u000a The effect of initial drug loading, polymer composition, particularly the proportion of Eudragit L100 as an