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1

CME Activity Monitoring (ACCME Standards for Commercial Support 5: Content and Format Without Commercial Bias  

E-print Network

CME Activity Monitoring (ACCME Standards for Commercial Support 5: Content and Format Without Commercial Bias] 2020 Gravier, 6 th Floor Phone: (504) 568-2000 New Orleans, LA 70112 Fax: (504) 599 and not the specific proprietary business of a commercial interest. Name of Activity

2

Social Interaction and Participation: Formative Evaluation of Online CME Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This exploratory study examines Canadian physicians' participation in online social activities and learning discussions, perceptions of online social closeness, barriers and motivators to participation, and perceptions of the impact of course duration and face-to-face meetings on learning. Methods: Formative evaluations were…

Guan, Jianfei; Tregonning, Sarah; Keenan, Louanne

2008-01-01

3

CME Theory and Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of current efforts in the theory and modeling of CMEs. Five key areas are discussed: (1)\\u000a CME initiation; (2) CME evolution and propagation; (3) the structure of interplanetary CMEs derived from flux rope modeling;\\u000a (4) CME shock formation in the inner corona; and (5) particle acceleration and transport at CME driven shocks. In the section

T. G. Forbes; J. A. Linker; J. Chen; C. Cid; J. Kóta; M. A. Lee; G. Mann; Z. Mikic; M. S. Potgieter; J. M. Schmidt; G. L. Siscoe; R. Vainio; S. K. Antiochos; P. Riley

2006-01-01

4

CME Initiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most challenging problems in solar physics is understanding the processes responsible for giant magnetic disruptions such as the event of July 14, 2000, which consisted of a massive filament ejection, a fast coronal mass ejection (CME), prolonged X-class flaring, and an intense particle storm. These major events are of critical importance because they drive the most destructive forms of space weather and they provide a unique opportunity to study, in revealing detail, MHD instability and nonequilibrium -- processes that are at the heart of plasma astrophysics. It is now widely accepted that CMEs/eruptive flares represent the explosive release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. Therefore, in order to understand the phenomenon, we must answer the following questions: What is the field structure responsible for the disruption and why is the energy released explosively? In this talk we address these two questions using the latest theories and numerical models for CMEs/eruptive flares.

Antiochos, Spiro K.

2008-01-01

5

Participation in CME activities.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the continuing medical education (CME) activities of family physicians in the province of Quebec with more than 25 years in practice with those with less than 25 years in practice. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire survey. SETTING: Family practices in the province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All physicians (n = 722) with more than 25 years in practice (expressed as older) and a matched sample of 721 physicians with less than 25 years in practice (expressed as younger). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Types of CME activities and time spent on them, participant characteristics. RESULTS: Older physicians spent more time in individual CME activities than younger ones (21 hours vs 18 hours monthly). Younger physicians, however, spent more time in group CME activities than older ones did (100 hours vs 80 hours yearly). Excluding physicians who devoted no time to CME activities, only two activities differentiated between the two groups: older physicians spent more time than their younger colleagues reading and listening to audiocassettes. CONCLUSIONS: Older physicians maintained their clinical competence by participating in different CME activities from younger physicians. They participated in as many CME activities as their younger colleagues. PMID:9559194

Goulet, F.; Gagnon, R. J.; Desrosiers, G.; Jacques, A.; Sindon, A.

1998-01-01

6

CME - Coming At You  

NASA Video Gallery

An oldie but goody: The September 12, 2000 coronal mass ejection (CME), which moves directly from the sun's surface toward the viewer. This was recorded by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (S...

7

CME stimulated by eruptive prominence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of CME arising due to drift motion in the corona in the presence of an eruptive prominence is presented. Magnetic field configuration is in accordance with a model of inverse polarity. In a region where a magnetic pressure of the filament magnetic field is greater than a gas pressure, plasma motion can be assumed as a drift motion. Its characteristic is such that the further one gets from the filament, the higher is drift velocity of a plasma. That sort of motion leads to a rarefaction of plasma and formation of a cavity around the filament. But a current strength in eruptive prominences estimated from observations is such that the region b is less than 1 has a limited size. Near the boundary b = 1 plasma deceleration is occurred and as a result of it coronal density is increasing. Plasma condensation near the surface b = 1 leads to formation of a dense envelope which can be collated with an outer loop of CME. Two dimensional numerical MHD simulation displays a process of cavity and loop formation. If a current is large enough, two compact regions of compressed dense matter arise at both sides of the rising filament and two narrow jets are developed. This scenario, perhaps, corresponds to CMEs in which a top of the loop is faint or it is absent at all.

Filippov, B. P.

1995-01-01

8

CME Speed Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use pictures of Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) activity near the Sun, taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/European Space Agency (NASA/ESA) Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, and calculate the speed of a CME. They discover that Coronal Mass Ejections are major storms on the Sun, which can hurl billions of tons of matter into space in a matter of a few hours. Traveling at millions of kilometers per hour, some of these clouds occasionally collide with the Earth and have produced power blackouts and satellite damage. Students view pictures in which they can see material being ejected from the Sun. They are given the elapsed time between frames, and the diameter of the sun, and are asked to select a feature in the expanding gas CME and measure its distance from the Sun from one frame to the next in order to calculate the speed of that feature. Students then plot the information and answer some questions about the speed of the CME.

Higley, Susan

9

CME Group: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The CME Group is the world's largest futures and options exchange, and it was formed through the merger of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange. Everything from T-bonds to soybeans are traded as part of their daily operations, and the "Education" section of their website is a great way to learn about such matters. In this section, visitors can view featured videos created by the CME Group which cover topics like "Trading Techniques within the Gold Market" and "Energy's Role in National Security". Moving along, the "Education Resources" area includes areas with fact sheets, videos, and daily reports on "Commodities", "Energy", "Options", "Interest Rates", and ten other areas. For students of finance, economics, and business, this site will be an invaluable resource.

10

CME Initiation and Reconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most massive explosions in the heliosphere, and the primary drivers of geoeffective space weather. This talk will be focused on fast CMEs, which travel at Alfvenic speeds as high as 2500 km/s. These ejections are associated with solar flares, prominence eruptions, and energetic particles accelerated near the Sun and in interplanetary space. CMEs require sufficient energy storage, in the form of magnetic stress, and rapid release of this energy. Although it is generally agreed that magnetic reconnection is the key to fast CME initiation, different models incorporate reconnection in different ways. One promising model --- the breakout scenario --- involves reconnection in two distinct yet interconnected locations: breakout reconnection ahead of the CME, and flare reconnect ion behind it. This model has been validated through 2D and 3D MHD simulations and favorable comparison with the observed properties of many fast CMEs. I will discuss what we have learned about the onset and evolution of breakout and flare reconnect ion from recent high-resolution 2D simulations of CME initiation with adaptive mesh refinement and numerical resistivity.

Karpen, Judy T.

2010-01-01

11

Controlled Delivery of Zoledronate Improved Bone Formation Locally In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been widely used in clinical treatment of bone diseases with increased bone resorption because of their strong affinity for bone and their inhibition of bone resorption. Recently, there has been growing interest in their improvement of bone formation. However, the effect of local controlled delivery of BPs is unclear. We used polylactide acid-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as a drug carrier to deliver various doses of the bisphosphonate zoledronate (Zol) into the distal femur of 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. After 6 weeks, samples were harvested and analyzed by micro-CT and histology. The average bone mineral density and mineralized bone volume fraction were higher with medium- and high-dose PLGA-Zol (30 and 300 µg Zol, respectively) than control and low-dose Zol (3 µg PLGA-Zol; p<0.05). Local controlled delivery of Zol decreased the numbers of osteoclast and increased the numbers of osteoblast. Moreover, local controlled delivery of medium- and high-dose Zol accelerated the expression of bone-formation markers. PLGA used as a drug carrier for controlled delivery of Zol may promote local bone formation. PMID:24618585

Peng, Jiang; Lu, Qiang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Aiyuan; Guo, Quanyi; Gao, Xupeng; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

2014-01-01

12

CME Plotting Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the movement of a coronal mass ejection. Learners will plot the path of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs), both the distance traveled and the increasing angular width, as they leave the Sun and travel outward through the Solar System. Then, they will sketch the path of the CMEs and identify the location on the Sun from which a CME would need to leave in order for it to hit Earth. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring the Wind from the Sun educator guide.

13

CME on CME Interaction on January 17, 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 17, 2005 a complex radio event associated with an X3.8 SXR flare and two fast Halo CMEs (CME1 & CME2 henceforward) in close succession was observed. We present combined ARTEMIS-IV & WIND WAVES dynamic spectra which provide a complete view of the radio emission induced by shock waves and electron beams from the low corona to about 1 A.U. These are supplemented with data, from the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH), GOES, EIT and LASCO for the study of the associated flare and CME activity.

Bouratzis, C.; Preka-Papadima, P.; Moussas, X.; Hillaris, A. E.; Caroubalos, C.; Alissandrakis, C. E.; Tsitsipis, P.; Kontogeorgos, A.

2010-07-01

14

Continuing Medical Education: What Delivery Format Do Physicians Prefer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although physicians are in a unique position to prevent life-threatening outcomes by counseling patients to stop smoking, many of them miss the opportunity to intervene in their patients' use of tobacco. Nicotine Dependence Across the Lifespan was developed as a continuing medical education (CME) program to teach and encourage…

Stancic, Nancy; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; McAlister, Alfred L.

2003-01-01

15

The fastest CME of Cycle 23 overtakes another fast CME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 4, 2003, the Sun produced its fastest coronal mass ejection (CME) for cycle 23 out of the active region 0486 located near the southwest limb of the Sun. The CME was expelled with a speed of approximately 2700 km-s. At the time of the launch of this CME, there was another ejection in progress from the same region. The previous ejection started about 7 hours earlier with a speed of about 1000 km-s. The fastest CME overtook the previous one within 2 hours and produced a spectacular radio radiation detected by the Wind, Ulysses and Cassini spacecraft. The movie shows the radio emission and the two interacting CMEs as observed by the SOHO spacecraft.

Bridgman, Tom; Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2004-05-23

16

Haze activity of different barley trypsin inhibitors of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe).  

PubMed

Our previous study found that the critical protein in SE (silica eluted) proteins is BTI-CMe, and assumed that SE-ve malt for brewing may improve the haze stability in beer. In this study, we investigated the difference in gene sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence of BTI-CMe between SE+ve and SE-ve types. The results showed that there were 7 amino acid differences between Yerong (SE-ve) and Franklin (SE+ve). Two types BTI-CMe were expressed in vitro and purified successfully. By adding the purified BTI-CMe into commercial beer, we found that both original turbidity and alcohol chill haze degree of beer were increased. BTI-CMe of SE-ve haplotype showed a lower level of haze formation in beer than SE+ve haplotype. Response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted to determine the relationship between BTI-CMe and tannic acid, and their effects on haze formation. It was found that (1) higher content of BTI-CMe and/or tannic acid in beer would give rise to higher turbidity; (2) there was a significant interaction between BTI-CMe and tannic acid; (3) haze activity disparity of BTI-CMe between two types was significantly and positively correlated with the tannic acid concentration. PMID:25038664

Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Lu; Huang, Yuqing; Wu, Dezhi; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-15

17

CME Activities with Commercial Support As the provider of CME credit, the CME office is required by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education  

E-print Network

CME Activities with Commercial Support As the provider of CME credit, the CME office and disbursement of commercial support. Commercial support for a CME activity is financial, or inkind, contributions given by a commercial interest, which is used to pay all or part of the costs of a CME activity

18

Hematometra Formation- A Rare Complication of Cesarean Delivery  

PubMed Central

Hematometra resulting from partial or complete obstruction of lower genital tract may be congenital or acquired. Commonest congenital causes are imperforate hymen and transverse vaginal septum. Acquired causes are senile atrophy of endocervical canal, scarring of the isthmus by synechiae, radiation and endocervical malignancy or due to surgical procedures. Various surgical procedures associated with hematometra are dilatation and curettage, cone biopsy, endometrial ablation, cryocoagulation and electrocautery. Hematometra following an abortion or cesarean delivery is rare. We report a case of hematometra following obstruction of outflow tract due to prior cesarean delivery.

Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Abha; Vaid, Neelam Bala

2014-01-01

19

Delivery  

MedlinePLUS

... your baby, your doctors will be working during labor and delivery to keep your blood glucose level under control. At ... what to expect during delivery, techniques to improve delivery and to relieve pain during labor, and how to care for your baby after ...

20

College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering CME Chemical Engineering KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 CME 006 THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION (JUNIOR AND SENIOR). (0) Activities of the Student Chapter of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

MacAdam, Keith

21

Commercial Buildings Partnership Projects - Metered Data Format and Delivery  

SciTech Connect

A number of the Commercial Building Partnership Projects (CBPs) will require metering, monitoring, data analysis and verification of savings after the retrofits are complete. Although monitoring and verification (M&V) agents are free to use any metering and monitoring devices that they chose, the data they collect should be reported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in a standard format. PNNL will store the data collected in its CBP database for further use by PNNL and U.S. Department of Energy. This document describes the data storage process and the deliver format of the data from the M&V agents.

Katipamula, Srinivas

2010-11-16

22

Pebble Delivery for Inside-Out Planet Formation  

E-print Network

Inside-Out Planet Formation (IOPF; Chatterjee & Tan 2014, hereafter CT14) is a scenario for sequential in situ planet formation at the pressure traps of retreating dead zone inner boundaries (DZIBs) motivated to explain the many systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs) discovered by Kepler. The scenario involves build-up of a pebble-dominated protoplanetary ring, supplied by radial drift of pebbles from the outer disk. It may also involve further build-up of planetary masses to gap-opening scales via continued pebble accretion. Here we study radial drift & growth of pebbles delivered to the DZIB in fiducial IOPF disk models.

Hu, Xiao; Chatterjee, Sourav

2014-01-01

23

December 2008 CME as Viewed by Spacecraft  

NASA Video Gallery

Newly reprocessed images from NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, allow scientists to trace the anatomy of the December 2008 CME as it moves and changes on its journey from the Sun to the Earth, identify t...

24

Mechanism of Membranous Tunnelling Nanotube Formation in Viral Genome Delivery  

PubMed Central

In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems. PMID:24086111

Peralta, Bibiana; Gil-Carton, David; Castano-Diez, Daniel; Bertin, Aurelie; Boulogne, Claire; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Abrescia, Nicola G. A.

2013-01-01

25

Low oxidation state gallium compounds. Synthesis and characterization of Ga(CH2CMe3)n  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new organogallium(I) compound (Ga(CH2CMe3))n has been prepared by the reduction of Ga(CH2CMe3)2Cl by using either sodium or lithium with naphthalene in THF. When the reagents were combined at -78 C, a yellow intermediate, a neopentylgallium(III) derivative of dihydronaphthalene C10H8(Ga(CH2CMe3)2)2 dot 2 MCl (M = Li, Na) was formed. Warming of the solution to 0-25 C resulted in decomposition of the yellow intermediate and formation of a reddish brown solution of Ga(CH2CMe3))n, Ga(CH2CMe3)3, C10H8, and either NaCl or LiCl. The gallium(I) product was a vitreous solid and was characterized by complete elemental analyses, hydrolyses with HCl/H2O and with DCl/D2O, oxidation with HgCl2 and with I2, cryoscopic molecular weight studies in benzene solution, and IR and NMR spectroscopic studies. All data support the conclusion that (Ga(CH2CMe3))n exists as a mixture of species which are gallium cages. The numbers of gallium atoms in these cages might range from 6 to 12 atoms.

Beachley, O. T., Jr.; Pazik, John C.; Noble, Matthew J.

1994-08-01

26

Educational Administration Students' Perceptions of Traditional vs. Online Instructional Delivery Formats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the perceptions of instructional delivery formats held by graduate students enrolled in a public school principal-preparation program. Two main research questions guided the study: How do students perceive the relative value of online courses as compared to traditional courses? and How do students perceive the relative…

Chapman, Paul E.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Moore, Lucas C.; Deering, Pamela R.

2009-01-01

27

Content Validation Policy for CME Activities Content Validation Policy for CME  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVE DATE May 27, 2012 REVISED June 3, 2014 Harvard Medical School Department of Continuing Education.hms.harvard.edu Policy: To ensure that the content of Harvard Medical School's (HMS) continuing medical education (CME will contribute to this impartiality. If the CME educational material or content includes trade names, where

Paulsson, Johan

28

The abnomal increase of velocity of cme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

documentstyle 11pt article topmargin -2 3 cm textwidth 16 0 cm textheight 25 15 cm def baselinestretch author HAN JILING sl Beijing NormalUniversity PhysicsDepartment Beijing100875 China title The abnomal increase of velocity of cme UNDER RISING date begin document maketitle begin center bf ABSTRACT end center noindent Abstract In coronal plasma the velocity of a coronal mass ejection CME can again once be increased by accelerating of turbulence Alfven waves The change and the fluctuation of magnetic field as well as the anisotropy in ions temperature can all excite the Alfven wave turbulence The turbulence may become one-dimensional turbulence under the influence of the magnetic field of corona As the resonant condition of Alfven wave interacting with ejected particle of CME is satisfied the rising resonant particles can again once be accelerated by turbulence Alfven wave The turbulence further developing can turn into turbulence chaos And when plasma pressure parameter beta satisfies certain conditions may also form solitary kinetic Alfven wave SKAW Under similar resonant condition the resonant particles can more effectively be accelerated by SKAW The part particles acclerated will drop out its noumenon thus the distributions of the CME in velocity and mass will be changed noindent Key words CME turbulence Alfven waves again once accelerating end document

Han, Hanjl

29

Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

2005-12-01

30

Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for polyunsaturated (?-3) oils: formation using a spontaneous emulsification method.  

PubMed

Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems are finding increasing utilization to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive components in food, personal care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, a spontaneous emulsification method was used to fabricate nanoemulsions from polyunsaturated (?-3) oils, that is, fish oil. This low-energy method relies on formation of fine oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is added to an aqueous solution. The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), oil composition (lemon oil and MCT), and cosolvent composition (glycerol, ethanol, propylene glycol, and water) on the formation and stability of the systems was determined. Optically transparent nanoemulsions could be formed by controlling SOR, oil composition, and aqueous phase composition. The spontaneous emulsification method therefore has considerable potential for fabricating nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for incorporating polyunsatured oils into clear food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24475908

Gulotta, Alessandro; Saberi, Amir Hossein; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; McClements, David Julian

2014-02-19

31

Space Weather Model of July 22-23, 2012 CME  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Space Weather Research Center modeled the July 23, 2012 CME using a modeling program called ENLIL. The CME can be seen to expand dramatically as it travels through space. By comparing how we...

32

Assessment of Barriers to Changing Practice as CME Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) is meant to drive and support improvements in practice. To achieve this goal, CME activities must move beyond simply purveying knowledge, instead helping attendees to contextualize information and to develop strategies for implementing new learning. CME attendees face different barriers to…

Price, David W.; Miller, Elaine K.; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Brace, Nancy E.; Larson, R. Sam

2010-01-01

33

The CME Project Baccaglini-Frank Anna, Cuoco Al  

E-print Network

45 The CME Project Baccaglini-Frank Anna, Cuoco Al Center for Mathematics Education, Education by low-level skill development, however, the CME Project gives teachers the option of a problem-based to the drafts based on this feedback. This paper describes some core principles around which the CME Project

Spagnolo, Filippo

34

The Growth, Characteristics, and Future of Online CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Physician use of online continuing medical education (CME) is growing, but there are conflicting data on the uptake of online CME and few details on this market. Methods: Analyses of 11 years of data from the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and a survey of 272 publicly available CME Web sites. …

Harris, John M., Jr.; Sklar, Bernard M.; Amend, Robert W.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl

2010-01-01

35

A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. III. Catastrophe of the Eruptive Filament at a Magnetic Null Point and Formation of an Opposite-Handedness CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our analysis in Papers I and II (Grechnev et al., Solar Phys. 289, 289, 2014b and Solar Phys. 289, 1279, 2014c) of the 18 November 2003 solar event responsible for the 20 November geomagnetic superstorm has revealed a complex chain of eruptions. In particular, the eruptive filament encountered a topological discontinuity located near the solar disk center at a height of about 100 Mm, bifurcated, and transformed into a large cloud, which did not leave the Sun. Concurrently, an additional CME presumably erupted close to the bifurcation region. The conjectures about the responsibility of this compact CME for the superstorm and its disconnection from the Sun are confirmed in Paper IV (Grechnev et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2014a), which concludes about its probable spheromak-like structure. The present article confirms the presence of a magnetic null point near the bifurcation region and addresses the origin of the magnetic helicity of the interplanetary magnetic clouds and their connection to the Sun. We find that the orientation of a magnetic dipole constituted by dimmed regions with the opposite magnetic polarities away from the parent active region corresponded to the direction of the axial field in the magnetic cloud, while the pre-eruptive filament mismatched it. To combine all of the listed findings, we propose an intrinsically three-dimensional scheme, in which a spheromak-like eruption originates via the interaction of the initially unconnected magnetic fluxes of the eruptive filament and pre-existing ones in the corona. Through a chain of magnetic reconnections their positive mutual helicity was transformed into the self-helicity of the spheromak-like magnetic cloud.

Uralov, A. M.; Grechnev, V. V.; Rudenko, G. V.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Chertok, I. M.; Filippov, B. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

2014-10-01

36

STEREO Captures Fastest CME to Date  

NASA Video Gallery

This movie shows a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the sun from July 22, 2012 at 10:00 PM EDT until 2 AM on July 23 as captured by NASA's Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A). Be...

37

CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT  

SciTech Connect

We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-04-10

38

Delivery.  

PubMed

Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. PMID:23852646

Miller, Thomas A

2013-11-01

39

Radio signatures of CME-streamer interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observational finding of streamer waves using the LASCO white light data presents us interesting physical consequence of CME-streamer interactions [1, 2, 3]. CME-streamer interactions can also manifest themselves in the Type-II-related radio dynamic spectra as recorded by the ground-based or space-borne instruments. A large body of studies exists revealing the possible roles of pre-existing helmet streamers in the radio emission during a solar eruption. In this presentation, we will summary our efforts in classifying the roles of streamers affecting Type-II radio emissions. Generally speaking, there exist two groups of CME-streamer-Type-II events. In the first group, the shock as well as the Type-II radio emission seems to exist prior to the CME-streamer interaction. The interaction can be clearly discerned from the well-defined bump of the Type-II radio dynamic spectra. The spectral bump is a direct result of plasma emissions when the radio emitting region traversing the denser streamer structure. In the other group of events, the Type-II burst is excited as a result of the CME-streamer interaction. Either the shock is formed and radio-emitting electrons are accelerated inside the streamer, or a prior non-emitting shock becomes radio aloud during the interacting process. A novel triangular-streamer-shock model is proposed to interpret the associated electron acceleration inside the streamer. Observational examples of CME-streamer-radio events corresponding to both cases will be presented. [1] Chen, Y., Song, H.Q., Li, B., Xia, L.D., Wu, Z., Fu, H., Li, X., 2010, Astrophys. J. 714, 644 [2] Chen, Y., Feng, S.W., Li, B., Song, H.Q., Xia, L.D., Kong, X.L., Li, X., 2011, Astrophys. J. 728, 147 [3] Feng S. W., Chen Y., Li B., Song H. Q., Kong X. L., Xia L. D., Feng, X. S., 2011, Sol. Phys., DOI 10.1007/s11207-011-9814-6

CHEN, Y.; Feng, S.; Kong, X.; Li, G.; Song, H.

2011-12-01

40

Morphology and density of post-CME current sheets  

E-print Network

Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) drags and "opens" the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and the field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. We analyze physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to check if the interpretation of this phenomenon in terms of reconnecting current sheet is consistent with the observations. The study is focused on measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of rays indicates that they occur as a consequence of Petschek-like reconnection in the large scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km s$^{-1}$, consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, adding up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order o...

Vršnak, B; Vuji?, E; Vourlidas, A; Ko, Y -K; Raymond, J C; Ciaravella, A; Žic, T; Webb, D F; Bemporad, A; Landini, F; Schettino, G; Jacobs, C; Suess, S T

2009-01-01

41

Helioseismic Ring Analysis of CME Source Regions  

E-print Network

We apply the ring diagram technique to source regions of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to study changes in acoustic mode parameters before, during, and after the onset of CMEs. We find that CME regions associated with a low value of magnetic flux have line widths smaller than the quiet regions implying a longer life-time for the oscillation modes. We suggest that this criterion may be used to forecast the active regions which may trigger CMEs.

S. C. Tripathy; S. de Wet; K. Jain; R. Clark; F. Hill

2007-12-12

42

Helioseismic ring analysis of CME source regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the ring diagram technique to source regions of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to study changes in acoustic mode\\u000a parameters before, during, and after the onset of CMEs. We find that CME regions associated with a low value of magnetic flux\\u000a have line widths smaller than the quiet regions, implying a longer life-time for the oscillation modes. We

S. C. Tripathy; S. de Wet; K. Jain; R. Clark; F. Hill

2008-01-01

43

CME Magnetic Structure and Magnetic Cloud Signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) is the counterpart of a coronal mass ejection by definition. However, the relationship between the magnetic structures of the CMEs and that of the situ observations of ICMEs is still quite far from clear, due to observational gaps and the state of our understanding of CMEs. Some studies suggested that the magnetic cloud (MC, a group of ICMEs with fluxrope signatures) magnetic polarity follows the solar large scale magnetic field, and others suggested it follows the local magnetic field of the CME source region. Recent studies found that the relationship is more complex. While solar cycle dependence of the magnetic signature of MCs is clearly evident, the polarity of the MCs does not reverse at the same time when the solar large scale field reverses around solar maximum, but begins to have mixed polarities, and the new polarity may only prevail at the midst of the declining phase. Interestingly, in an independent study of the magnetic topology at the CME source regions, we found a similar solar cycle dependence of the bipolar and quadrupolar topologie. In this work, the link between CMEs and ICMEs is made and the results will shed light on our understanding about the relationship between CME and ICME magnetic structures and how these structures are related to solar local and large scale magnetic fields.Acknowledgement: ATM/NSF-0451438, SRT/NASA-NNG06GE51G and CISM/NSF.

Li, Yan; Luhmann, J.

2006-06-01

44

Ly-alpha and white light observations of a CME during the Spartan 201-1 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coronal mass ejection (CME) near a large active region on the west limb was observed with the white light coronograph (WLC) and ultraviolet coronal spectrometer (UVCS) on the Spartan 201 satellite at 9:42 UT on 12 Apr. 1993. Soft X-ray images of the region below the CME were obtained out to 1.7 solar radii with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. After the event, the formation of a new helmet streamer could be seen in the polarized brightness (pB) images from the Mk III coronograph at Mauna Loa. The CME was observed from Spartan 201 in two different pB images obtained 14 min apart using the WLC, and was observed moving through the field-of-view of the UVCS integrated intensity slit. Ly-alpha intensities in the same region of the corona were obtained one orbit earlier (prior to the CME) using the Ly-alpha profile slit of the UVCS. These are the first Ly-alpha observations of a CME and may help constrain models of the electron temperature on CME's.

Hassler, Don M.; Strachan, Leonard; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, J. L.; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard R.; Strong, K.

1994-01-01

45

A new interactive approach to Continuous Medical Education (CME) Journal CME  

PubMed Central

This article introduces the new Continuing Medical Education (CME) section of the interactive Journal of Radiology Case Reports. This section provides SA-CMEs which are a new requirement for Maintenance of Certification (MOC) by the American Board of Radiology (ABR) and other medical specialties. PMID:24967014

Talanow, Roland

2014-01-01

46

Attendees' Perceptions of Commercial Influence in Noncommercially Funded CME Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The controversy surrounding commercial support for continuing medical education (CME) programs has led to policy changes, but data show no significant difference in perceived bias between commercial and noncommercial CME. Indeed, what attendees perceive as commercial influence is not fully understood. We sought to clarify what…

Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Baer, Lee; Fromson, John A.; Gorrindo, Tristan; Iodice, Kristin E.; Birnbaum, Robert J.

2012-01-01

47

An Earth-Directed CME not Observed in LASCO Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COR1 coronagraphs on STEREO-A and -B observed an Earth-directed CME originating from N09W15 at 02:20 UT on 2010/07/09. The apparent CME speed is only 291 km/s, and the angular width is 60 degrees. The CME is somewhat slower than the average LASCO CME (average speed ~450 km/s) but not narrow. The CME was expected to be seen as a halo CME because of the geometry and large width. However, the CME could not be identified in the LASCO running difference movie because of the visibility of the white-light coronagraph. On the other hand, EUV images taken by SDO/AIA show a clear dimming to the northwest of the source region and a wave-like feature propagating to the east. Faint Earth-directed CMEs, seem to be better indicated by surface eruptive signatures such as dimming and EUV waves. We discuss how to estimate CME parameters using the EUV data alone.

Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.

2010-12-01

48

Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically…

Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

2012-01-01

49

Evaluation of a Thiolated Chitosan Scaffold for Local Delivery of BMP-2 for Osteogenic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Thiolated chitosan (Thio-CS) is a well-established pharmaceutical excipient for drug delivery. However, its use as a scaffold for bone formation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Thio-CS in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery and bone formation. In vitro study showed that BMP-2 interacted with the Thio-CS and did not affect the swelling behavior. The release kinetics of BMP-2 from the Thio-CS was slightly delayed (70%) within 7 days compared with that from collagen gel (Col-gel, 85%), which is widely used in BMP-2 delivery. The BMP-2 released from Thio-CS increased osteoblastic cell differentiation but did not show any cytotoxicity until 21 days. Analysis of the in vivo ectopic bone formation at 4 weeks of posttransplantation showed that use of Thio-CS for BMP-2 delivery induced more bone formation to a greater extent (1.8 fold) than that of Col-gel. However, bone mineral density in both bones was equivalent, regardless of Thio-CS or Col-gel carrier. Taken together, Thio-CS system might be useful for delivering osteogenic protein BMP-2 and present a promising bone regeneration strategy. PMID:24024213

Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

2013-01-01

50

Local delivery of FTY720 accelerates cranial allograft incorporation and bone formation  

PubMed Central

Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 µg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm3, respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls. PMID:21863314

Huang, Cynthia; Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel; Tholpady, Sunil; Wang, Tiffany; Cui, Quanjun; Ogle, Roy

2012-01-01

51

Acceleration of Fast CME: A Parametric Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of LASCO/SOHO, Skylab and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations show that there are many CMEs initiated with streamer and flux-rope magnetic topology (Dere et al. 1999; St. Cyr et al., 1999; Plunkett et al., 2000). Two types of CMEs have been distinguished with different kinematic characteristics (MacQueen and Fisher, 1983; Andrews and Howard, 2001). These are fast CMEs with high initial speeds (i.e. constant speed) and slow CMEs with low initial speeds but gradual acceleration (i.e. accelerated CMEs). Efforts have been made to probe the underlying physics responsible for these dual characteristics. Low and Zhang (2002) proposed that fast and slow CMEs result from initial topology of the magnetic field characterized by normal and inverse quiescent prominences, respectively. Liu et al. have successfully performed a numerical MHD simulation for this scenario. In this presentation, we explore other possible processes using a 2.5D, time-dependent streamer and flux-rope MHD model (Wu and Guo, 1997) to investigate the dual kinematic properties of the CMEs by specifying the different initiation processes with a particular magnetic topology (i.e. inverse quiescent prominence magnetic topology). Two typical initiation processes are tested; (1) injection of the magnetic flux into the flux-rope causes additional Lorentz force to destabilize the streamer launching a CME (Wu et al., 1997) resulting in a category slow CME and (2) draining the plasma from the flux-rope together with flux injection leads to a balloon instability due to the magnetic buoyancy force which results in a impulsive eruption and launches a fast CME. References Andrews, M.D. and Howard, R.A., Space Sci. Rev., 95, 147, 2001 Dere, K.P. et al., Ap. J., 529, 575, 1999 Lin, et al., Proceedings of ICSC 2003: Solar Variability as an Input to the Earth's Environemnt, ESA-SP-535, 2003 (in press). Low, B.C. and Zhang, M., Ap. J., 564, L53, 2002. MacQueen, R.M. and Fisher, R.R., Solar Phys. 89, 89, 1983. Plunket, S., et al., Solar Phys. 194, 321, 2000. St. Cry., O.C. et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12493, 1999. Wu, S.T. and Guo, W.P. in Coronal Mass Ejection, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, (N. Crooker, et al. eds.), AGU Washington, DC 1997. Wu, S.T. et al., Solar Phys., 175, 719, 1997.

Wu, S. T.; Zhang, T. X.; Tan, A.

2003-12-01

52

Global Trends of CME Deflections Based on CME and Solar Parameters  

E-print Network

Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), including any deflections close to the Sun or through interplanetary space. Kay et al. 2013 introduced ForeCAT, a model of CME deflection resulting from the background solar magnetic field. For a magnetic field solution corresponding to Carrington Rotation (CR) 2029 (declining phase, April-May 2005), the majority of the CMEs deflected to the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS), the minimum in magnetic pressure on global scales. Most of the deflection occurred below 4 Rs. Here we extend ForeCAT to include a three dimensional description of the deflecting CME. We attempt to answer the following questions: a) Do all CMEs deflect to the magnetic minimum? and b) Does most deflection occur within the first few solar radii (~4 Rs)? Results for solar minimum and declining phase CMEs show that not every CME deflects to the magnetic minimum and that typically about half of the deflection occurs below 10 Rs. Slow, narr...

Kay, C; Evans, R M

2014-01-01

53

Comprehensive Observations of a Solar Minimum CME with STEREO  

E-print Network

We perform the first kinematic analysis of a CME observed by both imaging and in situ instruments on board STEREO, namely the SECCHI, PLASTIC, and IMPACT experiments. Launched on 2008 February 4, the CME is tracked continuously from initiation to 1 AU using the SECCHI imagers on both STEREO spacecraft, and is then detected by the PLASTIC and IMPACT particle and field detectors on board STEREO-B. The CME is also detected in situ by ACE and SOHO/CELIAS at Earth's L1 Lagrangian point. The CME hits STEREO-B, ACE, and SOHO on 2008 February 7, but misses STEREO-A entirely. This event provides a good example of just how different the same event can look when viewed from different perspectives. We also demonstrate many ways in which the comprehensive and continuous coverage of this CME by STEREO improves confidence in our assessment of its kinematic behavior, with potential ramifications for space weather forecasting. The observations provide several lines of evidence in favor of the observable part of the CME being narrow in angular extent, a determination crucial for deciding how best to convert observed CME elongation angles from Sun-center to actual Sun-center distances.

B. E. Wood; R. A. Howard; S. P. Plunkett; D. G. Socker

2008-11-19

54

A Type I Noise Storm and the Bastille Day CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) observations, we have identified 4 Type I noise storm continua sources associated with the Bastille Day flare/CME event. Two of them were stable and closed to active regions. Their outskirts covered AR9077 and 9082, respectively. One source was over the south-west limb and in the high corona, it was stable for hours. All the Type I storm sources weren't observed simultaneously before 10:20 UT at the onset of the global CME, which indicated the intrinsic association of Type I noise storm and CME initiation. The wide span of the Type I storm sources and burst sources clearly implied that the Bastille Day flare/CME involves large or even global magnetic interaction.

Wen, Yayuan; Wang, Jingxiu

55

Kinematic Treatment of CME Evolution in the Solar Wind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a kinematic study of the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. Specifically, we consider the effects of: (1) spherical expansion; and (2) uniform expansion due to pressure gradients between the Interplanetary CME (ICME) ...

P. Riley, N. U. Crooker

2004-01-01

56

Frontiers in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Online CME Series - Registration  

Cancer.gov

Frontiers in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Online CME SeriesRegistration Form Is Curcumin the Spice of Life? A Look at Cancer Prevention Evidence Tuesday, May 17, 20111:00 – 2:30 pm EDT Registration is now closed.

57

Translating a health behavior change intervention for delivery to 2-year college students: the importance of formative research.  

PubMed

Young adults are at risk for weight gain in the transition to independent adulthood; 2-year college students are at greater risk and understudied relative to 4-year students. This project conducted formative research for a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial among 2-year college students, to ensure appropriateness of content and delivery of a curriculum originally developed for 4-year college students. Data were collected from community college students, faculty, and staff from October 2009 to August 2011. Work included focus groups and key informant interviews, curriculum pilot testing, and social network and support website beta testing. Based on focus groups and interviews, program content, course delivery modes, and communication channels were adjusted to meet population interests and preferences. The course was delivered successfully in pilot testing, and the website was received well by beta testers. Formative work successfully guided program adaptations to address population needs. PMID:24904699

Linde, Jennifer A; Sevcik, Sarah M; Petrich, Christine A; Gardner, Jolynn K; Laska, Melissa N; Lozano, Paula; Lytle, Leslie A

2014-06-01

58

Nanoparticle (star polymer) delivery of nitric oxide effectively negates Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilms are increasingly recognized as playing a major role in human infectious diseases, as they can form on both living tissues and abiotic surfaces, with serious implications for applications that rely on prolonged exposure to the body such as implantable biomedical devices or catheters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutics to effectively eradicate unwanted biofilms. Recently, the biological signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) was identified as a key regulator of dispersal events in biofilms. In this paper, we report a new class of core cross-linked star polymers designed to store and release nitric oxide, in a controlled way, for the dispersion of biofilms. First, core cross-linked star polymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) via an arm first approach. Poly(oligoethylene methoxy acrylate) chains were synthesized by RAFT polymerization, and then chain extended in the presence of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-5-oxazolone monomer (VDM) with N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) employed as a cross-linker to yield functional core cross-linked star polymers. Spermine was successfully attached to the star core by reaction with VDM. Finally, the secondary amine groups were reacted with NO gas to yield NO-core cross-linked star polymers. The core cross-linked star polymers were found to release NO in a controlled, slow delivery in bacterial cultures showing great efficacy in preventing both cell attachment and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa over time via a nontoxic mechanism, confining bacterial growth to the suspended liquid. PMID:24915286

Duong, Hien T T; Jung, Kenward; Kutty, Samuel K; Agustina, Sri; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Basuki, Johan S; Kumar, Naresh; Davis, Thomas P; Barraud, Nicolas; Boyer, Cyrille

2014-07-14

59

Comparisons of Remote And In-situ CME Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparison of remote and in-situ CME ejecta using data from the Ulysses and SOHO missions. Quadrature occurs when two spacecraft form a 90 degree angle with the Sun. Quadrature studies allow the comparison of visible features of limb CMEs and and in-situ ICME properties. We investigate several events, including so-called "cannibal" CMEs, and compare the relationship between CME morphology and in-situ structures such as magnetic field, composition, and plasma properties.

Reinard, Alysha; Mulligan, T.; Lynch, B.

2011-05-01

60

CME Onset and Take-Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For understanding and eventually predicting coronal mass ejections/eruptive flares, two critical questions must be answered: What is the mechanism for eruption onset, and what is the mechanism for the rapid acceleration? We address these questions in the context of the breakout model using 2.5D MHD simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The AMR capability allowed us to achieve ultra-high numerical resolution and, thereby, determine the influence of the effective Lundquist number on the eruption. Our calculations show that, at least, for the breakout model, the onset of reconnection external to the highly sheared filament channel is the onset mechanism. Once this reconnection turns on, eruption is inevitable. However, as long as this is the only reconnection in the system, the eruption remains slow. We find that the eruption undergoes an abrupt "take-off" when the flare reconnection below the erupting plasmoid develops significant reconnection jets. We conclude that in fast CMEs, flare reconnection is the primary mechanism responsible for both flare heating and CME acceleration. We discuss the implications of these results for SDO observations and describe possible tests of the model.

Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

2011-01-01

61

Current Sheet Evolution in the Aftermath of a CME Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on SOHO-UVCS observations of the coronal restructuring following a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on November 26,2002, at the time of a SOHO-Ulysses quadrature campaign. Starting about 3 hours after a CME in the NW quadrant, UVCS began taking spectra at 1.7 solar radius, covering emission from both cool and hot plasma. Observations continued, with occasional gaps, for more than 2 days. Emission in the 974.8 Angstrom line of [Fe XVIII], indicating temperatures above 6 x 10(exp 6) K, was observed throughout the campaign in a spatially limited location. Comparison with EIT images shows the Fe XVIII emission to overlie a growing post-flare loop system formed in the aftermath of the CME. The emission most likely originates in a current sheet overlying the arcade. Analysis of the [Fe XVIII] emission allows us to infer the evolution of physical parameters in the current sheet over the entire span of our observations: in particular, we give the temperature vs. time in the current sheet and estimate the density. At the time of the quadrature, Ulysses was directly above the location of the CME and intercepted the ejecta. High ionization state Fe was detected by Ulysses-SWICS throughout the magnetic cloud associated with the CME. Both the remote and in situ observations are compared with predictions of theoretical CME models.

Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Ko, Y.-K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Elliott, H. A.; Raymond, J. C.

2005-01-01

62

Effect of gravitational stratification on the propagation of a CME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomenon found on the Sun. One model that explains their occurrence is the flux rope ejection model. A magnetic flux rope is ejected from the solar corona and reaches the interplanetary space where it interacts with the pre-existing magnetic fields and plasma. Both gravity and the stratification of the corona affect the early evolution of the flux rope. Aims: Our aim is to study the role of gravitational stratification on the propagation of CMEs. In particular, we assess how it influences the speed and shape of CMEs and under what conditions the flux rope ejection becomes a CME or when it is quenched. Methods: We ran a set of MHD simulations that adopt an eruptive initial magnetic configuration that has already been shown to be suitable for a flux rope ejection. We varied the temperature of the backgroud corona and the intensity of the initial magnetic field to tune the gravitational stratification and the amount of ejected magnetic flux. We used an automatic technique to track the expansion and the propagation of the magnetic flux rope in the MHD simulations. From the analysis of the parameter space, we evaluate the role of gravitational stratification on the CME speed and expansion. Results: Our study shows that gravitational stratification plays a significant role in determining whether the flux rope ejection will turn into a full CME or whether the magnetic flux rope will stop in the corona. The CME speed is affected by the background corona where it travels faster when the corona is colder and when the initial magnetic field is more intense. The fastest CME we reproduce in our parameter space travels at ~850 km s-1. Moreover, the background gravitational stratification plays a role in the side expansion of the CME, and we find that when the background temperature is higher, the resulting shape of the CME is flattened more. Conclusions: Our study shows that although the initiation mechanisms of the CME are purely magnetic, the background coronal plasma plays a key role in the CME propagation, and full MHD models should be applied when one focuses especially on the production of a CME from a flux rope ejection. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

2013-12-01

63

Hinode, STEREO and SOHO obervations of a CME event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are among the most dramatic and violent dynamic events occurring in the solar atmosphere, and have significant impact on the near-Earth environment. So far, the physical processes responsible for their release and acceleration have not been completely understood, in part because of the lack of direct measurements of the CME plasma phycical parameters and evolution during the CME onset. Here we describe the analysis of multiwavelength observations from Hinode, SOHO and STEREO of the very early phases of a CME observed during the Whole Heliospheric Interval campaign. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR1, SOHO/EIT and SOHO/LASCO images are used to reconstruct the 3D trajectory, velocity and acceleration up to 20 solar radii. Hinode/EIS, Hinode/XRT and SOHO/UVCS high resolution EUV spectra and X-ray images are used to measure the physical properties and the thermal structure of the core of the CME ejecta as a function of time up to 2.0 solar radii. The physical properties of the current sheet that formed after the CME erupted are also measured as a function of time.

Landi, E.; Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P.; Hara, H.

2010-12-01

64

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Spontaneous Formation of Unilamellar Vesicles: Potential Vehicles for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) are single-bilayer shells with radii commonly between 10 and 100 nm, and are widely used as model membranes, drug delivery systems, microreactors and substrates for a variety of enzymes and proteins. A common method of making ULVs is the extrusion of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) through synthetic membranes of known pore size. These extruded ULVs are invariably unstable

John Katsaras

2004-01-01

65

Transdermal Drug Delivery by Jet Injectors: Energetics of Jet Formation and Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Pressure-driven jets have been used for intradermal delivery of a variety of drugs. Despite their introduction into clinical medicine, variability and occasional bruising have limited their widespread acceptance. Although numerous clinical studies of jet injectors have been reported in the literature, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms of jet penetration into the skin. In this article, we report

Joy Schramm; Samir Mitragotri

2002-01-01

66

Reconnection Onset in the Breakout Model for CME Initiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most massive explosions in the heliosphere, and the primary drivers of geoeffective space weather. Although it is generally agreed that magnetic reconnection is the key to fast CME initiation, different models incorporate reconnection in different ways. One promising model --- the breakout scenario --- involves reconnection in two distinct yet interconnected locations: breakout reconnection ahead of the CME, and flare reconnection behind it. We will discuss what we have learned about the early evolution of breakout and flare reconnection from recent high-resolution 2.5D adaptively refined MHD simulations of CME initiation, including the evolving properties of the breakout and flare current sheets, the conditions that trigger reconnection onset in each sheet, the ensuing positive feedback between breakout and flare reconnections, and implications for electron acceleration in flares.

Karpen, Judy T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

2010-01-01

67

Current Sheet Evolution In The Aftermath Of A CME Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on SOHO UVCS observations of the coronal restructuring following a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2002 November 26, at the time of a SOHO-Ulysses quadrature campaign. Starting about 1.5 hr after a CME in the northwest quadrant, UVCS began taking spectra at 1.7 R, covering emission from both cool and hot plasma. Observations continued, with occasional gaps, for more than 2 days. Emission in the 974.8 A line of [Fe XVIII], indicating temperatures above 6 x 10(exp 6) K, was observed throughout the campaign in a spatially limited location. Comparison with EIT images shows the [Fe XVIII] emission to overlie a growing post-flare loop system formed in the aftermath of the CME. The emission most likely originates in a current sheet overlying the arcade. Analysis of the [Fe XVIII] emission allows us to infer the evolution of physical parameters in the current sheet over the entire span of our observations: in particular, we give the temperature versus time in the current sheet and estimate its density. At the time of the quadrature, Ulysses was directly above the location of the CME and intercepted the ejecta. High ionization state Fe was detected by the Ulysses SWICS throughout the magnetic cloud associated with the CME, although its rapid temporal variation suggests bursty, rather than smooth, reconnection in the coronal current sheet. The SOHO-Ulysses data set provided us with the unique opportunity of analyzing a current sheet structure from its lowest coronal levels out to its in situ properties. Both the remote and in situ observations are compared with predictions of theoretical CME models.

Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.; Seuss, S. T.; Schwardron, N. A.; Elliott, H. A.; Raymond, J. C.

2006-01-01

68

Development and Evaluation of CmeC Subunit Vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis in many industrialized countries. There is no commercial vaccine against C. jejuni available to date. CmeC is an essential outer membrane component of CmeABC multidrug efflux pump that plays a critical role in antibiotic resistance and in vivo colonization of C. jejuni. CmeC is prevalent in C. jejuni strains and is dramatically induced and immunogenic in vivo. In this study, we analyzed CmeC sequence homology, examined in vitro immune protection of CmeC peptide antibodies, and produced full-length recombinant CmeC (rCmeC) for evaluating immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the CmeC subunit vaccine against C. jejuni using chicken model system. Amino acid sequences of CmeC from 24 diverse C. jejuni strains were determined and subjected to alignment, which revealed that CmeC is highly conserved in C. jejuni with a identity ranging from 97.3% to 100%. CmeC peptide antibodies inhibited the function of CmeABC efflux pump and enhanced susceptibility of C. jejuni to bile salts, the natural antimicrobial present in the intestine. Two full-length rCmeC proteins with N- or C-terminal His tag were produced in E. coli; the N-terminal His-tagged rCmeC with high purity and yield was obtained by single step affinity purification. The purified rCmeC was used in two vaccination trials using a chicken model of C. jejuni infection. Stimulation of CmeC-specific serum IgG responses via oral vaccination required immunization with higher doses of rCmeC (200?g) together with 70?g of mucosal adjuvant mLT (modified E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin). Subcutaneous vaccination of chickens with rCmeC remarkably stimulated both serum IgG and IgA responses. However, CmeC-specific intestinal secretory IgA response was not significantly stimulated regardless of vaccination regimen and the rCmeC vaccination did not confer protection against C. jejuni infection. Together, these findings provide further compelling evidence that CmeC is a promising subunit vaccine candidate against C. jejuni infection. However, the CmeC vaccination regimen should be optimized to enhance CmeC-specific mucosal immune response in for protection against C. jejuni. PMID:22140651

Zeng, Ximin; Xu, Fuzhou; Lin, Jun

2010-01-01

69

Coronal Magnetic Reconnection Driven by CME Expansion—the 2011 June 7 Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupt and expand in a magnetically structured solar corona. Various indirect observational pieces of evidence have shown that the magnetic field of CMEs reconnects with surrounding magnetic fields, forming, e.g., dimming regions distant from the CME source regions. Analyzing Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations of the eruption from AR 11226 on 2011 June 7, we present the first direct evidence of coronal magnetic reconnection between the fields of two adjacent active regions during a CME. The observations are presented jointly with a data-constrained numerical simulation, demonstrating the formation/intensification of current sheets along a hyperbolic flux tube at the interface between the CME and the neighboring AR 11227. Reconnection resulted in the formation of new magnetic connections between the erupting magnetic structure from AR 11226 and the neighboring active region AR 11227 about 200 Mm from the eruption site. The onset of reconnection first becomes apparent in the SDO/AIA images when filament plasma, originally contained within the erupting flux rope, is redirected toward remote areas in AR 11227, tracing the change of large-scale magnetic connectivity. The location of the coronal reconnection region becomes bright and directly observable at SDO/AIA wavelengths, owing to the presence of down-flowing cool, dense (1010 cm-3) filament plasma in its vicinity. The high-density plasma around the reconnection region is heated to coronal temperatures, presumably by slow-mode shocks and Coulomb collisions. These results provide the first direct observational evidence that CMEs reconnect with surrounding magnetic structures, leading to a large-scale reconfiguration of the coronal magnetic field.

van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Baker, D.; Török, T.; Pariat, E.; Green, L. M.; Williams, D. R.; Carlyle, J.; Valori, G.; Démoulin, P.; Kliem, B.; Long, D. M.; Matthews, S. A.; Malherbe, J.-M.

2014-06-01

70

Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control  

DOEpatents

A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

2002-07-09

71

01.22.12: SOHO's View of Earth-directed CME  

NASA Video Gallery

The Solar Heliospheric Observatory captured the coronal mass ejection (CME) in this video (which shows the sun's activity from January 19 to January 23). The CME is associate with an M8.7 class sol...

72

Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.  

PubMed

Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals. PMID:20841752

Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

2010-01-01

73

Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality measures is a significantly better CME predictor than the others. (3) The active-region phi shows some correlation with CME productivity, but well below a statistically significant level (correlation confidence level less than approximately 80%; CME prediction success rate less than approximately 65%). (4) In addition to depending on magnetic twist, CME productivity appears to have some direct dependence on active-region size (rather than only an indirect dependence through a correlation of magnetic twist with active-region size), but it will take a still larger sample of active regions (50 or more) to certify this. (5) Of the five nonpotentiality measures, L(sub SG) appears to be the best for operational CME forecasting because it is as good or better a CME predictor than the others and it alone does not require a vector magnetogram; L(sub SG) can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram such as from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

2004-01-01

74

THE 2010 AUGUST 1 TYPE II BURST: A CME-CME INTERACTION AND ITS RADIO AND WHITE-LIGHT MANIFESTATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present observational results of a type II burst associated with a CME-CME interaction observed in the radio and white-light (WL) wavelength range. We applied radio direction-finding techniques to observations from the STEREO and Wind spacecraft, the results of which were interpreted using WL coronagraphic measurements for context. The results of the multiple radio direction-finding techniques applied were found to be consistent both with each other and with those derived from the WL observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The results suggest that the type II burst radio emission is causally related to the CMEs interaction.

Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Raftery, Claire L.; Bain, Hazel M.; Liu Ying; Bale, Stuart; Krucker, Saem [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Krupar, Vratislav [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

2012-03-20

75

Didactic CME and Practice Change: Don't Throw that Baby out Quite yet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skepticism exists regarding the role of continuing medical education (CME) in improving physician performance. The harshest criticism has been reserved for didactic CME. Reviews of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of CME conclude that formal or didactic modes of education have little or no impact on clinical practice. This has led…

Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.

2012-01-01

76

Improving CME: Using Participant Satisfaction Measures to Specify Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine having developed a continuing medical education (CME) initiative to educate physicians on updated guidelines regarding high cholesterol in adults. This initiative consisted of didactic presentations and case-based discussions offered in 5 major US cities, followed by a Web-based enduring component to distill key points of the live…

Olivieri, Jason J.; Regala, Roderick P.

2013-01-01

77

Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun  

E-print Network

#12;Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun Composite image of the Sun in UV light with the naked eye, the Sun seems static, placid, constant. From the ground, the only notice- able variations in the Sun are its location (where will it rise and set today?) and its color (will clouds cover

Christian, Eric

78

Electronic commerce in retailing: Convenience, search costs, delivery and price across retail formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research explores the impact of electronic commerce in retailing. Four retail formats are examined: in?store, catalog,\\u000a cable TV, and the World Wide Web. 112 products were “shopped” in the fall of 1995 and again in the fall of 1997 across the\\u000a four formats.\\u000a \\u000a The results show a significant difference in shopping availability, time taken to shop, and speed of

Jonathan W. Palmer

2000-01-01

79

Formation of vitamin D nanoemulsion-based delivery systems by spontaneous emulsification: Factors affecting particle size and stability.  

PubMed

Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are particularly suitable for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals because of their ability to form stable and transparent delivery systems with high oral bioavailability. In this study, the influence of system composition and preparation conditions on the particle size and stability of vitamin D nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification (SE) was investigated. SE relies on the formation of small oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is titrated into an aqueous solution. The influence of oil phase composition (vitamin D and MCT), surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), surfactant type (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and 85), and stirring conditions on the initial particle size of vitamin D nanoemulsions was studied. Nanoemulsions with small droplet diameters (d<200nm) could be formed using Tween 80 at SOR?1 at high stirring speeds (800rpm). These systems were relatively stable to droplet growth at ambient temperatures (<10% in diameter after 1month storage), but unstable to heating (T>80°C). The thermal stability of the nanoemulsions could be improved by adding a cosurfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)). The spontaneous emulsification method is simple and inexpensive to carry out and therefore has great potential for forming nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for food, personal care, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25308650

Guttoff, Marrisa; Saberi, Amir Hossein; McClements, David Julian

2015-03-15

80

Rational design of multifunctional hetero-hexameric proteins for hydrogel formation and controlled delivery of bioactive molecules.  

PubMed

A hetero-hexameric protein system is developed in this study, which not only functions as cross-linkers for hydrogel formation but also offers docking sites for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules. First, a hexameric protein with two, four, and six tax-interacting protein-1 (TIP-1), respectively (named as 2T, 4T, and 6T), is designed and obtained. As the hexapeptide ligand (WRESAI) can specifically bind to TIP-1 with high affinity, the hexameric proteins of 2T, 4T, and 6T can be used to crosslink the self-assembling nanofibers of Nap-GFFYGGGWRESAI, leading to formation of injectable biohybrid hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. Furthermore, a hetero-hexameric protein containing four TIP-1 and two C-terminal moiety of the pneumococcal cell-wall amidase LytA (C-LytA) proteins is designed and engineered (named as 4T2C). The 4T2C proteins can not only serve as cross-linkers for hydrogel formation but also provide docking sites for loading and controlled release of model drug Rhoda-GGK'. This study opens up new opportunities for further development of multifunctional hetero- recombinant protein-based hydrogels for biological applications. PMID:24861900

Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Ying; Ren, Chunhua; Ding, Dan; Long, Jiafu; Yang, Zhimou

2014-11-01

81

Building Babel: freeing multimedia processing and delivery from hard-coded formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of multimedia content available via the Internet, and the number of formats in which it is encoded, stored and delivered continues to grow rapidly. So too the number and diversity of the devices and software applications which produce, process and consume such content. This constantly changing landscape presents an increasing challenge to interoperability, since more and more software

Joseph Alfred Thomas-Kerr

2009-01-01

82

Analyzing Reasons for Non-Adoption of Distance Delivery Formats in Occupational Therapy Assistant (OTA) Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though distance education formats could help address an urgent need for growth in the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) workforce, distance methods are not as accepted in these programs as they are in other professional and clinical programs. This study investigated whether beliefs and levels of experience of OTA program directors shaped their…

Gergen, Theresa; Roblyer, M. D.

2013-01-01

83

Electromediated formation of DNA complexes with cell membranes and its consequences for gene delivery.  

PubMed

Electroporation is a physical method to induce the uptake of therapeutic drugs and DNA, by eukaryotic cells and tissues. The phenomena behind electro-mediated membrane permeabilization to plasmid DNA have been shown to be significantly more complex than those for small molecules. Small molecules cross the permeabilized membrane by diffusion whereas plasmid DNA first interacts with the electropermeabilized part of the cell surface, forming localized aggregates. The dynamics of this process is still poorly understood because direct observations have been limited to scales of the order of seconds. Here, cells are electropermeabilized in the presence of plasmid DNA and monitored with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. This allows us to show that during the first pulse application, plasmid complexes, or aggregates, start to form at distinct sites on the cell membrane. FRAP measurements show that the positions of these sites are remarkably immobile during the application of further pluses. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the appearance of distinct interaction sites, the quantitative increase in DNA and also their immobility leading to a tentative explanation for the success of electro-mediated gene delivery. PMID:21035428

Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Portet, Thomas; Favard, Cyril; Teissié, Justin; Dean, David S; Rols, Marie-Pierre

2011-06-01

84

Non-antibiotic treatment recommendations: delivery formats and implications for parent resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws on a database of 570 community-based acute pediatric encounters in the USA and uses conversation analysis as a methodology to identify two formats physicians use to recommend non-antibiotic treatment in acute pediatric care (using a subset of 309 cases): recommendations for particular treatment (e.g., “I’m gonna give her some cough medicine.”) and recommendations against particular treatment (e.g.,

Tanya Stivers

2005-01-01

85

The New CME: Focus Shifts to Improving Physician Performance.  

PubMed

The traditional method of physicians earning continuing medical education credits by attending a lecture or case conference, watching a webinar, or reading a journal article is being replaceed with performance improvement CME. Requiring a much greater level of physician involvement, it involves chart audits to measure current physician performance, followed by an intervention to change physician behavior. Performance is then remeasured to gauge the level of improvement. PMID:20890801

Ortolon, Ken

2010-10-01

86

Coronal Magnetic Field Measurement Using CME-Driven Shock Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collisionless shocks form ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) when the CME speed exceeds the Alfven speed of the ambient plasma in the corona and interplanetary medium. The shock stands at a distance from the CME flux rope that depends on the shock Mach number, the geometry of the driver, and the adiabatic index. While the shock ahead of the CME has been observed for a long time in the in situ data, it has been identified recently near the Sun in the coronagraphic and EUV images. Unlike in situ observations, the imaging observations are two dimensional, so one can better discern the CME-shock relationship near the Sun. Gopalswamy and Yashiro demonstrated that the coronal magnetic field can be derived from the shock standoff distance measured in coronagraphic images. The method involves measuring the standoff distance, the radius of curvature of the flux rope, and assuming the value of the adiabatic index and deriving the Alfvenic Mach number. The next step is to derive the Alfvenic Mach number from the measured shock speed and an estimate of the local solar wind speed. The final step involves deriving the magnetic field from the Alfven speed by measuring the local plasma density either from coronagraphic (polarized brightness) images or from the band-splitting of type II radio bursts. In this paper, we derive the combined magnetic field profile from near the Sun to the edge of the LASCO field of view (1.5 to 30 solar radii) and compare it with the current model profiles.

Gopalswarmy, Nat; Nitta, N.; Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.

2012-01-01

87

Numerical Simulation of Multi-CME Events in the Heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ENLIL-based modeling system enables faster-than-real time simulations of corotating and transient heliospheric disturbances. This “hybrid” system does not simulate origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but uses appearance in coronagraphs, ?ts geometric and kinematic parameters, and launches a CME-like structure into the solar wind computed using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model. Numerical heliospheric simulation then provides global context of CMEs propagating in the inner heliosphere and interacting with structured background solar wind and with other CMEs. In this presentation, we introduce the recent improvements that support modeling of the evolving background solar wind and continuous modeling of multiple-CME events. We simulated over 700 CMEs in 2011-2013 to validate and calibrate our new modeling system. In this presentation, we will show examples of multi-CME events in March 2012 and July 2012 periods of enhanced solar activity. We will present results of 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and compare them with remote white-light observations, with in-situ measurements of plasma parameters and detection of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at various spacecraft.

Odstrcil, Dusan; Luhmann, Janet G.; Jian, Lan; Mays, Leila; Xie, Hong; Taktakishvilli, Aleksandre

88

Speed of Compression of Magnetosphere by CME Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-point Cluster observations provide the opportunity to study the speed of compression of the magnetosphere at the impact of extreme solar events such as CMEs. The four-point Cluster FGM (high resolution), CIS and PEACE data during the passage of 17 CME clouds during 2001-2005, together with models of magnetosphere and magnetopause, are used to obtain the speed of compression of the dayside magnetosphere. The study shows that the speed of compression (within three seconds of impact) increases with the dynamic pressure of the CMEs, and that this speed exceeds the speed of the CMEs in some (five) cases (suggesting impulsive response) when the dynamic pressure of the CMEs exceed about 20 nPa. The magnetosphere is also found to undergo damped oscillations for about two minutes after the impact of some extreme CMEs (24 October 2003 and 29 October 2003) until the magnetic pressure outside and inside the magnetopause balances. The speed of compression is also found to increase with the negative IMF Bz of the CME suggesting that part of the compression is due to CME pressure and another part is due to magnetic reconnection. The plasma data (PEACE and CIS), though of low resolution (4 seconds), are being analysed to check if the magnetic field and plasma move together or do they undergo differential motion (important for magnetic field-plasma interactions at short time scales).

Nanan, B.; Alleyne, H.; Walker, S.; Lucek, E.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A.

2007-12-01

89

Solar Eruption Model Relating CME Kinematics to Flare Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of a loss-of-equilibrium coronal mass ejection (CME) model with a multi-threaded flare loop model is used to develop a model of solar eruptions. The CME kinematics, thermal energy release, and flare emissions are compared in order to understand the relationship between these properties of solar eruptions. CME accelerations and peak x-ray fluxes are modeled for many different cases, and it is found that the timing of the peak flux derivative and the peak acceleration are well correlated when the inflow Alfven Mach number is fast and the magnetic field is high. The total thermal energy release and peak soft x-ray flux are observed to have a power law relationship, where the peak flux is about equal to the thermal energy to the power of alpha (alpha is between 2.54 and 1.54, depending on the reconnection rate). This finding conflicts with theoretical underpinnings of the Neupert Effect, which assumes the soft x-ray flux is proportional to the thermal energy release.

Moats, Stephanie; Reeves, K.

2010-05-01

90

Forbush decreases and turbulence levels at CME fronts  

E-print Network

We seek to estimate the average level of MHD turbulence near coronal mass ejection (CME) fronts as they propagate from the Sun to the Earth. We examine the cosmic ray data from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope at Ooty, together with the data from other sources for three well observed Forbush decrease events. Each of these events are associated with frontside halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and near-Earth magnetic clouds. In each case, we estimate the magnitude of the Forbush decrease using a simple model for the diffusion of high energy protons through the largely closed field lines enclosing the CME as it expands and propagates from the Sun to the Earth. We use estimates of the cross-field diffusion coefficient $D_{\\perp}$ derived from published results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic rays propagating through turbulent magnetic fields. Our method helps constrain the ratio of energy density in the turbulent magnetic fields to that in the mean magnetic fields near the CME fronts. This ratio is found to be $\\sim$ 2% for the 11 April 2001 Forbush decrease event, $\\sim$ 6% for the 20 November 2003 Forbush decrease event and $\\sim$ 249% for the much more energetic event of 29 October 2003.

Prasad Subramanian; H. M. Antia; S. R. Dugad; U. D. Goswami; S. K. Gupta; Y. Hayashi; N. Ito; S. Kawakami; H. Kojima; P. K. Mohanty; P. K. Nayak; T. Nonaka; A. Oshima; K. Sivaprasad; H. Tanaka; S. C. Tonwar

2008-10-16

91

Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies' physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic…

Sidman, Cara Lynn; Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

2011-01-01

92

Effects of local delivery of trapidil on neointima formation in a rabbit angioplasty model  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation can result in luminal reduction of a vessel following balloon angioplasty. This study was designed (i) to determine if local administration of trapidil (triazolopyrimidine) into a vessel wall reduces neointima formation, and (ii) to explore the mechanism involved in the subsequent reduction in cell proliferation. Following balloon angioplasty in 40 anaesthetized New Zealand White rabbits, trapidil (50–200?mg) or its vehicle (saline) was injected into the dilated vessel wall of the right femoral artery. Experimental groups and time of investigation: (I) vehicle (2 weeks, n=3), (II) trapidil-100?mg (2 weeks, n=3), (III) vehicle (3 weeks, n=8), (IV) trapidil-50?mg (3 weeks, n=5); (V) trapidil-100?mg (3 weeks, n=9) or (V) trapidil-200?mg (3 weeks, n=7). After 2 weeks, there was a significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia (expressed as intima to media area ratio) in the trapidil group compared with vehicle (0.44±0.04 vs 0.93±0.04, *P<0.05) and also a significant reduction in cell proliferation (% ratio of BrdU-positive cells to total cell number: vehicle 14±2% vs trapidil 6±1%, *P<0.05). After 3 weeks, there was a dose-dependent reduction of intimal hyperplasia in the trapidil groups compared with vehicle (trapidil 50?mg 1.14±0.04; trapidil 100?mg 0.91±0.09*; trapidil 200?mg 0.77±0.09* vs vehicle 1.67±0.23, *P<0.05). Thus, the local administration of trapidil to the rabbit femoral artery reduces the neointima formation, which occurs 2 or 3 weeks after balloon angioplasty via a mechanism, which is dependent on inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:10711356

Zacharowski, Kai; Schneidmuller, Dorien; Ibe, Waltraut; Grosser, Tilo; Buerke, Michael; Meyer, Jurgen; Darius, Harald

2000-01-01

93

Numerical Simulation of the January 2012 CME Event and its Propagation to the Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The January 2012 coronal mass ejection (CME) was very strong, and produced colorful auroras and a strong geomagnetic storm, which was detected by the Wind spacecraft. We present the results of numerical investigation of the January 2012 CME propagation to the Earth orbit, where the plasma and magnetic field distribution are compared with the WIND data. The CME is launched at the solar surface. Adaptive mesh refinement technique allowed us to resolve fine details of the CME structure on its way toward 1 AU. In particular, the application of the level set method made it possible to track the CME surface. We also distinguished the complicated structure of the CME shock. Numerical simulation was performed with a Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) - a powerful tool for modeling discontinuous flows of partially ionized plasma in the presence of nonthermal ion components and turbulence.

Kryukov, I.; Borovikov, S. N.; Shen, F.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Wu, S.

2012-12-01

94

Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR from Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 Å) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 Å long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation. PMID:17686491

Gu, Ruoyu; Su, Chih-Chia; Shi, Feng; Li, Ming; McDermott, Gerry; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W.

2007-01-01

95

Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR From Campylobacter Jejuni  

SciTech Connect

The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 {angstrom}) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 {angstrom} long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation.

Gu, R.; Su, C.-C.; Shi, F.; McDermott, G.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, E.W.

2009-06-01

96

Colon-specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil from zinc pectinate pellets through in situ intracapsular ethylcellulose-pectin plug formation.  

PubMed

Conventional fluid-bed and immersion film coating of hydrophilic zinc pectinate pellets by hydrophobic ethylcellulose is met with fast drug release. This study explored in situ intracapsular pellet coating for colon-specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The solid coating powder constituted ethylcellulose and pectin in weight ratios of 11:0 to 2:9. Its weight ratio to pellets varied between 2:3 and 3:2. Pectin was used as excipient of core pellets and coating powder in view of its potential use in colon cancer treatment. Delayed 5-FU release and core pectin dissolution were attainable when the weight ratio of solid coating powder to pellets was kept at 3:2, and weight ratio of ethylcellulose and pectin in coating powder was kept at 8:3 with particle size of ethylcellulose reduced to 22 ?m. In situ intracapsular wetting of pectin coat by dissolution medium resulted in the formation of ethylcellulose plug interconnecting with pellets through the binding action of pectin. Less than 25% of drug was released at the upper gastrointestinal tract. The majority of drug was released upon prolonged dissolution and in response to colonic enzyme pectinase, which digested core pellets. PMID:23225084

Elyagoby, A; Layas, N; Wong, T W

2013-02-01

97

Local delivery of mithramycin restores vascular reactivity and inhibits neointimal formation in injured arteries and vascular grafts.  

PubMed

Arterial restenosis is responsible for the high failure rates of vascular reconstruction procedures. Local sustained drug delivery has shown promise in the prevention of restenosis. The drug release rate from mithramycin-loaded EVA matrices (0.1%) was evaluated, and their antirestenotic effect was studied in the rat carotid model and rabbit model of vascular grafts. The modulation of c-myc expression by mithramycin treatment was examined by immunohistochemistry in the rat carotid model. The proliferative response of injured rat arteries was studied by bromdeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. The impact of mithramycin treatment on vasomotor responses of the venous segments grafted into arterial circulation was studied ex vivo using vasoreactive compounds. Mithramycin was released exponentially from EVA matrices in PBS. Matrices co-formulated with PEG-4600 revealed enhanced release kinetics. The perivascular implantation of drug-loaded EVA-PEG matrices led to 50% reduction of neointimal formation, and reduced the c-myc expression and BrdU labeling in comparison to control implants. Decreased sensitivity of mithramycin-treated grafts to serotonin-induced vasoconstriction was observed. Local perivascular mithramycin treatment limits the functional alteration caused by the grafting of venous segments in high-pressure arterial environment, and potently inhibits stenosis secondary to grafting and angioplasty injury. The antirestenotic effect is associated with reduced c-myc expression and with subsequent decrease in SMC proliferation. PMID:11733085

Fishbein, I; Brauner, R; Chorny, M; Gao, J; Chen, X; Laks, H; Golomb, G

2001-12-13

98

Physical Conditions in a CME from Hinode, STEREO, and SOHO Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, SOHO, and STEREO of the early phases of a CME. We use EIS, UVCS, and XRT to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 Rsun. EUVI, COR 1, EIT, and LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration in 3D up to 5 Rsun. The diagnostic results are used to determine the energy budget of the CME plasma and the heating rate, and to compare it to theoretical predictions.

Landi, E.; Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P.; Hara, H.

2010-06-01

99

Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree? 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

2008-12-01

100

Multifractal analysis of interplanetary magnetic field obtained during CME events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have analyzed the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) obtained by ACE satellite during the coronal mass ejection events. The characterization of the IMF fluctuations was performed using the singular power spectra deviations obtained from a wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) approach. The results suggest the existence of different multifractal processes driving the intermittency during and after the CME events on the IMF time series. The characteristic time scales found, using the WTMM, and possible related physical mechanisms are discussed in the context of nonlinear interplanetary magnetic field response.

Bolzan, M. J. A.; Rosa, R. R.

2012-08-01

101

Particle Acceleration by Cme-driven Shock Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Peak particle intensities are a strong function of CME speed, although the intensities, spectra, and angular distributions of particles escaping the shock are highly modified by scattering on Alfven waves produced by the streaming particles themselves. Element abundances vary in complex ways because ions with different values of Q/A resonate with different parts of the wave spectrum, which varies with space and time. Just recently, we have begun to model these systematic variations theoretically and to explore other consequences of proton-generated waves.

Reames, Donald V.

1999-01-01

102

Transition of a traditional pharmacology course for dental students to an online delivery format: a pilot project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to describe the rationale and subsequent transition of a pharmacology course for dental students from a traditional face-to-face lecture format to online delivery using a course management system (CMS). A dental school faculty member with dental and pharmacology degrees and a Ph.D. was asked to serve as course director and to develop and implement a nontraditional course using the Blackboard CMS technology, which houses asynchronous course content materials, study guides, and online resource materials. Respondus software was used to create, manage, and administer weekly online quizzes. A comprehensive midterm and final examination were conducted in a traditional face-to-face setting. A survey was used to capture student satisfaction with this self-directed introductory pharmacology course. Participants were second-year dental students (Classes of 2011 and 2012). There was a survey response rate of 91 percent (179/197). The Likert-style survey questions produced ordinal data from which the median and interquartile range were calculated. On a scale in which 1=Poor, 5=Excellent, the median evaluation for the instructor was 4 (IQR=1.5). On a global question that asked how students rate the course overall, the median score was 4 (IQR=1.0). Results show that a majority of students were positive about the online delivery of the introductory pharmacology course and for many students this was their first online course experience. Resistance to self-directed learning was a theme with those students who rated the course poorly. In a comparison of overall course grades from the previous year, student performance in this course was much stronger. As a result of student feedback seeking more interaction with the course director, it was determined that the next time the course is offered there will be additional opportunities for greater face-to-face time with the instructor. Ongoing evaluation will be important as new teaching technologies emerge and are adopted for teaching and learning. PMID:21546597

Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Brockman, William G

2011-05-01

103

Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He++ component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the effect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

2011-01-01

104

CME Initiation Driven by Velocity-Shear Kinetic Reconnection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection is widely believed to be the mechanism that disrupts this force balance, leading to explosive eruption. For understanding CME/flare initiation, therefore, it is critical to model the onset of reconnection that is driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are important in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is nontrivial, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. In the work presented here, we discuss methods for applying a velocity shear perpendicular to the plane of reconnection in a system with open boundary conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.

Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard; Germaschewski, Kai

2014-06-01

105

Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies’ physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants\\/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic questions and to the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, which assessed exercise motivation

Cara Lynn Sidman; Kelly Ann Fiala; Michelle Lee D’Abundo

2011-01-01

106

KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF THE CME RECONNECTION OUTFLOW LAYER IN THE LOW CORONA  

SciTech Connect

New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature ({approx}11.6 MK), and high flow shear ({approx}680 km s{sup -1}) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nykyri, Katariina [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hannah, Iain G., E-mail: claire.foullon@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2013-04-20

107

Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of the CME Reconnection Outflow Layer in the Low Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature (~11.6 MK), and high flow shear (~680 km s-1) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin; Nykyri, Katariina; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Hannah, Iain G.

2013-04-01

108

A Pilot Study of CME on Risk Management in Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study's purpose was to evaluate behavioral changes among medical directors and physicians following CME on risk management in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The setting was a satellite conference at the AGS Meeting Symposium 2000. CME participants included 51 medical directors, attending physicians, and nurses. Evaluations were based…

Powers, James; Pichert, James W.; Habermann, Ralf; Ribble, Rachel

2004-01-01

109

Promoting Free Online CME for Intimate Partner Violence: What Works at What Cost?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There is a need to provide practicing physicians with training on the recognition and management of intimate partner violence (IPV). Online continuing medical education (CME) could help meet this need, but there is little information on the costs and effectiveness of promoting online CME to physicians. This lack of information may…

Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Amend, Robert W.; Surprenant, Zita J.

2009-01-01

110

Initiation of CME event observed on November 3, 2010: Multi-wavelength Perspective  

E-print Network

One of the major unsolved problems in Solar Physics is that of CME initiation. In this paper, we have studied the initiation of a flare associated CME which occurred on 2010 November 03 using multi-wavelength observations recorded by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). We report an observation of an inflow structure initially in 304~{\\AA} and in 1600~{\\AA} images, a few seconds later. This inflow strucure was detected as one of the legs of the CME. We also observed a non-thermal compact source concurrent and near co-spatial with the brightening and movement of the inflow structure. The appearance of this compact non-thermal source, brightening and movement of the inflow structure and the subsequent outward movement of the CME structure in the corona led us to conclude that the CME initiation was caused by magnetic reconnection.

Mulay, Sargam; Tripathi, Durgesh; Isobe, Hiroaki; Glesener, Lindsay

2014-01-01

111

E-learning for occupational physicians' CME: a study case.  

PubMed

The present study reports the results of the evaluation of an e-learning CME course in the field of Occupational Medicine. In particular the following aspects have been investigated: If and how the course contents have met the educational users' needs; The effectiveness of the course in terms of knowledge improvement; Users' behaviour. Attendance data and results of a sample of 1128 attendees have been analyzed via ad hoc developed tools for direct inspection of Moodle CMS database. The results document the effectiveness of the e-learning course, as regards meeting the educational needs of physicians and also the improvement in terms of knowledge and problem solving skill acquisition. Users' behaviour has revealed a certain tendency for passing the tests, more than for pursuing the best possible result. Interaction with the tutor is low. PMID:21685595

Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Gri, Tommaso; Pagani, Marco; Imbriani, Marcello

2011-01-01

112

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

PubMed Central

Objectives In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB) from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) were characterized. Methods SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixture (Smix) of D-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and either Tween® 20 (A, C, E, G, M, S, N, T, O) or Tween® 80 (B, D, F, H, P, U, Q, V, R) at various oil/Smix ratios (Group I: A and B of 0.42, C and D of 0.25, E and F of 0.11; Group II: G and H of 1.38, M and P of 1.11, S and U of 0.9, N and Q of 0.73, T and V of 0.58, and O and R of 0.46) and water contents (1: 9.5%, 2: 5.0%, 3: 0.0%, G–V: 4.5%). Their dissolutions were conducted at different rotation speeds. Two optimal SMEDDSs containing Tween 80(B2) or a higher oil/Smix ratio(Q) and B2(solution) were selected for pharmacokinetic study. Results FFB particles formed within the nanosize range from Group I gradually increased with time but decreased with increasing stirring rates. However, the mean size of FFB formed by B series was as low as 200 nm, which was smaller than that of A series at three stirring rates. The release rate from both groups obviously increased with increasing stirring rate. However, incomplete release was observed for S and N in Tween 20 series, whereas a faster release rate and complete release were observed for Tween 80 series with an insignificant difference among them. Results of pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the highest-ranked area under the curve and Cmax values were for Q(SMEDDS) and B2(solution), respectively. The relative bioavailability of Q(SMEDDS) with respect to Tricor® was enhanced by about 1.14–1.22-fold. Conclusion SMEDDS, consisting of Myritol 318 and TPGS combined with Tween 80 at 4:1, was able to enhance the oral bioavailability of FFB. PMID:22072880

Lin, You-Meei; Wu, Jui-Yu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Su, Yu-Der; Ke, Wen-Tin; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

2011-01-01

113

Feasibility of Using a Bone-Targeted, Macromolecular Delivery System Coupled with Prostaglandin E1 to Promote Bone Formation in Aged, Estrogen-Deficient Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Macromolecular delivery systems have therapeutic uses because of their ability to deliver and release drugs to specific tissues. The uptake and localization of HPMA copolymers using Asp8 as the bone-targeting moiety was determined in aged, ovariectomized (ovx) rats. PGE1 was attached via a cathepsin K-sensitive linkage to HPMA copolymer–Asp8 conjugate and was tested to determine if it could promote bone formation. Materials and Methods The uptake of FITC-labeled HPMA copolymer–Asp8 conjugate (P-Asp8-FITC) on bone surfaces was compared with the mineralization marker, tetracycline. Then a targeted PGE1-HPMA copolymer conjugate (P-Asp8-FITC-PGE1) was given as a single injection and its effects on bone formation were measured 4 weeks later. Results P-Asp8-FITC preferentially deposited on resorption surfaces, unlike tetracycline. A single injection of P-Asp8-FITC-PGE1 resulted in greater indices of bone formation in aged, ovx rats. Conclusions HPMA copolymers can be targeted to bone surfaces using Asp8, with preferential uptake on resorption surfaces. Additionally, PGE1 attached to the Asp8-targeted HPMA copolymers and given by a single injection resulted in greater bone formation measured 4 weeks later. This initial in vivo study suggests that macromolecular delivery systems targeted to bone may offer some therapeutic opportunities and advantages for the treatment of skeletal diseases. PMID:18758923

Miller, S. C.; Pan, H.; Wang, D.; Bowman, B. M.; Kopeckova, P.; Kopecek, J.

2009-01-01

114

Crystal structures of CmeR-bile acid complexes from Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

The TetR family of transcription regulators are diverse proteins capable of sensing and responding to various structurally dissimilar antimicrobial agents. Upon detecting these agents, the regulators allow transcription of an appropriate array of resistance markers to counteract the deleterious compounds. Campylobacter jejuni CmeR is a pleiotropic regulator of multiple proteins, including the membrane-bound multidrug efflux transporter CmeABC. CmeR represses the expression of CmeABC and is induced by bile acids, which are substrates of the CmeABC tripartite pump. The multiligand-binding pocket of CmeR has been shown to be very extensive and consists of several positively charged and multiple aromatic amino acids. Here we describe the crystal structures of CmeR in complexes with the bile acids, taurocholate and cholate. Taurocholate and cholate are structurally related, differing by only the anionic charged group. However, these two ligands bind distinctly in the binding tunnel. Taurocholate spans the novel bile acid binding site adjacent to and without overlapping with the previously determined glycerol-binding site. The anionic aminoethanesulfonate group of taurocholate is neutralized by a charge-dipole interaction. Unlike taurocholate, cholate binds in an anti-parallel orientation but occupies the same bile acid-binding site. Its anionic pentanoate moiety makes a water-mediated hydrogen bond with a cationic residue to neutralize the formal negative charge. These structures underscore the promiscuity of the multifaceted binding pocket of CmeR. The capacity of CmeR to recognize bile acids was confirmed using isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence polarization. The results revealed that the regulator binds these acids with dissociation constants in the micromolar region. PMID:21328631

Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Shen, Zhangqi; Surana, Priyanka; Routh, Mathew D; Su, Chih-Chia; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W

2011-01-01

115

Effects of the 5 October 1996 CME at 4.4 AU: Ulysses observations  

SciTech Connect

The authors present observations from Ulysses associated with a large coronal mass ejection (CME) that lifted off the west limb of the Sun on 5 October, 1996. The study focuses on the effects of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME on the energetic particle populations at the location of Ulysses, in particular the effect on the sequence of corotating enhancements that had been observed prior to its arrival. They conclude that, despite its large spatial extent, the CME caused no permanent deformation of the heliospheric current sheet.

Marsden, R.G.; Desai, M.I.; Sanderson, T.R. [Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept. of ESA; Forsyth, R.J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom); Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-09-01

116

Radio Tracking of a White-Light CME from Solar Corona to Interplanetary Medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the radio emissions associated with a flare/CME event on the sun. For this solar event there were type II radio emissions observed in both the metric and decametric to kilometric wavelength regimes. By comparing the dynamics of the CME with that implied by the frequencies and frequency-drift rates of the type II radio emissions, it is concluded that only the decametric/kilometric type II radio emissions are associated with the CME. We provide the first direct one-to-one comparison between a CME and the associated type II radio emissions. The dynamics implied by the metric type II radio emissions suggest a distinct coronal shock, associated with the flare, which only produces radio emissions in the low corona.

Reiner, M. J.; Kaiser, Michael L.; Plunkett, S. P.; Prestage, N. P.

1999-01-01

117

A pH-responsive chitosan-b-poly(p-dioxanone) nanocarrier: formation and efficient antitumor drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing attention has recently been paid to the fabrication of drug delivery systems with excellent cell internalization and intracellular drug release properties. In this study, an amphiphilic block copolymer of chitosan was synthesized for the first time, which can self-assemble into micelles in a neutral aqueous solution but partially disassemble in an acidic endosomal/lysosomal environment. The antitumor drug, camptothecin (CPT), was encapsulated in the cores of the micelles for tumor cell therapy. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that the micelles presented a much faster release of CPT at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. Blank micelles were found to be nontoxic in preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Cell experiments showed that the CPT-loaded micelles could be effectively internalized by Hela cells and accomplished a potent antitumor cell efficacy, indicating that the chitosan-based micelles might be an attractive new platform for efficient intracellular drug delivery.

Tang, Dao-Lu; Song, Fei; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

2013-04-01

118

CME, Physicians, and Pavlov: Can We Change What Happens When Industry Rings the Bell?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To show how physicians’ conditioned response to “keeping up” has helped industry’s opportunistic funding of continuing medical education (CME) and to propose ways to counter the conditioned response to the benefit of patients and the public. Methods Review of the literature and commentary on it. Results The pharmaceutical and device industries (hereafter referred to as industry) have a long history of bribing physicians to prescribe and use their products. Increasing pressure from Congress and the public has been brought to bear on industry gifting. This pressure, coinciding with increasing financial problems for the providers of CME, provided industry with reason and opportunity to expand its role in the financing of CME. Industry’s incentive to make its CME funding appear to be an arm’s-length transaction has spawned medical education service supplier (MESS) companies. Industry makes “unrestricted grants” to the MESS, and the MESS puts on the CME program. Helped by these CME programs, industry is able to subtly “buy” physicians one at a time, so that under the cover of “education” they and their academic institutions and medical organizations lose sight of being CME pawns in industry’s sole objective: profit. Conclusions Despite a vast literature showing how physician integrity is easy prey to industry, the medical profession continues to allow industry to have a detrimental influence on the practice of medicine and on physician respectability. It will take resolute action to change the medical profession’s conditioned response to industry’s CME bell and its negative effect on patients and the public. PMID:19277219

Lichter, Paul R.

2008-01-01

119

The synthesis, X-ray and DFT structures of the free ansa-cyclopentadiene ligand C 5H 5CMe 2CMe 2C 5H 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title compound 2,3-dicyclopentadiene-2,3-dimethylbutane (C 5H 5CMe 2CMe 2C 5H 5) 1 shows the typical staggered conformation of a highly substituted ethane derivative with the two largest substituents (C 5H 5) adopting a trans position. The molecule shows C 2 symmetry about the central C-C bond. Due to the high substitution, the central bond of the ethane is elongated to 160.0 pm (X-ray structure analysis) while the DFT calculation finds a value of 159.2 pm.

Tacke, Matthias; Dunne, John Patrick; Fox, Shona; Linti, Gerald; Teuber, Roland

2001-08-01

120

CME-Associated Radio Bursts from Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely associated with various types of radio bursts from the Sun. All radio bursts are due to nonthermal electrons, which are accelerated during the eruption of CMEs. Radio bursts at frequencies below about 15 MHz are of particular interest because they are associated with energetic CMEs that contribute to severe space weather. The low-frequency bursts need to be observed primarily from space because of the ionospheric cutoff. The main CME-related radio bursts are associated are: type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines, type II bursts due to electrons accelerated in shocks, and type IV bursts due to electrons trapped in post-eruption arcades behind CMEs. This paper presents a summary of results obtained during solar cycle 23 primarily using the white-light coronagraphic observations from the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the WAVES experiment on board Wind. Particular emphasis will be placed on what we can learn about particle acceleration in the coronal and interplanetary medium by analyzing the CMEs and the associated radio bursts.

Gopalswamy, Nat

2012-01-01

121

Kinematic Treatment of CME Evolution in the Solar Wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a kinematic study of the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. Specifically, we consider the effects of: (1) spherical expansion; and (2) uniform expansion due to pressure gradients between the Interplanetary CME (ICME) and the ambient solar wind. We compare these results with an MHD model, which allows us to isolate these effects from the combined kinematic and dynamical effects, which are included in MHD models. They also provide compelling evidence that the fundamental cross section of so-called "force-free" flux ropes (or magnetic clouds) is neither circular or elliptical, but rather a convex-outward, "pancake" shape. We apply a force-free fitting to the magnetic vectors from the MHD simulation to assess how the distortion of the flux rope affects the fitting. In spite of these limitations, force-free fittings, which are straightforward to apply, do provide an important description of a number of parameters, including the radial dimension, orientation and chirality of the ICME.

Riley, Pete; Crooker, N. U.

2004-01-01

122

A Radio Burst and Its Associated CME on March 17, 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a detailed analysis, based on multiwavelength observations and magnetic field extrapolation, of a radio and X-ray event observed on March 17, 2002. This event was accompanied by a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) observed by the Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) aboard SOHO. During the main event, the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) mission observed a hard X-ray emission correlated in time with the development of a type III burst group. The CME development, the hard X-ray emission, and the type III burst group appear to be closely associated. The multifrequency Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) shows that the type III bursts are produced at a distance from the active region that progressively increases with time. Their emitting sources are distributed along the western edge of the CME. We conclude the type III electron beams propagate in the interface region between the ascending CME and the neighboring open field lines. Due to the development of the CME, this region becomes progressively highly compressed. By measuring, at each frequency, the shift versus time of the type III positions, we estimate that the electron density in this compression region increased roughly by a factor of 10 over a few minutes. Another signature of this compression region is a narrow white light feature interpreted as a coronal shock driven by the CME lateral expansion.

Yan, Y.; Pick, M.; Wang, M.; Krucker, S.; Vourlidas, A.

2006-12-01

123

Relation between Magnetic Helicity and CME Speed in Source Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a study linking the speed of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the magnetic helicity in the source active regions. The motivation comes from the fact that the CME speed may depend on the active region free magnetic energy, which in turn may be represented by the helicity, a proxy for the nonpotentiality. We selected a set of active regions from solar cycle 23, measured their helicity, and identified CMEs from the CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov). Using EUV and magnetogram data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission, we measured the coronal helicity content before CME eruptions. We extrapolated the photospheric magnetic field to the corona to obtain the coronal helicity that fits a EUV image before each CME eruption. The CME speeds used here corresponds to the average speed within the SOHO coronagraphic field of view. We found that magnetic helicity is positively correlated with the speed of CME. We cross-checked the helicity values using the principle of magnetic helicity conservation connecting helicity obtained from the Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) method, the helicity of the associated magnetic clouds and the coronal helicity.

Jung, H.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

2009-12-01

124

Quasi-periodic components of solar microwave emission preceded CME's onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of observations at the radio-astronomical station NIRFI "Zimenki" are examined. Pre-eruption manifestations can be detected over different time scales: from several days, which is typical to the evolution of active region in whole, to several hours and tens of minutes, which leads to the formation of conditions for CME initiation and propagation. Primarily this process is developed as wave motion. For example, a study of the evolution of radio emission in January 2005 discovered the growth of amplitude of long-period pulsations with a period of more than 20 minutes in centimetre solar radio emission three days before coronal mass ejections. During the time intervals of 25 to 15 minutes prior to CMEs registration the oscillations of substantially smaller period (t 6-22 s) occurred, which were apparently connected to waves in coronal loops. The obtained result is close to the results of other authors, based on the observations of solar radio emission with the high spatial resolution. Thus, it is shown that the use of patrol multi wave observational data with the high sensitivity and a sufficient time resolution is possible for the analysis of the quasi-periodic components of radio emission and their dynamics.

Sheyner, Olga; Fridman, Vladimir

125

Stereoscopic observations of the effects of a halo CME on the solar coronal structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the substantial restructuring of the outer solar corona in the aftermath of the halo CME that occurred on 9 March 2012. To perform our analysis, we used SOHO/LASCO, STEREO/COR1 and SDO/AIA data, which provide observations from different viewpoints. In particular, we applied the polarization ratio technique to the COR1 calibrated images to derive the three-dimensional structure of the CME and determine its direction and speed of propagation. We also estimated the CME mass from a sequence of four observations of the event and obtained values of up to 2.2 × 1016 g. The COR1 images show a brightness decrease in the coronal sector where the CME propagates. We verified that this intensity reduction is due to a plasma depletion. Moreover, the combined analysis performed by the two STEREO satellites allowed us to deduce that a preexisting streamer is located along the propagation direction of the CME and disappears after the passage of the event. The coronal mass loss associated with the plasma depletion is much lower than the mass expelled from the Sun in the COR1-B data. Conversely, the COR1-A obsevations allowed us to infer that the mass of the streamer carried away from the outer corona corresponds to about half of the CME mass. The results highlight the importance of stereoscopic observations in the study of corona restructuring in the aftermath of a CME event. The movie associated with Fig. 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Dolei, S.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.

2014-07-01

126

Forecast of geomagnetic storms using CME parameters and the WSA-ENLIL model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense geomagnetic storms are caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun and their forecast is quite important in protecting space- and ground-based technological systems. The onset and strength of geomagnetic storms depend on the kinematic and magnetic properties of CMEs. Current forecast techniques mostly use solar wind in-situ measurements that provide only a short lead time. On the other hand, techniques using CME observations near the Sun have the potential to provide 1-3 days of lead time before the storm occurs. Therefore, one of the challenging issues is to forecast interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) southward components and hence geomagnetic storm strength with a lead-time on the order of 1-3 days. We are going to answer the following three questions: (1) when does a CME arrive at the Earth? (2) what is the probability that a CME can induce a geomagnetic storm? and (3) how strong is the storm? To address the first question, we forecast the arrival time and other physical parameters of CMEs at the Earth using the WSA-ENLIL model with three CME cone types. The second question is answered by examining the geoeffective and non-geoeffective CMEs depending on CME observations (speed, source location, earthward direction, magnetic field orientation, and cone-model output). The third question is addressed by examining the relationship between CME parameters and geomagnetic indices (or IMF southward component). The forecast method will be developed with a three-stage approach, which will make a prediction within four hours after the solar coronagraph data become available. We expect that this study will enable us to forecast the onset and strength of a geomagnetic storm a few days in advance using only CME parameters and the physics-based models.

Moon, Y.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.; Na, H.; Lee, J.

2013-12-01

127

Mixed micelle formation with hydrophobic and hydrophilic Pluronic block copolymers: implications for controlled and targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Pluronic block copolymers offer affluent phase behavioral characteristics and are extensively investigated for drug delivery applications. Hydrophobic Pluronics produce larger aggregates whereas hydrophilic Pluronics often generate small-sized micelles in aqueous milieu. To overcome the limitations and combine the advantages of different kinds of Pluronics the mixing of such two types of Pluronics is studied here, especially for hydrophobic Pluronic L81 and relatively hydrophilic Pluronic P123. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the developed binary mixtures was 0.032 mg/ml as evidenced from pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy and is located in between that of the individual Pluronics. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed very small particle sizes (?20 nm) and low polydispersity indices for most of the mixed micelles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated spherical shape of micelles. Based upon the ratio of hydrophobic and hydrophilic Pluronics, dispersions of varied stability were obtained. With 0.1/1.0 wt.% and 0.5/3.0 wt.% of Pluronic L81/P123, stable dispersions were obtained. Stability was assessed from turbidity measurement, size analysis and clarity of dispersion on standing. Micelles were also found to be stable in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. Mixed micelles showed fairly high entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and sustained release profile for aceclofenac (Acl), a model hydrophobe. Presence of salt lowered Acl solubilization in micelles. Thermodynamic parameters for Acl solubilization in mixed micelles revealed high partition coefficient values and spontaneity of drug solubilization. Thus, the developed novel mixed micelles hold promise in controlled and targeted drug delivery owing to their very small size, high entrapment efficiency and stability. PMID:21862296

Kulthe, S S; Inamdar, N N; Choudhari, Y M; Shirolikar, S M; Borde, L C; Mourya, V K

2011-12-01

128

The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - An Overview of its Architecture and Current Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, is developing the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME) under a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research (ITR) Program jointly funded by the Geosciences and Computer and Information Science & Engineering Directorates. The CME system is an integrated geophysical simulation modeling framework that automates the process of selecting, configuring, and executing models of earthquake systems. During the Project's first three years, we have performed fundamental geophysical and information technology research and have also developed substantial system capabilities, software tools, and data collections that can help scientist perform systems-level earthquake science. The CME system provides collaborative tools to facilitate distributed research and development. These collaborative tools are primarily communication tools, providing researchers with access to information in ways that are convenient and useful. The CME system provides collaborators with access to significant computing and storage resources. The computing resources of the Project include in-house servers, Project allocations on USC High Performance Computing Linux Cluster, as well as allocations on NPACI Supercomputers and the TeraGrid. The CME system provides access to SCEC community geophysical models such as the Community Velocity Model, Community Fault Model, Community Crustal Motion Model, and the Community Block Model. The organizations that develop these models often provide access to them so it is not necessary to use the CME system to access these models. However, in some cases, the CME system supplements the SCEC community models with utility codes that make it easier to use or access these models. In some cases, the CME system also provides alternatives to the SCEC community models. The CME system hosts a collection of community geophysical software codes. These codes include seismic hazard analysis (SHA) programs developed by the SCEC/USGS OpenSHA group. Also, the CME system hosts anelastic wave propagation codes including Kim Olsen's Finite Difference code and Carnegie Mellon's Hercules Finite Element tool chain. The CME system can execute a workflow, that is, a series of geophysical computations using the output of one processing step as the input to a subsequent step. Our workflow capability utilizes grid-based computing software that can submit calculations to a pool of computing resources as well as data management tools that help us maintain an association between data files and metadata descriptions of those files. The CME system maintains, and provides access to, a collection of valuable geophysical data sets. The current CME Digital Library holdings include a collection of 60 ground motion simulation results calculated by a SCEC/PEER working group and a collection of Greens Functions calculated for 33 TriNet broadband receiver sites in the Los Angeles area.

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

2004-12-01

129

Particle Acceleration in a "twin-CME" scenario for Ground Level Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) events are extreme Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Protons in these events often reach ~ GeV/nucleon. Understanding the underlying particle acceleration mechanism in these events is a major goal for Space Weather studies. A recent study of the 16 GLEs in Solar Cycle 23 suggests that these events are in agreement with a so called "twin-CME" scenario in which two CMEs erupt in sequence during a short period of time from the same Active Region (AR). The first CME and its driven shock can set up a turbulence enhanced region of which the second CME plows into, leading to an efficient acceleration at the second shock. The pre-eruption magnetic field has a pseudo-streamer-like configuration, which can lead to magnetic reconnection between the open and closed field lines that drape and enclose the first CME. Such a reconnection can provide a seed population that has a flare composition. Besides GLE events, many large SEP events also agree with the twin CME scenario. There is also evidence that the first GLE event in solar cycle 24 also has two CMEs that occur almost simultaneously. In this talk, we discuss both a statistical study of GLE events and large SEP events in solar cycle 23 and as a case study the May 17 2012 GLE event.

Li, G.

2013-05-01

130

COMMODITIES/ENERGY/BIOMASS CME Clearing Europe European Wood Pellets CIF NWE (Argus) Calendar Swap Overview  

E-print Network

Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is becoming a fundamental part of power generation. By burning sustainable biomass, companies can significantly reduce their carbon footprint. With regulatory support the importance of biomass within the electricity sector will continue to grow creating a need for effective and efficient risk management products. CME Clearing Europe is pleased to support the development of this industry by listing the first financially settled biomass contract adding to its existing product slate of energy, metals and agricultural contracts. The European Wood Pellets CIF NWE (Argus) cleared swap is a financially settled swap that references the Argus Wood Pellets CIF North West Europe price index. Manage your biomass exposure. CME Clearing Europe is offering this new biomass contract as a hedging tool to help companies manage their biomass price exposure. This contract will also build liquidity in the growing biomass market by enabling firms to manage counterparty risk, as well as adding to the transparency of the market and facilitating the entry of new participants. CME Clearing Europe uses a central counterparty model to safeguard the interests of all our customers globally. The central clearing house guarantees the performance of every transaction. Flexibility and security. Customers can enjoy the convenience of a US Dollar denominated contract that combines the flexibility of the over-the-counter (OTC) process with the security of central counterparty clearing from CME Clearing Europe – as well as potential margin offsets with other CME Clearing OTC products.

unknown authors

131

Ionization and Emission Characteristics of the Current Sheet in a CME/flare Eruption Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current sheet that extends from the top of flare loops to the associated flux rope is a common structure in coronal mass ejection (CME) models. To understand the observational properties of CME current sheets, we generate predictions that can be compared with CME/flare models in this work. For example, Reeves et al. (2010) report on the detailed evolution of a large scale CME current sheet. Using the results of this numerical simulation, we perform time-dependent ionization calculations of the flow in the CME current sheet and construct two-dimensional spatial distributions of ionic charge states for multiple elements. We use the SDO/AIA filter responses and the predicted intensities of spectral lines to compute the count rates in the AIA bands. The results show that intensities can be much different than intensities which assume ionization equilibrium along the reconnection outflow. Furthermore, we calculate the spectral intensities of several UV and EUV lines considering time-dependent ionization process and compare them with the observational results from SOHO/UVCS. The characteristics of UV and EUV lines crossing the current sheet show, for instance, a low temperature sheath around the current sheet.

Shen, C.; Reeves, K. K.; Raymond, J. C.; Murphy, N. A.; Ko, Y.

2012-12-01

132

Direct Detection of a CME-Associated Shock in LASCO White Light Images  

E-print Network

The LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs recorded a unique coronal mass ejection on April 2, 1999. The event did not have the typical three-part CME structure and involved a small filament eruption without any visibile overlying streamer ejecta. The event exhibited an unusually clear signature of a wave propagating at the CME flanks. The speed and density of the CME front and flanks were consistent with the existence of a shock. To better establish the nature of the white light wave signature, we employed a simple MHD simulation using the LASCO measurements as constraints. Both the measurements and the simulation strongly suggest that the white light feature is the density enhancement from a fast-mode MHD shock. In addition, the LASCO images clearly show streamers being deflected when the shock impinges on them. It is the first direct imaging of this interaction.

A. Vourlidas; S. T. Wu; A. H. Wang; P. Subramanian; R. A. Howard

2003-08-21

133

Competitive displacement of drugs from cyclodextrin inclusion complex by polypseudorotaxane formation with poloxamer: implications in drug solubilization and delivery.  

PubMed

The competitive interactions between the poly-[propylene oxide] (POO)-poly-[ethylene oxide] (PEO) block copolymer poloxamer 407 (Pluronic F127) and two drugs, triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine, by the formation of inclusion complexes with two cyclodextrin hydrophilic derivatives, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD; molar substitution (MS) 0.65) and partially methylated-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD; MS 0.57), were studied by means of one-dimensional (1)H NMR, 2D ROESY experiments, solubility studies and drug release studies. 1D and 2D NMR and solubility studies indicate that both triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine form stable inclusion complexes with the cyclodextrin derivatives. In the case of ciclopirox olamine the complex was more stable at pH 1. Effective complexation of poloxamer with the two cyclodextrins (CDs) was also evidenced by NMR analysis, and competitive displacement of the drugs from the CD cavity by the polymer was observed. Drug solubility in CD solutions was not modified by the addition of polymers, indicating that a decrease in solubility due to the competitive displacement is probably compensated by the solubilizing effect of polymer micellization. Finally, polypseudorotaxanes formation has a significant influence on the release of the drugs studied. Changes in the release rate depend on the stability of drug-CD inclusion complex and on cyclodextrin concentration in the bulk solution; so polypseudorotaxane formation can be employed to modulate drug controlled release from thermosensitive hydrogels. PMID:22182528

Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Gómez-Amoza, José Luis; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

2012-04-01

134

Web-Based Delivery System for Disaster Prevention Information Using a New Jma Dpi Xml Format and Amedas Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) Data is used along with compound disaster information for a geographic information system (GIS) by integration into the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) disaster prevention information XML data. A JMA XML format is a next generation format that contains weather warnings, tsunami warnings, and earthquake information, etc. However, it is not possible to process it by reading disaster prevention information XML Data and AMeDAS Data directly to the GIS system. Therefore, development of a program that converts the data structure is important to consolidate a variety of disaster prevention information on the GIS system. Information on escape routes and evacuation sites, etc. were given as points for regional meteorological observation forecasts using AMeDAS Data by disaster prevention information XML data and integrating it where the disaster was generated, giving a range of expansion of damage and a damage level. There are two main aims; the first is to deliver these compound data of disaster prevention information XML data and AMeDAS Data via the Internet. The second aim is to provide GIS files (shapefile format) of these data to such as local governments for their individual analysis. This was furthermore confirmed to enable the construction of a system using WebGIS (Google Maps) and Open Source Software GIS to monitor disaster information at low cost.

Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

2012-07-01

135

Modeling a space weather event from the Sun to the Earth: CME generation and interplanetary propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the solar corona propagating to 1 astronomical unit (AU). The simulations are performed using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. We begin by developing a global steady-state model of the corona that possesses high-latitude coronal holes and a helmet streamer structure with a current sheet at the equator. The Archimedean spiral topology of the interplanetary magnetic field is reproduced along with fast and slow speed solar wind. Within this model system, we drive a CME to erupt by the introduction of a Gibson-Low magnetic flux rope that is anchored at both ends in the photosphere and embedded in the helmet streamer in an initial state of force imbalance. The flux rope rapidly expands and is ejected from the corona with maximum speeds in excess of 1000 km/s. Physics-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) allows us to capture the structure of the CME focused on a particular Sun-Earth line with high spatial resolution given to the bow shock ahead of the flux rope as well as to the current sheet behind. The CME produces a large magnetic cloud at 1 AU (>100 R?) in which Bz undergoes a full rotation from north to south with an amplitude of 20 nT. In a companion paper, we find that the CME is very effective in generating strong geomagnetic activity at the Earth in two ways. First, through the strong sustained southward Bz (lasting more than 10 hours) and, second, by a pressure increase associated with the CME-driven shock that compresses the magnetosphere.

Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Roussev, Ilia; Ridley, Aaron; de Zeeuw, Darren L.; Sokolov, I. V.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Tóth, GáBor

2004-02-01

136

Spatial and temporal scales of coronal magnetic restructuring in CME initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept that the CMEs are the results of coronal magnetic restructuring or reconfiguring, we analyze the December 18, 2000 event by using Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) images and combining the multi-spatial scale observations. We investigated the onset, duration and position of the radio emissions in relation to EUV dimming and the inferred CME onset, with the purpose to estimate the spatial and temporal scales of the coronal restructuring, thus, to understand the physics of the initiation and development of the CME.

Wen, Yayuan; Wang, Jingxiu; Maia, Dalmiro Joreg Filipe; Zhang, Yuzong; Zhao, Hui

137

Simulation of a CME-driven shock event with a ``break'' of energy spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production,acceleration and propagation of the solar energetic particles are important components of the space weather researches. Companying with the solar burst activities, the coronal mass ejection(CME) will produce the high Mach number of shock in the interplanetary. The measurement from the spacecraft finds an "break " of the energy spectrum at 1-10MeV energy range, which produced by the CME-driven shock. However, there is still no plausible theoretical explanation for this "break". Therefore, this study will use the particle simulation method to verify whether a single shock acceleration mechanism can produce an "break" of the energy spectrum.

Wang, Xin

138

The sustained delivery of resveratrol or a defined grape powder inhibits new blood vessel formation in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch's membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV. PMID:25361423

Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaie; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati; Wang, Shoujian; Azari, Amir A; Farnoodian, Mitra; Kenealey, Jason D; van Ginkel, Paul R; Albert, Daniel M; Sheibani, Nader; Polans, Arthur S

2014-01-01

139

Diversity of planetary systems in low-mass disks: Terrestrial-type planet formation and water delivery  

E-print Network

Several studies, observational and theoretical, suggest that planetary systems with only rocky planets should be the most common in the Universe. We study the diversity of planetary systems that might form around Sun-like stars in low-mass disks without giant planets. We focus on the formation process of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and analyze their water contents with the goal to determine systems of astrobiological interest. Besides, we study the formation of planets on wide orbits because they can be detected with the microlensing technique. N-body simulations of high resolution (embryos + planetesimals) are developed for a wide range of surface density profiles. The surface density profile combines a power law to the inside of the disk of the form r^{-gamma}, with an exponential decay to the outside. We adopt a disk of 0.03M_sun and values of gamma = 0.5, 1 and 1.5. All our simulations form planets in the HZ with different masses and final water contents depending on the 3 profiles. For...

Ronco, María Paula

2014-01-01

140

Diversity of planetary systems in low-mass disks. Terrestrial-type planet formation and water delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several studies, observational and theoretical, suggest that planetary systems with only rocky planets are the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the diversity of planetary systems that might form around Sun-like stars in low-mass disks without gas-giant planets. We focus especially on the formation process of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and analyze their water contents with the goal to determine systems of astrobiological interest. In addition, we study the formation of planets on wide orbits because they can be detected with the microlensing technique. Methods: N-body simulations of high resolution were developed for a wide range of surface density profiles. A bimodal distribution of planetesimals and planetary embryos with different physical and orbital configurations was used to simulate the planetary accretion process. The surface density profile combines a power law for the inside of the disk of the form r-?, with an exponential decay to the outside. We performed simulations adopting a disk of 0.03 M? and values of ? = 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Results: All our simulations form planets in the HZ with different masses and final water contents depending on the three different profiles. For ? = 0.5, our simulations produce three planets in the HZ with masses ranging from 0.03 M? to 0.1 M? and water contents between 0.2 and 16 Earth oceans (1 Earth ocean =2.8 × 10-4 M?). For ? = 1, three planets form in the HZ with masses between 0.18 M? and 0.52 M? and water contents from 34 to 167 Earth oceans. Finally, for ? = 1.5, we find four planets in the HZ with masses ranging from 0.66 M? to 2.21 M? and water contents between 192 and 2326 Earth oceans. This profile shows distinctive results because it is the only one of those studied here that leads to the formation of water worlds. Conclusions: Since planetary systems with ? = 1 and 1.5 present planets in the HZ with suitable masses to retain a long-lived atmosphere and to maintain plate tectonics, they seem to be the most promising candidates to be potentially habitable. Particularly, these systems form Earths and Super-Earths of at least 3 M? around the snow line, which can be discovered by the microlensing technique.

Ronco, M. P.; de Elía, G. C.

2014-07-01

141

Effects of efflux-pump inducers and genetic variation of the multidrug transporter cmeB in biocide resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.  

PubMed

Multidrug efflux pumps, such as CmeABC and CmeDEF, are involved in the resistance of Campylobacter to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of two putative efflux-pump inducers, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate, on the resistance of Campylobacter to biocides (triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride and trisodium phosphate), SDS and erythromycin. The involvement of the CmeABC and CmeDEF efflux pumps in this resistance was studied on the basis of the effects of bile salts and sodium deoxycholate in Campylobacter cmeB, cmeF and cmeR mutants. The genetic variation in the cmeB gene was also examined, to see whether this polymorphism is related to the function of the efflux pump. In 15 Campylobacter jejuni and 23 Campylobacter coli strains, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate increased the MICs of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride and SDS, and decreased the MICs of triclosan, trisodium phosphate and erythromycin. Bile salts and sodium deoxycholate further decreased or increased the MICs of biocides and erythromycin in the cmeF and cmeR mutants. For cmeB polymorphisms, 17 different cmeB-specific PCR-RFLP patterns were identified: six within C. jejuni only, nine within C. coli only and two in both species. In conclusion, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate can increase or decrease bacterial resistance to structurally unrelated antimicrobials. The MIC increases in the cmeF and cmeR mutants indicated that at least one non-CmeABC efflux system is involved in resistance to biocides. These results indicate that the cmeB gene polymorphism identified is not associated with biocide and erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter. PMID:23161768

Mavri, Ana; Smole Možina, Sonja

2013-03-01

142

Organizational Change in Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluation of a CME Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment…

Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L.; Durfee, Janet M.; Ho, Samuel B.

2006-01-01

143

CME MEMBERS 2011-2012 (Term expirations for voting members shown in parentheses)  

E-print Network

CME MEMBERS 2011-2012 (Term expirations for voting members shown in parentheses) Voting Members Council Chairs Voting Members Dr. Amy Wilson-Delfosse Chair, Basic Science Curriculum Council Pharmacology for the University Program E306 School of Medicine 4924 (216) 368-5189, drw4@case.edu Dr. James B. Young Chair, CCLCM

Rollins, Andrew M.

144

Interrater Reliability to Assure Valid Content in Peer Review of CME-Accredited Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) provides guidelines for continuing medical education (CME) materials to mitigate problems in the independence or validity of content in certified activities; however, the process of peer review of materials appears largely unstudied and the reproducibility of…

Quigg, Mark; Lado, Fred A.

2009-01-01

145

Medical Education and Communication Companies Involved in CME: An Updated Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Medical Education and Communication Companies (MECCs) represent approximately 21% of the providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), yet relatively little is known about these organizations in the greater continuing medical education (CME) community. Two prior studies described them,…

Peterson, Eric D.; Overstreet, Karen M.; Parochka, Jacqueline N.; Lemon, Michael R.

2008-01-01

146

Radio imaging of synchrotron emission associated with a CME on the 14th of August 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio observations can be used to identify sources of electron acceleration within flares and CMEs. In a small number of events, radio imaging has revealed the presence of synchrotron emission from nonthermal electrons in the expanding loops of the CME (Bastian et al. (2001), Maia et al. (2007) and Démoulin et al. (2012)). Events in which the synchrotron emission is sufficiently bright to be identified in the presence of plasma emission from radio bursts, which are prevalent at meter wavelengths, are infrequent. Using radio images from the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) we present observations of synchrotron emission associated with a CME which occurred on the 14th of August 2010. Using context observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2, the LASCO coronograph onboard SOHO and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), we follow the propagation of the CME out to 2-3 solar radii and characterize the associated electron distribution. We find that the synchrotron emission is cospatial with the CME core.

Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Raftery, C. L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.

2012-12-01

147

A Family Systems Balint Group: A Case Report from a C.M.E. Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report comes from an innovative, continuing medical education (CME) course for community physicians that used a family systems approach in a Balint-style group. The case report illustrates the distinctive features of a Family Systems Balint Group and demonstrates the benefits of videotaping case presentations for review purposes. The co-facilitators commented on how the family system affected the case

Richard J. Botelho; Susan H. McDaniel; James E. Jones

1990-01-01

148

Tests of Dynamical Flux Emergence as a Mechanism for CME Initiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current coronal mass ejection (CME) models set their lower boundary to be in the lower corona. They do not calculate accurately the transfer of free magnetic energy from the convection zone to the magnetically dominated corona because they model the effec...

J. E. Leake, M. G. Linton, S. K. Antiochos

2010-01-01

149

Solar Wind Electron Strahls Associated with a High-Latitude CME: Ulysses Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counterstreaming beams of electrons are ubiquitous in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - although their existence is not unanimously accepted as a necessary and/or sufficient signature of these events. We continue the investigation of a high-latitude CME registered by the Ulysses spacecraft on 18 - 19 January 2002 (Dumitrache, Popescu, and Oncica, Solar Phys. 272, 137, 2011), by surveying the solar-wind electron distributions associated with this event. The temporal evolution of the pitch-angle distributions reveals populations of electrons that are distinguishable through their anisotropy, with clear signatures of i) electron strahls, ii) counter-streaming in the magnetic clouds and their precursors, and iii) unidirectionality in the fast wind preceding the CME. The analysis of the counter-streams inside the CME allows us to elucidate the complexity of the magnetic-cloud structures embedded in the CME and to refine the borders of the event. Identifying such strahls in CMEs, which preserve properties of the low ? [<1] coronal plasma, gives more support to the hypothesis that these populations are remnants of the hot coronal electrons that escape from the electrostatic potential of the Sun into the heliosphere.

Lazar, M.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S.; Dumitrache, C.; Popescu, N. A.

2014-11-01

150

Homologous flare-CME events and their metric type II radio burst association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active region NOAA 11158 produced many flares during its disk passage. At least two of these flares can be considered as homologous: the C6.6 flare at 06:51 UT and C9.4 flare at 12:41 UT on February 14, 2011. Both flares occurred at the same location (eastern edge of the active region) and have a similar decay of the GOES soft X-ray light curve. The associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were slow (334 and 337 km/s) and of similar apparent widths (43° and 44°), but they had different radio signatures. The second event was associated with a metric type II burst while the first one was not. The COR1 coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft clearly show that the second CME propagated into the preceding CME that occurred 50 min before. These observations suggest that CME-CME interaction might be a key process in exciting the type II radio emission by slow CMEs.

Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Dwivedi, V. C.; Jain, R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Nitta, N. V.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Choudhary, D. P.

2014-11-01

151

Determination of CME 3D Trajectories From Stereoscopic Analysis of STEREO Coronagraph Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results demonstrating that the 3D trajectory (velocity and direction) of a CME can be determined from stereoscopic analysis of a series of simultaneous coronagraph image pairs from the STEREO A and B spacecraft. It has been demonstrated that stereoscopic analysis (aka triangulation) of bright coronal features such as loops can be used to determine their 3D location and

P. C. Liewer; E. M. Dejong; J. R. Hall; R. A. Howard; W. T. Thompson; A. Thernisien

2008-01-01

152

Effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity: modeling the 2012-March-07 SEP event with ENLIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T programAbstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We performed a case study on the effect of CME interactions on SEP intensity for the 2012-March-07 SEP event. The 2012 March 07 SEP event had the second largest intensity during solar cycle 24. The SEP/ESP peak intensities peaked at 1500/6000 pfu. The event was associated with a double X-ray flare and two CMEs in quick succession. In soft X-rays, the flares reached peak flux levels of X5.4 (00:02 UT) and X1.1, respectively, from AR1429 (N18E31). The flare peaks were at ~00:24 and ~01:14 UT, while the onset times were 00:02 UT and 01:05 UT. The associated CMEs were very fast: 2376 km/s (CME1) and 2203 km/s (CME2) and appeared < 1 hour apart. Two distinct type II radio bursts were detected in the decameter-hectometric (DH) spectrum observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment. The interaction of two CMEs was clearly seen from STEREO COR2 B movie from West limb around 01:54 UT, with enhanced signature in DH type II spectrum around the same time. The two CMEs arrived at 21.5 Rs (inner boundary of ENLIL) at 01:55 UT and 02:40 UT, respectively, with flux-rope fitted propagation directions of N17E27 and N00E17. Two ENLIL runs were performed: 1) only CME1 was inserted at 21.5Rs and 2) both CME1 and CME2 were inserted in the simulation to study the effect of CME interactions. Comparing the results of the two runs, we found that both the shock intensity and shock speed of Run2 were higher than Run1, suggesting that the CME interaction have not only enhanced shock intensity but also caused higher speed, therefore resulting in larger SEP intensity. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T program

Xie, Hong; Gopalswamy, N.; St. Cyr, O. C.

2013-07-01

153

Webinar Speakers December 2, 2011 - Frontiers in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Online CME Series  

Cancer.gov

Frontiers in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Online CME Series Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention: Shining Light on the Current Research Friday, December 02, 2011 12:00 – 1:30 pm EST SPEAKERS Dietary Guidelines: How Much Is Enough? How Much Is Too Much? JoAnn

154

Effects of the June 2011 CME Observed by Mars Express Ionospheric Sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the effects of a strong coronal mass ejection on the Martian ionosphere as directly observed by the Active Ionospheric Sounding (AIS) mode of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) on board the Mars Express spacecraft. We are able to time the onset, peak, and recovery from the CME through in situ background provided by the High-Energy Neutron Detector on board the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and the ASPERA-3 plasma instrument on board Mars Express. Increased electron intensity for the duration of the CME is confirmed by disappearance of the MARSIS AIS surface reflection and disruption of the MARSIS Subsurface mode surface reflection. Local electron density and magnetic field strength measurements from MARSIS AIS show that prior to CME peak intensity, there is compression of the Martian ionosphere accompanied by simultaneous plasma density and magnetic field strength oscillation. At the peak of the CME, the Martian ionosphere is compressed enough to be completely below the orbit of Mars Express. The ionospheric peak, usually detectable by MARSIS AIS remote sounding out to about 100° solar zenith angle, is extended at significant density to solar zenith angles of 113°. The nature of this increase, whether due to increased flow or increased ionization due to particle flux, continues to be a subject of inquiry.

Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Duru, F.; Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Andrews, D. J.; Ulusen, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Plaut, J. J.

2012-12-01

155

The Integrated Joslin Performance Improvement/CME Program: A New Paradigm for Better Diabetes Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of…

Brown, Julie A.; Beaser, Richard S.; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

2011-01-01

156

CME - Open Field Coupling: Application to the escape of Flare-accelerated Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere is believed to be the driver of most solar active phenomena. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of the coronal magnetic field are central to understanding solar and heliospheric activity. Important heliospheric manifestations of intense energy release linked to solar activity include the impact at the Earth of energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions. Observationally, the magnetic configuration of active regions, where solar eruptions occur, agrees well with the standard model of eruption, consisting of a flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). According to the standard model, particles accelerated at the flare reconnection site should remain trapped in the CME. However, flare-accelerated particles frequently reach the Earth long before the CME does. We present a 3D model that explains how flare-accelerated particles escape into the interplanetary magnetic flux tubes during a solar eruption. Our model is based on results of large-scale 3D MHD simulations of a breakout-CME erupting into the heliosphere build by an isothermal solar wind. The simulations are performed with the Adaptively Refined Mhd Solver (ARMS). We describe the multiple reconnection episodes that occur during the evolution of the event, and show how they lead to the release of flare-accelerated particles onto open field lines. Analyzing the dynamics of the reconnected flux during the eruption, we evaluate the spatial distribution and the timing of the particle beams injected into the heliosphere. We discuss the implications of results for CME/flare models and for SEPs observations. This work was supported, in part, by the NASA TR&T and SR&T Programs.

Masson, S.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.

2013-12-01

157

Combined Analysis of Ultraviolet and Radio Observations of the 7 May 2004 CME/Shock Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from the combined analysis of UV and radio observations of a CME-driven shock observed on 7 May 2004 above the southeast limb of the Sun at 1.86 R ? with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The coronal mass ejection (CME) was first detected in white-light by the SOHO's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 telescope and shock-associated type II metric emission was recorded simultaneously by ground-based radio spectrographs. The shock speed (˜ 690 km s-1), as deduced from the analysis of the type II emission drift in the radio spectra and the pre-shock local electron density estimated with the diagnostics provided by UVCS observations of the O vi ?? 1031.9, 1037.6 doublet line intensities, is just a factor ˜ 0.1 higher than the CME speed inferred by means of the white-light (and EUV) data in the middle corona. The local magnetosonic speed, computed from a standard magnetic field model, was estimated as high as ˜ 600 km s-1, implying that the CME speed was probably just sufficient to drive a weak fast-mode MHD shock ahead of the front. Simultaneously with the type II radio emission, significant changes in the O vi doublet line intensities and profiles were recorded in the UVCS spectra and found compatible with abrupt post-shock plasma acceleration and modest ion heating. This work provides further evidence for the CME-driven origin of the shocks observed in the middle corona.

Mancuso, Salvatore

2011-11-01

158

Combined Analysis of Ultraviolet and Radio Observations of the 7 May 2004 CME/Shock Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from the combined analysis of UV and radio observations of a CME-driven shock observed on 7 May 2004 above the southeast limb of the Sun at 1.86 R ? with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The coronal mass ejection (CME) was first detected in white-light by the SOHO's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 telescope and shock-associated type II metric emission was recorded simultaneously by ground-based radio spectrographs. The shock speed (˜ 690 km s-1), as deduced from the analysis of the type II emission drift in the radio spectra and the pre-shock local electron density estimated with the diagnostics provided by UVCS observations of the O vi ?? 1031.9, 1037.6 doublet line intensities, is just a factor ˜ 0.1 higher than the CME speed inferred by means of the white-light (and EUV) data in the middle corona. The local magnetosonic speed, computed from a standard magnetic field model, was estimated as high as ˜ 600 km s-1, implying that the CME speed was probably just sufficient to drive a weak fast-mode MHD shock ahead of the front. Simultaneously with the type II radio emission, significant changes in the O vi doublet line intensities and profiles were recorded in the UVCS spectra and found compatible with abrupt post-shock plasma acceleration and modest ion heating. This work provides further evidence for the CME-driven origin of the shocks observed in the middle corona.

Mancuso, Salvatore

159

INVESTIGATION OF THE FORMATION AND SEPARATION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM THE EXPANSION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION  

SciTech Connect

We address the nature of EUV waves through direct observations of the formation of a diffuse wave driven by the expansion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and its subsequent separation from the CME front. The wave and the CME on 2011 June 7 were well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Following the solar eruption onset, marked by the beginning of the rapid increasing of the CME velocity and the X-ray flux of accompanying flare, the CME exhibits a strong lateral expansion. During this impulsive expansion phase, the expansion speed of the CME bubble increases from 100 km s{sup -1} to 450 km s{sup -1} in only six minutes. An important finding is that a diffuse wave front starts to separate from the front of the expanding bubble shortly after the lateral expansion slows down. Also a type II burst is formed near the time of the separation. After the separation, two distinct fronts propagate with different kinematic properties. The diffuse front travels across the entire solar disk, while the sharp front rises up, forming the CME ejecta with the diffuse front ahead of it. These observations suggest that the previously termed EUV wave is a composite phenomenon and driven by the CME expansion. While the CME expansion is accelerating, the wave front is cospatial with the CME front, thus the two fronts are indiscernible. Following the end of the acceleration phase, the wave moves away from the CME front with a gradually increasing distance between them.

Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Olmedo, O. [NRC, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-01-20

160

The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta  

E-print Network

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and...

Turrini, Diego

2014-01-01

161

The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta  

PubMed Central

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1–2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement.

Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

162

The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement.

Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

163

Microwave large-scale shining chains and their relation to CME/LDE events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NRH) data at 17 GHz have revealed a new remarkable feature: an existence of large-scale (comparable with the size of the solar disk) chains shining at microwaves. Such chains can be seen clearly at the NRH images with a restricted range of the brightness temperature (for example, for Tb <= 2 times 104 K) when the most intense sources are suppressed. The blobs consisting the chains are characterized by the angular sizes of 30-60 arcseconds and the brightness temperature of about Tb ~(11-15) times 103 K. At least two types of the microwave chains should be distinguished. Firstly, there are so-called long-living chains which exist and keep their general form during many days, stretch from one active region to another remote active region/plage and rotate together with these formations. The microwave chains of the second type with a characteristic time scale of tens of hours appear to be associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and post-CME energy release that are revealed, in particular, by long-duration events (LDEs) in the soft X-ray and microwave ranges. In some cases, such events are accompanied by strong changes of the form and location of the pre-existing chains, especially near the LDE source. In other cases, new chains and cells arise also in an extended region around the LDE source. The comparison with other solar images and maps shows that the form and location of the microwave chains (particularly, of the long-living ones) may coincide with sharp boundaries of coronal holes, observed with Yohkoh/SXT. They may outline also footpoint lines of some large X-ray arcades and correspond to the general picture of large-scale magnetic fields and filaments. In the latter case, the chains repeat the form of the corresponding filaments but are located at considerable distance from these filaments. These features mean that some large-scale structures shine at microwaves as a result of energy release associated either with long-term evolution of large-scale magnetic fields or with disturbances of extended magnetic fields identified with CMEs. The most probable mechanism responsible for the radio emission of the blobs forming the chains is the thermal free-free emission. The more detailed study of this phenomenon and especially detailed comparisons with other solar images and magnetograms are in progress.

Chertok, I. M.; Shibasaki, K.

164

DFT NORMAL MODES ON TERTIARY CATION EtCMeCHEtO-TMS FOLLOWED BY REOPTIMIZATION USING THE ANALYTIC FORCE  

E-print Network

+ DFT NORMAL MODES ON TERTIARY CATION EtCMeCHEtO-TMS FOLLOWED BY REOPTIMIZATION USING THE ANALYTIC. ********************************************* Gaussian 98: x86-Win32-G98RevA.7 11-Apr-1999 10-Sep-2001 ********************************************* %chk=etcmechetoTMS

Morton, Thomas Hellman

165

43 CFR 11.42 - How does the authorized official apply the NRDAM/CME or NRDAM/GLE?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type A Procedures § 11...CME or NRDAM/GLE indicates damages in excess of $100,000, then...000; or (2) Compute all damages using type B procedures....

2012-10-01

166

43 CFR 11.42 - How does the authorized official apply the NRDAM/CME or NRDAM/GLE?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type A Procedures § 11...CME or NRDAM/GLE indicates damages in excess of $100,000, then...000; or (2) Compute all damages using type B procedures....

2013-10-01

167

43 CFR 11.42 - How does the authorized official apply the NRDAM/CME or NRDAM/GLE?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type A Procedures § 11...CME or NRDAM/GLE indicates damages in excess of $100,000, then...000; or (2) Compute all damages using type B procedures....

2011-10-01

168

43 CFR 11.42 - How does the authorized official apply the NRDAM/CME or NRDAM/GLE?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type A Procedures § 11...CME or NRDAM/GLE indicates damages in excess of $100,000, then...000; or (2) Compute all damages using type B procedures....

2010-10-01

169

Combining Models, Theory and Observations to Reconstruct CME and Shock Morphology and Create an Empirical Prediction Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many factors that contribute to the evolution and propagation of a Coronal Mass Ejection as well as associated shock waves in the interplanetary space, including both the initial characteristics of the CME as well as the physical quantities of the solar wind regime the CME will be encountering. No one data set contains enough information to constrain these parameters, but by combining a number of different data sets including in-situ solar wind measurements, remote sensing white light and EUV observations, numerical models and using a theoretical propagation model based on aerodynamic drag, the study of multiple events can lead to an empirical prediction model for the arrival of both the CME ejecta and shock at the Earth. The more events that are studied the more accurate the results will be as the forces governing CME acceleration/deceleration are better understood.

Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

2014-06-01

170

Effects of Hysteresis Between Maximum CME Speed Index and Typical Solar Activity Indicators During Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the smoothed time series of maximum CME speed index for solar cycle 23, it is found that this index, analyzed jointly with six other solar activity indicators, shows a hysteresis phenomenon. The total solar irradiance, coronal index, solar radio flux (10.7 cm), Mg ii core-to-wing ratio, sunspot area, and H? flare index follow different paths for the ascending and the descending phases of solar cycle 23, while a saturation effect exists at the maximum phase of the cycle. However, the separations between the paths are not the same for the different solar activity indicators used: the H? flare index and total solar irradiance depict broad loops, while the Mg ii core-to-wing ratio and sunspot area depict narrow hysteresis loops. The lag times of these indices with respect to the maximum CME speed index are discussed, confirming that the hysteresis represents a clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission.

Özgüç, A.; Kilcik, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

2012-12-01

171

Magnetic Interaction of a Super-CME with the Earth's Magnetosphere: Scenario for Young Earth  

E-print Network

Solar eruptions, known as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are frequently observed on our Sun. Recent Kepler observations of superflares on G-type stars have implied that so called super-CMEs, possessing kinetic energies 10 times of the most powerful CME event ever observed on the Sun, could be produced with a frequency of 1 event per 800-2000 yr on solar-like slowly rotating stars. We have performed a 3D time-dependent global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the magnetic interaction of such a CME cloud with the Earth's magnetosphere. We calculated the global structure of the perturbed magnetosphere and derive the latitude of the open-closed magnetic field boundary. We also estimated energy fluxes penetrating the Earth's ionosphere and discuss the consequences of energetic particle fluxes on biological systems on early Earth.

Airapetian, Vladimir S; Danchi, William

2014-01-01

172

CME hits Earth 10/24, 1400 EDT Researchers Identify Mysterious Life  

E-print Network

News CME hits Earth 10/24, 1400 EDT #12;News · Researchers Identify Mysterious Life Forms.spacedaily.com/reports/Spitzer_Snaps_a_Picture_of_the_ Coolest_of_Companions_999.html #12;Europa And the Moons of Jupiter #12;NH and Fl #12;Recap: Comparative to remain stable as a liquid #12;The Moons of Jupiter Ganymede Callisto Io Europa The 4 Galilean moons

Walter, Frederick M.

173

Practical considerations to setting up a radiology CME conference: how we do it.  

PubMed

The authors describe our experience in planning, organizing, and running a radiology CME conference at a hotel (rather than at a stand-alone conference or convention center). Much of the information described should also be useful for other medical and nonmedical conferences. This experience should provide new conference organizers with useful information to ensure a more efficient and successful conference, so there are fewer "If I knew then what I know now" moments over the years. PMID:23452485

Gross, Joel A; Fisher, Carole W; Thapa, Mahesh M

2013-03-01

174

Charge state composition in coronal hole and CME related solar wind: Latitudinal variations observed by Ulysses and WIND  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron charge states in recurrent coronal hole-associated solar wind flows are obtained in the ecliptic by WIND/SMS, while measurements of iron and silicon from the polar coronal holes are available from Ulysses/SWICS. Ulysses/SWICS also provides ion composition of coronal mass ejection (CME)-related solar wind. Both coronal hole-associated and CME-related solar wind charge charges show heliographic latitudinal variations.

Galvin, A. B.; Gloeckler, G.

1997-01-01

175

UVCS\\/SOHO observations of a CME-driven shock: Consequences on ion heating mechanisms behind a coronal shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the observation of a 1100 km s-1 CME-driven shock with the UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) telescope operating on board SOHO on March 3, 2000. The shock speed was derived from the type II radio burst drift rate and from UVCS observations that can yield the density profile just before the passage of the shock. A CME projected speed

S. Mancuso; J. C. Raymond; J. Kohl; Y.-K. Ko; M. Uzzo; R. Wu

2002-01-01

176

Research on a complex CME event including H?, LASCO, radio and MDI observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our research on a fast and decelerating partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) event detected in multi-wavelengths in the chromosphere and the corona on 14 October, 1999. The event involved a whole complex active area which spanned more than 40° of heliolongitude. It included a strong solar flare (XI/1N) and a complex eruptive filament within an active region of the entire complex. Especially, several radio sources were detected in the decimetric range prior to the CME by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). A linear force-free field extrapolation of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetogram was performed to calculate the magnetic topology of the complex prior to the triggering of the event. The presence of a coronal null point combined with the occurrence of two distant and nearly simultaneous radio sources put strong arguments in favor of the generalized breakout model for the triggering of the eruption. The analysis of the subsequent development of the event suggests that large interconnecting loops were ejected together with the CME.

Wang, S. J.; Maia, D.; Pick, M.; Aulanier, G.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Delaboudinière, J.-P.

177

Calculating CME Velocity in Near-Real-Time Using Geometric and Polarimetric Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, we have been investigating two different methods for determining the location, extent, and motion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in 3-space from STEREO coronagraph observations. Since this work is aimed at space weather applications, the emphasis is on use of beacon data, which are available in near-real-time. In addition, we primarily use COR2 observations, which has a field-of-view from 2.5 to 15R⊙ this spatial coverage allows us to observe the early temporal development of a CME, and hence calculate its velocity, even for very fast CMEs. COR2 beacon data is transmitted every 15 min, alternating between total intensity only images and full polarization sets. These data are processed in two different ways to determine CME locations. One is a simple geometric localization, which is based upon triangulation concepts and utilizes a series of lines-of-sight from two space-based observatories to localize the CME position to within a small volume. The other technique involves using the polarization data to infer the mean distance from the plane of the sky, as seen from each spacecraft. Together, these analyses enable us to pin down the locus and motion of CMEs quite accurately. We will show results from some recent examples to illustrate the capabilities.

De Koning, Curt A.; Pizzo, V. J.; Biesecker, D. A.

2009-05-01

178

Understanding CME and associated shock in the solar corona by merging multi wavelengths observation  

E-print Network

Using multi-wavelength imaging observations, in EUV, white light and radio, and radio spectral data over a large frequency range, we analyzed the triggering and development of a complex eruptive event. This one includes two components, an eruptive jet and a CME which interact during more than 30 min, and can be considered as physically linked. This was an unusual event. The jet is generated above a typical complex magnetic configuration which has been investigated in many former studies related to the build-up of eruptive jets; this configuration includes fan-field lines originating from a corona null point above a parasitic polarity, which is embedded in one polarity region of large Active Region (AR). The initiation and development of the CME, observed first in EUV, does not show usual signatures. In this case, the eruptive jet is the main actor of this event. The CME appears first as a simple loop system which becomes destabilized by magnetic reconnection between the outer part of the jet and the ambient m...

Zucca, Pietro; Demoulin, Pascal; Kerdraon, Alain; Lecacheux, Alain; Gallagher, Peter T

2014-01-01

179

Topical delivery of antioxidants.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders, and the skin, for its localization, is exposed to a large number of environmental threats. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants have thus been proposed as protective or therapeutic agents against ROS-mediated injuries. Oral treatment with several antioxidants has been reported to provide skin protection against deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation. Topical delivery of antioxidants has increasingly gained interest and development, especially by offering better targeting to the upper skin layer. However, the topical delivery of antioxidants for dermal action is a challenging research field since the molecules are, in general, susceptible to degradation. The search for a new delivery system that, simultaneously, preserves the antioxidant stability and enhances its deposition on the skin, opened a new chapter in drug delivery design. Nanocarriers have been successful in enhancing the clinical efficiency of several drugs. More recent approaches in modulating through the skin delivery led to the development of specialized nanoparticulated systems. The first part of this article presents a review of the potential of antioxidants as pharmacological agents in ROS related diseases, with a special focus on oxidative stress implicated skin pathologies: ROS formation and natural protection against ROS toxicity, ROS-mediated skin damage and skin protection by antioxidants. In the second part of this work, we present reported formulation strategies for dermal delivery of antioxidants focusing on the nanoparticulated systems developed in recent years. PMID:22313160

Ascenso, Andreia; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida; Marques, Helena Cabral; Simoes, Sandra

2011-11-01

180

Delivery methods for LVSD systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.

Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.

2011-06-01

181

Delivery presentations  

MedlinePLUS

... for the delivery progress. If the presenting part lies above the ischial spines, the station is reported ... number is a centimeter). If the presenting part lies below the ischial spines, the station is reported ...

182

Radiation Belt Electron Response to CME- and CIR-driven Geomagnetic Storms (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both a prompt increase and decrease of outer zone electron fluxes have been observed due to CME-shock driven geomagnetic storms, at times faster than convective buildup of the ring current, which produces radial losses when combined with inward motion of the magnetopause. Several storms around the last solar maximum are examined using the LFM-MHD code to compute internal magnetospheric E and B fields from upstream solar wind parameters, combined with a 3D guiding center test particle code to examine: 1) radial transport and 2) enhanced precipitation losses into the atmosphere. Inward radial transport increases flux at a given energy and L value, while outward radial transport to the inward moving magnetopause produces loss, along with enhanced losses to the atmosphere. On the longer time scale of a storm, including buildup of the ring current, additional radial losses result from fully adiabatic and diffusive transport. Enhanced ULF wave activity can produce both coherent and diffusive transport and energy exchange with electrons in drift resonance with azimuthally propagating ULF waves. Coherent transport and energization can occur at a rate which exceeds nominal radial diffusion estimates but is slower than prompt injection on a drift time scale. Precipitation losses for the January 20, 2005 storm occur on the time scale of magnetosonic impulse propagation through the magnetosphere, following arrival of a CME-shock, much faster than the time scale for build up of the ring current and enhanced EMIC wave precipitation losses. The balance between enhanced and decreased phase space density when losses are included will be examined, along with a CIR-driven storm comparison, which can produce sustained electron flux increases exceeding those of CME-driven storms.

Hudson, M. K.; Brito, T.; Elkington, S. R.; Kress, B.; Li, Z.; Wiltberger, M. J.

2010-12-01

183

Type II solar radio bursts predicted by 3-D MHD CME and kinetic radio emission simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impending space weather events at Earth are often signaled by type II solar radio bursts. These bursts are generated upstream of shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that move away from the Sun. We combine elaborate three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic predictions of realistic CMEs near the Sun with a recent analytic kinetic radiation theory in order to simulate two type II bursts. Magnetograms of the Sun are used to reconstruct initial solar magnetic and active region fields for the modeling. STEREO spacecraft data are used to dimension the flux rope of the initial CME, launched into an empirical data-driven corona and solar wind. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the two type II bursts observed by the Wind spacecraft on 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. Propagation of the simulated CME-driven shocks through coronal plasmas containing preexisting density and magnetic field structures that stem from the coronal setup and CME initiation closely reproduce the isolated islands of type II emission observed. These islands form because of a competition between the growth of the radio source due to spherical expansion and a fragmentation of the radio source due to increasingly radial fields in the nose region of the shock and interactions with streamers in the flank regions of the shock. Our study provides strong support for this theory for type II bursts and implies that the physical processes involved are understood. It also supports a near-term capability to predict and track these events for space weather predictions.

Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

2014-01-01

184

Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

185

The Driving Magnetic Field and Reconnection in CME/Flare Eruptions and Coronal Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signatures of reconnection in major CME (coronal mass ejection)/flare eruptions and in coronal X-ray jets are illustrated and interpreted. The signatures are magnetic field lines and their feet that brighten in flare emission. CME/flare eruptions are magnetic explosions in which: 1. The field that erupts is initially a closed arcade. 2. At eruption onset, most of the free magnetic energy to be released is not stored in field bracketing a current sheet, but in sheared field in the core of the arcade. 3. The sheared core field erupts by a process that from its start or soon after involves fast "tether-cutting" reconnection at an initially small current sheet low in the sheared core field. If the arcade has oppositely-directed field over it, the eruption process from its start or soon after also involves fast "breakout" reconnection at an initially small current sheet between the arcade and the overarching field. These aspects are shown by the small area of the bright field lines and foot-point flare ribbons in the onset of the eruption. 4. At either small current sheet, the fast reconnection progressively unleashes the erupting core field to erupt with progressively greater force. In turn, the erupting core field drives the current sheet to become progressively larger and to undergo progressively greater fast reconnection in the explosive phase of the eruption, and the flare arcade and ribbons grow to become comparable to the pre-eruption arcade in lateral extent. In coronal X-ray jets: 1. The magnetic energy released in the jet is built up by the emergence of a magnetic arcade into surrounding unipolar "open" field. 2. A simple jet is produced when a burst of reconnection occurs at the current sheet between the arcade and the open field. This produces a bright reconnection jet and a bright reconnection arcade that are both much smaller in diameter that the driving arcade. 3. A more complex jet is produced when the arcade has a sheared core field and undergoes an ejective eruption in the manner of a miniature CME/flare eruption. The jet is then a combination of a miniature CME and the products of more widely distributed reconnection of the erupting arcade with the open field than in simple jets.

Moore, Ronald L.

2010-01-01

186

Plasma properties from the multi-wavelength analysis of the November 1st 2003 CME/shock event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the spectral properties and dynamic evolution of a CME/shock event observed on November 1st 2003 in white-light by the LASCO coronagraph and in the ultraviolet by the UVCS instrument operating aboard SOHO, has been performed to compute the properties of some important plasma parameters in the middle corona below about 2R?. Simultaneous observations obtained with the MLSO/Mk4 white-light coronagraph, providing both the early evolution of the CME expansion in the corona and the pre-shock electron density profile along the CME front, were also used to study this event. By combining the above information with the analysis of the metric type II radio emission detected by ground-based radio spectrographs, we finally derive estimates of the values of the local Alfvén speed and magnetic field strength in the solar corona.

Benna, Carlo; Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio; Gioannini, Lorenzo

2013-05-01

187

Magnetospheric Dynamics and ion acceleration during CME- and CIR/HSS-driven geomagnetic storms (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the dynamics of the magnetosphere, including the access and acceleration of ions of ionospheric and solar wind origin in the near-Earth magnetotail during geomagnetic storms caused by the impact of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and high-speed streams. For each of the storms studied, we ran a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the event using upstream solar wind and IMF data. We then launched ions originating from the solar wind and from the ionosphere in the global, time-dependent electric and magnetic fields obtained from the MHD simulation of the event. We investigate three CME-initiated storms, and highlight our results during the 8 - 9 March 2008 CIR/HSS geomagnetic storm, which began with the arrival of a density plug associated with a CIR at ~0730 UT on 8 March, followed by the HSS commencing at ~1830 UT. Minimum Dst occurred at ~0530 UT on 9 March, ~4 hours after the arrival of a second density plug. For each of the storms, we present the response of the MHD simulation to solar wind driving as well as the changes to the geoeffective access of solar wind and ionospheric ions to the inner magnetosphere. We also delineate the physical processes responsible for ion acceleration during each storm event.

Peroomian, V.; Garg, S.; El-Alaoui, M.

2013-12-01

188

PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the magnetic cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the interplanetary medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.

Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

2009-12-01

189

Superposed epoch analysis of ion temperatures during CME- and CIR/HSS-driven storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral atom Spectrometers (TWINS) Mission provides a global view of the magnetosphere with near-continuous coverage. Utilizing a novel technique to calculate ion temperatures from the TWINS energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements, we generate ion temperature maps of the magnetosphere. These maps can be used to study ion temperature evolution during geomagnetic storms. A superposed epoch analysis of the ion temperature evolution during 48 storms will be presented. Zaniewski et al. [2006] performed a superposed epoch analysis of ion temperatures by storm interval using data from the MENA instrument on the IMAGE mission, demonstrating significant dayside ion heating during the main phase. The TWINS measurements provide more continuous coverage and improved spatial and temporal resolution. Denton and Borovsky [2008] noted differences in ion temperature evolution at geosynchronous orbit between coronal mass ejection (CME)- and corotating interaction region (CIR)/high speed stream (HSS)- driven storms. Using our global ion temperature maps, we have found consistent results for select individual storms [Keesee et al., 2012]. We will present superposed epoch analyses for the subgroups of CME- and CIR/HSS-driven storms to compare global ion temperature evolution during the two types of storms.

Keesee, A. M.; Scime, E. E.

2012-12-01

190

Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini ,Sneha Yadav and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India Abstract: The concerning results, are the variation of Geomagnetic Field Component in European Zone during CME events. The geomagnetic events selected for this study occurred during 2003-2006, a period of declining phase of solar cycle 23rd at European zone (Tromso, Sodankyla and Rorvik with Geomagnetic Latitude 69.39o N and Long. 18.56o E, Geomagnetic Latitude 67.360o N and Long. 26.363o E and Geomagnetic Latitude 64.56o N and Long.10.59 o E). From this study it is observed that the strength of a geomagnetic storm depends on the interplanetary-magnetospheric coupling parameter VBz. Higher the value of VBz, higher will be the strength of geomagnetic storm. Magnitude of variation at Rorvik is more as compared to Tromso and magnitude of variation is more at Tromso as compared to Sodankyla. Variation in vertical component is less as compared to the north-south and east-west component. Geomagnetic field components shows the variation when either interplanetary magnetic field orientes southward or remains southward for few hours.

Chandel, Babita

191

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

192

Long-term evaluation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation with a biologic and synthetic delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of microspheres made of polylactic acid polyglycolic acid copolymer mixed with blood clot as a delivery system for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was evaluated and the long term behaviour of rhBMP-2 in rats was studied. Twenty micro grams of rhBMP-2 in 200 ?l carrier (blood coagulum and polylactic acid polyglycolic acid porous microspheres) were implanted subcutaneously

C Alpaslan; K Irie; K Takahashi; N Ohashi; H Sakai; T Nakajima; H Ozawa

1996-01-01

193

Amphiphilic Polymer-Mediated Formation of Laponite-Based Nanohybrids with Robust Stability and pH Sensitivity for Anticancer Drug Delivery.  

PubMed

The development of pH-sensitive drug delivery nanosystems that present a low drug release at the physiological pH and are able to increase the extent of the release at a lower pH value (like those existent in the interstitial space of solid tumors (pH 6.5) and in the intracellular endolysosomal compartments (pH 5.0)) is very important for an efficient and safe cancer therapy. Laponite (LP) is a synthetic silicate nanoparticle with a nanodisk structure (25 nm in diameter and 0.92 nm in thickness) and negative-charged surface, which can be used for the encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX, a cationic drug) through electrostatic interactions and exhibit good pH sensitivity in drug delivery. However, the colloidal instability of LP still limits its potential clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrate an elegant strategy to develop stable Laponite-based nanohybrids through the functionalization of its surface with an amphiphile PEG-PLA copolymer by a self-assembly process. The hydrophobic block of PEG-PLA acts as an anchor that binds to the surface of drug-loaded LP nanodisks, maintaining the core structure, whereas the hydrophilic PEG part serves as a protective stealth shell that improves the whole stability of the nanohybrids under physiological conditions. The resulting nanocarriers can effectively load the DOX drug (the encapsulation efficiency is 85%), and display a pH-enhanced drug release behavior in a sustained way. In vitro biological evaluation indicated that the DOX-loaded nanocarriers can be effectively internalized by CAL-72 cells (an osteosarcoma cell line), and exhibit a remarkable higher anticancer cytotoxicity than free DOX. The merits of Laponite/PEG-PLA nanohybrids, such as good cytocompatibility, excellent physiological stability, sustained pH-responsive release properties, and improved anticancer activity, make them a promising platform for the delivery of other therapeutic agents beyond DOX. PMID:25167168

Wang, Guoying; Maciel, Dina; Wu, Yilun; Rodrigues, João; Shi, Xiangyang; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng; Tomás, Helena; Li, Yulin

2014-10-01

194

Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

2011-01-01

195

Simulation of the 23 July 2012 extreme space weather event: What if this extremely rare CME was Earth directed?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (˜1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME. We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Leila Mays, M.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

2013-12-01

196

The Role of Short-Term Precursors in a Hybrid CME Forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AFRL Space Weather Forecasting Laboratory (SWFL) was established as a testbed for data, models and techniques used to forecast significant space weather events. Most space weather originates at the Sun with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) being a significant source. When CMEs strike the Earth, they can cause auroras, geomagnetic storms and other hazardous conditions that can adversely affect space and grounds systems and personnel. The longer the advance warning of these phenomena, the more effective and efficient can be the mitigating steps taken by the military and civilian communities. Warning periods between 72 and 120 hours are needed, based on the required lead times necessary for satellite and air tasking orders. However, the magnetic properties and other characteristics of CMEs vary greatly and CMEs travel at variable speeds, taking from one to four days to reach Earth. Often the most geoeffective CMEs travel the fastest and a strictly deterministic approach will not meet the advance warning requirements in these cases. To remedy this, forecasters and system designers must incorporate climatology, persistence, recurrence, and precursory indicators to break the 72 hour barrier. With the long operational record of SOHO and other Solar/Heliospheric instruments we have data to work with for climatology, and with the advent of the Solar Mass Ejection Imager and the STEREO spacecraft, tracking of CMEs has been demonstrated as practical. However, indicators and precursors, minutes to hours before a CME launches, are currently elusive. This talk examines what such precursors might be and how they would fit into a Hybrid CME forecast.

Johnston, J. C.; Kuchar, T. A.; Webb, D. F.

2010-12-01

197

On-board CME detection algorithm for the Solar Orbiter-METIS coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The METIS coronagraph is one of the instruments part of the payload of the ESA - Solar Orbiter mission to be launched in 2017. The spacecraft will operate much like a planetary encounter mission, with the main scientific activity taking place with the remote-sensing instruments during three 10-days intervals per orbit: optimization of the different instrument observing modes will be crucial. One of the key scientific targets of METIS will be the study of transient ejections of mass through the solar corona (Coronal Mass Ejections - CMEs) and their heliospheric evolution. METIS will provide for the first time imaging of CMEs in two different wavelengths: VL (visible light 580- 640 nm) and UV (Lyman-? line of HI at 121.6 nm). The detection of transient phenomena shall be managed directly by the METIS Processing and Power Unit (MPPU) by means of both external triggers ("flags") coming from other Solar Orbiter instruments, and internal "flags" produced directly by the METIS on-board software. METIS on-board algorithm for the automatic detection of CMEs will be based on running differences between consecutive images re-binned to very low resolution and thresholded for significant changes over a minimum value. Given the small relative variation of white light intensity during CMEs, the algorithm will take advantage of VL images acquired with different polarization angles to maximize the detection capability: possible false detections should be automatically managed by the algorithm. The algorithm will be able to provide the CME first detection time, latitudinal direction of propagation on the plane of the sky (within 45 degrees), a binary flag indicating whether a "halo CME" has been detected.

Bemporad, A.; Andretta, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Focardi, M.; Straus, T.; Sasso, C.; Spadaro, D.; Uslenghi, M.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Nicolini, G.; Landini, F.; Romoli, M.; Naletto, G.; Nicolosi, P.

2014-07-01

198

Evaluation of Speakers at CME: Cosmecon 2006, An International Conference on Ageing and Anti-ageing  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine what constitutes effective or ineffective lecturing in dermatological conferences and also the utility of a scientific programme for the dermatologists. Methods and Materials: Evaluation forms were circulated to delegates attending the Cosmecon conference on ageing and anti-ageing, held in July 2006 at Bangalore. Feedback from the delegates in the form of completed evaluation forms of individual speakers and each session of the 3-day conference Cosmecon (including the live workshop on aesthetic and surgical procedures) were studied. Comments were analysed with the help of a biostatistician to determine the positive and negative responses. Results: On day 1 of the conference, workshop included 14 procedures by different specialists and on the second and third days of the conference, there were a total of 10 sessions, with five on each day. Evaluation forms were handed out to 440 delegates on day 1 and 600 delegates on days 2 and 3. Fifty-five speakers were evaluated by an average 56 delegates out of 440 delegates on day 1 and 600 delegates on the second and third days. The delegate response to completing the evaluation form was poor. Only about 25% of the delegates completed the feedback forms. However, the feedback did give some insight to the scientific programme, on both positive and negative aspects. Most delegates stated that they benefited from the presentations. The main negative response was lack of opportunity to ask questions after a lecture. The main positive comment was that the time keeping in the conference was very good. Conclusion: The response of the delegates in providing feedback was poor. Efforts have to be made to educate and encourage delegates to complete the feedback forms. Systematic review of the speakers would provide information to design future CME programmes effectively and to incorporate improvements for effective lecturing and to avoid ineffective lectures. The CME evaluation can also help the organizers to provide training to presenters and to monitor performance. PMID:20300355

Vijayashankar MR

2008-01-01

199

The Relationship Between CME Properties in the CDAW, CACTUS and SEEDS Catalogs and ?25 MeV Solar Proton Event Intensities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of a correlation between the intensity of solar energetic proton (SEP) events and the speed of the associated coronal mass ejection near the Sun is well known, and is often interpreted as evidence for particle acceleration at CME-driven shocks. However, this correlation is far from perfect and might be improved by taking other parameters into consideration (e.g., CME width). In studies of cycle 23 SEP events, values of CME speed, width and other parameters were typically taken from the CDAWWeb LASCO CME catalog. This is compiled 'by hand' from examination of LASCO images by experienced observers. Other automated LASCO CME catalogs have now been developed, e.g., CACTUS (Royal Observatory of Belgium) and SEEDS (George Mason University), but the basic CME parameters do not always agree with those from the CDAWweb catalog since they are not determined in the same way. For example the 'CME speed' might be measured at a specific position angle against the plane of the sky in one catalog, or be the average of speeds taken along the CME front in another. Speeds may also be based on linear or higher order fits to the coronagraph images. There will also be projection effects in these plane of the sky speeds. Similarly, CME widths can vary between catalogs and are dependent on how they are defined. For example, the CDAW catalog lists any CME that surrounds the occulting disk as a 'halo' (360 deg. width) CME even though the CME may be highly-asymmetric and originate from a solar event far from central meridian. Another catalog may give a smaller width for the same CME. The problem of obtaining the 'true' CME width is especially acute for assessing the relationship between CME width and SEP properties when using the CDAW catalog since a significant fraction, if not the majority, of the CMEs associated with major SEP events are reported to be halo CMEs. In principle, observations of CMEs from the STEREO A and B spacecraft, launched in late 2006, might be used to overcome some of these problems. In particular, a spacecraft in quadrature with the solar source of an SEP event should observe the 'true' width and speed of the associated CME. However, STEREO CME parameters are derived using the CACTUS method, and cannot be directly compared with the LASCO CDAW catalog values that have been so widely used for many years. In this study, we will examine the relationship between the properties of CMEs in various catalogs and the intensities of a large sample of particle events that include ˜25 MeV protons in cycles 23 and 24. In particular, we will compare the proton intensity-speed relationships obtained using the CDAW, CACTUS and SEEDS LASCO catalogs, and also using the CACTUS values from whichever spacecraft (STEREO A, B or SOHO) is best in quadrature with the solar event. We will also examine whether there is any correlation between the width of the CMEs in the automated catalogs and proton intensity, and whether a combination of CME speed and width might improve the correlation with proton intensity.

Richardson, I. G.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Cane, H. V.

2013-12-01

200

Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. II. CME-Induced Ion Pick Up of Earth-like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric erosion of CO2 -rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for

Helmut Lammer; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; Yuri N. Kulikov; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; N. Terada; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Helfried K. Biernat; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Thomas Penz; Franck Selsis

2007-01-01

201

The effect of rhBMP-2 and PRP delivery by biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds on new bone formation in a non-through rabbit cranial defect model  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated whether the combination of biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could accelerate bone formation and increase bone height using a rabbit non-through cranial bone defect model. Four non-through cylindrical bone defects with a diameter of 8-mm were surgically created on the cranium of rabbits. ?-TCP scaffolds in the presence and absence of impregnated rhBMP-2 or PRP were placed into the defects. At 8 and 16 weeks after implantation, samples were dissected and fixed for analysis by microcomputed tomography and histology. Only defects with rhBMP-2 impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds showed significantly enhanced bone formation compared to non-impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds (p<0.05). Although new bone was higher than adjacent bone at 8 weeks after implantation, vertical bone augmentation was not observed at 16 weeks after implantation, probably due to scaffold resorption occurring concurrently with new bone formation. PMID:23779152

Lim, Hyun-Pil; Mercado-Pagan, Angel E.; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Taek-Hue; Bishop, Julius; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Maloney, William; Lee, Kwang-Min; Yang, Yunzhi; Park, Sang-Won

2013-01-01

202

Convection Responses to the CME Shock Fronts of 21 January 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. On 20 January, there was an X 7.1 class solar flare at 0650 UT. This flare produced a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) that impacted the Earth 36 hours later. At the Earth, there were two shocks with a staircase structure in density observed by the ACE spacecraft. The delayed to Earth arrival times of these shocks were 1713 and 1844 UT. The Cluster spacecraft in the solar wind also observed the shock waves closer to the Earth. Refined arrival time estimates will be discussed. During the geomagnetic storm that this CME impact produced there were 3 MINIS balloons aloft, one in the N Hemisphere and two in the South. In the balloon data, the first shock impact appeared to produce two electric field impulses of ~30 minute duration and up to 60 mV/m amplitude corresponding to flow toward the dayside cusp. These events were accompanied or followed by bursts of MeV electron precipitation, the first of which was observed in both hemispheres. The relationship between these impulses and the variations in IMF Bz will be explored. Additionally, the resulting phase shift (~ 20 min) between peak convection times in the N Hemisphere and S Hemisphere, as measured by the SuperDARN radar and MINIS, are presented and discussed. The electric field variations detected from separated balloon platforms can provide insight into the fields that convect energetic particles to form new radiation belts.

Reddell, B. D.; Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M. F.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; Smith, D.; Ruohomiemi, M.

2006-12-01

203

The CME-ICME Connection and Interplanetary Structure During Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an interplanetary transient (ICME) exhibits a large angle and smooth rotation in the IMF vector, it is classified as a magnetic cloud (MC) and commonly interpreted as the signature of a magnetic flux rope. On the average bout a third of ICME ejecta are MCs, although the fraction seems to be larger during the quiet phase of the solar cycle. Non-flux rope ICMEs are likely (1) distorted during the transit through heliosphere, (2) observed at an unfavorable crossing angle if the ICME structure has spatial variation, (3) or are simply have a more complex internal structure. Five Magnetic Clouds (MC) have been found from a total of nine ICMEs observed during 2007 January 01 to 2008 August 31, when the separation of STEREO A (STA) and B (STB) spacecraft varied between 0.05 to 70.35 degrees heliolongitude. We investigate the four best MCs using observations from three spacecraft (STA, STB and ACE). The first MC seems to have been detected by all three spacecraft (STA and STB 40.4 degrees apart), while the latter three were detected by only one of the STEREO spacecraft and sometimes by ACE. From the inferred flux rope orientation at each crossing and the spatial variation of the ICME properties, we interpret how each MC flux rope was situated relative to the spacecraft, and its connection to the Sun from corresponding coronal and heliospheric modeling results. Each of the MCs can be associated at low confidence (in contrary to expectations for solar minimum time) with a CME observed by coronagraphs on board STEREO and/or SOHO. All potential parent CMEs were very slow in the 200 km/s range (plane-of-sky), but the speeds of the MCs were between ~390 and ~480 km/s, indicating acceleration in the heliosphere. Solar disk activities are minor around the four CMEs, with no GOES x-ray flares, and two possibly associated filament eruptions. Some CME structures appear to form in the coronagraph field of view rather than rising from below. Several low/mid- latitude coronal holes and a highly warped coronal streamer arcade and source surface neutral line dominate the coronal structure during the period of the study. Previous studies have shown that the MC fluxrope orientation may be aligned with the large-scale coronal streamer arcades. Estimated MC orientations are discussed and compared with events during the previous solar minimum, which exhibited a more dipolar coronal structure. This work was supported, in part, by NASA NNG06GE51G, NNX08AJ04G, and NAS5-03131.

Li, Y.; Lynch, B. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kilpua, E.; Toy, V.; Vourlidas, A.; Russell, C. T.; Galvin, A. B.

2008-12-01

204

Comparative Guide to DCE Marketing Services Tiers All live CME courses accredited by HMS DCE receive Base Marketing Services.1 These newly streamlined  

E-print Network

Increased registrations through more effective marketing strategy and customized marketing assets: web, print, email Increased registrations through more effective marketing strategy and customized marketingComparative Guide to DCE Marketing Services Tiers All live CME courses accredited by HMS DCE

Paulsson, Johan

205

Elemental composition before, during and after the January 6, 1997, CME event measured by CELIAS/SOHO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using solar wind particle data from the charge, element and isotope analysis system (CELIAS) experiment on the SOHO mission, densities of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe are derived, and their abundance is analyzed before, during and after the 6 Janaury 1997 coronal mass ejection event (CME). In the interstream and coronal hole regions before and after this event, typical solar wind abundances for the elements investigated were found. However, during the passage of the coronal mass ejection and during the passage of the erupted filament, the elemental composition differed markedly from typical solar wind. For the passage of the CME and for the passage of the erupted filament, a mass-dependent enhancement of the elements was found, with a monotonic increase towards heavier elements. Si/O and Fe/O ratios of the order of one during these time periods were observed.

Wurz, P.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Bochsler, P.; Aellig, M. R.; Kallenbach, R.; Hovestadt, D.; Gruenwaldt, H.; Hilchenbach, M.; Axford, W. I.; Balsiger, H.; Buergi, A.; Coplan, M. A.; Geiss, J.; Gliem, F.; Gloeckler, G.; Hefti, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Klecker, B.; Lee, M. A.

1997-01-01

206

Modeling the CME Ejecta and Coronal Wave of the 2012-06-14 Event Using STEREO and SOHO Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a crucial role in disrupting the space environment as they plow through the heliosphere after being expelled from the Sun. In particular, energetic CMEs in the corona consist of at least two elements: the classic CME ejecta or driver visible as a discrete, bright blob of erupting coronal material; and an enveloping compressive wave that forms deep in the corona due to the sudden plasma motion associated with the erupting ejecta. Using STEREO/COR2 and SOHO/LASCO coronagraph observations, we separately characterize the ejecta and surrounding coronal wave for the CME observed on 2012-06-14. These results are subsequently cast into a new form of input conditions for an Enlil MHD simulation. We discuss the model results obtained from the coronagraph observations, as well as the Enlil simulation of this event.

de Koning, C. A.; Odstrcil, D.; Pizzo, V. J.

2012-12-01

207

Tracking the Momentum Flux of a CME and Quantifying Its Influence on Geomagnetically Induced Currents at Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate a coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward Earth on 29 March 2011. This event is specifically chosen for its predominately northward directed magnetic field, so that the influence from the momentum flux onto Earth can be isolated. We focus our study on understanding how a small Earth-directed segment propagates. Mass images are created from the white-light cameras onboard STEREO which are also converted into mass height-time maps (mass J-maps). The mass tracks on these J-maps correspond to the sheath region between the CME and its associated shockfront as detected by in situ measurements at L1. A time series of mass measurements from the STEREOCOR-2A instrument is made along the Earth propagation direction. Qualitatively, this mass time series shows a remarkable resemblance to the L1 in situ density series. The in situ measurements are used as inputs into a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetospheric space weather simulation from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. These simulations display a sudden compression of the magnetosphere from the large momentum flux at the leading edge of the CME, and predictions are made for the time derivative of the magnetic field (dBdt) on the ground. The predicted dBdt values were then compared with the observations from specific equatorially located ground stations and showed notable similarity. This study of the momentum of a CME from the Sun down to its influence on magnetic ground stations on Earth is presented as a preliminary proof of concept, such that future attempts may try to use remote sensing to create density and velocity time series as inputs to magnetospheric simulations.

Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lavraud, B.; Owens, M. J.

2013-01-01

208

Silicon-Delivery Tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delivery tube transfers molten silicon between high-temperature vessel. Transport tube is sealed to delivery vessel and receiving vessel and slanted so gravity moves molten silicon. Contamination is prevented since molten silicon only contacts quartz delivery tube.

Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. M.

1983-01-01

209

Cme Propagation And Expansion In 3-d Space In The Heliosphere Based On Stereo/secchi Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a study of kinematic and morphological evolution of CMEs by using STEREO/SECCHI observations to track in 3-D space a set of well observed events from the sun to a large distance in the heliosphere. The CME tracking is based on the Raytrace model (Thernisien et al 2006), which represents a CME as a 3-D flux rope like structure. This model is split into two parts having a where the upper portion is modeled as a semicircular and the lower portion as two straight legs. With this model the true 3-D location can be obtained. We are able to further calculate CME velocity, which is free of projection effect. In particular, the cross-section of CMEs, and thus the expansion speed can be found. For the 4 events studied, we find that their leading edge velocities eventually converge into a narrow range of 500 km/s to 700 km/s, while their initial velocities range from about 400 km/s to 1500 km/s. Their expansion velocities also converge into a narrow range between 75 km/s and 175 km/s. We also fit the data to a derived empirical formula that helps us compare the leading edge velocity profile for each event. We find that the deceleration of fast events and acceleration of slow events mainly occurs within 45 solar radii.

Poomvises, Watanachak; Zhang, J.; Olmedo, O.

2010-05-01

210

On the Magnetic Field Topology and Magnetic Flux Budget of CME-ICME Intercomparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that originate, propagate away from the Sun, and carry along solar material with embedded solar magnetic field. The entire process, especially for certain flare-associated CMEs, can be observed by multiple instrumentations on-board several on-going spacecraft missions. The interplanetary counterparts of CMEs (ICMEs) are often detected in-situ by spacecraft monitoring solar wind conditions, which provides both magnetic field and plasma measurements sampled along the spacecraft path across the ICME structure. All these remote-sensing and in-situ measurements make it possible to perform the intercomparison between the (I)CMEs and their source regions at the Sun. We will follow up a prior study of examining the magnetic field topology of flare-associated CME-ICME events by seeking a quantitative relationship characterized by the magnetic flux budget comparison. We will select recent events during the rising phase of enhanced solar activity, and utilize modern observations from the most recent spacecraft missions, such as the STEREO and SDO missions. Both observational analyses of solar source region flaring characteristics and the corresponding ICME structures will be carried out. Relevant physical quantities will be derived and inter-compared. In particular, we are seeking a quantitative correlation between the magnetic flux contained within an ICME flux rope and that injected during the origination process at the Sun to validate or possibly update our previous findings.

Hu, Q.; Qiu, J.; Fink, D. J.; Zheng, J.

2012-12-01

211

Identification of Solar Processes During A Halo-cme On May 2, 1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trigger mechanism for Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are not understood beyond a rudimentary level. Radio observations are an important tool for understanding the relationship between flares and CMEs, their individual develop- ment, and their respective role in the production of energetic particles. Each radio solar phenomenon may be observed at several wavelenghts from ground- based instruments. Observations reveal that radio sources differ, at each frequency, in locations on the solar disk, in temporal duration, and spatial size. From the statistical properties of these physical processes, we want to identify them and, if possible, to separate them by a systematic approach. In this study we consider the 10-second resolution multi-wavelength (164, 236, 327, 410 and 432 Mhz) radio data of a halo-CME observed on May 2, 1998 provided by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) and we use a spatio-temporal decomposition technique to split the data set into series of spatio-temporal modes. The salient features of radio data are captured by a limited number of modes only. A cluster analysis of these few modes permits to identify different processes such as a background radio emission, the pre-flash phase of flare, the radio flash and an intense continuum source.

Pereira, F.; Dudok de Wit, T.

212

Particle escape in the interplanetary medium: Link between CME observations and MHD simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the more hazardous forms of space weather at Earth and in the heliosphere are the intense solar energetic particle (SEP) bursts associated with fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. A fundamental question to understand the origin and the evolution of solar energetic particles is: How do solar energetic particles escape the Sun? Answering this question is critical for understanding how the corona couples dynamically to the heliosphere during explosive events, and is fundamental to developing any future forecasting capability for SEP events. The release onto open field lines of energetic particles originating in the low corona is the bridge connecting the acceleration site to the interplanetary propagation and is, therefore, the key to reconciling remote and in-situ observations of energetic particles. Recent multi-instrument studies showed that CMEs are important factors that determine whether the energetic particles escape into the heliosphere and partly define the spatial distribution of particle flux. In order to understand how and why CMEs play a crucial role in the particle escape, we must understand the dynamics of the corona disturbed by a CME ejection. The details of the dynamics can be studied through MHD simulations. To advance understanding, it is pertinent to combine observations and simulations to develop models that respect the observational constraints. Thus, first we will describe the observational results, then discuss how MHD simulations help demonstrate why CMEs are important for particle release.

Masson, Sophie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. Richard

213

Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non-equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coronal Mass Ejections are plasma clouds expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary medium. We study the propagation of shock waves in the solar corona generated during Coronal Mass Ejections by means of a numerical multi-dimensional MHD model. The model describes the MHD evolution of a compressible plasma in an ambient magnetic field including tensor thermal conduction, radiative losses as main physical effects. We use the MHD version of the FLASH parallel hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, originally developed at the University of Chicago USA). The code is highly modular and made efficiently parallel with the Message Passing Interface library. We analyze the diagnostic signatures of shock fronts generated by supersonic CME fragments detectable with the UltraViolet Coronagraphic Spectrometer on board the SoHO mission. To this aim we perform 3D MHD simulations of the shock propagation for the time it takes to cross the UVCS slit positioned at a distance of a few solar radii from the solar surface. In the presence of highly effective thermal conduction the simulation takes 200000 time steps to cover 1000 s of evolution. Considering a 3-D domain of 256x256x512 grid cells this kind of simulations requires thousands of hours of computer time and therefore high performance computing (HPC) systems. The simulations were run on the CINECA IBM/SP5 HPC cluster within the INAF/CINECA agreement. We show simulation results and some implications for UVCS observations.

Pagano, P.; Raymond, J. C.; Reale, F.

214

The Solar Corona and a CME at the 2010 Total Eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse was observed on the ground from French Polynesia and, 83 minutes later, from Easter Island, and near-simultaneous images were made with spacecraft instruments including AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, SWAP/PROBA2, EIT/SOHO, and LASCO/SOHO. We report on changes in the corona detectable with high-resolution image processing of the ground-based eclipse coronal imaging, including two CME's that were seen to evolve. We compare with the spacecraft images to give a complete depiction of coronal structure at the time of the eclipse, which corresponded to a low but rising phase of the solar-activity cycle. We acknowledge the support of NASA's MSFC NNX10AK47A, NSF REU AST-1005024 with DoD ASSURE, VEGA 2/0098/10 of the Slovak Acad. Sci, 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation, PRODEX C90345 of ESA/BELSPO, FP7/2007-2013/218816 SOTERIA, Lockheed Martin; for equipment: Nikon Professional Services, ASTELCO Systems GmbH (Germany), and National Geographic Society's Photographic Division; and colleagues Y.-M. Wang (NRL), S. Habbal (U. Hawaii), H. Lanteires (Tatakoto), and J. Kern (Carnegie Obs.).

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga, M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.; Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.

2011-05-01

215

Numerical experiments of magnetic reconnection in the solar flare and CME current sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in the energy conversion in the solar eruption. This paper performs a set of MHD experiments for the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet formed in a disrupting magnetic configuration. The eruption results from the loss of equilibrium in the magnetic configuration that includes a current-carrying flux rope, which is used to model the filament floating in the corona. In order to study the fine structure and micro process inside the current sheet (CS), the mesh refinement technology is used to depress the numerical diffusion. A uniform physical diffusion is applied and results in a Lundquist number S=10^4 in the vicinity of CS. Because of the advantage of the foregoing setting, some features appear with high resolution, including plasmoids due to the tearing mode and the plasmoid instabilities, turbulence regions, and the slow mode shocks. Inside CS, magnetic reconnection goes through the Sweet-Parker and the fractal fashions, and eventually, it displays a time-dependent Petschek pattern. Our results seem to support the concept of fractal reconnection suggested by Shibata et al. (1995) and Shibata & Tanuma (2001). And our results suggest that the CS evolves through a Sweet-Parker reconnection prior to the fast reconnection stage. For the first time, the detailed features and/or fine structures inside the CME/flare CS in the eruption were investigated in this work.

Mei, Zhixing; Lin, Jun; Shen, Chengcai

2012-07-01

216

CME Mass Estimates via EVE Coronal Dimmings for X-class Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range, which is available for most of the 29 X-class flares that have occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejection from the low corona. We estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked"at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. The "maximum" occurred more than one hour after GOES peak. The dimming signature is generally cleanly measurable in the EVE/MEGS-A spectral samples at10 s cadence, with the dominant source of uncertainty stemming from the "sun-as-a-star" integrations; for example flare-related excess emission at a given wavelength tends to compensate for the dimming,and in this sense the mass estimate must be considered a lower limit. We address these uncertainties for the solar case by appealing to the AIA images, but for analogous processes in stellar flares one would not have this luxury.

Hudson, Hugh S.; Hannah, Iain; Schrijver, Karel

2014-06-01

217

Comparison of CME masses and kinetic energies near the Sun and in the inner heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Masses have now been determined for many of the CMEs observed in the inner heliosphere by the HELIOS 1 and 2 zodiacal light photometers. The speed of the brightest material of each CME has also been measured so that, for events having both mass and speed determinations, the kinetic energies of the CMEs are estimated. We compare the masses and kinetic energies of the individual CMEs measured in the inner heliosphere by HELIOS and near the Sun from observations by the SOLWIND (1979-1983) and SMM coronagraphs (1980). Where feasible we also compare the speeds of the same CMEs. We find that the HELIOS masses and energies tend to be somewhat larger by factors of 2-5 than those derived from the coronagraph data. We also compare the distribution of the masses and energies of the HELIOS and coronagraph CMEs over the solar cycle. These results provide an important baseline for observations of CMEs from coronagraphs, from the ISEE-3/ICE, WIND and Ulysses spacecraft and in the future from SOHO.

Webb, D. F.; Howard, R. A.; Jackson, B. V.

1995-01-01

218

May 12 1997 CME Event: A Simplified Model of the Pre-Eruptive Magnetic Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of the coronal magnetic field prior to the CME eruption on May 12 1997 is developed. First, this field is constructed by superimposing a large-scale background field and a localized bipolar field to model the active region (AR) in the potential approximation. The background field is determined from the observed photospheric normal field averaged over the longitude of the Sun. The AR field is modeled by a subphotospheric dipole whose parameters are optimized to fit the magnetic field obtained from an MDI magnetogram. Second, this potential configuration is quasi-statically sheared by photospheric vortex motions applied to two flux concentrations of the AR. Third, the resulting force-free field is then evolved by canceling the photospheric flux with the help of a flow converging to the neutral line of the AR. To understand the structure of the modeled configuration, we use a field line mapping technique generalized to spherical geometry. It is demonstrated that the initial configuration contains a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) consisting of two intersecting quasi-separatrix layers. This HFT provides a partition of the closed magnetic flux between the AR and global solar magnetic field. Such a partition is approximate since the entire flux distribution is perfectly continuous. The vortex motions applied to the AR interlock the coronal field lines to form additionally two new HFTs pinched into thin current layers (CLs). These CLs carry the return current shielding the twisted field of the AR from a nearly potential background field. Reconnection in these CLs helps redistribute the flux in the configuration during the cancellation phase. At this phase, a magnetic flux rope is formed together with a bald patch separatrix surface wrapping around the rope. Other important implications of the identified structural features of the modeled configuration are also discussed.

Titov, Viacheslav; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.

2007-05-01

219

Transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted

Mark R Prausnitz; Robert Langer

2008-01-01

220

Polytetrahydrofuran- and dendrimer- based novel sol-gel coatings for capillary microextraction (cme) providing parts per trillion (ppt) and parts per quadrillion (ppq) level detection limits in conjunction with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (fid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sol-gel capillary microextraction (CME) is a new direction in solvent-free extraction and preconcentration of trace analytes. CME presents significant interest in environmental, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, biomedical, agricultural, food, flavor, and a host of other important areas. Sol-gel CME utilizes advanced material properties of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel polymers to perform efficient extraction and enrichment of target analytes from a variety of matrices.

Abuzar Kabir

2005-01-01

221

E-mail access to NetCME: implementation of server push paradigm.  

PubMed Central

We describe the implementation of a Continuing Medical Education project which utilizes e-mail delivery of HTML documents to facilitate participant access to case material. HTML e-mail is displayed directly within the e-mail reader of the Netscape browser. This system of proactive educational content delivery ensures simultaneous distribution to all participants. Although a more effective method of content distribution, the system preserves user confidentiality and maintains security. HTML e-mail is non-proprietary and could be integrated into existing Internet-based educational projects to facilitate user access. Images p694-a Figure 5 PMID:9357714

McEnery, K. W.; Grossman, J. E.

1997-01-01

222

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

...structured; Number of days of closure; and Area closed stated in square kilometers. For furbearer hunting or trapping areas and waterfowl hunting areas: Number of days of closure; and Area closed stated in square kilometers. Implicit...

2014-10-01

223

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...environment. Each set must include: Wind velocity stated in knots or meters per second...consisting of— An east-west (U) velocity stated in centimeters per second or knots; A north-south (V) velocity stated in centimeters per second...

2011-10-01

224

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...environment. Each set must include: Wind velocity stated in knots or meters per second...consisting of— An east-west (U) velocity stated in centimeters per second or knots; A north-south (V) velocity stated in centimeters per second...

2010-10-01

225

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...environment. Each set must include: Wind velocity stated in knots or meters per second...consisting of— An east-west (U) velocity stated in centimeters per second or knots; A north-south (V) velocity stated in centimeters per second...

2013-10-01

226

43 CFR Appendix II to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/CME  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...environment. Each set must include: Wind velocity stated in knots or meters per second...consisting of— An east-west (U) velocity stated in centimeters per second or knots; A north-south (V) velocity stated in centimeters per second...

2012-10-01

227

Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.  

PubMed

Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances CME plasma erosion. Therefore, we suggest that larger and more massive terrestrial-type exoplanets may better protect their atmospheres against CMEs, because the larger cores of such exoplanets would generate stronger magnetic moments and their higher gravitational acceleration would constrain the expansion of their thermosphere-exosphere regions and reduce atmospheric escape. PMID:17407407

Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck

2007-02-01

228

The solar minimum X2.6/1B flare and CME of 9 July 1996. Pt. 1; Solar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar observations from GOES-8, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Yohkoh satellite concerning the events of the X-class flare are discussed. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) magnetometer shows a new region of magnetic activity in AR 7978. The rapid development and evolution of this region is shown by the MDI and the extreme-ultraviolet Doppler telescope (EDT) data. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed using coronagraphs are presented. The possible association between the CME and the X-flare is considered.

Andrews, M. D.; Dryer, M.; Aurass, H.; DeForest, C.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Meisner, R.; Paswaters, S. E.; Smith, Z.; Tappin, S. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Watari, S.-I.; Lamy, P.; Mann, G.; Schwenn, R.; Michels, D. J.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M.

1997-01-01

229

Using SOHO to Understand CME-Producing Quiet-Region Filament Eruptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years we have been studying solar eruptions in an attempt to determine their primary initiation mechanism. We have focused on events involving filaments, because motions of the filaments just prior to their violent eruption are indicative of changes in the entire magnetic field system involved in the eruption. When the pre-eruption filament resides in a quiet region, the motions leading up to eruption are slower than in similar eruptions in active regions due to the weaker magnetic field strength and correspondingly lower Alfven velocities. These early motions manifest themselves in a slow rise (a few km/s) of the filament, in some cases lasting several hours. After this the filament and associated magnetic structures erupt rapidly, accelerating to speeds of a few 10 kmh over a few minutes. Because of their slow evolution, quiet-region eruptions such as these can be effectively studied in EUV with SOHO/EIT, with its regular cadence of about 12 min. For several cases we have combined EIT images with SOHO/MDI magnetograms and data from other other instruments, and compared our observations with predictions from various eruption scenarios, in particular the "breakout" (Antiochos 1998), "tether cutting" (e.g., Moore et al. 2001), and MHD instability mechanisms. Here we present a representative example of a quiet-region eruption involving a filament ejection, that occurred on 2001 February 28 in a magnetically quadrupolar region and produced a halo CME in SOHO/LASCO images. In addition to EIT and MDI, we analyzed spectral data from SOHO/CDS and soft X-ray (SXR) images from Yohkoh/SXT. We found that flux emergence occurred near one end of the filament, and that both this emergence and resulting microflaring in SXRs and EUV were temporally and spatially closely related to the start of the filament's slow rise. Intensity changes (dimmings and brightenings) in the EIT and SXT images indicate that fields far removed from the erupting core were involved in the eruption, and that breakout-type reconnection did occur. Our observations allow us to investigate whether breakout was the trigger of the eruption, or merely a consequence of a more fundamental eruption process such as tether cutting or MHD instability occurring in a complex magnetic environment.

Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.; Harra, L. K.

2006-01-01

230

Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

2011-01-01

231

Use of Yohkoh SXT in Measuring the Net Current and CME Productivity of Active Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In our investigation of the correlation of global nonpotentiality of active regions to their CME productivity (Falconer, D.A. 2001, JGR, in press, and Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2000, EOS 82, 20 S323), we use Yohkoh SXT images for two purposes. The first use is to help resolve the 180 degree ambiguity in the direction of the observed transverse magnetic field. Resolution of the 180 degree ambiguity is important, since the net current, one of our measures of global nonpotentiality, is derived from integrating the dot product of the transverse field around a contour (I(sub N)=(integral)BT(raised dot)dl). The ambiguity results from the observed transverse field being determined from the linear polarization, which gives the plane of the direction, but leaves a 180 degrees ambiguity. Automated methods to resolve the ambiguity ranging from the simple acute angle rule (Falconer, D.A. 2001) to the more sophisticated annealing method (Metcalf T.R. 1994). For many active regions, especially ones that are nearly potential these methods work well. But for very nonpotential active regions where the shear angle (the angle between the observed and potential transverse field) is near 90 degrees throughout large swaths along the main neutral line, both methods can resolve the ambiguity incorrectly for long segments of the neutral line. By determining from coronal images, such as those from Yohkoh/SXT, the sense of shear along the main neutral line in the active region, these cases can be identified and corrected by a modification of the acute angle rule described here. The second use of Yohkoh/SXT in this study is to check for the cusped coronal arcades of long-duration eruptive flares. This signature is an excellent proxy for CMEs, and was used by Canfield, Hudson, and McKenzie (1999 GRL V26, 6, 627-630). This work is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program and by NASA through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

232

In situ drug delivery.  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery to tumours and the accessibility of tumour cells to drugs remains a problem of foremost importance and is affected by many factors. We will discuss models we have developed for drug delivery from tumour capillaries to tumour cells, and drug delivery from well perfused, well oxygenated tumour regions to less well perfused hypoxic regions in terms of computer simulation of drug delivery for the anticancer agent BCNU and the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole. PMID:6932949

Levin, V. A.; Wright, D. C.; Landahl, H. D.; Patlak, C. S.; Csejtey, J.

1980-01-01

233

Typical CME-IP shock events during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24 and their arrival time predictions at Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting arrival times of interplanetary (IP) shocks at the near Earth space is an important ingredient of space weather forecasting because the passage of an IP shock at Earth will compress the magnetosphere and produce corresponding space weather effects. We have developed a new shock arrival time prediction model, called SPM2, based on 551 solar disturbance events during Solar Cycle 23. Here new shock events in Solar Cycle 24 will be used to check the predicting performance of SPM2. 35 typical CME-IP shock events during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24 (2009-2013) with near-simultaneous coronagraph observations of CMEs and metric type II radio bursts are adopted as the sample events. Comparisons between the initial shock speed calculated from the type II burst drifting rate and the CME speed derived from coronagraph observations are investigated. It is found that the multi-spacecraft coronagraph observations combined with appropriate CME leading edge fitting model can give a more reliable CME radial speed than the type II burst shock speed. Then, SPM2 and an empirical model, which input the type II shock speed and CME speed respectively, are used to give the arrival time prediction of the associated IP shocks at the Earth orbit. The predicting precision of the empirical model would become better if the CME is tracked to a larger helio-distance. The prediction of SPM2 gives a similar predicting accuracy even its input parameters contain larger uncertainties. On this sense, the potential capability of the SPM2 model is also discussed in terms of real-time shock arrival time forecasts.

Zhao, X.; Feng, X.

2013-12-01

234

Transcriptional Regulation of the CmeABC Multidrug Efflux Pump and the KatA Catalase by CosR in Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

CosR is an essential response regulator in Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing enteritis worldwide. A transcriptomic analysis performed in this study discovered 93 genes whose transcriptional levels were changed >2-fold due to the repression of CosR expression by antisense peptide nucleic acid. The identified CosR-regulated genes are involved in various cellular functions, such as energy production, protein synthesis and folding, flagellum biogenesis, and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, 17 of the 93 CosR-regulated genes (18.3%) are predicted essential genes, indicating that CosR may participate in the regulation of vital biological processes in C. jejuni. In particular, CosR knockdown increased the transcriptional levels of cmeA, cmeB, and cmeC genes, whose protein product (CmeABC) is an important determinant conferring multidrug resistance in Campylobacter. Negative regulation of cmeABC by CosR was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and PcmeABC::lacZ assay. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated that CosR directly binds to the cmeABC promoter. Another notable finding is that CosR regulates the transcription of katA, the sole catalase gene in C. jejuni. Further characterization with qRT-PCR, the catalase enzyme assay, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assays successfully demonstrated that CosR affects the katA transcription and the catalase activity by direct interactions with the katA promoter. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that CosR regulates resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni by controlling the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense and extrusion of toxic compounds out of the cell. PMID:23065977

Hwang, Sunyoung; Zhang, Qijing; Ryu, Sangryeol

2012-01-01

235

2.5D MHD Simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at CME-Boundaries in the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory from 2011 February 24. This CME with an embedded filament shows periodic vortex-like structures at the northern side of the filament boundary with a wavelength of approximately 14.4 Mm and a propagation speed of about 310 ± 20 km/s. The morphological analysis hints at structures produced by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability on the boundary of the filament. We conduct 2.5D numerical simulations of the KH instability, whose results yield qualitative as well as quantitative agreements with the observations. Furthermore, we study the absence of KH vortex-like structures on the southern side of the filament boundary and find that a magnetic field component parallel to the boundary with a strength of about 20% of the total magnetic field has stabilizing effects resulting in an asymmetric development of the instability. This work receives funding from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P21051-N16, V195-N16 and P24092-N16.

Möstl, Ute; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid

2013-04-01

236

Modeling the radiation belt electron response to CME-driven storms: the first year of the Van Allen Probes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent geomagnetic storms at solar maximum have produced dynamic variations in outer zone radiation belt electron flux measured in detail by the Van Allen Probe twin spacecraft, launched August 30, 2012. Both enhanced flux and sudden dropouts have been observed, which characterize CME-driven storms dominating variability around solar maximum. High time resolution measurements of waves which modulate that variability are also made by the Van Allen Probes. In addition to strong evidence of prompt magnetopause loss provided by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS spacecraft, enhanced atmospheric precipitation has been observed by the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), launched from Antarctica in January to mid-February 2013. Results will be shown from modeling flux enhancements due to plasmasheet electron injection during the October 7 - 9 storm, which produced the largest enhancement seen since launch, along with ULF wave mediated magnetopause loss and loss to the atmosphere. The technique described follows electron test particles in global MHD fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD code driven by upstream solar wind measurements. Magnetopause location is investigated with the coupled LFM-RCM model. Plasmasheet electrons can be transported inside geosynchronous orbit, acquiring energies ~ 1 MeV, after loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere depletes the outer zone immediately following the arrival of CME shocks. The cycle of flux dropout and enhancement during storm intervals is followed by radial diffusion over quiet periods, which can be modeled by a diffusion code.

Hudson, M. K.; Brito, T. V.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Toffoletto, F.; Wiltberger, M. J.

2013-12-01

237

Determination of coronal magnetic fields from 10 to 26 R ? using the density compression ratios of CME-driven shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the estimation of coronal magnetic field using new methods, such as standoff distance method or density compression ratio method has been reported. In the present work, we utilized the density compression ratio of CME-driven shocks for 10 events at 29 different locations in the upper solar corona (10-26 R ?) and determined the coronal magnetic field for two different adiabatic indices ( ?=4/3 and 5/3). In addition, radial dependence of shock parameters in the corona is studied. It is found that the magnetic field estimated in the above range agree with the general trend. In addition, we obtained a radial profile of magnetic field [ B( R)=623 R -1.4] in the entire upper corona (3-30 R ?) by combining the magnetic field estimated by Kim et al. (Astrophys. J. 746:118, 2012) in the range 3-15 R ? and that estimated in the present study in the range (10-26 R ?). The power-law indices are nearly in agreement with recent results of CME-driven shocks reported in the literature. The results are discussed with the comparison of newly reported coronal magnetic field values obtained by different techniques and found that the power-law relation closely follow the literature values.

Shanmugaraju, A.; Suresh, K.; Moon, Y.-J.

2014-05-01

238

Articulating feedstock delivery device  

DOEpatents

A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

Jordan, Kevin

2013-11-05

239

THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24: DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SHOCK FORMATION AND PARTICLE RELEASE HEIGHTS  

SciTech Connect

We report on the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement (GLE) event, which is the first of its kind in solar cycle 24. This is the first GLE event to be fully observed close to the surface by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission. We determine the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst (i.e., shock formation height) as 1.38 Rs (from the Sun center). The CME height at the time of GLE particle release was directly measured from a STEREO image as 2.32 Rs, which agrees well with the estimation from CME kinematics. These heights are consistent with those obtained for cycle-23 GLEs using back-extrapolation. By contrasting the 2012 May 17 GLE with six other non-GLE eruptions from well-connected regions with similar or larger flare sizes and CME speeds, we find that the latitudinal distance from the ecliptic is rather large for the non-GLE events due to a combination of non-radial CME motion and unfavorable solar B0 angle, making the connectivity to Earth poorer. We also find that the coronal environment may play a role in deciding the shock strength.

Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Davila, J. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, MD (United States); Usoskin, I. G. [Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit) and Department of Physics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)

2013-03-10

240

Colloidal drug delivery systems in vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

Vaccines play a vital role in the field of community medicine to combat against several diseases of human existence. Vaccines primarily trigger the acquired immune system to develop long-lasting immunity against pathogens. Conventional approaches for vaccine delivery lacks potential to target a particular antigen to develop acquired immunity by specific antibodies. Recent advancements in vaccine delivery showed that inclusion of adjuvants in vaccine formulations or delivery of them in a carrier helps in achieving desired targeting ability, reducing the immunogenicity and significant augmentation in the immune response. Colloidal carriers (liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, proteosomes, virosomes and virus like particles (VLPs), antigen cochleates, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) have been widely explored for vaccine delivery. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells. The current review, therefore, provides an updated account on the recent advancements in various colloidal delivery systems in vaccine delivery, outlining the mechanism of immune response initiated by them along with potential applications and marketed instances in an explicit manner. PMID:23072326

Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Nazish, Iram; Sultana, Ruksar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Md Zaki; Akbar, Md

2013-01-01

241

Intracochlear Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases. PMID:21615213

Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2011-01-01

242

Quantitative understanding of Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the Forbush decrease (FD) event that occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and imply possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to shock phase and main phase amplitudes respectively. This confirms presently accepted physical scenario that the first step of FD is due to propagating shock barrier and second step is due to flux rope of CME/magnetic cloud.

Raghav, Anil; Bhaskar, Ankush; Lotekar, Ajay; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra

2014-10-01

243

Early signatures of large-scale field line opening. Multi-wavelength analysis of features connected with a "halo" CME event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast "halo"-type coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with a two-ribbon flare, GOES class M 1.3, was observed on February 8, 2000. Soft X-ray and EUV images revealed several loop ejections and one wave-like moving front that started from a remote location, away from the flare core region. A radio type-II burst was observed near the trajectory of the moving soft X-ray front, although association with the CME itself cannot be ruled out. Large-scale dimmings were observed in EUV and soft X-rays, both in the form of disappearing transequatorial loops. We can pinpoint the time and the location of the first large-scale field-line opening by tracing the electron propagation paths above the active region and along the transequatorial loop system, in which large-scale mass depletion later took place. The immediate start of a type-IV burst (interpreted as an upward moving structure) which was located over a soft X-ray dimming region, confirms that the CME had lifted off. We compare these signatures with those of another halo CME event observed on May 2, 1998, and discuss the possible connections with the "magnetic breakout" model.

Pohjolainen, S.; Vilmer, N.; Khan, J. I.; Hillaris, A. E.

2005-04-01

244

Correlation of the CME Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images, it is known qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions in which the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. In this paper, we present measurements from active-region vector magnetograms that begin to quantify the dependence of the CME productivity of an active region on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we obtain a measure of the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three different measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line; I(sub N), the net electric current arching from one polarity to the other; and alpha = muI(subN/phi), a flux-normalized measure of the field twist).

Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.; Gary, G. Allen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

245

The CME/ICME relationship for the 3-5 April 2010 and Aug 1-4 2010 events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) causing moderate geomagnetic storms in 2010, we discuss properties such as interplanetary propagation, orientation and arrival time calculation. We study heliospheric images of the CMEs provided by STEREO / HI in combination with in situ observations by the Wind spacecraft near Earth. The 3-5 April 2010 event was the first fast (800 km/s) ICME including a magnetic cloud observed by both the STEREO/HI instruments and a near Earth spacecraft. During the subsequent geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -72 nT, maximum Kp = 8-), communication with the Galaxy 15 satellite was lost. Using forward modeling in combination with HI techniques and the in situ velocity, we show that the ICME did not decelerate much between Sun and Earth. Earth was not hit directly, but the ICME flank was responsible for a long storm growth phase. The magnetic cloud (MC) inside the ICME cannot be modeled with approaches assuming an invariant direction. These observations confirm the hypotheses that parts of ICMEs classified as (1) long-duration MCs or (2) magnetic-cloud-like (MCL) structures can be a consequence of a spacecraft trajectory through the ICME flank. The 1-4 Aug 2010 events consisted of several CMEs accompanied by multiple ICME signatures near Earth, responsible for a two-step geomagnetic storm. We discuss which of the ICMEs correspond to the flare/filaments/CMEs observed by STEREO/COR/HI and SDO HMI/AIA observed closer to the Sun. We apply reconstruction methods to estimate the local flux rope orientation and other properties. The ICME signatures are linked to HI observations of the CME fronts, which yields full CME kinematics between the Sun and Earth. STEREO Ahead HI1/2 images of the 3-5 April 2010 Earth-directed coronal mass ejection.

Moestl, C.; Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Kilpua, E. K.; Farrugia, C. J.; Veronig, A.; Galvin, A. B.; Biernat, H. K.

2010-12-01

246

An Ensemble Study of a January 2010 Coronal Mass Ejection (CME): Connecting a Non-obvious Solar Source with Its ICME/Magnetic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinct magnetic cloud (MC) was observed in-situ at the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)-B on 20 - 21 January 2010. About three days earlier, on 17 January, a bright flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) were clearly observed by STEREO-B, which suggests that this was the progenitor of the MC. However, the in-situ speed of the event, several earlier weaker events, heliospheric imaging, and a longitude mismatch with the STEREO-B spacecraft made this interpretation unlikely. We searched for other possible solar eruptions that could have caused the MC and found a faint filament eruption and the associated CME on 14 - 15 January as the likely solar source event. We were able to confirm this source by using coronal imaging from the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)/EUVI and COR and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) telescopes and heliospheric imaging from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and the STEREO/ Heliospheric Imager instruments. We use several empirical models to understand the three-dimensional geometry and propagation of the CME, analyze the in-situ characteristics of the associated ICME, and investigate the characteristics of the MC by comparing four independent flux-rope model fits with the launch observations and magnetic-field orientations. The geometry and orientations of the CME from the heliospheric-density reconstructions and the in-situ modeling are remarkably consistent. Lastly, this event demonstrates that a careful analysis of all aspects of the development and evolution of a CME is necessary to correctly identify the solar counterpart of an ICME/MC.

Webb, D. F.; Bisi, M. M.; de Koning, C. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Jian, L. K.; Lugaz, N.; Marubashi, K.; Möstl, C.; Romashets, E. P.; Wood, B. E.; Yu, H.-S.

2014-11-01

247

Formation of slow shock pairs associated with coronal mass ejections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of a forward-reverse slow shock pair in the solar corona is presently simulated by an MHD model that uses the Rankine-Hugoniot solution to calculate the flow-property jumps at all shock crossings. The shocks divide the solution-domain into several continuous flow regions whose respective governing characteristics are solved by the method of characteristics. The plasma impact compresses the plasma near the front of the coronal mass ejection (CME); as the CME-associated slow shock pair moves outwards in interplanetary space, it evolves into a pair of fast shocks. All three phenomena are eventually manifested in interplanetary space as a magnetic cloud accompanied by a fast shock pair, with a forward shock preceding the cloud and a reverse shock appearing either within or behind the cloud.

Whang, Y. V.

1990-01-01

248

Information Delivery Systems: The Future Is Here.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at developments in information delivery (including new interactive media formats, vastly increased channel capacity for standard cable television, and the development of wireless cable and other distribution technologies) that are revolutionizing the communications industry. Raises questions about the role technical communicators are being…

O'Malley, Penelope Grenoble

1993-01-01

249

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was also explored. Positively charged CPPs were complexed with pDNA or siRNA, which resulted in 'loose' (˜1 micron) particles. These were then condensed into small nanoparticles by using calcium, which formed "soft" crosslinks by interacting with both phosphates on nucleic acids and amines on CPPs. An optimal amount of CaCl2 produced stable, ˜100 nm complexes that exhibited higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than PEI polyplexes. CPPs also displayed negligible cytotoxicity up to 5 mg/mL. Biophysical studies of the pDNA structure within complexes suggested that pDNA within CPP complexes (condensed with calcium) had similar structure, but enhanced thermal stability compared to PEI complexes. Thus, CPP complexes emerged as simple, attractive candidates for future studies on nonviral gene delivery in vivo.

Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

250

Euv Imaging Of Shock Formation In The Low Corona With Sdo/aia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock generation in the low corona has long been inferred by spectral observations of drifting so-called type-II radio emission in the metric wavelengths. Type-IIs occur with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and/or flares but not consistently. Therefore, the exact relationship has been difficult to pin down, mostly because of the lack of radio imaging capability and of the low cadence of EUV observations in the low corona during the flare/CME formation. The advent of ultra-high observations from the AIA imagers has changed all that. In this talk, we present several direct observations of shock formation in the EUV and their association to the accompanying type-IIs. We will show that the coronal expansion driven by the formation of the CME ejecta is responsible for both EUV and radio emissions.

Vourlidas, Angelos; Patsourakos, S.; Kouloumvakos, T.

2011-05-01

251

Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

252

Ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segment. Identification of influx transporters on various ocular tissues and designing a transporter-targeted delivery of a parent drug has gathered momentum in recent years. Parallelly, colloidal dosage forms such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, liposomes, and microemulsions have been widely explored to overcome various static and dynamic barriers. Novel drug delivery strategies such as bioadhesive gels and fibrin sealant-based approaches were developed to sustain drug levels at the target site. Designing noninvasive sustained drug delivery systems and exploring the feasibility of topical application to deliver drugs to the posterior segment may drastically improve drug delivery in the years to come. Current developments in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery promise a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges posed by various anterior and posterior segment diseases. PMID:20437123

Gaudana, Ripal; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Parenky, Ashwin; Mitra, Ashim K

2010-09-01

253

Novel gene delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy is an emerging field in medical and pharmaceutical sciences because of its potential in treating chronic diseases like cancer, viral infections, myocardial infarctions, and genetic disorders. Application of gene therapy is limited because of lack of suitable methods for proper introduction of genes into cells and therefore, this is an area of interest for most of the researchers. To achieve successful gene therapy, development of proper gene delivery systems could be one of the most important factors. Several nonviral and viral gene transfer methods have been developed. Even though the viral agents have a high transferring efficiency, they are difficult to handle due to their toxicity. To overcome the safety problems of the viral counterpart, several nonviral in vitro and in vivo gene delivery systems are developed. Out of these, the most promising and latest systems include polymer-based nonviral gene carriers, dendrimers, and physical means like electroporation, microinjection, etc., Shunning of possible immunogenicity and toxicity, and the feasibility of repeated administration are some of the merits of nonviral gene delivery systems over viral gene delivery. An ideal nonviral gene carrying system should possess all these merits without any compromise to its gene transferring efficiency. The viral gene delivery systems include lytic and nonlytic vectors for drug delivery. Inspite of its toxicity they are still preferred because of their long term expression, stability, and integrity. This review explores the recent developments and relevancy of the novel gene delivery systems in gene therapy. PMID:23799200

Manjila, Steffy B; Baby, Jomon N; Bijin, Elambilan N; Constantine, Icey; Pramod, Kannissery; Valsalakumari, Janardhanan

2013-01-01

254

Synopsis of Diet in Dermatology: A one day CME conducted by the Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, March 3, 2013  

PubMed Central

Food is intricately related to mind and body and is one of the elements sustaining life, in disease as well as in health. There are many myths and misgivings regarding partake of food and its medicinal properties. The Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Manipal organized a continuing medical education (CME) on Diet in Dermatology on 3rd March 2013 focusing on pertinent issues regarding diet and medicinal use of food. PMID:24350027

Prabhu, Smitha S; Nayak, Sudhir UK; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi Damodar; Pai, Sathish Ballambat

2013-01-01

255

Delivery by Cesarean Section  

MedlinePLUS

... Toddler: 1-3 yrs. Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool: 3-5 yrs. Nutrition & Fitness Gradeschool: 5-12 ... Decisions to Make Delivery and Beyond Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Privacy Policy Terms of ...

256

Current perspectives on intrathecal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Advances in intrathecal analgesia and intrathecal drug delivery systems have allowed for a range of medications to be used in the control of pain and spasticity. This technique allows for reduced medication doses that can decrease the side effects typically associated with oral or parenteral drug delivery. Recent expert panel consensus guidelines have provided care paths in the treatment of nociceptive, neuropathic, and mixed pain syndromes. While the data for pain relief, adverse effect reduction, and cost-effectiveness with cancer pain control are compelling, the evidence is less clear for noncancer pain, other than spasticity. Physicians should be aware of mechanical, pharmacological, surgical, and patient-specific complications, including possible granuloma formation. Newer intrathecal drug delivery systems may allow for better safety and quality of life outcomes.

Bottros, Michael M; Christo, Paul J

2014-01-01

257

Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

258

Understanding Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event  

E-print Network

We have studied Forbush decrease (FD) event occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and implies possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to s...

Raghav, Anil; Lotekar, Ajay; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra

2014-01-01

259

Source region of the 2003 November 18 CME that led to the strongest magnetic storm of cycle 23  

E-print Network

The super-storm of November 20, 2003 was associated with a high speed coronal mass ejection which originated in the NOAA AR 10501 on November 18. This coronal mass ejection had severe terrestrial consequences leading to a geomagnetic storm with DST index of -472 nT, the strongest of the current solar cycle. In this paper, we attempt to understand the factors that led to the coronal mass ejection on November 18. We have also studied the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field of NOAA AR 10501, the source region of this coronal mass ejection. For this purpose, the MDI line-of-sight magnetograms and vector magnetograms from Solar Flare Telescope, Mitaka, obtained during November, 17-19, 2003 were analysed. In particular, quantitative estimates of the temporal variation in magnetic flux, energy and magnetic field gradient were estimated for the source active region. The evolution of these quantities was studied for the 3-day period with an objective to understand the pre-flare configuration leading up to the moderate flare which was associated with the geo-effective coronal mass ejection. We also examined the chromospheric images recorded in H-alpha from Udaipur Solar Observatory to compare the flare location with regions of different magnetic field and energy. Our observations provide evidence that the flare associated with the CME occurred at a location marked by high magnetic field gradient which led to release of free energy stored in the active region.

N. Srivastava; S. Mathew; R. Louis; T. Wiegelmann

2008-12-30

260

Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

Wu, S. T.

2001-01-01

261

Changes in Altitude Cause Unintended Insulin Delivery From Insulin Pumps  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Children and adults with type 1 diabetes who receive insulin pump therapy have reported hypoglycemia during air travel. We studied the effects of atmospheric pressure on insulin pump delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten insulin pumps were connected to capillary tubes. The effects of changes in ambient pressure on insulin delivery, bubble formation, bubble size, and cartridge plunger movement were analyzed. RESULTS During a flight (200 mmHg pressure decrease), excess insulin delivery of 0.623% of the cartridge volume occurred (P < 0.001, Student t test). In hypobaric chamber studies, bubbles developed in the insulin when the pressure decreased and displaced the insulin out of the cartridge. Pre-existing bubbles changed in size consistent with Boyle law. Cartridge plunger movement did not occur in normal flight conditions but did occur when catastrophic plane depressurization was mimicked. CONCLUSIONS Atmospheric pressure reduction causes predictable, unintended insulin delivery in pumps by bubble formation and expansion of existing bubbles. PMID:21816978

King, Bruce R.; Goss, Peter W.; Paterson, Megan A.; Crock, Patricia A.; Anderson, Donald G.

2011-01-01

262

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur , Huntsville, Madison County, AL

263

Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Vaccination has had a major impact on the control of infectious diseases. However, there are still many infectious diseases for which the development of an effective vaccine has been elusive. In many cases the failure to devise vaccines is a consequence of the inability of vaccine candidates to evoke appropriate immune responses. This is especially true where cellular immunity is required for protective immunity and this problem is compounded by the move toward devising sub-unit vaccines. Over the past decade nanoscale size (<1000 nm) materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, and non-degradable nanospheres have received attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. Importantly, some of these nanoparticles (NPs) are able to enter antigen-presenting cells by different pathways, thereby modulating the immune response to the antigen. This may be critical for the induction of protective Th1-type immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Their properties also make them suitable for the delivery of antigens at mucosal surfaces and for intradermal administration. In this review we compare the utilities of different NP systems for the delivery of sub-unit vaccines and evaluate the potential of these delivery systems for the development of new vaccines against a range of pathogens. PMID:23532930

Gregory, Anthony E; Titball, Richard; Williamson, Diane

2013-01-01

264

Microfabricated drug delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review newest developments in the design and fabrication of drug delivery devices based on micropatterned structures. Electronic devices have now reached a stage of dimensions comparable to those of biological macromolecules. This raises exciting possibilities for combining microelectronics and biotechnology to develop new technologies with unprecedented power and versatility. While molecular electronics use the unique self-assembly, switching and dynamic

J. Zachary Hilt; Nicholas A. Peppas

2005-01-01

265

Gene delivery to bone.  

PubMed

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis. PMID:22480730

Evans, C H

2012-09-01

266

Home Delivery MIT Pharmacy  

E-print Network

Home Delivery from MIT Pharmacy To make refills easier, MIT Pharmacy offers a prescription home. If paying by credit card, call the pharmacy at 617-253-1324 to give us your card number. 3. If your shipping, please call the MIT Pharmacy at 617-253-1324 during business hours (Monday thru Thursday 8:30am-7pm

Polz, Martin

267

GENE DELIVERY TO BONE  

PubMed Central

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis. PMID:22480730

Evans, C. H.

2012-01-01

268

Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has had a major impact on the control of infectious diseases. However, there are still many infectious diseases for which the development of an effective vaccine has been elusive. In many cases the failure to devise vaccines is a consequence of the inability of vaccine candidates to evoke appropriate immune responses. This is especially true where cellular immunity is required for protective immunity and this problem is compounded by the move toward devising sub-unit vaccines. Over the past decade nanoscale size (<1000 nm) materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, and non-degradable nanospheres have received attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. Importantly, some of these nanoparticles (NPs) are able to enter antigen-presenting cells by different pathways, thereby modulating the immune response to the antigen. This may be critical for the induction of protective Th1-type immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Their properties also make them suitable for the delivery of antigens at mucosal surfaces and for intradermal administration. In this review we compare the utilities of different NP systems for the delivery of sub-unit vaccines and evaluate the potential of these delivery systems for the development of new vaccines against a range of pathogens. PMID:23532930

Gregory, Anthony E.; Titball, Richard; Williamson, Diane

2013-01-01

269

Understanding professional service delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply concepts from organizational and social identity theories to theoretically consider different ways that professional service providers conceptualize their roles and deliver their knowledge. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a conceptual discussion to advance the understanding of professional service delivery, within the realm of service-quality research. Findings – The field has

Kate Walsh; Judith R. Gordon

2010-01-01

270

Supplementary Data Drug delivery  

E-print Network

to polymerize and dry at room temperature for 12 to 36 hours depending on the ambient humidity. 2. "Yeast paste temperature for 12 to 36 hours depending on the ambient humidity. 3. "On food" delivery: Appropriate volumes then allowed to dry at room temperature for 12 to 36 hours depending on the ambient humidity. Fly Cultures

Seroude, Laurent

271

Comparison of interplanetary CME arrival times and solar wind parameters based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a comparison between coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated shock propagations based on the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations. For this we use 28 full-halo CMEs, whose cone parameters are determined and their corresponding interplanetary shocks were observed at the Earth, from 2001 to 2002. We consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice cream cone model, and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error of the CME-associated shock travel times for the WSA-ENLIL model using the ice-cream cone model is 9.9 h, which is about 1 h smaller than those of the other models. We compare the peak values and profiles of solar wind parameters (speed and density) with in situ observations. We find that the root-mean-square errors of solar wind peak speed and density for the ice cream and asymmetric cone model are about 190 km/s and 24/cm3, respectively. We estimate the cross correlations between the models and observations within the time lag of ± 2 days from the shock travel time. The correlation coefficients between the solar wind speeds from the WSA-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations are approximately 0.7, which is larger than those of solar wind density (cc ˜0.6). Our preliminary investigations show that the ice cream cone model seems to be better than the other cone models in terms of the input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model.

Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Na, Hyeonock

2014-09-01

272

Pressure-driven high-to-low spin transition in the bimetallic quantum magnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron-based infrared and Raman spectroscopies were brought together with diamond anvil cell techniques and an analysis of the magnetic properties to investigate the pressure-induced high ? low spin transition in [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. The extended nature of the diruthenium wave function combined with coupling to chromium-related local lattice distortions changes the relative energies of the ?* and ?* orbitals and drives the high ? low spin transition on the mixed-valence diruthenium complex. This is a rare example of an externally controlled metamagnetic transition in which both spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions contribute to the mechanism.

O'Neal, K. R.; Liu, Z.; Miller, Joel S.; Fishman, R. S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

2014-09-01

273

Pressure-driven high to low spin transition in the bimetallic quantum magnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron-based infrared and Raman spectroscopies were brought together with diamond anvil cell techniques and an analysis of the magnetic properties to investigate the pressure-induced high low spin transition in [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. The extended nature of the diruthenium wavefunction combined with coupling to chromium-related local lattice distortions changes the relative energies of the and orbitals and drives the high low spin transition on the mixed-valence diruthenium complex. This is a rare example of an externally controlled metamagnetic transition in which both spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions contribute to the mechanism.

O'Neal, K. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Z. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Musfeldt, J. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2014-01-01

274

The PulmoSphere™ platform for pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

Spray-dried PulmoSphere™ formulations comprise phospholipid-based small, porous particles. Drug(s) may be incorporated in or with PulmoSphere formulations in three formats: solution-, suspension-, and carrier-based systems. The multiple formats may be administered to the respiratory tract with multiple delivery systems, including portable inhalers (pressurized, metered-dose inhaler and dry-powder inhaler), nebulizers, and via liquid dose instillation in conjunction with partial liquid ventilation. The PulmoSphere platform (particles, formats, delivery systems) enables pulmonary delivery of a broad range of drugs independent of their physicochemical properties and lung dose. The engineered particles provide significant improvements in lung targeting and dose consistency, relative to current marketed inhalers. PMID:24592954

Weers, Jeffry; Tarara, Thomas

2014-03-01

275

to cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy  

E-print Network

Welcome to cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy 572507 q 3/12 Offered by: Connecticut General Life Insurance Company or Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company. #12;At Cigna Home Delivery PharmacySM we have at Cigna Home Delivery Pharmacy, I am honored to be part of a team that provides our customers

Nelson, Tim

276

Ultrasound and transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Application of ultrasound to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. This review presents

Ilana Lavon; Joseph Kost

2004-01-01

277

Belgium. [CME Country Reports].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the end of World War II to 1964, immigration trends in Belgium were largely governed by the need to supply workers for the coal industry, which led to an influx of Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Turks, and Morrocans. In 1971 there were approximately 200,000 foreign workers in Belgium; the majority of these were Italian. Relying heavily on…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

278

Spain. [CME Country Reports].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initially, the Spanish Emigration Institute (Ministry of Labour) endeavored to meet the educational needs of Spanish emigrants. However, this proved to be inadequate as the number of emigrants rose. Therefore, in 1969 the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Education and Science divided the responsibility between them and set up a Schools…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

279

Bone injuries during delivery.  

PubMed

Bone injuries during the process of delivery were studied among 34, 946 live born babies over a 11 period. There were 35 cases of bone injuries giving an incidence of 1 per 1,000 live births. Clavicle was the commonest bone fractured (45.7%) followed by humerus (20%), femur (14.3%) and depressed skull fracture (11.4%) in the order of frequency. There was one case each of orbital fracture, epiphyseal separation of lower end of femur and dislocation of elbow joint. Lack of antenatal care, malpresentation often leading to obstructed labour and operative deliveries were found to be risk factors for bone injuries. Meconium stained liquor and birth asphyxia were more commonly associated with bone injuries than control cases. Cases with injuries had longer hospital stay and higher mortality. Improving the health infrastructure at the peripheral level with early identification of high risk mothers and their appropriate management can bring down the incidence of bone injuries. PMID:8002070

Bhat, B V; Kumar, A; Oumachigui, A

1994-01-01

280

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal). PMID:21430958

Shaikh, Rahamatullah; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Garland, Martin James; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

2011-01-01

281

Synthetic polymer delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic delivery system based on the copolymer ethylene vinyl-acetate (from now on EVA-polymer) and the carrier, bovine serum albumin (from now on BSA) were prepared by polymer dissolution in the presence of persulfate. This system acted as a long-term polymer release device, cleaning aqueous solutions containing Orange II under visible light irradiation. The polymer and the carrier used were

M. R. Dhananjeyan; E. Fine; J. Kiwi

2000-01-01

282

Preterm delivery: an overview.  

PubMed

Preterm delivery is the leading factor causing neonatal mortality and morbidity. We have conducted a PubMed literature search to obtain an update on the etiology, diagnostic problems and therapeutic considerations of preterm delivery. Approximately 5-10% of all births are premature. Preterm labor is associated with preterm rupture of membranes, cervical incompetence, polyhydramnion, fetal and uterine anomalies, infections, social factors, stress, smoking, heavy work and other risk factors. The diagnosis is made on the patients presenting symptoms, clinical findings and of progressive effacement and dilatation of the cervix. Biochemical markers of preterm delivery are of minor importance in daily clinical work. Measurement of the cervix, however, is a practical and valuable tool to predict preterm delivery. Cervical cerclage can be useful in selected cases. Antibiotics may help to prevent preterm labor in cases of known etiologic agents (e.g. preterm rupture of membranes and urinary infection). The use of tocolytic agents such as beta-sympathetic receptor stimulators can be advocated for a few days. There is evidence that their long-term use is not beneficial and could even be harmful to the fetus. Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine) and a new selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban, appear to be as effective as beta-sympathomimetic drugs on uterine contractions with fewer side-effects. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors such as indomethacin may prevent uterine contractions and can be used prior to the 32nd week of pregnancy. A single course of corticosteroid treatment in two doses of 12 mg betamethasone or 6 mg of dexamethasone is important for the prevention of respiratory distress between the 24th and 34th weeks of pregnancy. Multiple doses may be harmful and should be avoided. In these cases management should depend on gestation age (fetal maturity). Uterine contractions after 34 weeks' gestation are not an indication for tocolytic treatment. PMID:12848639

Haram, Kjell; Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Wollen, Anne-Lone

2003-08-01

283

Nanovehicular Intracellular Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood–brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list “elementary” phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

PROKOP, ALES; DAVIDSON, JEFFREY M.

2013-01-01

284

Delivery systems for brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is described as the short distance treatment of cancer with a radioactive isotope placed on, in, or near the lesions or tumor to be treated. The main advantage of brachytherapy compared with external beam radiation (EBR) is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest, thus normal tissue irradiation is reduced. The precise and targeted nature of brachytherapy provides a number of key benefits for the effective treatment of cancer such as efficacy, minimized risk of side effects, short treatment times, and cost-effectiveness. Brachytherapy devices have yielded promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, brachytherapy can only be used in localized and relatively small tumors. Although the introduction of new delivery devices allows the treatment of more complex tumor sites, with wider range of dose rate for improving treatment efficacy and reduction of side effects, a better understanding about the safety, efficacy, and accuracy of these systems is required, and further development of new techniques is warranted. Therefore, this review focuses on the delivery devices for brachytherapy and their application in prostate, breast, brain, and other tumor sites. PMID:25008970

de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

2014-10-28

285

Mesocopic Structure of Nonviral Gene Delivery Vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, little is known about nonviral gene delivery vector formation kinetics and the interplay between vector structure, especially mesoscopic structure, and transfection efficiency. DNA complexation with various condensing agents is a self-assembly process driven primarily by electrostatic interactions and counterion release. DNA complexation kinetics influence two physical parameters that directly affect gene delivery and expression efficiency: DNA complex geometric size and molar mass (density). In this study we demonstrate the utility of time resolved multiangle laser light scattering (TR-MALLS) for probing DNA complexation kinetics, determining DNA complex size and density in real time and monitoring nonviral vector stability in liquid formulations and serum. The condensing agents considered are poly-L-lysine, polyethylenimine and various cationic liposome formulations.

van Zanten, John; Hanes, Justin; Lai, Eva; Har-El, Yah-El

2003-03-01

286

Determination of the Heliospheric Radial Magnetic Field from the Standoff Distance of a CME-Driven Shock Observed by the Stereo Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the determination of radial magnetic field strength in the heliocentric distance range from 6 to 120 solar radii (R-solar) using data from Coronagraph 2 (COR2) and Heliospheric Imager I (HI1) instruments on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft following the standoff-distance method of Gopalswamy & Yashiro. We measured the shock standoff distance of the 2008 April 5 coronal mass ejection (CME) and determined the flux-rope curvature by fitting the three-dimensional shape of the CME using the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model. The radial magnetic field strength is computed from the Alfven speed and the density of the ambient medium. We also compare the derived magnetic field strength with in situ measurements made by the Helios spacecraft, which measured the magnetic field at the heliocentric distance range from 60 to 215 R-solar.We found that the radial magnetic field strength decreases from 28 mG at 6 R-solar to 0.17 mG at 120 R-solar. In addition, we found that the radial profile can be described by a power law.

Poomvises, Watanachak; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Kwon, Ryun-Young; Olmedo, Oscar

2012-01-01

287

A comparison of the effects of CIR- and CME-induced geomagnetic activity on thermospheric densities and spacecraft orbits: Statistical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

energy input from the magnetosphere to the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic storms has a profound effect on thermospheric density and consequently near-Earth satellite orbit decay. These geomagnetic storms are caused by two different processes. The first is coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the second is corotating interaction regions (CIRs). CME-driven storms are characterized by large maximum energy input but relatively short duration, whereas CIR-driven storms have relatively small maximum energy input but are of a considerably longer duration. In this paper we carried out a statistical study to assess the relative importance of each kind of storm to satellite orbital decay. The results demonstrate that CIR storms have a slightly larger effect on total orbital decay than CME storms do in a statistical sense. During the declining phase and the minimum years of a solar cycle, CIR storms occur frequently and quasiperiodically. These storms have a large effect on thermospheric densities and satellite orbits because of their relatively long duration. Thus, it is important to fully understand their behavior and impact.

Chen, Guang-ming; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Burns, Alan. G.

2014-09-01

288

Sustained Release Intravitreal Liquid Drug Delivery Using Triamcinolone Acetonide for Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate side effects seen with this formulation and to search for evidence of effectiveness after a single intravitreal injection of IBI-20089 in eyes with cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Design Prospective phase 1 clinical trial Participants 10 patients with chronic CME due to retinal vein occlusion Methods Patients received a single intravitreal injection of IBI-20089 using a sequential dose escalation schedule. Each cohort consisted of five patients who received the intravitreal injection of the sustained liquid drug delivery system containing either 6.9 mg (25 ul) triamcinolone acetonide (TA) (Cohort 1) or 13.8 mg (50 ul) TA (Cohort 2). At each study visit, best corrected visual acuity testing, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, dilated ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed. Patients also underwent laboratory testing and physical examinations to monitor for any systemic adverse events. Main Outcome measures OCT central subfield thickness, ocular and systemic adverse events Results In Cohort 1, mean baseline OCT central subfield thickness (CST) was 477 microns (?) and decreased to 369 ? at day 1 (p< 0.06), 387 ? at day 30 (p= 0.18) and 251 ? at day 360 (p=0.46). In Cohort 2, mean baseline OCT CST was 518 ?, and decreased to 404 ? at day 1 (p=0.134), 289 ? at day 30 (p=0.003), 207 ? at day180 (p=0.004) and 278 ? at day 360 (p=0.009). Related adverse events included elevation of IOP in three patients; two due to neovascular glaucoma (not related to study drug) and one which required a glaucoma tube shunt. Conclusion A single intravitreal injection of IBI-20089 resulted in a controlled and sustained delivery of a TA. Side effects included elevated IOP in three eyes, two of which had neovascular glaucoma. PMID:21397950

Lim, Jennifer I.; Fung, Anne E.; Wieland, Mark; Hung, Dean; Wong, Vernon

2013-01-01

289

Photomechanical drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomechanical waves (PW) are generated by Q-switched or mode-locked lasers. Ablation is a reliable method for generating PWs with consistent characteristics. Depending on the laser wavelength and target material, PWs with different parameters can be generated which allows the investigation of PWs with cells and tissue. PWs have been shown to permeabilize the stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and facilitate the transport of drugs into the skin. Once a drug has diffused into the dermis it can enter the vasculature, thus producing a systemic effect. Fluorescence microscopy of biopsies show that 40-kDa molecules can be delivered to a depth of > 300 micrometers into the viable skin of rats. Many important drugs such as insulin, and erythropoietin are smaller or comparable in size, making the PWs attractive for transdermal drug delivery. There are three possible pathways through the SC: Transappendageal via hair follicles or other appendages, transcellular through the corneocytes, and intercellular via the extracellular matrix. The intracellular route appears to be the most likely pathway of drug delivery through the SC.

Doukas, Apostolos G.; Lee, Shun

2000-05-01

290

Vaccine delivery to animals.  

PubMed

For many years vaccination of animals has been practiced to prevent infectious diseases using inactivated organisms or modified live organisms. The live vaccines were effective but lacked safety. The vaccines made with inactivated organisms required an adjuvant to induce an immune response that was not as effective as either the clinical disease or live vaccines. An 'ideal' vaccine would induce effective immunity specific for the type of infection, have long duration, require minimal or no boosters, have impeccable safety, would not induce adverse reactions, and be easy to administer. The desire to meet these criteria, and especially safety, has resulted in the development of vaccines that do not depend on the use of the viable disease agent. The emphasis on subunit or inactivated vaccines that meet the desired criteria of a perfect vaccine has resulted in a critical need for better adjuvants and delivery systems. This has resulted in a technological innovation revolution with development of a wide array of different technologies to generate effective vaccines. This review will describe the historical relevance of adjuvants used for parenterally administered inactivated/subunit vaccines as well as describe some of the exciting technological advances including adjuvants (ISCOMS), delivery systems (recombinant vectors, microparticles), and novel approaches (transgenic plants, naked DNA) that are currently being, or will be used in the future, in the search for better, more effective vaccines that meet the current and future needs of veterinary medicine. PMID:10837755

Bowersock; Martin

1999-07-26

291

MRI in ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed. PMID:18186077

Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

2008-01-01

292

California Integrated Service Delivery Evaluation Report. Phase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a formative evaluation of the OneStop Career Center Integrated Service Delivery (ISD) Model within the California Workforce System. The study was sponsored by the California Workforce Investment Board. The study completed four in-depth case studies of California OneStops to describe how they implemented the ISD model which brings…

Moore, Richard W.; Rossy, Gerard; Roberts, William; Chapman, Kenneth; Sanchez, Urte; Hanley, Chris

2010-01-01

293

Delivery Across the BBB Wellington Pham, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

) and if the compounds can interfere with amyloid formation. Most of the current work tested the ability of molecules neurological research continues to reveal novel targets for therapy, the necessity to delivery therapeutic agents across the BBB becomes of paramount importance. Currently, there are no direct cell lines

Palmeri, Thomas

294

Molecular aptamers for drug delivery Weihong Tan1,2  

E-print Network

nanorods, DNA micelles, DNA hydrogels and carbon nanotubes. Introduction Aptamers are single-stranded (ss probes, such as antibodies. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in aptamer-mediated delivery antibodies, yet they mimic properties of antibodies in a variety of diagnostic formats. Antibodies have made

Tan, Weihong

295

DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR A FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTION DRIVEN BY THE PRIOR FORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT DESTABILIZATION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic flux ropes play a central role in the physics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although a flux-rope topology is inferred for the majority of coronagraphic observations of CMEs, a heated debate rages on whether the flux ropes pre-exist or whether they are formed on-the-fly during the eruption. Here, we present a detailed analysis of extreme-ultraviolet observations of the formation of a flux rope during a confined flare followed about 7 hr later by the ejection of the flux rope and an eruptive flare. The two flares occurred during 2012 July 18 and 19. The second event unleashed a fast (>1000 km s{sup -1}) CME. We present the first direct evidence of a fast CME driven by the prior formation and destabilization of a coronal magnetic flux rope formed during the confined flare on July 18.

Patsourakos, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece)] [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)] [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Stenborg, G. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS), College of Science George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

2013-02-20

296

This CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well-being of urban residents. We will discuss latest practices, policies, and research on the social determinants of urban mental health at community,  

E-print Network

in medical care by applying a social determinants framework to address health disparities. 2. To identify priorities that could contribute to reducing health care disparities. 3. To encourage medical doctorsThis CME/CE conference will examine how we create cities that promote mental health and well

Illinois at Chicago, University of

297

Responsibility of a Filament Eruption for the Initiation of a Flare, CME, and Blast Wave, and its Possible Transformation into a Bow Shock  

E-print Network

Multi-instrument observations of two filament eruptions on 24 February and 11 May 2011 suggest the following updated scenario for eruptive flare, CME and shock wave evolution. An initial destabilization of a filament results in stretching out of magnetic threads belonging to its body and rooted in the photosphere along the inversion line. Their reconnection leads to i) heating of parts of the filament or its environment, ii) initial development of the flare arcade cusp and ribbons, and iii) increasing similarity of the filament to a curved flux rope and its acceleration. Then the pre-eruption arcade enveloping the filament gets involved in reconnection according to the standard model and continues to form the flare arcade and ribbons. The poloidal magnetic flux in the curved rope developing from the filament progressively increases and forces its toroidal expansion. This flux rope impulsively expands and produces an MHD disturbance, which rapidly steepens into a shock. The shock passes through the arcade expa...

Grechnev, V V; Kuzmenko, I V; Kochanov, A A; Chertok, I M; Kalashnikov, S S

2014-01-01

298

Local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] probed with implanted muons  

SciTech Connect

We present a muon-spin relaxation study of local magnetism in the molecule-based metamagnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6]. We observe magnetic order with TN = 33 K, although above 25 K the sublattice spins become less rigid and a degree of static magnetic disorder is observed. The comparison of measurements in applied magnetic field with simulations allows us to understand the origin of the muon response across the metamagnetic transition and to map out the phase diagram of the material. Applied hydrostatic pressures of up to 6 kbar lead to an increase in the local magnetic field along with a complex change in the internal magnetic field distribution.

Lancaster, T. [University of Oxford; Pratt, F. L. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Blundell, S. J. [University of Oxford; Steele, Andrew J. [University of Oxford; Baker, Peter J. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Wright, Jack D. [University of Oxford; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

2011-01-01

299

Bioinspired drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

The way Nature designs, processes and assembles molecular building blocks to fabricate high performance materials with a minimum of resources is a suitable model for the design of drug delivery systems (DDS) with advanced functionalities. Bioinspired preparation methods that involve the use of superhydrophobic surfaces, layer-by-layer assembly or protein-driven growth are being successfully implemented to create a wide range of polymeric and hybrid structures. Mimicking the surface, shape, texture and movement of cells and microorganisms help to overcome phagocytosis and attain efficient targeting of the drug carriers, while transposition of the feed-back regulation mechanisms and the functions of membrane channels and physiological receptors may notably enhance the spatiotemporal control of drug release. These aspects are addressed in the present review. PMID:23465754

Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel

2013-12-01

300

Transdermal delivery of levosimendan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if transdermal penetration of levosimendan, a novel positive inotropic drug, could be enhanced and controlled by formulation modifications. Penetration of levosimendan across human epidermis in vitro was determined using abdominal excised skin and diffusion cells. Predicted steady-state plasma concentrations of levosimendan were estimated using permeabilities and pharmacokinetic parameters of levosimendan. For penetration enhancement we used different pH values, co-solvents, cyclodextrins, surfactants, penetration enhancers, liposomes, and iontophoresis. Sodium lauryl sulfate, ethanol, oleic acid, and soya phosphatidylcholine or their combinations clearly increased levosimendan permeation across the skin in vitro. Iontophoresis was also an efficient method to increase transdermal permeation of levosimendan. A hydrophilic co-solvent/penetration enhancer is needed to achieve better permeability of levosimendan across the skin. In conclusion, transdermal delivery of levosimendan can be significantly increased by formulation modification. Based on kinetic calculations, therapeutic plasma concentrations may be achievable transdermally. PMID:11033078

Valjakka-Koskela, R; Hirvonen, J; Mönkkönen, J; Kiesvaara, J; Antila, S; Lehtonen, L; Urtti, A

2000-10-01

301

Economical ground data delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data delivery in the Deep Space Network (DSN) involves transmission of a small amount of constant, high-priority traffic and a large amount of bursty, low priority data. The bursty traffic may be initially buffered and then metered back slowly as bandwidth becomes available. Today both types of data are transmitted over dedicated leased circuits. The authors investigated the potential of saving money by designing a hybrid communications architecture that uses leased circuits for high-priority network communications and dial-up circuits for low-priority traffic. Such an architecture may significantly reduce costs and provide an emergency backup. The architecture presented here may also be applied to any ground station-to-customer network within the range of a common carrier. The authors compare estimated costs for various scenarios and suggest security safeguards that should be considered.

Markley, Richard W.; Byrne, Russell H.; Bromberg, Daniel E.

1994-01-01

302

Secondary fuel delivery system  

DOEpatents

A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

2010-02-23

303

Challenges in media delivery systems and servers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although multimedia compression formats and protocols to stream such content have been around for a long time, there has been limited success in the adoption of open standards for streaming over IP (Internet Protocol) networks. The elements of such an end-to-end system will be introduced outlining the responsibilities of each element. The technical and financial challenges in building a viable multimedia streaming end-to-end system will be analyzed in detail in this paper outlining some solutions and areas for further research. Also, recent migration to IP in the backend video delivery network infrastructures have made it possible to use IP based media streaming solutions in non-IP last mile access networks like cable and wireless networks in addition to the DSL networks. The advantages of using IP streaming solutions in such networks will be outlined. However, there is a different set of challenges posed by such applications. The real time constraints are acute in each element of the media delivery end-to-end system. Meeting these real time constraints in general purpose non real time server systems is quite demanding. Quality of service, resource management, session management, fail-over, reliability, and cost are some important but challenging requirements in such systems. These will also be analyzed with suggested solutions. Content protection and rights management requirements are also very challenging for open standards based multimedia delivery systems. Interoperability unfortunately interferes with security in most of the current day systems. Some approaches to solve the interoperability problems will also be presented. The requirements, challenges, and possible solutions for delivering broadcast, on demand, and interactive video delivery applications for IP based media streaming systems will be analyzed in detail.

Swaminathan, Viswanathan

2005-03-01

304

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: Deciding on a Trial of Labor After a Cesarean Delivery (TOLAC)  

MedlinePLUS

What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery , you have two choices ... vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). What is a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC)? A ...

305

Microneedles for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a

Mark R Prausnitz

2004-01-01

306

Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks  

MedlinePLUS

... early? • Why is it not a good idea to have an elective labor induction or cesarean delivery before 39 weeks? • What are the risks associated ... problems Why is it not a good idea to have an elective labor induction or cesarean delivery before 39 weeks? Health care professionals recommend that ...

307

Transdermal drug delivery: Microfabrication insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presented an enhancement solution for transdermal drug delivery using microneedles array with biodegradable tips. The microneedles array was fabricated by using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the biodegradable tips were made to be porous by electrochemical etching process. The porous silicon microneedle tips can greatly enhance the transdermal drug delivery in a minimum invasion, painless, and convenient

Ciprian Iliescu; Bangtao Chen; Jiashen Wei; Zhilian Yue

2009-01-01

308

7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery Standards § 46.44 Good delivery. Unless otherwise agreed...between the contracting parties, “Good Delivery” in connection with f.o.b. contracts of purchase and sale means that the...

2010-01-01

309

Coordination Compounds of Strontium. Syntheses, Characterizations, and Crystal Structures of [Sr(u-ONc)(2)(HONc(4))]2 and Sr(5)(u(4)-O)(u(3)-ONep)(4)(u-ONep)(4)(HONep)(solv)(4) (ONc=O(2)CCH(2)CMe(3));Nep=CH(2)CMe(3); solv=tetrahydrofuran or 1-methyl-imida  

SciTech Connect

The authors have synthesized and characterized two novel Sr compounds: [Sr({mu}-ONc){sub 2}(HONc){sub 4}]{sub 2} (1, ONc = O{sub 2}CCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3}), and Sr{sub 5}({mu}{sub 4}-O)({mu}{sub 3}-ONep){sub 4}({mu}-ONep){sub 4}(HONep)(solv){sub 4} [ONep = OCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3}, solv = tetrahydrofuran (THF), 2a; 1-methyl-imidazole (MeIm), (2b)], that demonstrate increased solubility in comparison to the commercially available Sr precursors. The two metal centers of 1 share 4 unidentate bridging {mu}-ONc ligands and complete their octahedral geometry through the coordination of 4 monodentate terminal HONc ligands. The structure arrangement of the central core of 2a and b are identical, wherein 4 octahedral Sr atoms are arranged in a square geometry around a {mu}{sub 4}-O ligand. An additional 7-coordinated Sr atom sits directly atop the {mu}{sub 4}-O to form a square base pyramidal arrangement of the Sr atoms but the apical Sr-O distance is too long to be considered a bond. In solution, compound 1 is disrupted forming a monomer but 2a and b retain their structures.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Tafoya, Cory J.; Scott, Brian L.; Ziller, Joseph W.

1999-07-21

310

Hydrogels for Lentiviral Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gene delivery from hydrogel biomaterials provides a fundamental tool for a variety of clinical applications including regenerative medicine, gene therapy for inherited disorders and drug delivery. The high water content and mild gelation conditions of hydrogels support their use for gene delivery by preserving activity of lentiviral vectors and acting to shield vectors from any host immune response. Areas Covered Strategies to control lentiviral entrapment within and retention/release from hydrogels are reviewed. We discuss the ability of hydrogel design parameters to control the transgene expression profile and the capacity of hydrogels to protect vectors from (and even modulate) the host immune response. Expert Opinion Delivery of genetic vectors from scaffolds provides a unique opportunity to capitalize on the potential synergy between the biomaterial design for cell processes and gene delivery. Hydrogel properties can be tuned to directly control the events that determine the tissue response to controlled gene delivery, which include the extent of cell infiltration, preservation of vector activity and vector retention. While some design parameters have been identified, numerous opportunities for investigation are available in order to develop a complete model relating the biomaterial properties and host response to gene delivery. PMID:23347508

Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Gower, R. Michael; Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2013-01-01

311

Space age health care delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

Jones, W. L.

1977-01-01

312

Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery  

E-print Network

Nanoparticles were synthesized and modified for target drug delivery. The research involved the aqueous synthesis of near infrared (NIR) sensitive Au-Au2S nanoparticles. An anti-cancer drug (cis-platin) ...

Chow, Gan-Moog

313

Best antibiotics for buccal delivery  

E-print Network

The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

2011-01-01

314

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. Purpose Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries. Methods Data come from Wave 8 of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, collected July 2010 to June 2011 and analyzed through June 2012. Respondents included 5939 current and former smokers in Canada (n=1581); the U.S. (n=1520); the United Kingdom (UK; n=1325); and Australia (n=1513). Results Overall, 46.6% were aware of ENDS (U.S.: 73%, UK: 54%, Canada: 40%, Australia: 20%); 7.6% had tried ENDS (16% of those aware of ENDS); and 2.9% were current users (39% of triers). Awareness of ENDS was higher among younger, non-minority smokers with higher incomes who were heavier smokers. Prevalence of trying ENDS was higher among younger, nondaily smokers with a high income and among those who perceived ENDS as less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Current use was higher among both nondaily and heavy (?20 cigarettes per day) smokers. In all, 79.8% reported using ENDS because they were considered less harmful than traditional cigarettes; 75.4% stated that they used ENDS to help them reduce their smoking; and 85.1% reported using ENDS to help them quit smoking. Conclusions Awareness of ENDS is high, especially in countries where they are legal (i.e., the U.S. and UK). Because trial was associated with nondaily smoking and a desire to quit smoking, ENDS may have potential to serve as a cessation aid. PMID:23415116

Adkison, Sarah E.; O'Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K. Michael; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.

2013-01-01

315

Pulsatile Drug Delivery System Based on Electrohydrodynamic Method  

E-print Network

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsatile drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2\\times2\\times3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between two electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method experimentally as well as theoretically.

Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Gao, Wenle

2012-01-01

316

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOEpatents

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01

317

Active Warming During Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that 15 min of forced-air prewarming, combined with intraoperative warm- ing, prevents hypothermia and shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. We simulta- neously tested the hypothesis that maintaining ma- ternal normothermia increases newborn tempera- ture, umbilical vein pH, and Apgar scores. Thirty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to forced-air warming or to

Ernst-Peter Horn; Frank Schroeder; Daniel I. Sessler; Natascha Hiltmeyer; Thomas Standl; Jochen Schulte Esch

2002-01-01

318

Advances in Gene Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The transfer of genes into cells, both in vitro and in vivo, is critical for studying gene function and conducting gene therapy. Methods that utilize viral and nonviral vectors, as well as physical approaches, have been explored. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer employs replication-deficient viruses such as retro-virus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. A major advantage of viral vectors is their high gene delivery efficiency. The nonviral vectors developed so far include cationic liposomes, cationic polymers, synthetic peptides and naturally occurring compounds. These nonviral vectors appear to be highly effective in gene delivery to cultured cells in vitro but are significantly less effective in vivo. Physical methods utilize mechanical pressure, electric shock or hydrodynamic force to transiently permeate the cell membrane to transfer DNA into target cells. They are simpler than viral- and nonviral-based systems and highly effective for localized gene delivery. The past decade has seen significant efforts to establish the most desirable method for safe, effective and target-specific gene delivery, and good progress has been made. The objectives of this review are to (i) explain the rationale for the design of viral, nonviral and physical methods for gene delivery; (ii) provide a summary on recent advances in gene transfer technology; (iii) discuss advantages and disadvantages of each of the most commonly used gene delivery methods; and (iv) provide future perspectives. PMID:22200988

Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi

2011-01-01

319

Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that

Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson; Morgan Defoort; Sachin Joshi; Adam Reynolds

2008-01-01

320

Adapting Assessment Procedures for Delivery via an Automated Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) decided to explore alternative examining procedures for positions covered by the Administrative Careers with America (ACWA) examination. One requirement for new procedures was that they be automated for use with OPM's recently developed Microcomputer Assisted Rating System (MARS), a highly efficient system…

Kelly, Karen L.; And Others

321

Distance Education Quality Course Delivery Framework: A Formative Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Fall 2010 semester, student enrollment in distance education courses increased in the United States to over 6.1 million students taking at least one distance course. Distance education allows institutions to meet increasing demands from the government and business sectors for more graduates in ways that face-to-face courses cannot meet with…

Berta, Michael Raymond

2013-01-01

322

Nanogels for Oligonucleotide Delivery to the Brain  

PubMed Central

Systemic delivery of oligonucleotides (ODN) to the central nervous system is needed for development of therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Macromolecules injected in blood are poorly transported across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and rapidly cleared from circulation. In this work we propose a novel system for ODN delivery to the brain based on nanoscale network of cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) and polyethylenimine (“nanogel”). The methods of synthesis of nanogel and its modification with specific targeting molecules are described. Nanogels can bind and encapsulate spontaneously negatively charged ODN, resulting in formation of stable aqueous dispersion of polyelectrolyte complex with particle sizes less than 100 nm. Using polarized monolayers of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells as an in vitro model this study demonstrates that ODN incorporated in nanogel formulations can be effectively transported across the BBB. The transport efficacy is further increased when the surface of the nanogel is modified with transferrin or insulin. Importantly the ODN is transported across the brain microvessel cells through the transcellular pathway; after transport, ODN remains mostly incorporated in the nanogel and ODN displays little degradation compared to the free ODN. Using mouse model for biodistribution studies in vivo, this work demonstrated that as a result of incorporation into nanogel 1 h after intravenous injection the accumulation of a phosphorothioate ODN in the brain increases by over 15 fold while in liver and spleen decreases by 2-fold compared to the free ODN. Overall, this study suggests that nanogel is a promising system for delivery of ODN to the brain. PMID:14733583

Vinogradov, Serguei V.; Batrakova, Elena V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

2009-01-01

323

Microporous bilayer osmotic tablet for colon-specific delivery.  

PubMed

Microporous bilayer osmotic tablet bearing dicyclomine hydrochloride and diclofenac potassium was developed using a new oral drug delivery system for colon targeting. The tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan-coating process. The developed microporous bilayer osmotic pump tablet (OPT) did not require laser drilling to form the drug delivery orifice. The colon-specific biodegradation of pectin could form in situ delivery pores for drug release. The effect of formulation variables like inclusion of osmogen, amount of HPMC and NaCMC in core, amount of pore former in semipermeable membrane was studied. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed formation of in situ delivery pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The number of pores was dependent on the amount of the pore former in the semipermeable membrane. In vitro dissolution results indicated that system showed acid-resistant, timed release and was able to deliver drug at an approximate zero order up to 24h. The developed tablets could be effectively used for colon-specific drug delivery to treat IBS. PMID:21255646

Chaudhary, Anil; Tiwari, Neha; Jain, Vikas; Singh, Ranjit

2011-05-01

324

Matrices and Scaffolds for DNA Delivery in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Regenerative medicine aims to create functional tissue replacements, typically through creating a controlled environment that promotes and directs the differentiation of stem or progenitor cells, either endogenous or transplanted. Scaffolds serve a central role in many strategies by providing the means to control the local environment. Gene delivery from the scaffold represents a versatile approach to manipulating the local environment for directing cell function. Research at the interface of biomaterials, gene therapy, and drug delivery has identified several design parameters for the vector and the biomaterial scaffold that must be satisfied. Progress has been made towards achieving gene delivery within a tissue engineering scaffold, though the design principles for the materials and vectors that produce efficient delivery require further development. Nevertheless, these advances in obtaining transgene expression with the scaffold have created opportunities to develop greater control of either delivery or expression and to identify the best practices for promoting tissue formation. Strategies to achieve controlled localized expression within the tissue engineering scaffold will have broad application to the regeneration of many tissues, with great promise for clinical therapies. PMID:17512630

De Laporte, Laura; Shea, Lonnie D.

2007-01-01

325

Gene delivery from polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The combination of gene therapy with tissue engineering offers the potential to direct progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into functional tissue replacements. Many approaches to engineering tissue replacements feature a polymer scaffold to create and maintain a space, support cell adhesion, and organize tissue formation. Polymer scaffolds, either natural, synthetic, or a combination of the two, have also been adapted to serve as delivery vehicles for viral and nonviral vectors, which can induce the expression of tissue inductive factors. Gene delivery is a versatile approach, capable of targeting any cellular process through localized expression of tissue inductive factors. The design and application of tissue engineering scaffolds for localized gene transfer are reviewed. Scaffolds are designed either to release the vector into the local tissue environment or maintain the vector at the polymer surface, which is regulated by the effective affinity of the vector for the polymer. Polymeric delivery can enhance gene transfer locally, promote and extend transgene expression, avoid vector distribution to distant tissues, and reduce the immune response to the vector. Scaffolds capable of controlled DNA delivery can provide a fundamental tool for directing progenitor cell function, which has applications with the engineering of numerous types of tissue. The utility of this approach will increase with the development of design parameters that correlate release and transgene expression, and with continued research into the biology of tissue formation. PMID:16293016

Jang, Jae-Hyung; Houchin, Tiffany L; Shea, Lonnie D

2004-09-01

326

In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

2009-01-01

327

Therapeutic angiogenesis: controlled delivery of angiogenic factors  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic angiogenesis aims at treating ischemic diseases by generating new blood vessels from existing vasculature. It relies on delivery of exogenous factors to stimulate neovasculature formation. Current strategies using genes, proteins and cells have demonstrated efficacy in animal models. However, clinical translation of any of the three approaches has proved to be challenging for various reasons. Administration of angiogenic factors is generally considered safe, according to accumulated trials, and offers off-the-shelf availability. However, many hurdles must be overcome before therapeutic angiogenesis can become a true human therapy. This article will highlight protein-based therapeutic angiogenesis, concisely review recent progress and examine critical challenges. We will discuss growth factors that have been widely utilized in promoting angiogenesis and compare their targets and functions. Lastly, since bolus injection of free proteins usually result in poor outcomes, we will focus on controlled release of proteins. PMID:22838066

Chu, Hunghao; Wang, Yadong

2013-01-01

328

Transdermal Insulin Delivery Using Microdermabrasion  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transdermal insulin delivery is an attractive needle-free alternative to subcutaneous injection conventionally used to treat diabetes. However, skin’s barrier properties prevent insulin permeation at useful levels. Methods We investigated whether microdermabrasion can selectively remove skin’s surface layers to increase skin permeability as a method to administer insulin to diabetic rats. We further assessed the relative roles of stratum corneum and viable epidermis as barriers to insulin delivery. Results Pretreatment of skin with microdermabrasion to selectively remove stratum corneum did not have a significant effect on insulin delivery or reduction in blood glucose level (BGL). Removal of full epidermis by microdermabrasion significantly reduced BGL, similar to the positive control involving subcutaneous injection of 0.1U insulin. Significant pharmacokinetic differences between microdermabrasion and subcutaneous injection were faster time to peak insulin concentration after injection and larger peak insulin concentration and area-under-the-curve after microdermabrasion. Conclusions Microdermabrasion can increase skin permeability to insulin at levels sufficient to reduce BGL. Viable epidermis is a barrier to insulin delivery such that removal of full epidermis enables significantly more insulin delivery than removal of stratum corneum alone. PMID:21499837

Andrews, Samantha; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seong-O

2011-01-01

329

Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery  

PubMed Central

Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

Tarney, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

330

Nanoparticulate systems for polynucleotide delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology has tremendously influenced gene therapy research in recent years. Nanometer-size systems have been extensively investigated for delivering genes at both local and systemic levels. These systems offer several advantages in terms of tissue penetrability, cellular uptake, systemic circulation, and cell targeting as compared to larger systems. They can protect the polynucleotide from a variety of degradative and destabilizing factors and enhance delivery efficiency to the cells. A variety of polymeric and non-polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated in an effort to maximize the delivery efficiency while minimizing the toxic effects. This article provides a review on the most commonly used nanoparticulate systems for gene delivery. We have discussed frequently used polymers, such as, polyethyleneimine, poly (lactide-co-glycolide), chitosan, as well as non-polymeric materials such as cationic lipids and metallic nanoparticles. The advantages and limitations of each system have been elaborated. PMID:18019834

Basarkar, Ashwin; Singh, Jagdish

2007-01-01

331

Osmotic micropumps for drug delivery.  

PubMed

This paper reviews miniaturized drug delivery systems applying osmotic principles for pumping. Osmotic micropumps require no electrical energy and consequently enable drug delivery systems of smallest size for a broad field of new applications. In contrast to common tablets, these pumps provide constant (zero-order) drug release rates. This facilitates systems for long term use not limited by gastrointestinal transit time and first-pass metabolism. The review focuses on parenteral routes of administration targeting drug delivery either in a site-specific or systemic way. Osmotic pumps consist of three building blocks: osmotic agent, solvent, and drug. This is used to categorize pumps into (i) single compartment systems using water from body fluids as solvent and the drug itself as the osmotic agent, (ii) two compartment systems employing a separate osmotic agent, and (iii) multi-compartment architectures employing solvent, drug and osmotic agent separately. In parallel to the micropumps, relevant applications and therapies are discussed. PMID:22370615

Herrlich, Simon; Spieth, Sven; Messner, Stephan; Zengerle, Roland

2012-11-01

332

Maternal Nutrition and Preterm Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The rate of preterm delivery in the United States has increased by more than 25% in the past 20 yr.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Low weight before pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Inadequate weight gain, particularly in the third trimester, may be associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fasting and intervals longer

Theresa O. Scholl

333

Mode of delivery for periviable birth.  

PubMed

The optimal mode of delivery when periviable birth is anticipated has been the subject of considerable discussion. Potentially, cesarean delivery could avert intrapartum fetal trauma and asphyxia and allow timed delivery to assure readiness of neonatal intensive care resources. However, cesarean delivery in the early preterm period commonly necessitates a classical vertical uterine incision involving the fundus with its associated acute and long-term risks to the mother and future pregnancies. In this study we evaluated the currently available literature regarding routine cesarean delivery, cesarean delivery for fetal malpresentation, and cesarean delivery for fetal indication near the limit of viability. Randomized controlled trials of adequate size regarding this issue are lacking. Data from retrospective and observational studies do not support routine cesarean delivery for all early preterm infants. Cesarean delivery may offer survival advantage to the periviable growth-restricted infant regardless of fetal presentation and appears to offer survival benefit to the malpresenting fetus. PMID:24290399

Mercer, Brian M

2013-12-01

334

Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

335

H2A Delivery H2A Hydrogen Delivery  

E-print Network

-Truck ­ Tube Trailer -Truck - LH2 -Pipeline -Liquefier -Compressor (one-stage and multi Input User Input Required Calculated Cells #12;H2A Delivery Component Model Hierarchy Component Design Inputs Component Design/Scenario Calculations Financial Analysis Direct/Indirect Capital Costs Component

336

Outcomes Associated with E-mail Delivery of a General Nutrition Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in an introductory nutrition class self-selected a classroom or e-mail delivery format. Except two classroom meetings and examinations, e-mail students studied all course work using only e-mail. Delivery method was clearly assessed because examinations were completed in class. Online students felt more prestudy self-motivation, responsibility for learning, and comfort using e-mail and computers. Midterm and final examination mean scores

Barbara Lohse Knous

2000-01-01

337

New Methods of Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments

Robert Langer

1990-01-01

338

TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS  

EPA Science Inventory

ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108 TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5 1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

339

Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.  

PubMed

Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

2012-01-01

340

Packaging for a drug delivery microelectromechanical system  

E-print Network

Local drug delivery is a fast expanding field, and has been a center of attention for researchers in medicine in the last decade. Its advantages over systemic drug delivery are clear in cancer therapy, with localized tumors. ...

Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

2005-01-01

341

19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...upon the filing of immediate delivery applications on Customs...case they are supported by carrier's certificates and stipulations...of this section. (c) Carrier's certificates and stipulations...shipment under an immediate delivery permit, evidence of the...

2010-04-01

342

Virtual doctor's office telemedicine delivery system  

E-print Network

delivery services that are two-way telecommunications using a File Transfer Protocol over an Ethernet connection. The system is used to demonstrate effective telemedicine delivery to enable tele-consultation. Virtual instruments are developed for both ends...

Sainath, Paavana

2012-06-07

343

New Evidence for the Role of Emerging Flux in a Solar Filament's Slow Rise Preceding its CME-Producing Fast Eruption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We observe the eruption of a large-scale (approx.300,000 km) quiet-region solar filament, leading to an Earth-directed "halo" coronal mass ejection (CME). We use coronal imaging data in EUV from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, and in soft X-rays (SXRs) from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite. We also use spectroscopic data from the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), magnetic data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and white-light coronal data from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO), all on SOHO. Initially the filament shows a slow (approx.1 km/s projected against the solar disk) and approximately constant-velocity rise for about 6 hours, before erupting rapidly, reaching a velocity of approx. 8 km/s over the next approx. 25 min. CDS Doppler data show Earth-directed filament velocities ranging from < 20 km/s (the noise limit) during the slow-rise phase, to approx. 100 km/s-1 early in the eruption. Beginning within 10 hours prior to the start of the slow rise, localized new magnetic flux emerged near one end of the filament. Near the start of and during the slow-rise phase, SXR microflaring occurred repeatedly at the flux-emergence site, in conjunction with the development of a fan of SXR illumination of the magnetic arcade over the filament. The SXR microflares, development of the SXR fan, and motion of the slow-rising filament are all consistent with "tether-weakening" reconnection occurring between the newly-emerging flux and the overlying arcade field containing the filament field. The microflares and fan structure are not prominent in EUV, and would not have been detected without the SXR data. Standard "twin dimmings" occur near the location of the filament, and "remote dimmings" and "brightenings" occur further removed from the filament.

Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louis K.; Moore, Ronald L.

2007-01-01

344

Predictions and observations of HF radio propagation in the northerly ionosphere: The effect of the solar flares and a weak CME in early January 2014.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously reported on a significant new multi-national project to provide improved predictions and forecasts of HF radio propagation for commercial aircraft operating on trans-polar routes. In these regions, there are limited or no VHF air-traffic control facilities and geostationary satellites are below the horizon. Therefore HF radio remains important in maintaining communications with the aircraft at all times. Space weather disturbances can have a range of effects on the ionosphere and hence HF radio propagation - particularly in the polar cap. While severe space weather effects can lead to a total loss of communications (i.e. radio blackout), less intense events can still cause significant disruption. In this paper we will present the effect of a series of M and X class solar flares and a relatively weak CME on HF radio performance from 6 to 13 January 2014. This is an interesting interval from the point of view of HF radio propagation because while the solar effects on the ionosphere are significant, except for an interval of approximately 12 hours duration, they are not so intense as to produce a complete radio blackout on all paths. Observations of the signal-to-noise ratio, direction of arrival, and time of flight of HF radio signals on six paths (one entirely within the polar cap, three trans-auroral, and two sub-auroral) will be presented together with riometer measurements of the ionospheric absorption. Global maps of D-region absorption (D-region absorption prediction, DRAP) inferred from satellite measurements of the solar wind parameters will be compared with the HF and riometer observations. In addition, a ray-tracing model using a realistic background ionosphere and including localised features found in the ionospheric polar cap (e.g. polar patches and arcs) will be used to model the expected and observed HF radio propagation characteristics.

Hallam, Jonathan; Stocker, Alan J.; Warrington, Mike; Siddle, Dave; Zaalov, Nikolay; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil; Boteler, David; Danskin, Donald

2014-05-01

345

An analysis of Internet content delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the span of only a few years, the Internet has experienced an astronomical increase in the use of specialized content delivery systems, such as content delivery networks and peer-to-peer file sharing systems. Therefore, an understanding of content delivery on the lnternet now requires a detailed understanding of how these systems are used in practice.This paper examines content delivery from

Stefan Saroiu; Krishna P. Gummadi; Richard J. Dunn; Steven D. Gribble; Henry M. Levy

2002-01-01

346

Drug delivery strategies for therapeutic angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Angiogenesis is essential to human biology and of great clinical significance. Excessive or reduced angiogenesis can result in, or exacerbate, several disease states, including tumor formation, exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and ischemia. Innovative drug delivery systems can increase the effectiveness of therapies used to treat angiogenesis-related diseases. Areas covered This paper reviews the basic biology of angiogenesis, including current knowledge about its disruption in diseases, with the focus on cancer and AMD. Anti- and proangiogenic drugs available for clinical use or in development are also discussed, as well as experimental drug delivery systems that can potentially improve these therapies to enhance or reduce angiogenesis in a more controlled manner. Expert opinion Laboratory and clinical results have shown pro- or antiangiogenic drug delivery strategies to be effective in drastically slowing disease progression. Further research in this area will increase the efficacy, specificity and duration of these therapies. Future directions with composite drug delivery systems may make possible targeting of multiple factors for synergistic effects. PMID:21338327

Bhise, Nupura S; Shmueli, Ron B; Sunshine, Joel C; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Green, Jordan J

2014-01-01

347

Delivery of Organic Material and Water through Asteroid Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites, specifically carbonaceous chondrites, are frequently invoked as the primary source of Earth's water and organic materials, crucial ingredients for the formation of life. We have started developing a dynamical model of the delivery of their parent bodies, primitive low-albedo asteroids, from the asteroid main belt to Earth and to other planetary surfaces.Existing modeling work focuses on time-integrated delivery rates, which are dominated by the Solar System's turbulent youth. We, in turn, aim at calculating instantaneous delivery rates for comparison with instantaneous measurements. In doing so, we take direct account of the asteroid main belt's observed dynamical and physical structure. In particular, we use low albedo (as taken from the WISE catalog) as a proxy for primitive composition.Our first goal is for our model to reproduce the measured rate of micro-meteorite impacts on Earth. We will then calculate improved delivery rates to Mars and other planetary surfaces within the Solar System.Finally, we aim at applying our model to select exo-planetary systems. Far-IR observations of Vega and Fomalhaut reveal the presence of asteroid belts around these stars; dynamical calculations suggest that those are not a rare occurence but should occur rather generically around the location of the frost line. In such planetary systems, asteroids could deliver water and organics to the habitable region. In this sense, our model should lead to the definition of benchmark observables for exoplanet studies using upcoming/proposed IR facilities such as SPICA, METIS, and JWST.

Mueller, Michael; Frantseva, Kateryna; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.

2014-11-01

348

Evolution of the Magnetic Helicity Flux during the Formation and Eruption of Flux Ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.

2014-10-01

349

Incorporation of realistic delivery limitations into dynamic MLC treatment delivery.  

PubMed

The clinical implementation of IMRT involves the use of a number of complex software-based systems, typically including an inverse planning system, a leaf sequencer, and a computer-controlled treatment delivery system. The inverse planning system determines the desired fluence patterns, the leaf sequencer translates those fluence maps into leaf trajectories, and the control system delivers those trajectories. While verification of intensity-modulated treatment fields has focused primarily on the dosimetric aspects of delivery, accurate delivery of the intended fluence distribution is dependent upon both the leaf sequencer and delivery control systems. Leaf sequencing algorithms typically do not incorporate many control system limitations, and this can lead to discrepancies between planned and delivered sequences. In this work, simple and complex fields were sequenced for the dynamic sliding window technique using different leaf speeds and tolerance settings to identify various limitations of the accelerator control system. This work was conducted on a Varian 2100 EX equipped with a Millennium 120 leaf MLC. The identified limitations were then incorporated into the sequencing algorithm using a limiting leaf velocity (less than the maximum leaf velocity), the leaf position tolerance, and the communications delay in the control system. Collision avoidance in leaf pairs was found to depend on a control system-enforced minimum gap between leaves and led to acceleration effects. By incorporating these effects into the leaf sequencing algorithm, dynamic sliding-window leaf sequences were produced which did not require beam interruptions or dose rate modulations for the parameter values used in calculating the sequence (dose rate, tolerance, leaf speed, and total monitor units). Incorporation of control system limitations into the leaf sequencing algorithm results in IMRT fields that are delivered with the prescribed constant dose rate, require less time to deliver, and have well-defined, calculable transmission dose characteristics. PMID:12033577

Litzenberg, Dale W; Moran, Jean M; Fraass, Benedick A

2002-05-01

350

Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer  

E-print Network

Drug delivery Preparation of Monodisperse Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles Using a Microfluidic Flow-Focusing Device for Controlled Drug Delivery Qiaobing Xu, Michinao Hashimoto, Tram T. Dang, Todd microparticles have broad utility as vehicles for drug delivery and form the basis of several therapies approved

Prentiss, Mara

351

Decentralizing antipoverty program delivery in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects on accountability in government service delivery of decentralizing administration of an antipoverty program. While governments at both central and local levels are vulnerable to antipoor policy biases owing to political capture, centralized delivery systems are additionally prone to bureaucratic corruption, owing to problems in monitoring bureaucratic performance. Decentralizing the delivery system promotes cost-effectiveness and improves intra-

Pranab Bardhan; Dilip Mookherjee

352

Controlled Release Systems for DNA Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adapting controlled release technologies to the delivery of DNA has the potential to overcome extracellular barriers that limit gene therapy. Controlled release systems can enhance gene delivery and increase the extent and duration of transgene expression relative to more traditional delivery methods (e.g., injection). These systems typically deliver vectors locally, which can avoid distribution to distant tissues, decrease toxicity to

Angela K. Pannier; Lonnie D. Shea

2004-01-01

353

Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells) and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein–Barr virus)] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection) and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers). In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed. PMID:23210086

Nayerossadat, Nouri; Maedeh, Talebi; Ali, Palizban Abas

2012-01-01

354

November 15, 2012 When You Need Delivery, You Need DeliveryCrowd  

E-print Network

-sourced delivery, where smart phone-enabled drivers are connected, real-time, with businesses. The innovative cell as a blip on our map and we track them real-time using their GPS-enabled smart phone," said Gillot. "And phone app matches restaurant owners looking for delivery options, with delivery drivers. "The Delivery

Hardy, Christopher R.

355

Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

Mullin, Lee B.

356

Endosomal escape: a bottleneck in intracellular delivery.  

PubMed

With advances in therapeutic science, apart from drugs, newer bioactive moieties like oligonucleotides, proteins, peptides, enzymes and antibodies are constantly being introduced for the betterment of therapeutic efficacy. These moieties have intracellular components of the cells like cytoplasm and nucleus as one of their pharmacological sites for exhibiting therapeutic activity. Despite their promising efficacy, their intracellular bioavailability has been critically hampered leading to failure in the treatment of numerous diseases and disorders. The endosomal uptake pathway is known to be a rate-limiting barrier for such systems. Bioactive molecules get trapped in the endosomal vesicles and degraded in the lysosomal compartment, necessitating the need for effective strategies that facilitate the endosomal escape and enhance the cytosolic bioavailability of bioactives. Microbes like viruses and bacteria have developed their innate mechanistic tactics to translocate their genome and toxins by efficiently penetrating the host cell membrane. Understanding this mechanism and exploring it further for intracellular delivery has opened new avenues to surmount the endosomal barrier. These strategies include membrane fusion, pore formation and proton sponge effects. On the other hand, progress in designing a novel smart polymeric carrier system that triggers endosomal escape by undergoing modulations in the intracellular milieu has further led to an improvement in intracellular delivery. These comprise pH, enzyme and temperature-induced modulators, synthetic cationic lipids and photo-induced physical disruption. Each of the aforementioned strategies has its own unique mechanism to escape the endosome. This review recapitulates the numerous strategies designed to surmount the bottleneck of endosomal escape and thereby achieve successful intracellular uptake of bioactives. PMID:24730275

Shete, Harshad K; Prabhu, Rashmi H; Patravale, Vandana B

2014-01-01

357

Carboxymethyl starch and lecithin complex as matrix for targeted drug delivery: I. Monolithic mesalamine forms for colon delivery.  

PubMed

For drugs expected to act locally in the colon, and for successful treatment, a delivery device is necessary, in order to limit the systemic absorption which decreases effectiveness and causes important side effects. Various delayed release systems are currently commercialized; most of them based on pH-dependent release which is sensitive to gastrointestinal pH variation. This study proposes a novel excipient for colon delivery. This new preparation consists in the complexation between carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and Lecithin (L). As opposed to existing excipients, the new complex is pH-independent, inexpensive, and easy to manufacture and allows a high drug loading. FTIR, X-ray, and SEM structural analysis all support the hypothesis of the formation of a complex. By minor variation of the excipient content within the tablet, it is possible to modulate the release time and delivery at specific sites of the gastrointestinal tract. This study opens the door to a new pH-independent delivery system for mesalamine targeted administration. Our novel formulation fits well with the posology of mesalamine, used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), which requires repeated administrations (1g orally four times a day) to maintain a good quality of life. PMID:23562535

Mihaela Friciu, Maria; Canh Le, Tien; Ispas-Szabo, Pompilia; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

2013-11-01

358

A vector-free microfluidic platform for intracellular delivery  

PubMed Central

Intracellular delivery of macromolecules is a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Existing vector-based and physical methods have limitations, including their reliance on exogenous materials or electrical fields, which can lead to toxicity or off-target effects. We describe a microfluidic approach to delivery in which cells are mechanically deformed as they pass through a constriction 30–80% smaller than the cell diameter. The resulting controlled application of compression and shear forces results in the formation of transient holes that enable the diffusion of material from the surrounding buffer into the cytosol. The method has demonstrated the ability to deliver a range of material, such as carbon nanotubes, proteins, and siRNA, to 11 cell types, including embryonic stem cells and immune cells. When used for the delivery of transcription factors, the microfluidic devices produced a 10-fold improvement in colony formation relative to electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. Indeed, its ability to deliver structurally diverse materials and its applicability to difficult-to-transfect primary cells indicate that this method could potentially enable many research and clinical applications. PMID:23341631

Sharei, Armon; Zoldan, Janet; Adamo, Andrea; Sim, Woo Young; Cho, Nahyun; Jackson, Emily; Mao, Shirley; Schneider, Sabine; Han, Min-Joon; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Basto, Pamela A.; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Lee, Jungmin; Heller, Daniel A.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Hartoularos, George C.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs F.

2013-01-01

359

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

2013-10-01

360

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-10-01 true Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

2012-10-01

361

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

2011-10-01

362

43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418.7 Section 418.7...Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to...

2010-10-01

363

Anticancer drug delivery with nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology provides a variety of nanoscale tools for medicine. Among them nanoparticles are revolutionizing the field of drug delivery. These drug nanocarriers have the potential to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a drug, since they can be engineered to modulate the release and the stability and to prolong the circulation time of a drug, protecting it from elimination by phagocytic cells or premature degradation. Moreover, nanoscale carriers can be tailored to accumulate in tumour cells and tissues, due to enhanced permeability and a retention effect or by active targeting using ligands designed to recognize tumour-associated antigens. Could these nanomedicine tools mark an end to the necessity for loco-regional drug delivery? PMID:17203748

Conti, Matteo; Tazzari, Valeria; Baccini, Cesare; Pertici, Gianni; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; De Giorgi, Ugo

2006-01-01

364

The transdermal delivery of fentanyl.  

PubMed

The fentanyl patch is one of the great commercial successes in transdermal drug delivery. The suitability of this molecule for delivery through skin had been identified in the 1970s, and subsequently, a number of transdermal formulations became available on the market. This article reviews the development of fentanyl patch technology with particular emphasis on the pharmacokinetics and disposition of the drug when delivered through the skin. The various patch designs are considered as well as the bioequivalence of the different designs. The influence of heat on fentanyl permeation is highlighted. Post-mortem redistribution of fentanyl is discussed in light of the reported discrepancies in serum levels reported in patients after death compared with therapeutic levels in living subjects. Finally, alternatives to patch technology are considered, and recent novel transdermal formulations are highlighted. PMID:23419814

Lane, Majella E

2013-08-01

365

Gelatin Used for Drug Delivery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how gelatin can be used as a medium for drug delivery. Learners create colored gelatin and then cut out pieces of the gelatin to simulate medicine (pills). Learners then put their simulated pills in a pan of hot water. Since gelatin is a thermoreversible or cold-setting polymer, gelatin will convert back to a liquid if put in a hot environment. As the gelatin returns to its liquid form, it releases its embedded dye. The dye eventually diffuses completely out of the gelatin which simulates the slow release of a drug from a pill. From this activity, learners learn more about diffusion and drug delivery. Adult supervision recommended.

Mississippi, University O.

2003-01-01

366

Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610°C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

2009-08-01

367

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

E-print Network

if the government and public mandates GHG reduction and/or zero emissions By then, if H2 cost (production & delivery with separation at the end If NG is close to depletion or not allowed (due to carbon emission) at that point build large H2 plants at 250,000 kg/d each (100 million scfd), we need 50 plants in US As the transition

368

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery  

E-print Network

delivery. Incorporation of a helper lipid, such as dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) in the vehicle formulation may promote nucleic acid release by facilitating endosomal disruption 105-109 . The cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) is thought... (DOPE) were synergistic with cationic lipids in mediating the transfection 47,154,163 . In most cases, DOPE lead to reduced charge density of lipoplexes, thus lowering toxicity. The fusogenic property of DOPE also facilitated the endosomal escape...

Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

2011-04-26

369

The Sediment-delivery Fallacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expression `sediment-delivery rate' was used by Glymph (1954) to denote the percentage relationship between annual sediment yield of a catchment and the annual gross erosion of the catchment. In subsequent literature, `sediment-delivery ratio' has been used. The latter is preferable. These ratios are typically less, often much less, than one. Both Boyce (1975) and Graf (1988) recognised that such ratios are problematic. They contravene Playfair's Law and mean that catchments must progressively fill with undelivered sedim ent. Both catchment sediment yield and gross erosion are measured in units of weight/area. These units are inappropriate for the data on which the ratios are based. Sediment yield is obtained either by measuring sedimentation in reservoirs or by sampling the sediment load carried in streamflow. These data are fluxes. There is no basis for assuming that the sediment flux at a point along a stream is proportional to the catchment area. Likewise, for hillslope erosion, it cannot be assumed that the flux of sediment measured at the outlet of an erosion plot has been derived from and is, therefore, proportional to the area of the plot. For both streams and hillslopes, data on travel distances of particles indicate that much of the sediment flux may be locally derived. The relationship of sediment flux to contributing area is both complex and dependent on the erosion processes. The sediment-delivery ratio is a fallacy born out of use of incorrect units of measurement.

Parsons, Anthony; Wainwright, John; Powell, Mark; Brazier, Richard

370

Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications  

PubMed Central

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market. PMID:21814436

Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rai, Awani K.

2010-01-01

371

CCMR: Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safe and nontoxic drug delivery is an ongoing area of research. Some current methods of drug delivery include the use of nanoparticles, hydrogels, dendrimers, and micelles. Nanoparticles can be used as vehicles in which to transport certain drugs to cancerous cells. A certain class of nanoparticles called clays is especially useful in synthesizing these drug delivery vehicles. Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) are a type of hydrotalcite clay with a structure similar to smectite clays. They have a general structure that consists of layers of metal hydroxides connected to a layer of another metal hydroxide by hydrogen bonding. LDHs are made up of layers of a trivalent and a divalently charged cation coordinated by six oxygen atoms. The resulting structure consists of two-dimensional sheets with positively charged faces and negatively charged edges that are stacked together via hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups on adjacent sheets. These sheets generally have a very high aspect ratio, resulting in a large surface area. The positively charged layers are balanced by the presence of anions between them. A wide variety of LDHs can be synthesized depending on the various cations and interlayer anions used. Characterization of the LDHs themselves as well as LDHs intercalated with the drugs was performed using X-ray diffraction and TEM and SEM microscopy.

Lin, Joyce

2005-08-17

372

Can preterm deliveries be prevented?  

PubMed

Our hospital serves poor, inner-city women who have a 17% preterm delivery rate. Middle-class women in San Francisco at high risk for preterm delivery have benefited from an antepartum program which emphasized patient education and close follow-up. Using a controlled, randomized design, we are investigating the impact of similar interventions. Patients determined to be at high risk before 18 weeks' gestation on the basis of the Creasy system are randomly assigned to the Preterm Labor Prevention Clinic or serve as high-risk controls. Sixty-four women assigned to the Preterm Labor Prevention Clinic and 68 high-risk control women have been delivered of their infants. No significant differences were noted for the percentages of preterm infants, mean gestational age, or birth weight. Preterm rupture of the membranes accounted for 40% of preterm deliveries in all high-risk patients. Thirty percent of preterm births were indicated for maternal or fetal reasons. The remaining 30% represented failure of tocolytic therapy. PMID:3885736

Main, D M; Gabbe, S G; Richardson, D; Strong, S

1985-04-01

373

Dendrimer type bio-reducible polymer for efficient gene delivery.  

PubMed

Arginine-grafted bio-reducible poly(disulfide amine) (ABP) was incorporated into the poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer, creating a high molecular weight bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP, to overcome the limitations of the low molecular weight ABP. The newly synthesized PAM-ABP was studied to determine its efficacy as a gene delivery carrier. The PAM-ABP demonstrated superior condensing ability for plasmid DNA through the formation of compact nanosized polyplexes. These compact polyplexes enhanced cellular uptake and were less susceptible to reducing agents, resulting in greater transfection efficiency compared to ABP alone. Based on these results, this newly developed PAM-ABP polyplex is a promising delivery system for clinical gene therapy. PMID:22546681

Nam, Hye Yeong; Nam, Kihoon; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan; Bull, David A

2012-06-28

374

Adaptively biased sequential importance sampling for rare events in reaction networks with comparison to exact solutions from finite buffer dCME method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical events that occur rarely in biological processes are of great importance, but are challenging to study using Monte Carlo simulation. By introducing biases to reaction selection and reaction rates, weighted stochastic simulation algorithms based on importance sampling allow rare events to be sampled more effectively. However, existing methods do not address the important issue of barrier crossing, which often arises from multistable networks and systems with complex probability landscape. In addition, the proliferation of parameters and the associated computing cost pose significant problems. Here we introduce a general theoretical framework for obtaining optimized biases in sampling individual reactions for estimating probabilities of rare events. We further describe a practical algorithm called adaptively biased sequential importance sampling (ABSIS) method for efficient probability estimation. By adopting a look-ahead strategy and by enumerating short paths from the current state, we estimate the reaction-specific and state-specific forward and backward moving probabilities of the system, which are then used to bias reaction selections. The ABSIS algorithm can automatically detect barrier-crossing regions, and can adjust bias adaptively at different steps of the sampling process, with bias determined by the outcome of exhaustively generated short paths. In addition, there are only two bias parameters to be determined, regardless of the number of the reactions and the complexity of the network. We have applied the ABSIS method to four biochemical networks: the birth-death process, the reversible isomerization, the bistable Schlögl model, and the enzymatic futile cycle model. For comparison, we have also applied the finite buffer discrete chemical master equation (dCME) method recently developed to obtain exact numerical solutions of the underlying discrete chemical master equations of these problems. This allows us to assess sampling results objectively by comparing simulation results with true answers. Overall, ABSIS can accurately and efficiently estimate rare event probabilities for all examples, often with smaller variance than other importance sampling algorithms. The ABSIS method is general and can be applied to study rare events of other stochastic networks with complex probability landscape.

Cao, Youfang; Liang, Jie

2013-07-01

375

Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA), the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM) and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2) were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV) have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks) and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr) was in the range of 0.7 0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver) which directly influenced energetic particle rise times. This model also illustrated the non-uniform upstream conditions through which the various shocks propagated; furthermore it simulated shock deformation on a scale of fractions of an AU. On the spatial scale (300 RE ), where near-Earth spacecraft are located, the passing shocks, in conformity with the models, were found to be locally planar. The shocks also showed tilting relative to the Sun-Earth line, probably reflecting the inherent directionality associated with their solar origin.

McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Dryer, M.; Smith, Z.; Kecskemety, K.; Fry, C. D.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Berdichevsky, D.; Kudela, K.; Zastenker, G.

2002-07-01

376

Spatiotemporal delivery of bone morphogenetic protein enhances functional repair of segmental bone defects  

PubMed Central

Osteogenic growth factors that promote endogenous repair mechanisms hold considerable potential for repairing challenging bone defects. The local delivery of one such growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), has been successfully translated to clinical practice for spinal fusion and bone fractures. However, improvements are needed in the spatial and temporal control of BMP delivery to avoid the currently used supraphysiologic doses and the concomitant adverse effects. We have recently introduced a hybrid protein delivery system comprised of two parts: a perforated nanofibrous mesh that spatially confines the defect region and a functionalized alginate hydrogel that provides temporal growth factor release kinetics. Using this unique spatiotemporal delivery system, we previously demonstrated BMP-mediated functional restoration of challenging 8 mm femoral defects in a rat model. In this study, we compared the efficacy of the hybrid system in repairing segmental bone defects to that of the current clinical standard, collagen sponge, at the same dose of recombinant human BMP-2. In addition, we investigated the specific role of the nanofibrous mesh tube on bone regeneration. Our results indicate that the hybrid delivery system significantly increased bone regeneration and improved biomechanical function compared to collagen sponge delivery. Furthermore, we observed that presence of the nanofiber mesh tube was essential to promote maximal mineralized matrix synthesis, prevent extra-anatomical mineralization, and guide an integrated pattern of bone formation. Together, these results suggest that spatiotemporal strategies for osteogenic protein delivery may enhance clinical outcomes by improving localized protein retention. PMID:21621027

Kolambkar, Yash M.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Bajin, Mehmet; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Guldberg, Robert E.

2011-01-01

377

Temporally controlled multiple-gene delivery in scaffolds: A promising strategy to enhance bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Bone defects sometimes require more effective repair regimens than conventional clinical therapies can provide. On account of this, tissue-engineered scaffolds have emerged as a promising alternative. Scaffolds that release genes encoding growth factors (GFs) offer additional benefits for bone regeneration in comparison with scaffolds providing protein delivery. The present gene delivery systems focus on unitary or dual genes delivery without controlled release. In the meantime, evidences indicate that bone formation is a complex cascade of events, in which time-dependent expression of multiple growth factors is involved. In our hypothesis, a temporally controlled, multi-gene delivery system embedded in a scaffold matrix can be fabricated; such a system is capable of mimicking the expression of growth factor profile in osteogenesis. Consequently, bone regeneration can be promoted by sequential gene expression of multiple growth factors. PMID:20926199

Liu, Jinsong; Xu, Lihua; Li, Yiming; Ma, Jianfeng

2011-02-01

378

The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this fall back material will be augered out during auger re-insertion. The next bite will be taken only once the auger has reached the true bottom. In the bite sampling approach the stratigraphy is somewhat preserved since every time the sample is taken, it more or less represents the depth interval in the hole. There is going to be some level of cross contamination due to smearing of cuttings on the flutes against the borehole as the auger is being pulled out, or when formation is very porous and unstable. The goal of the first drill campaign in Atacama in May of 2012 was to demonstrate successful operation of the bite sampling method and to learn about diversity of soils and rocks in the Atacama. In 2013, the sampling system has been integrated onto the CMU Zoe rover and autonomously deployed in Atacama. The drill penetrated various formations and delivered samples to a carousel. When soil was very porous, poor sample recovery was observed. When the soil was dense and cohesive, sample recovery was 100% with little cross contamination. To enable greater sample recovery in loose and unstable formations, the auger diameter will be increased from the current 12.5 mm to 19 mm. Acknowledgements: The project has been funded by the NASA ASTEP program.

Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

2013-12-01

379

Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

380

Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

2013-07-01

381

Transdermal Insulin Delivery Using Microdermabrasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Transdermal insulin delivery is an attractive needle-free alternative to subcutaneous injection conventionally used to treat\\u000a diabetes. However, skin’s barrier properties prevent insulin permeation at useful levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We investigated whether microdermabrasion can selectively remove skin’s surface layers to increase skin permeability as a\\u000a method to administer insulin to diabetic rats. We further assessed the relative roles of stratum corneum and viable

Samantha Andrews; Jeong Woo Lee; Seong-O Choi; Mark R. Prausnitz

382

Infection, antibiotics, and preterm delivery.  

PubMed

The relationship between genital tract infection and preterm delivery has been established on the basis of biochemical, microbiological, and clinical evidence. In theory, pathogenic bacteria may ascend from the lower reproductive tract into the uterus, and the resulting inflammation leads to preterm labor, rupture of the membranes, and birth. A growing body of evidence suggests that preterm labor and/rupture of the membranes are triggered by micro-organisms in the genital tract and by the host response to these organisms, ie, elaboration of cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Epidemiologic and in vitro studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between infection and preterm birth. However, the preponderance of evidence indicates that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic lower genital tract infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia will lower the risk of preterm delivery. Based on current evidence, pregnant women who note an abnormal vaginal discharge should be tested for BV, trichomonas, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Those who test positive should be treated appropriately. A 3- to 7-day course of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is clinically indicated to reduce the risk of pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Routine screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea should be performed for women at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The practice of routine screening for BV in asymptomatic women who are at low risk for preterm delivery cannot be supported based on evidence from the literature. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is cost-effective, particularly in high-prevalence populations. The results of antibiotic trials for the treatment of preterm labor have been inconsistent. In the absence of reasonable evidence that antimicrobial therapy leads to significant prolongation of pregnancy in the setting of preterm labor, antibiotics should be used only for protecting the neonate from group B streptococci sepsis. They should not be used for the purpose of prolonging pregnancy. Multiple investigations have shown that, in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes, prophylactic antibiotics are of value in prolonging the latent period between rupture of the membranes and onset of labor and in reducing the incidence of maternal and neonatal infection. The most extensively tested effective antibiotic regimen for prophylaxis involves erythromycin alone or in combination with ampicilln. Controversy still exists regarding the appropriate length and route of antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:11707017

Locksmith, G; Duff, P

2001-10-01

383

Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

2011-09-10

384

Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

2012-01-01

385

Polyarginine segments in block copolypeptides drive both vesicular assembly and intracellular delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric vesicles are a relatively new class of nanoscale self-assembled materials that show great promise as robust encapsulants. Compared with liposomes, use of polymeric building blocks for membrane formation allows increased stability, stimuli responsiveness and chemical diversity, which may prove advantageous for drug-delivery applications . A major drawback of most polymeric vesicles is the lack of biofunctionality, which restricts their ability to interact with cells and tissues. We have prepared vesicles composed of polyarginine and polyleucine segments that are stable in media, can entrap water soluble species, and can be processed to different sizes and prepared in large quantities. The remarkable feature of these materials is that the polyarginine segments both direct structure for vesicle formation and provide functionality for efficient intracellular delivery of the vesicles. This unique synergy between nanoscale self-assembly and inherent peptide functionality provides a new approach for design of multifunctional materials for drug delivery.

Holowka, Eric P.; Sun, Victor Z.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Deming, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

386

Observing Flux Rope Formation During the Impulsive Phase of a Solar Eruption  

E-print Network

Magnetic flux rope is believed to be an important structural component of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While there exist much observational evidence of the flux rope after the eruption, e.g., as seen in remote-sensing coronagraph images or in-situ solar wind data, the direct observation of flux ropes during CME impulsive phase has been rare. In this Letter, we present an unambiguous observation of a flux rope still in the formation phase in the low corona. The CME of interest occurred above the east limb on 2010 November 03 with footpoints partially blocked. The flux rope was seen as a bright blob of hot plasma in AIA 131 \\AA\\ passband (peak temperature ~11 MK) rising from the core of the source active region, rapidly moving outward and stretching upward the surrounding background magnetic field. The stretched magnetic field seemed to curve-in behind the core, similar to the classical magnetic reconnection scenario in eruptive flares. On the other hand, the flux rope appeared as a dark cavity in AIA 211 \\AA...

Cheng, X; Liu, Y; Ding, M D

2011-01-01

387

Polyelectrolyte-based Nanoparticles for Gene and Protein Delivery  

E-print Network

.3.1 Drug and nucleic acid delivery Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal agent that has poor oral bioavailability due to its low solubility. There are two forms of intravenous preparations available; liposomal and lipid complex formulations. The lipid... xii INDEX OF FIGURES Figure Page(s) Caption 1.1 14 (A) An uncharged polymer molecule in a random coil shape (B) an anionic polyelectrolyte in salt-free solution. 1.2 18 A representative scheme of PEC formation when the two constituent...

Khondee, Supang

2011-05-31

388

Localized drugs delivery hydroxyapatite microspheres for osteoporosis therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the preparation of hydroxyapatite microspheres for local drugs delivery. The formation of the hydroxyapatite microspheres was initiated by enzymatic decomposition of urea and accomplished by emulsification process (water-in-oil). The microspheres obtained were sintered at 500°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the microspheres have various porous with random size, which maximizes the surface area. Cytotoxicity was not observed after sintering. Osteoporosis drugs, alendronate and BMP-2, were loaded into HAp microspheres and the releases of both molecules showed sustained releasing profiles.

Lee, J. H.; Ko, I. H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Chae, J. H.; Lee, E. J.; Chang, J. H.

2011-10-01

389

The perspectives of clients and unqualified allopathic practitioners on the management of delivery care in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh - a mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: BRAC is implementing a program to improve maternal and newborn health among the urban poor in the slums of Bangladesh (Mansohi), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Formative research has demonstrated that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) are commonly assisting home-delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the role of unqualified allopathic practitioners during home delivery

Tasnuva Wahed; Allisyn C Moran; Mohammad Iqbal

2010-01-01

390

Cost Effective Delivery Strategies in Rural Areas: Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Vol. I. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a common format outlining program settings, agencies, children/families served, staff, services, delivery strategies, and program costs, descriptions of four cost-effective rural service delivery programs for young handicapped children provide evidence that good rural programs are affordable. The Early Lifestyle Program at King's Daughters'…

Black, Talbot, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

391

Superhydrophobic materials for drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobicity is a property of material surfaces reflecting the ability to maintain air at the solid-liquid interface when in contact with water. These surfaces have characteristically high apparent contact angles, by definition exceeding 150°, as a result of the composite material-air surface formed under an applied water droplet. Superhydrophobic surfaces were first discovered on naturally occurring substrates, and have subsequently been fabricated in the last several decades to harness these favorable surface properties for a number of emerging applications, including their use in biomedical settings. This work describes fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic 3D materials, as well as their use as drug delivery devices. Superhydrophobic 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces in that air is maintained not just at the surface of the material, but also within the bulk. When the superhydrophobic 3D materials are submerged in water, water infiltrates slowly and continuously as a new water-air-material interface is formed with controlled displacement of air. Electrospinning and electrospraying are used to fabricate superhydrophobic 3D materials utilizing blends of the biocompatible polymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(caprolactone-co-glycerol monostearate) (PGC-C18). PGC-C18 is significantly more hydrophobic than PCL (contact angle of 116° versus 83° for flat materials), and further additions of PGC-C18 into electrospun meshes and electrosprayed coatings affords increased stability of the entrapped air layer. For example, PCL meshes alone (500 mum thick) take 10 days to fully wet, and with 10% or 30% PGC-C18 addition wetting rates are dramatically slowed to 60% wetted by 77 days and 4% by 75 days, respectively. Stability of the superhydrophobic materials can be further probed with a variety of physio-chemical techniques, including pressure, surfactant containing solutions, and solvents of varying surface tension. Superhydrophobicity is shown to be enhanced with further increases in PGC-C18 content and surface roughness (a decrease in fiber size). We demonstrate the utility of superhydrophobicity as a method for drug delivery. When the camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and CPT-11 are encapsulated within electrospun meshes, changes in air layer stability (due to changes in PGC-C18 content) dictate the rate of drug release by controlling the rate in which water can permeate into the porous 3D electrospun structure. Drug release can be tuned from 2 weeks to >10 weeks from 300 mum meshes, and meshes effectively kill a variety of cancer cell lines (lung, colon, breast) when utilized in a cytotoxicity assay. After determining that air could be used to control the rate of drug release, superhydrophobic 3D materials are explored for three applications. First, meshes are considered as a potential combination reinforcement-drug delivery device for use in resectable colorectal cancer. Second, removal of the air layer in superhydrophobic meshes is used as a method to trigger drug release. The pressure generated from high-intensity focused ultrasound (0.75-4.25 MPa) can remove the air layer spatially and temporally, allowing drug release to be controlled with application of a sufficient treatment. Third, "connective" electrosprayed coatings are deposited on chemically distinct material surfaces, which are both three-dimensional and mechanically robust. In summary, superhydrophobic 3D materials are fabricated and characterized, and are utilized as drug delivery devices. Controlled air removal from these materials offers an entirely new strategy for drug delivery, and is promising for the applications considered in this work as well as many others.

Yohe, Stefan Thomas

392

A Formal Model of Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We define a \\u000a service delivery\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a system as a set of interacting entities that are involved in the delivery of one or more business services. A service operating\\u000a system manages the processes and resources within a service delivery system\\u000a . This paper develops a formal model for these concepts, with the goal of clearly and precisely describing the delivery behavior\\u000a of

Guruduth Banavar; Alan Hartman; Lakshmish Ramaswamy; Anatoly Zherebtsov

393

(FM 10-500-1) AERIAL DELIVERY  

E-print Network

.............................................................2-6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Aerial Delivery Operations .........................2-9 Chapter.............................................................................. 7-2 Automation/Communication Enhanceme

US Army Corps of Engineers

394

Payment for deliveries in Sierra Leone.  

PubMed Central

The type and amount of payment for deliveries were investigated in 1982 during a survey on health status in two districts. Data on the payments made for 83.5% of the 2591 deliveries in 535 randomly selected study villages showed that the most common method of payment was in cash only. Payments in kind were mostly given to trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (for 38.1% of their deliveries) and rare for professional staff (2.9% of deliveries). The total amount paid for a delivery differed significantly with the type of birth attendant (P less than 0.00001) and the place of delivery (hospital, peripheral health unit or home) (P less than 0.00001). The total average payment for a delivery was highest for professional birth attendants (Le 16.60) and lowest for untrained TBAs (Le 4.85) (Le 2 = approx. US+ 1 at the time of the study). The outcome of a delivery had a significant effect on the amount paid. Payments were significantly higher for stillbirths than for live births among professional and auxiliary birth attendants (P less than 0.0001). However, the trained and untrained TBAs received less payment for stillbirths (Le 2.25) than for live births (Le 4.89) (P = 0.0146). The results show that there are several levels of financial disincentives for pregnant women requiring the services of trained auxiliary or professional health workers at the time of delivery. PMID:2787215

Edwards, N. C.; Birkett, N. J.; Sengeh, P. A.

1989-01-01

395

Emergency delivery of Vasopressin from an implantable MEMS rapid drug delivery device  

E-print Network

An implantable rapid drug delivery device based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology was designed, fabricated and validated for the in vivo rapid delivery of vasopressin in a rabbit model. In vitro ...

Ho Duc, Hong Linh, 1978-

2009-01-01

396

Great Service Pays: A Model for Service Delivery in an Academic Music Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special-subject libraries can be particularly intimidating for casual and seasoned patrons alike. Music libraries, with their variety of materials, formats, and vocabularies, can present particular challenges for the user. With this proposal for a model of service delivery, as well as many tips gained through experience working the front-of-house…

Wilson, Andrew M.

2007-01-01

397

Formulation and evaluation of thienorphine hydrochloride sublingual delivery system.  

PubMed

Thienorphine hydrochloride (ThH) is a highly insoluble and readily metabolized partial-opioid agonist. It is used for the treatment of pain and heroin addiction. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate sublingual delivery systems containing ThH. Dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-CD) can enhance the solubility and permeability of hydrophobic drugs. In this paper, ThH cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were prepared and administrated sublingually with the objective of improving the drug's aqueous solubility, in vitro permeation rate, and in vivo absorption rate. The formulation was prepared with DM-?-CD using the freeze-dried method and characterized using phase solubility, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray and NMR analyses. The results of each test indicated the formation of dynamic inclusion complexes between ThH and DM-?-CD. The inclusion complexes also showed significant increases in in vitro aqueous solubility and mucosal permeability. According to the pharmacokinetic study of the complex in rats, the AUC and C(max) values of the sublingual delivery group were 40 and 46 times higher than those of the gastrointestinal group, whereas t(max) was shorter, which proved that in vivo absorption and metabolism had been improved. It can therefore be concluded that the inclusion technology and sublingual delivery system were suitable for ThH development. PMID:23207629

Liu, Fei; Zhao, Yumei; Sun, Jianxu; Gao, Yongliang; Zhang, Zhenqing

2012-01-01

398

Intracellular trafficking pathways for nuclear delivery of plasmid DNA complexed with highly efficient endosome escape polymers.  

PubMed

Understanding the pathways for nuclear entry could see vast improvements in polymer design for the delivery of genetic materials to cells. Here, we use a novel diblock copolymer complexed with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to determine both its cellular entry and nuclear pathways. The diblock copolymer (A-C3) is specifically designed to bind and protect pDNA, release it at a specific time, but more importantly, rapidly escape the endosome. The copolymer was taken up by HEK293 cells preferentially via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway, and the pDNA entered the nucleus to produce high gene expression levels in all cells after 48 h, a similar observation to the commercially available polymer transfection agent, PEI Max. This demonstrates that the polymers must first escape the endosome and then mediate transport of pDNA to the nucleus for occurrence of gene expression. The amount of pDNA within the nucleus was found to be higher for our A-C3 polymer than PEI Max, with our polymer delivering 7 times more pDNA than PEI Max after 24 h. We further found that entry into the nucleus was primarily through the small nuclear pores and did not occur during mitosis when the nuclear envelope becomes compromised. The observation that the polymers are also found in the nucleus supports the hypothesis that the large pDNA/polymer complex (size ?200 nm) must dissociate prior to nucleus entry and that cationic and hydrophobic monomer units on the polymer may facilitate active transport of the pDNA through the nuclear pore. PMID:25156109

Gillard, Marianne; Jia, Zhongfan; Hou, Jeff Jia Cheng; Song, Michael; Gray, Peter P; Munro, Trent P; Monteiro, Michael J

2014-10-13

399

Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

2008-01-01

400

Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2011-01-01

401

Synthesis and reactivity of Ir(I) and Ir(III) complexes with MeNH2, Me2C=NR (R = H, Me), C,N-C6H4{C(Me)=N(Me)}-2, and N,N'-RN=C(Me)CH2C(Me2)NHR (R = H, Me) ligands.  

PubMed

Complexes [Ir(Cp*)Cl(n)(NH2Me)(3-n)]X(m) (n = 2, m = 0 (1), n = 1, m = 1, X = Cl (2a), n = 0, m = 2, X = OTf (3)) are obtained by reacting [Ir(Cp*)Cl(mu-Cl)]2 with MeNH2 (1:2 or 1:8) or with [Ag(NH2Me)2]OTf (1:4), respectively. Complex 2b (n = 1, m = 1, X = ClO 4) is obtained from 2a and NaClO4 x H2O. The reaction of 3 with MeC(O)Ph at 80 degrees C gives [Ir(Cp*){C,N-C6H4{C(Me)=N(Me)}-2}(NH2Me)]OTf (4), which in turn reacts with RNC to give [Ir(Cp*){C,N-C6H4{C(Me)=N(Me)}-2}(CNR)]OTf (R = (t)Bu (5), Xy (6)). [Ir(mu-Cl)(COD)]2 reacts with [Ag{N(R)=CMe2}2]X (1:2) to give [Ir{N(R)=CMe2}2(COD)]X (R = H, X = ClO4 (7); R = Me, X = OTf (8)). Complexes [Ir(CO)2(NH=CMe2)2]ClO4 (9) and [IrCl{N(R)=CMe2}(COD)] (R = H (10), Me (11)) are obtained from the appropriate [Ir{N(R)=CMe2}2(COD)]X and CO or Me4NCl, respectively. [Ir(Cp*)Cl(mu-Cl)]2 reacts with [Au(NH=CMe2)(PPh3)]ClO4 (1:2) to give [Ir(Cp*)(mu-Cl)(NH=CMe2)]2(ClO4)2 (12) which in turn reacts with PPh 3 or Me4NCl (1:2) to give [Ir(Cp*)Cl(NH=CMe2)(PPh3)]ClO4 (13) or [Ir(Cp*)Cl2(NH=CMe2)] (14), respectively. Complex 14 hydrolyzes in a CH2Cl2/Et2O solution to give [Ir(Cp*)Cl2(NH3)] (15). The reaction of [Ir(Cp*)Cl(mu-Cl)]2 with [Ag(NH=CMe2)2]ClO4 (1:4) gives [Ir(Cp*)(NH=CMe2)3](ClO4)2 (16a), which reacts with PPNCl (PPN = Ph3=P=N=PPh3) under different reaction conditions to give [Ir(Cp*)(NH=CMe2)3]XY (X = Cl, Y = ClO4 (16b); X = Y = Cl (16c)). Equimolar amounts of 14 and 16a react to give [Ir(Cp*)Cl(NH=CMe2)2]ClO4 (17), which in turn reacts with PPNCl to give [Ir(Cp*)Cl(H-imam)]Cl (R-imam = N,N'-N(R)=C(Me)CH2C(Me)2NHR (18a)]. Complexes [Ir(Cp*)Cl(R-imam)]ClO4 (R = H (18b), Me (19)) are obtained from 18a and AgClO4 or by refluxing 2b in acetone for 7 h, respectively. They react with AgClO4 and the appropriate neutral ligand or with [Ag(NH=CMe2)2]ClO4 to give [Ir(Cp*)(R-imam)L](ClO4)2 (R = H, L = (t)BuNC (20), XyNC (21); R = Me, L = MeCN (22)) or [Ir(Cp*)(H-imam)(NH=CMe2)](ClO4)2 (23a), respectively. The later reacts with PPNCl to give [Ir(Cp*)(H-imam)(NH=CMe2)]Cl(ClO4) (23b). The reaction of 22 with XyNC gives [Ir(Cp*)(Me-imam)(CNXy)](ClO4)2 (24). The structures of complexes 15, 16c and 18b have been solved by X-ray diffraction methods. PMID:18808115

Vicente, José; Chicote, María Teresa; Vicente-Hernández, Inmaculada; Bautista, Delia

2008-10-20

402

Multivalent dendrimer vectors with DNA intercalation motifs for gene delivery.  

PubMed

Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers constitute an important class of nonviral, cationic vectors in gene delivery. Here we report on a new concept for dendrimer vector design based on the incorporation of dual binding motifs: DNA intercalation, and receptor recognition for targeted delivery. We prepared a series of dendrimer conjugates derived from a fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimer, each conjugated with multiple folate (FA) or riboflavin (RF) ligands for cell receptor targeting, and with 3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridinium ("DAPP")-derived ligands for anchoring a DNA payload. Polyplexes of each dendrimer with calf thymus dsDNA were made and characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement. These studies provided evidence supporting polyplex formation based on the observation of tight DNA-dendrimer adhesion, and changes in particle size and surface charge upon coincubation. Further SPR studies to investigate the adhesion of the polyplex to a model surface immobilized with folate binding protein (FBP), demonstrated that the DNA payload has only a minimal effect on the receptor binding activity of the polyplex: KD = 0.22 nM for G5(FA)(DAPP) versus 0.98 nM for its polyplex. Finally, we performed in vitro transfection assays to determine the efficiency of conjugate mediated delivery of a luciferase-encoding plasmid into the KB cancer cell line and showed that RF-conjugated dendrimers were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more effective in enhancing luciferase gene transfection than a plasmid only control. In summary, this study serves as a proof of concept for DNA-ligand intercalation as a motif in the design of multivalent dendrimer vectors for targeted gene delivery. PMID:25285357

Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Kenny; Coulter, Alexa; Tang, Shengzhuang; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

2014-11-10

403

Organized Athletics as a Leisure Delivery System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Athletic programs are leisure time delivery systems for the athletes, spectators, and the local community as long as scholarships and extensive media coverage are not involved. College administration should make sure that sports and athletics do not become a delivery sytem for public relations and finance. (CJ)

Kidd, Thomas R.; Mendell, Ron

1980-01-01

404

Hg Delivery System Nozzle 25 Oct 2005  

E-print Network

design review, discussion initiated concerning nozzle changeouts at MIT - Current design requiresHg Delivery System Nozzle Discussion Van Graves 25 Oct 2005 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U decoupling of delivery system from magnet bore to access nozzle - Operationally preferable to have access

McDonald, Kirk

405

Preparing a Course for Distance Education Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) has committed to the electronic delivery of an MBA (Masters in Business Administration) program to Northern Jiaotong University in Beijing, China. This paper describes the process of preparing a course for electronic delivery, along with related course preparation issues. The university's partnership with…

Pollack, Thomas A.

406

Delivery system for laser medical instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the special constructed hollow glass waveguides was realized. Maximum mean power transmitted via this delivery system was 5.8 W (for alexandrite radiation) or 5.1 W (for mid infrared Er.YAG light). Maximum output intensity 173 GW\\/cm2 was reached for delivery of 55 psec long Nd:YAG pulses.

Helena Jelinkova; Michal Nemec; Jan Sulc; Pavel Cerny; Mitsunobu Miyagi; Yi-Wei Shi; Yuji Matsuura

2003-01-01

407

Electrically-Assisted Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically-assisted transdermal delivery (EATDD) is the facilitated transport of compounds across the skin using an electromotive force. It has been extensively explored as a potential means for delivering peptides and other hydrophilic, acid-labile or orally unstable products of biotechnology. The predominant mechanism for delivery is iontophoresis, although electroosmosis and electroporation have also been investigated. The focus of this review is

Jim E. Riviere; Mark C. Heit

1997-01-01

408

Risk factors for perineal injury during delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to identify risk factors for anal sphincter injury during vaginal delivery. Study Design: This was a retrospective, case-control study. We reviewed 2078 records of vaginal deliveries within a 2-year period from May 1, 1999, through April 30, 2001. Cases (n = 91) during the study period were defined as parturients who had documentation of greater than a

L. M. Christianson; V. E. Bovbjerg; E. C. McDavitt; K. L. Hullfish

2003-01-01

409

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas-derived gaseous hydrogen delivery. The focus of this presentation will be on natural gas-derived gaseous hydrogen is needed on the effects of adding hydrogen to natural gas - Feasibility of injecting hydrogen into natural

410

Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove

L. Chen; J. Zhu; M. Young

2007-01-01

411

Combinatorially Simple Pickup and Delivery Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pickup and delivery problems discussed in the literature of ten allow for only particularly sim- ple solutions in terms of the sequence of visited locations. We study the very simplest pickup and delivery paths which are concatenations of short patter ns visiting one or two requests. This restricted variant, still NP -hard, is close to the traveling salesman problem with

Marco E. Lubbecke

2002-01-01

412

Characterization of implantable microfabricated fluid delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formal characterization of the performance of microfluidic delivery devices is crucial for reliable in vivo application. A comprehensive laboratory technique was developed and used to optimize, calibrate and validate microfabricated fluid delivery devices. In vivo experiments were carried out to verify the accuracy and reliability of the pressure driven devices. Acute guinea pig experiments were conducted to measure the

Ruben Rathnasingham; Daryl R. Kipke; Sanford C. Bledsoe; John D. McLaren

2004-01-01

413

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been

Jean-François Etter; Chris Bullen; Andreas D Flouris; Murray Laugesen; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

414

Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle  

E-print Network

Drug delivery Combinatorial Drug Conjugation Enables Nanoparticle Dual-Drug Delivery Santosh Aryal, Che-Ming Jack Hu, and Liangfang Zhang* A new approach to loading multiple drugs onto the same drug through hydrolyzable linkers to form drug conjugates, is reported. In contrast to loading individual types

Zhang, Liangfang

415

Experience of Water Birth Delivery in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Having considered the physiologic challenges during pregnancy, scientists have searched for different delivery methods with minimal medical intervention. The use of water immersion by women for relaxing during labor is being used worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the controversies surrounding water birth and to find out the interest of Iranian women in this delivery method. Methods: In a randomized

Shahla Chaichian; Ali Akhlaghi; Firouzeh Rousta; Mahboobeh Safavi

416

Nanoparticle mediated non-covalent drug delivery?  

PubMed Central

The use of nanoparticles (NPs) for enhanced drug delivery has been heavily explored during the last decade. Within the field, it is has become increasingly apparent that the physical properties of the particles themselves dictate their efficacy, and the relevant non-covalent chemistry at the NP interface also influences how drugs are immobilized and delivered. In this review, we reflect on the physical chemistry of NP mediated drug delivery (and more specifically, non-covalent drug delivery) at the three main experimental stages of drug loading, NP–drug conjugate transport, and the resulting cellular drug delivery. Through a critical evaluation of advances in drug delivery within the last decade, an outlook for biomedical applications of nanoscale transport vectors will be presented. PMID:22664231

Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens

2013-01-01

417

Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

2009-01-01

418

Cell-penetrating peptides as a novel transdermal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

In the last decade, almost one-third of the newly discovered drugs approved by the US FDA were biomolecules and biologics. Effective delivery of therapeutic biomolecules to their target is a challenging issue. Innovations in drug delivery systems have improved the efficiency of many of new biopharmaceuticals. Designing of novel transdermal delivery systems has been one of the most important pharmaceutical innovations, which offers a number of advantages. The cell-penetrating peptides have been increasingly used to mediate delivery of bimolecular cargoes such as small molecules, small interfering RNA nucleotides, drug-loaded nanoparticles, proteins, and peptides, both in vitro and in vivo, without using any receptors and without causing any significant membrane damage. Among several different drug delivery routes, application of cell-penetrating peptides in the topical and transdermal delivery systems has recently garnered tremendous attention in both cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical research and industries. In this review, we discuss history of cell-penetrating peptides, cell-penetrating peptide/cargo complex formation, and their mechanisms of cell and skin transduction. PMID:22846609

Nasrollahi, Saman A; Taghibiglou, Changiz; Azizi, Ebrahim; Farboud, Effat S

2012-11-01

419

Single-molecule magnets: structure and properties of [Mn18O14(O2CMe)18(hep)4(hepH)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 with spin S = 13.  

PubMed

The reaction of 2-(hydroxyethyl)pyridine (hepH) with a 2:1 molar mixture of [Mn3O(O2CMe)6(py)3]ClO4 and [Mn3O(O2CMe)6(py)3] in MeCN afforded the new mixed-valent (16Mn(III), 2Mn(II)), octadecanuclear complex [Mn18O14(O2CMe)18(hep)4(hepH)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (1) in 20% yield. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P. Direct current magnetic susceptibility studies in a 1.0 T field in the 5.0-300 K range, and variable-temperature variable-field dc magnetization studies in the 2.0-4.0 K and 2.0-5.0 T ranges were obtained on polycrystalline samples. Fitting of magnetization data established that complex 1 possesses a ground-state spin of S = 13 and D = -0.18 K. This was confirmed by the value of the in-phase ac magnetic susceptibility signal. Below 3 K, the complex exhibits a frequency-dependent drop in the in-phase signal, and a concomitant increase in the out-of-phase signal, consistent with slow magnetization relaxation on the ac time scale. This suggests the complex is a single-molecule magnet (SMM), and this was confirmed by hysteresis loops below 1 K in magnetization versus dc field sweeps on a single crystal. Alternating current and direct current magnetization data were combined to yield an Arrhenius plot from which was obtained the effective barrier (U(eff)) for magnetization reversal of 21.3 K. Below 0.2 K, the relaxation becomes temperature-independent, consistent with relaxation only by quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) through the anisotropy barrier via the lowest-energy MS = +/-13 levels of the S = 13 spin manifold. Complex 1 is thus the SMM with the largest ground-state spin to display QTM. PMID:15679378

Brechin, E K; Sañudo, E C; Wernsdorfer, W; Boskovic, C; Yoo, J; Hendrickson, D N; Yamaguchi, A; Ishimoto, H; Concolino, T E; Rheingold, A L; Christou, G

2005-02-01

420

Floating Drug Delivery of Nevirapine as a Gastroretentive System  

PubMed Central

A multiple-unit floating drug delivery system based on gas formation technique was developed, in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the dosage form. The floating bead formulations were prepared by dispersing nevirapine together with calcium carbonate in a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution and then dripping the dispersion into an acidified solution of calcium chloride. Calcium alginate beads were formed, as the alginate underwent ionotropic gelation by calcium ions, and carbon dioxide developed from the reaction of carbonate salts with acid. The obtained beads were able to float due to CO2-gas formation and the gas entrapment by the polymeric membrane. The prepared beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, morphology, surface topography, buoyancy, in-vitro release, and release kinetics. The formulations were optimized for different weight ratios of the gas-forming agent and sodium alginate. The beads containing higher amounts of calcium carbonate demonstrated an instantaneous, complete, and excellent floating ability over a period of 24 hours. The increased amount of the gas forming agent did not affect the time to float, but increased the drug release from the floating beads, while increasing the coating level of the gas-entrapped membrane, increased the time to float, and slightly retarded the drug release. Good floating properties and sustained drug release were achieved. Finally, these floating beads seemed to be a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system. PMID:21264092

Vedha, Hari BN; Brahma, Reddy A; Samyuktha, Rani B

2010-01-01

421

Noninvasive ocular drug delivery: potential transcorneal and other alternative delivery routes for therapeutic molecules in glaucoma.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the eye is made difficult by multiple barriers (such as the tear film, cornea, and vitreous) between the surface of the eye and the treatment site. These barriers are difficult to surmount for the purposes of drug delivery without causing toxicity. Using nanotechnology tools to control, manipulate, and study delivery systems, new approaches to delivering drugs, genes, and antigens that are effective and safe can be developed. Topical administration to the ocular surface would be the safest method for delivery, as it is noninvasive and painless compared with other delivery methods. However, there is only limited success using topical delivery methods, especially for gene therapy. Current thinking on treatments of the future enabled by nanodelivery systems and the identification of target specificity parameters that require deeper understanding to develop successful topical delivery systems for glaucoma is highlighted. PMID:25275915

Foldvari, Marianna

2014-01-01

422

Effective Strategies for HPV Vaccine Delivery: The Views of Pediatricians  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePediatricians will play a critical role in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery. The objectives of this research were to examine pediatricians’ views about key issues related to HPV vaccine delivery and identify their strategies for effective vaccine delivery.

Abbigail M. Tissot; Gregory D. Zimet; Susan L. Rosenthal; David I. Bernstein; Caitlin Wetzel; Jessica A. Kahn

2007-01-01