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Sample records for cmos low-noise amplifier

  1. Low noise tuned amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A bandpass amplifier employing a field effect transistor amplifier first stage is described with a resistive load either a.c. or directly coupled to the non-inverting input of an operational amplifier second stage which is loaded in a Wien Bridge configuration. The bandpass amplifier may be operated with a signal injected into the gate terminal of the field effect transistor and the signal output taken from the output terminal of the operational amplifier. The operational amplifier stage appears as an inductive reactance, capacitive reactance and negative resistance at the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier, all of which appear in parallel with the resistive load of the field effect transistor.

  2. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats. PMID:23853293

  3. Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinreb, S.; Gaier, T.; Fernandez, J.; Erickson, N.; Wielgus, J.

    2000-01-01

    Monolithic (MMIC) and discrete transistor (MIC) low noise amplifiers are compared on the basis of performance, cost, and reliability. The need for cryogenic LNA's for future large microwave arrays for radio astronomy is briefly discussed and data is presented on a prototype LNA for the 1 to 10 GZH range along with a very wideband LNA for the 1 to 60 GHz range.

  4. Low-Noise Band-Pass Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit uses standard components to overcome common limitation of JFET amplifiers. Low-noise band-pass amplifier employs JFET and operational amplifier. High gain and band-pass characteristics are achieved with suitable choice of resistances and capacitances. Circuit should find use as low-noise amplifier, for example as first stage instrumentation systems.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A 0.18 μm CMOS dual-band low power low noise amplifier for a global navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Li; Yiqi, Zhuang; Zhenrong, Li; Gang, Jin

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a dual-band low noise amplifier for the receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The differences between single band and multi-band design methods are discussed. The relevant parameter analysis and the details of circuit design are presented. The test chip was implemented in a TSMC 0.18 μm 1P4M RF CMOS process. The LNA achieves a gain of 16.8 dB/18.9 dB on 1.27 GHz/1.575 GHz. The measured noise figure is around 1.5-1.7 dB on both bands. The LNA consumes less than 4.3 mA of current from a 1.8 V power supply. The measurement results show consistency with the design. And the LNA can fully satisfy the demands of the GNSS receiver.

  6. Cooled Low-Noise HEMT Microwave Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Duh, Kuanghann George

    1992-01-01

    Prototype cooled low-noise microwave amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) considered as replacements for cooled ruby masers used as low-noise receiver-front-end amplifiers in communications, radio science, radar systems, radio astronomy, and telemetry. HEMT amplifier operates at 12 K, requires less cooling power and operates at lower cost with simpler, more-reliable cooling system.

  7. Low-noise amplifiers for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelehan, J.

    1984-02-01

    It is pointed out that over the past several years significant advances have been made in the overall capability of both microwave and mm-wave receivers. This is particularly apparent in the telecom market. Integral parts of advanced receiver technology are low-noise receivers. The advances currently being achieved in low-noise technology are partly based on developments in GaAs semiconductor technology. The development of high-cutoff-frequency beam lead mixer diodes has led to the development of mm-wave low-noise mixers with excellent low-noise capability. The advanced techniques are now being employed in field-deployable systems. Low noise is an important factor in satellite communications applications. Attention is given to C-band fixed satellite service, C-band parametric amplifiers, C-band FET, and X band, the Ku band, and the 30/20 GHz band.

  8. Ku band low noise parametric amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A low noise, K sub u-band, parametric amplifier (paramp) was developed. The unit is a spacecraft-qualifiable, prototype, parametric amplifier for eventual application in the shuttle orbiter. The amplifier was required to have a noise temperature of less than 150 K. A noise temperature of less than 120 K at a gain level of 17 db was achieved. A 3-db bandwidth in excess of 350 MHz was attained, while deviation from phase linearity of about + or - 1 degree over 50 MHz was achieved. The paramp operates within specification over an ambient temperature range of -5 C to +50 C. The performance requirements and the operation of the K sub u-band parametric amplifier system are described. The final test results are also given.

  9. A Low-Noise Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ratowsky, R.P.; Dijaili, S.; Kallman, J.S.; Feit, M.D.; Walker, J.

    1999-03-23

    Optical amplifiers are essential devices for optical networks, optical systems, and computer communications. These amplifiers compensate for the inevitable optical loss in long-distance propagation (>50 km) or splitting (>10x). Fiber amplifiers such as the erbium-doped fiber amplifier have revolutionized the fiber-optics industry and are enjoying widespread use. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are an alternative technology that complements the fiber amplifiers in cost and performance. One obstacle to the widespread use of SOAs is the severity of the inevitable noise output resulting from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Spectral filtering is often used to reduce ASE noise, but this constrains the source spectrally, and improvement is typically limited to about 10 dB. The extra components also add cost and complexity to the final assembly. The goal of this project was to analyze, design, and take significant steps toward the realization of an innovative, low-noise SOA based on the concept of ''distributed spatial filtering'' (DSF). In DSF, we alternate active SOA segments with passive free-space diffraction regions. Since spontaneous emission radiates equally in all directions, the free-space region lengthens the amplifier for a given length of gain region, narrowing the solid angle into which the spontaneous emission is amplified [1,2]. Our innovation is to use spatial filtering in a differential manner across many segments, thereby enhancing the effect when wave-optical effects are included [3]. The structure quickly and effectively strips the ASE into the higher-order modes, quenching the ASE gain relative to the signal.

  10. Reflected-wave maser. [low noise amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A number of traveling-wave, slow-wave maser structures, containing active maser material but absent the typical ferrite isolators, are immersed in a nonuniform magnetic field. The microwave signal to be amplified is inserted at a circulator which directs the signal to a slow-wave structure. The signal travels through the slow-wave structure, being amplified according to the distance traveled. The end of the slow-wave structure farthest from the circulator is arranged to be a point of maximum reflection of the signal traveling through the slow-wave structure. As a consequence, the signal to be amplified traverses the slow-wave structure again, in the opposite direction (towards the circulator) experiencing amplification equivalent to that achieved by a conventional traveling-wave maser having twice the length. The circulator directs the amplified signal to following like stages of amplification. Isolators are used in between stages to prevent signals from traveling in the wrong direction, between the stages. Reduced signal loss is experienced at each stage. The high gain produced by each slow-wave structure is reduced to a moderate value by use of a nonuniform magnetic field which also broadens the line width of the maser material. The resulting bandwidth can be exceptionally wide. Cascaded stages provide high gain, exceptionally wide bandwith and very low noise temperature.

  11. 17 GHz low noise GaAs FET amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharj, J. S.

    1984-10-01

    The considered amplifier is suitable for use as the first stage in a direct broadcast TV satellite receiver, and it was specifically designed for the Unisat spacecraft. Attention is given to RF device characterization, the design of the low-noise FET amplifier, the very significant dispersion effects at 17 GHz, the noise figure, and questions of DC bias. Balanced stages are used for low-noise and high-gain amplifiers to enhance the reliability. The noise figure of the amplifier is approximately 3.75 dB in the frequency band of interest. A low-noise microstrip GaAs FET amplifier circuit is shown.

  12. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range. PMID:19405681

  13. A Low Noise Amplifier for Neural Spike Recording Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for neural spike recording applications. The proposed topology, based on a capacitive feedback network using a two-stage OTA, efficiently solves the triple trade-off between power, area and noise. Additionally, this work introduces a novel transistor-level synthesis methodology for LNAs tailored for the minimization of their noise efficiency factor under area and noise constraints. The proposed LNA has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies 0.053 mm-sq. Experimental results show that the LNA offers a noise efficiency factor of 2.16 and an input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms for 1.2 V power supply. It provides a gain of 46 dB over a nominal bandwidth of 192 Hz–7.4 kHz and consumes 1.92 μW. The performance of the proposed LNA has been validated through in vivo experiments with animal models. PMID:26437411

  14. A Low Noise Amplifier for Neural Spike Recording Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for neural spike recording applications. The proposed topology, based on a capacitive feedback network using a two-stage OTA, efficiently solves the triple trade-off between power, area and noise. Additionally, this work introduces a novel transistor-level synthesis methodology for LNAs tailored for the minimization of their noise efficiency factor under area and noise constraints. The proposed LNA has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies 0.053 mm-sq. Experimental results show that the LNA offers a noise efficiency factor of 2.16 and an input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms for 1.2 V power supply. It provides a gain of 46 dB over a nominal bandwidth of 192 Hz-7.4 kHz and consumes 1.92 μW. The performance of the proposed LNA has been validated through in vivo experiments with animal models. PMID:26437411

  15. External Peltier Cooler For Low-Noise Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1990-01-01

    Inexpensive Peltier-effect cooling module made of few commercially available parts used to reduce thermal noise in microwave amplifier. Retrofitted to almost any microwave low-noise amplifier or receiver preamplifier used in communication, telemetry, or radar. Includes copper or aluminum cold plate held tightly against unit to be cooled by strap-type worm-gear clamps.

  16. Tailoring HEMTs for low-noise amplifier designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabra, A. A.; Smith, P. M.; Chao, P. C.; Baccarini, M.

    1988-10-01

    A Ku-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) for use in a multiple-access communication network such as that required by the Space Station is described. The unit uses high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) to achieve 1.5-dB noise figure and 30-dB gain over its 13.4-13.8 GHz design bandwidth. HEMT technology is discussed as well as Ku-band amplifier design and amplifier performance.

  17. Cryogenic ultra-low-noise SiGe transistor amplifier.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, B I; Trgala, M; Grajcar, M; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-low-noise one-stage SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifier was designed for cryogenic temperatures and a frequency range of 10 kHz-100 MHz. A noise temperature T(N) ≈ 1.4 K was measured at an ambient temperature of 4.2 K at frequencies between 100 kHz and 100 MHz for a source resistance of ~50 Ω. The voltage gain of the amplifier was 25 dB at a power consumption of 720 μW. The input voltage noise spectral density of the amplifier is about 35 pV/√Hz. The low noise resistance and power consumption makes the amplifier suitable for readout of resistively shunted DC SQUID magnetometers and amplifiers. PMID:22047315

  18. A low noise CMOS RF front-end for UWB 6-9 GHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhou; Ting, Gao; Fei, Lan; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2010-11-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS RF front-end for 6-9 GHz is presented. A resistive feedback low noise amplifier and a gain controllable IQ merged folded quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a TSMC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum voltage gain of 23-26 dB and a minimum voltage gain of 16-19 dB, an averaged total noise figure of 3.3-4.6 dB while operating in the high gain mode and an in-band IIP3 of -12.6 dBm while in the low gain mode. This RF front-end consumes 17 mA from a 1.2 V supply voltage.

  19. Design and implementation of a 1-V transformer magnetic feedback low-noise amplifier (LNA) at 5-6 GHz, in a 90 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kytonaki, Eleni-Sotiria; Simitsakis, Paschalis; Bazigos, Antonios; Papananos, Yannis

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) suitable for low-voltage operation is presented. The LNA operates at a frequency range between 5 and 6 GHz. Its topology exploits magnetic feedback to achieve high reverse isolation and low noise performance without a significant degradation of the gain and linearity of the circuit. The design has been fabricated, considering full electrostatic discharge protection, in a modern 90 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The measured performance, at 5.4 GHz, shows a reverse isolation of -17.3 dB, a gain of 10.4 dB, a noise figure of 0.98 dB and an input intercept point of 1.4 dBm. The circuit dissipates 12.5 mW from a 1 V supply, while it occupies 0.162 mm2 of the die area.

  20. A low-noise Peltier-cooled FET amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askew, R. E.; Wolkstein, H. J.

    1981-12-01

    A description is presented of a Peltier-cooled GaAs FET amplifier designed expressly to replace the complex and expensive parametric amplifier for satellite downlink receivers. The FET amplifier operates with an effective noise temperature (noise figure) at the terminal of less than 160 K (1.9 dB) and has an overall receiver gain of greater than 40 dB over the 7.25 to 7.75 GHz band. Attention is given to the developmental approach, aspects of electrical design, thermal considerations, packaging problems, the power supplies, and questions of cooler control. An investigation demonstrated the feasibility of replacing a parametric amplifier with a Peltier-cooled, low-noise FET amplifier for mast head operation in the 7.25-7.75 GHz band.

  1. X-Band Ultra-Low Noise Maser Amplifier Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, G.; Johnson, D.; Ortiz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Noise temperature measurements of an 8440 MHz ultra-low noise maser amplifier (ULNA) have been performed at sub-atmospheric, liquid helium temperatures. The traveling wave maser operated while immersed in a liquid helium bath. The lowest input noise temperature measured was 1.23 plus or minus 0.16 K at a physical temperature of 1.60 kelvin. At this physical temperature the observed gain per unit length of ruby was 4.6 dB/cm, and the amplifier had a 3 dB-bandwidth of 76 MHz.

  2. Cross-talk free, low-noise optical amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dijaili, S.P.; Patterson, F.G.; Deri, R.J.

    1995-07-25

    A low-noise optical amplifier solves crosstalk problems in optical amplifiers by using an optical cavity oriented off-axis (e.g. perpendicular) to the direction of a signal amplified by the gain medium of the optical amplifier. Several devices are used to suppress parasitic lasing of these types of structures. The parasitic lasing causes the gain of these structures to be practically unusable. The lasing cavity is operated above threshold and the gain of the laser is clamped to overcome the losses of the cavity. Any increase in pumping causes the lasing power to increase. The clamping action of the gain greatly reduces crosstalk due to gain saturation for the amplified signal beam. It also reduces other nonlinearities associated with the gain medium such as four-wave mixing induced crosstalk. This clamping action can occur for a bandwidth defined by the speed of the laser cavity. The lasing field also reduces the response time of the gain medium. By having the lasing field off-axis, no special coatings are needed. Other advantages are that the lasing field is easily separated from the amplified signal and the carrier grating fluctuations induced by four-wave mixing are decreased. Two related methods reduce the amplified spontaneous emission power without sacrificing the gain of the optical amplifier. 11 figs.

  3. Cross-talk free, low-noise optical amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dijaili, Sol P.; Patterson, Frank G.; Deri, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A low-noise optical amplifier solves crosstalk problems in optical amplifiers by using an optical cavity oriented off-axis (e.g. perpendicular) to the direction of a signal amplified by the gain medium of the optical amplifier. Several devices are used to suppress parasitic lasing of these types of structures. The parasitic lasing causes the gain of these structures to be practically unusable. The lasing cavity is operated above threshold and the gain of the laser is clamped to overcome the losses of the cavity. Any increase in pumping causes the lasing power to increase. The clamping action of the gain greatly reduces crosstalk due to gain saturation for the amplified signal beam. It also reduces other nonlinearities associated with the gain medium such as four-wave mixing induced crosstalk. This clamping action can occur for a bandwidth defined by the speed of the laser cavity. The lasing field also reduces the response time of the gain medium. By having the lasing field off-axis, no special coatings are needed. Other advantages are that the lasing field is easily separated from the amplified signal and the carrier grating fluctuations induced by four-wave mixing are decreased. Two related methods reduce the amplified spontaneous emission power without sacrificing the gain of the optical amplifier.

  4. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  5. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  6. Low Noise Amplifiers and Receivers for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Varonen, Mikko; Samoska, Lorene; Brown, Shannon; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Reising, Steven; Tanabe, Jordan; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas; Parashare, Chaitali

    2011-01-01

    The study of atmospheric dynamics and climatology depend on accurate and frequent measurements of temperature and humidity profiles of the atmosphere. These measurements furthermore enable highly accurate measurements of ocean topography by providing total column water vapour data for radar path delay correction. The atmospheric temperature profile is characterised at the oxygen molecule absorption frequencies (60 and 118 GHz) and the humidity profile at the water molecule absorption frequencies (23 and 183 GHz). Total column measurements can be achieved by comparing measured radiometric temperatures at atmospheric window channels, such as 90, 130 and 166 GHz. The standard receiver technology for these frequencies was diode mixers with MMIC LNAs being applied at the lower frequencies. The sensitivity of millimetre wave receivers improved significantly with the introduction of the low noise 35 nm gate length InP MMIC amplifiers. We currently achieve 3 dB noise figure at 180 GHz and 2 dB noise figure at 90 GHz with our MMIC low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in room temperature. These amplifiers and the receivers we have built using them made it possible to conduct highly accurate airborne measurement campaigns from the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, develop millimeter wave internally calibrated radiometers for altimeter radar path delay correction, and build prototypes of large arrays of millimeter receivers for a geostationary interferometric sounder. We use the developed millimeter wave receivers to measure temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere and in hurricanes as well as to characterize the path delay error in ocean topography altimetry.

  7. Low Noise Amplifiers and Receivers for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Varonen, Mikko; Samoska, Lorene; Brown, Shannon; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Reising, Steven; Tanabe, Jordan; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas; Parashare, Chaitali

    2012-01-01

    The study of atmospheric dynamics and climatology depend on accurate and frequent measurements of temperature and humidity profiles of the atmosphere. These measurements furthermore enable highly accurate measurements of ocean topography by providing total column water vapour data for radar path delay correction. The atmospheric temperature profile is characterized at the oxygen molecule absorption frequencies (60 and 118 GHz) and the humidity profile at the water molecule absorption frequencies (23 and 183 GHz). Total column measurements can be achieved by comparing measured radiometric temperatures at atmospheric window channels, such as 90, 130, and 166 GHz. The standard receiver technology for these frequencies was diode mixers with MMIC LNAs being applied at the lower frequencies. The sensitivity of millimeter wave receivers improved significantly with the introduction of the low noise 35 nm gate length InP MMIC amplifiers. We currently achieve 3 dB noise figure at 180 GHz and 2 dB noise figure at 90 GHz with our MMIC low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in room temperature. These amplifiers and the receivers we have built using them made it possible to conduct highly accurate airborne measurements campaigns from the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, develop millimeter wave internally calibrated radiometers for altimeter radar path delay correction, and build prototypes of large arrays of millimeter receivers for a geostationary interferometric sounder. We use the developed millimeter wave receivers to measure temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere and in hurricanes as well as to characterize the path delay error in ocean topography alitmetery.

  8. A Dynamic Instrumentation Amplifier for Low-Power and Low-Noise Biopotential Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongpal; Ko, Hyoungho

    2016-01-01

    A low-power and low-noise dynamic instrumentation amplifier (IA) for biopotential acquisition is presented. A dynamic IA that can reduce power consumption with a timely piecewise power-gating method, and noise level with an alternating input and chopper stabilization technique is fabricated with a 0.13-μm CMOS. Using the reconfigurable architecture of the IA, various combinations of the low-noise schemes are investigated. The combination of power gating and chopper stabilization shows a lower noise performance than the combination of power gating and alternating input switching scheme. This dynamic IA achieved a power reduction level of 50% from 10 µA to 5 µA and a noise reduction of 90% from 9.1 µVrms to 0.92 µVrms with the combination of the power gating and chopper stabilization scheme.

  9. Low Noise Amplifier Receivers from Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Varonen, Mikko; Samoska, Lorene; Brown, Shannon; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Reising, Steven; Tanabe, Jordan; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas; Parashare, Chaitali

    2012-01-01

    We currently achieve 3.4 dB noise figure at 183GHz and 2.1 dB noise figure at 90 GHz with our MMIC low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in room temperature. These amplifiers and the receivers we have built using them made it possible to conduct highly accurate airborne measurement campaigns from the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, develop millimeter wave internally calibrated radiometers for altimeter radar path delay correction, and build prototypes of large arrays of millimeter receivers for a geostationary interferometric sounder. We use the developed millimeter wave receivers to measure temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere and in hurricanes as well as to characterize the path delay error in ocean topography altimetry.

  10. Thermal design of a thermoelectrically cooled low-noise amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, N. L.; Hung, H.-L.

    1981-06-01

    The development of a thermoelectrically cooled low-noise amplifier is described in terms of thermal design concepts, optimization procedures, supporting analyses, and examples of measured performance. The design objectives achieved include a compact, low-cost small overall package size (19 x 19 x 28 cm) with a heat exchanger and fan capable of maintaining at room temperature ambient the preamplifier unit of an earth station low-noise amplifier at -90 C. The size of the unit measures 1.0 x 1.8 x 8.4 cm and has a heat dissipation of 150 mW. A low system component production cost was maintained, and a high reliability from a solid-state TEHP and a gas-filled hermetically sealed container guaranteed. An inexpensive and effective insulation system was developed, based on perlite powder-krypton gas and thermal shielding, and a flexible heat conductor for strain relief was built. It is concluded that the design principles are applicable to other electronic and optical components to maintain temperatures as low as -100 C.

  11. Low-Noise Amplifier for 100 to 180 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Pukala, David; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard; Deal, William

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier designed to exhibit low noise in operation at frequencies from about 100 to somewhat above 180 GHz has been built and tested. This is a prototype of broadband amplifiers that have potential utility in diverse applications, including measurement of atmospheric temperature and humidity and millimeter-wave imaging for inspecting contents of opaque containers. Figure 1 depicts the amplifier as it appears before packaging. Figure 2 presents data from measurements of the performance of the amplifier as packaged in a WR-05 waveguide and tested in the frequency range from about 150 to about 190 GHz. The amplifier exhibited substantial gain throughout this frequency range. Especially notable is the fact that at 165 GHz, the noise figure was found to be 3.7 dB, and the noise temperature was found to be 370 K: This is less than half the noise temperature of the prior state of the art.

  12. Low-noise CMOS preamplifier operating at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, U.; Bieger, J.; Seifert, H.

    1994-08-01

    A low-noise CMOS readout preamplifier operating at liquid helium temperatures is described. In conjunction with magnetic field sensors applying SQUIDS (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) the preamplifier can be used to measure biomagnetic fields of human brain and heart noninvasively. The input of the folded cascode amplifier can be attached directly to a low impedance SQUID output. This way the commonly used discrete LC tank resonator circuit for impedance matching can be omitted. An equivalent noise voltage density of 0.3 nV/square root of Hz at 500 kHz has been measured. Despite the occurrence of the kink effect and other abnormalities in MOS transistor characteristics at 4.2 K, during the tests no abnormal operation has been observed. Such a preamplifier circuit is essential in simplifying the expensive shielding currently used in biomagnetic diagnosis systems.

  13. Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro; Bayuk, Brian; Grundbacher, Ron; Oliver, Patricia; Cavus, Abdullah; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers capable of providing useful amounts of gain over the frequency range from 120 to 180 GHz have been developed as prototype low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation. There are also potential uses for such LNAs in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter- wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The main advantage afforded by these MMIC LNAs, relative to prior MMIC LNAs, is that their coverage of the 120-to-180-GHz frequency band makes them suitable for reuse in a wider variety of applications without need to redesign them. Each of these MMIC amplifiers includes InP transistors and coplanar waveguide circuitry on a 50- mthick chip (see Figure 1). Coplanar waveguide transmission lines are used for both applying DC bias and matching of input and output impedances of each transistor stage. Via holes are incorporated between top and bottom ground planes to suppress propagation of electromagnetic modes in the substrate. On the basis of computational simulations, each of these amplifiers was expected to operate with a small-signal gain of 14 dB and a noise figure of 4.3 dB. At the time of writing this article, measurements of noise figures had not been reported, but on-chip measurements had shown gains approaching their simulated values (see Figure 2).

  14. 160-190 GHz Monolithic Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kok, Y. L.; Wang, H.; Huang, T. W.; Lai, R.; Chen, Y. C.; Sholley, M.; Block, T.; Streit, D. C.; Liu, P. H.; Allen, B. R.; Samoska, L.; Gaier, T.; Barsky, Mike

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two 160-190 GHz monolithic low noise amplifiers (LNAs) fabricated with 0.07-microns pseudomorphic (PM) InAlAs/InGaAs/InP HEMT technology using a reactive ion etch (RIE) via hole process. A peak small signal gain of 9 dB was measured at 188 GHz for the first LNA with a 3-dB bandwidth from 164 to 192 GHz while the second LNA has achieved over 6-dB gain from 142 to 180 GHz. The same design (second LNA) was also fabricated with 0.08-micron gate and a wet etch process, showing a small signal gain of 6 dB with noise figure 6 dB. All the measurement results were obtained via on-wafer probing. The LNA noise measurement at 170 GHz is also the first attempt at this frequency.

  15. Low noise and high CMRR front-end amplifier dedicated to portable EEG acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Robert; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and implementation of a fully integrated low noise and high CMRR rail-to-rail preamplifier dedicated to EEG acquisition channel. The preamplification technique is based on two complementary CMOS True Logarithmic Amplifier (TLA) stages connected in parallel. The TLA largely amplifies small amplitude of EEG signals, and moderately the large amplitude ones created during epileptic. A chopper stabilization technique is used to filter the 1/ƒ noise and the DC offset voltage of the input CMOS transistors and to increase the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR). Due to the TLA structure, a high CMRR and high power supply rejection ratio are achieved and the signal-to-noise ratio (of the channel is better enhanced). To snugly fit the ADC input window to the EEG signal magnitude a new programming gain approach is implemented. Also, a chopper spike filter is used to cancel the spike voltages generated by the charge injections of modulator/demodulator switches. The proposed preamplifier is implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation results exhibit 253 dB @50/60 Hz as CMRR, 500 nVrms @100 Hz as input-referred noise while consuming 55 µA from a 1.8 V supply. PMID:24110240

  16. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dweiri, Yazan M.; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-08-01

    presence of high source impedances that are associated with the miniaturized contacts and the high channel count in electrode arrays. This technique can be adopted for other applications where miniaturized and implantable multichannel acquisition systems with ultra-low noise and low power are required.

  17. Cryogenic ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Bounab, Ayoub

    2015-07-01

    High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), optimized by CNRS/LPN laboratory for ultra-low noise at a very low temperature, have demonstrated their capacity to be used in place of Si JFETs, when very high input impedance and working temperatures below 100 K are required. We have developed and tested simple amplifiers based only on this transistor technology, in order to work at a temperature as low as 1 K or less. They demonstrate at 4.2 K a typical noise of 1.6 nV/√{ Hz } at 100 Hz, 0.42 nV/√{ Hz } at 1 kHz and 0.32 nV/√{ Hz } at 10 kHz, with a gain of 50 and a power consumption of 1.4 mW per channel. Two boards have been designed for two different research applications: one for the readout of GMR magnetometers for medical and space applications, the other for search of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in Edelweiss experiment (HARD project).

  18. A low-noise 4.8 GHz amplifier for the Russian Radioastron VLBI satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Wongsowijoto, Sam

    A low-noise 4.8 GHz amplifier has been designed for the Russian Radioastron satellite. The design, realization, and spaceflight testing of the amplifier are briefly described. The most important parameters of the prototype are given.

  19. A 2385 MHz, 2-stage low noise amplifier design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, Jack D.

    1986-01-01

    This article shows the design aspects of a 2.385 GHz low noise preamplifier with a .7 dB noise figure and 16.5 dB gain using the NE 67383 FET. The design uses a unique method in matching the input which achieves optimum noise figure and unconditional stability.

  20. W-band InP based HEMT MMIC low noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, H.; Gaier, T.; Gough, R. G.; Sinclair, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the designs and measurement results of a three-stage and a four-stage W-band monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) including a three-stage and a four-stage low noise amplifiers.

  1. Matching technique yields optimum LNA performance. [Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a case in which an optimum noise figure and unconditional stability have been designed into a 2.385-GHz low-noise preamplifier via an unusual method for matching the input with a suspended line. The results obtained with several conventional line-matching techniques were not satisfactory. Attention is given to the minimization of thermal noise, the design procedure, requirements for a high-impedance line, a sampling of four matching networks, the noise figure of the single-line matching network as a function of frequency, and the approaches used to achieve unconditional stability.

  2. Thirty GHz low noise GaAs FET amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, C. H.; Arnold, J.

    1984-09-01

    Selection and characterization of transmission media, and characterization of a 0.3 micron gate length gallium arsenide MESFET usable to 30 GHz, was undertaken to provide a data base for the design of an integrated amplifier for satellite communications. An amplifier configuration was chosen to achieve the ESA specification, and single stage amplifier modules were designed and tested. Integration of these modules into a complete high gain amplifier with temperature compensation and operating between WG22 interfaces is achieved. Tests against the full performance specification were conducted.

  3. 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, K. H. George; Kopp, William F.; Ho, Pin; Chao, Pane-Chane; Ko, Ming-Yih; Smith, Phillip M.; Ballingall, James M.; Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

    1989-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  4. On 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Ortiz, G. G.; Duh, K. H. G.; Kopp, W. F.; Ho, P.; Chao, P. C.; Kao, M. Y.; Smith, P. M.; Ballingall, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 K to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  5. Burnout studies of X-band radar negative resistance transistor low noise amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, D. K.; Gardner, P.

    1992-03-01

    GaAs FETs and HEMTs can be configured to give low noise, negative resistance microwave amplification. Such low noise amplifiers have the advantage of an inherent bypass path after device burnout. This feature is potentially useful in radar receiver applications. Test results for prototype LNAs are described, showing burnout energies comparable to those of conventional transmission mode amplifiers using similar devices. Bypass path losses after burnout are around 4 dB, approximately 20 dB less than for a failed transmission mode amplifier.

  6. Problems of the design of low-noise input devices. [parametric amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manokhin, V. M.; Nemlikher, Y. A.; Strukov, I. A.; Sharfov, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is given of the requirements placed on the elements of parametric centimeter waveband amplifiers for achievement of minimal noise temperatures. A low-noise semiconductor parametric amplifier using germanium parametric diodes for a receiver operating in the 4 GHz band was developed and tested confirming the possibility of satisfying all requirements.

  7. Low Noise and Highly Linear Wideband CMOS RF Front-End for DVB-H Direct-Conversion Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ilku; Moon, Hyunwon; Woo, Doo Hyung

    In this paper, a wideband CMOS radio frequency (RF) front-end for digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) receiver is proposed. The RF front-end circuit is composed of a single-ended resistive feedback low noise amplifier (LNA), a single-to-differential amplifier, an I/Q down-conversion mixer with linearized transconductors employing third order intermodulation distortion cancellation, and a divide-by-two circuit with LO buffers. By employing a third order intermodulation (IMD3) cancellation technique and vertical NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) switching pair for an I/Q down-conversion mixer, the proposed RF front-end circuit has high linearity and low low-frequency noise performance. It is fabricated in a 0.18µm deep n-well CMOS technology and draws 12mA from a 1.8V supply voltage. It shows a voltage gain of 31dB, a noise figure (NF) lower than 2.6dB, and an IIP3 of -8dBm from 470MHz to 862MHz.

  8. Two-Stage, 90-GHz, Low-Noise Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Xenos, Stephanie; Soria, Mary M.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Cleary, Kieran A.; Ferreira, Linda; Lai, Richard; Mei, Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    A device has been developed for coherent detection of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A two-stage amplifier has been designed that covers 75-110 GHz. The device uses the emerging 35-nm InP HEMT technology recently developed at Northrop Grumman Corporation primarily for use at higher frequencies. The amplifier has more than 18 dB gain and less than 35 K noise figure across the band. These devices have noise less than 30 K at 100 GHz. The development started with design activities at JPL, as well as characterization of multichip modules using existing InP. Following processing, a test campaign was carried out using single-chip modules at 100 GHz. Successful development of the chips will lead to development of multichip modules, with simultaneous Q and U Stokes parameter detection. This MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) amplifier takes advantage of performance improvements intended for higher frequencies, but in this innovation are applied at 90 GHz. The large amount of available gain ultimately leads to lower possible noise performance at 90 GHz.

  9. Miniature Ku-band low-noise amplifier using batch-process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, A.; Jozwiak, P.; Mykietyn, E.; Pendrick, V.; Brown, R.

    1986-12-01

    The steps in developing a low-noise three-stage miniature amplifier operating from 11.7 to 12.2 GHz are examined. The amplifier has an 18-dB gain over the band and a noise figure of 4 dB. An accurate network model, including a feedback loop, is presented for the design and optimization of the amplifier. The circuit realization and the measured performance in relation to VSWR, gain flatness, stability, and noise figure, are discussed.

  10. A 20-GHz low-noise HEMT amplifier for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumitsu, Y.; Niori, M.; Saito, T.

    1984-03-01

    A description is given of a 20-Ghz low-noise amplifier that uses a new device, a low-noise high electron mobiity transistor (HEMT), developed for the receiver front-end in earth stations for 30/20-GHz satellite communications systems. The minimum noise figure of the HEMT is 3.1 dB, and the associated gain is 7.5 dB at 20 GHz. It is believed that before too long the HEMT will surpass the GaAs FET as a low-noise device. In the test amplifier at an operating frequency range from 17.6 GHz to 19.2 Ghz, the noise figure is 4.2 dB and the gain is 28.6 dB. The minimum noise figure is 3.9 dB. It is expected that cooling the amplifier will give a significant improvement in the noise figure.

  11. Cryogenic Design of the Deep Space Network Large Array Low-Noise Amplifier System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hanson, T. R.; Franco, M. M.

    2004-05-01

    This article describes the cryogenic design and performance of a prototype low-noise amplifier (LNA) system for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Large Array task. The system is used to cool a dual-frequency feed system equipped with high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers and the associated support electronics. The LNA/feed system operates at a temperature under 18 K. The system is designed to be manufactured at minimum cost. The design considerations, including the cryocooler to be used, vacuum system, microwave interconnects, mechanical components, and radiation shielding, are discussed.

  12. A Ka-band Four-stage Self-biased Monolithic Low Noise Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziqiang; Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu

    2009-05-01

    A Ka-band four-stage self-biased monolithic low noise amplifier has been developed using a commercial 0.18-µm pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) process. For the application of self-bias technique, the low noise amplifier (LNA) is biased from a single power supply rail. The LNA has achieved a broadband performance with a gain of more than 18 dB, a noise figure of less than 3.8 dB in the RF frequency of 26 to 40 GHz. The chip size is 3 × 1 mm2.

  13. Low-noise CMOS SPAD arrays with in-pixel time-to-digital converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Alberto; Villa, Federica; Bronzi, Danilo; Zou, Yu; Lussana, Rudi; Tamborini, Davide; Tisa, Simone; Durini, Daniel; Weyers, Sascha; Pashen, Uwe; Brockherde, Werner; Zappa, Franco

    2014-05-01

    We present our latest results concerning CMOS Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) arrays for high-throughput parallel single-photon counting. We exploited a high-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology in order to develop low-noise CMOS SPADs. The Dark Count Rate is 30 cps at room temperature for 30 μm devices, increases to 2 kcps for 100 μm SPADs and just to 100 kcps for 500 μm ones. Afterpulsing is less than 1% for hold-off time longer than 50 ns, thus allowing to reach high count rates. Photon Detection Efficiency is > 50% at 420 nm, > 40% below 500 nm and is still 5% at 850 nm. Timing jitter is less than 100 ps (FWHM) in SPADs with active area diameter up to 50 μm. We developed CMOS SPAD imagers with 150 μm pixel pitch and 30 μm SPADs. A 64×32 SPAD array is based on pixels including three 9-bit counters for smart phase-resolved photon counting up to 100 kfps. A 32x32 SPAD array includes 1024 10-bit Time-to-Digital Converters (TDC) with 300 ps resolution and 450 ps single-shot precision, for 3D ranging and FLIM. We developed also linear arrays with up to 60 pixels (with 100 μm SPAD, 150 μm pitch and in-pixel 250 ps TDC) for time-resolved parallel spectroscopy with high fill factor.

  14. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  15. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-11-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  16. GaAs FET MMIC low-noise amplifiers for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, H.-L.; Enobakhare, E.; Abita, J.; McNally, P.; Mahle, C.

    1985-12-01

    One- and two-stage, X-band, low-noise, GaAs FET monolithic amplifier modules have been developed. These amplifier chips include all dc-blocking capacitors and bias networks. A cascaded, two-chip, two-stage amplifier module provides a noise figure of 4 dB and an associated gain of 30 dB from 9.5 to 11.7 GHz. A two-stage 15-dB gain block has also been developed for 9 to 13 GHz, with a chip size of 1.7 x 1.2 mm.

  17. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a < 15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  18. Novel low area CMOS readout circuit for uncooled microbolometers with low noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jian; Jiang, Yadong; Zhou, Yun; Luo, Fengwu

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel CMOS readout structure without sample and hold (SH) circuit for uncooled microbolometers. In this readout circuit, all the pixels in one row can be integrated simultaneously, and the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) area can be reduced by as much as 30%. Moreover, a single capacitor implementation of both capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) and correlated double sampling (CDS) is utilized to improve noise performance. An experimental 40x30 ROIC chip has been designed and fabricated with 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The test results show that the ROIC has good linearity with 260μV RMS total output noise voltage and 1800x650 μm2 total circuit area.

  19. A high-speed, low-noise CMOS 16-channel charge-sensitivepreamplifier ASIC for APD-based PET detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, M.; Mandelli, E.; Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    2002-12-02

    A high-speed, low-noise 16-channel amplifier IC has beenfabricated in the HP 0.5 mm CMOS process. It is a prototype for use witha PET detector which uses a 4x4 avalanche photodiode (APD) array having 3pF of capacitance and 75 nA of leakage current per pixel. Thepreamplifier must have a fast rise time (a few ns) in order to generatean accurate timing signal, low noise in order to accurately measure theenergy of the incident gamma radiation, and high density in order to readout 2-D arrays of small (2 mm) pixels. A single channel consists of acharge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a pad-driving buffer. Thepreamplifier is reset by an NMOS transistor in the triode region which iscontrolled by an externally supplied current. The IC has 16 differentgain settings which range from 2.085 mV/fC to 10.695 mV/fC. The gain isdetermined by four switched capacitors in the feedback loop. The switchstate is set by two digital input lines which control a 64-bit shiftregister on the IC. A preamplifier 10-90 percent rise time as low as 2.7ns with no external input load and 3.6 ns with a load of 5.8 pF wasachieved. For the maximum gain setting and 5.8 pF of input load, theamplifier had 400 electrons of RMS noise at a peaking time of 0.7 us. TheIC is powered by a +3.3 V supply drawing 60 mA.

  20. Low Noise Amplifiers for 140 Ghz Wide-Band Cryogenic Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkoski, Patricia V.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Samoska, Lorene; Lai, Richard; Sarkozy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We report S-parameter and noise measurements for three different Indium Phosphide 35-nanometer-gate-length High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designs operating in the frequency range centered on 140 gigahertz. When packaged in a Waveguide Rectangular-6.1 waveguide housing, the LNAs have an average measured noise figure of 3.0 decibels - 3.6 decibels over the 122-170 gigahertz band. One LNA was cooled to 20 degrees Kelvin and a record low noise temperature of 46 Kelvin, or 0.64 decibels noise figure, was measured at 152 gigahertz. These amplifiers can be used to develop receivers for instruments that operate in the 130-170 gigahertz atmospheric window, which is an important frequency band for ground-based astronomy and millimeter-wave imaging applications.

  1. Design and measurement of an integrated wideband radio frequency low-noise amplifier for terrestrial digital television applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albasha, Lutfi

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the design and measurement details of a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) are presented. The LNA was successfully designed to operate over very high and ultra high frequency (VHF and UHF) ranges according to Digital TV (DVB-T) specifications. The novelty of the design lies in the achievement of low noise figure (NF) and high reverse isolation level across a wide bandwidth despite the resistive feedback topology. The latter was required in order to integrate the front-end block with a direct-conversion receiver. A measured large-signal compression point of P1dB = -10 dBm and a small-signal gain of 16 dB with gain flatness of <1 dB ripple, have all met commercial specifications tested over corners. The NF achieved was better than that specified and was less than 2 dB across the bandwidth. This front-end block was implemented in a commercial 0.25 μm Si BiCMOS process (f T = 20 GHz). The article discusses the measurement uncertainties imposed by the wide bandwidth, particularly in NF measurements, and the techniques adopted in this work to mitigate the errors imposed.

  2. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  3. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter.

    PubMed

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) deletedCMOS terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31 × 31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0 . 13 μ m standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0 . 2 μ V RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0 . 6 nW at 270 GHz and 0 . 8 nW at 600 GHz. PMID:26950131

  4. A microwave cryogenic low-noise amplifier based on sige heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. I.; Grajcar, M.; Novikov, I. L.; Vostretsov, A. G.; Il'ichev, E.

    2016-04-01

    A low-noise cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of weak microwave signals at sub-Kelvin temperatures is constructed. The amplifier has five stages based on SiGe bipolar heterostructure transistors and has a gain factor of 35 dB in the frequency band from 100 MHz to 4 GHz at an operating temperature of 800 mK. The parameters of a superconducting quantum bit measured with this amplifier in the ultralow-power mode are presented as an application example. The amplitude-frequency response of the "supercon-ducting qubit-coplanar cavity" structure is demonstrated. The ground state of the qubit is characterized in the quasi-dispersive measurement mode.

  5. Using the SLUG as a First Stage, Low Noise Microwave Amplifier for Superconducting Qubit Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Edward, Jr.; Thorbeck, Ted; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The SLUG (Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvonometer) microwave amplifier is a large bandwidth, high saturation power, high gain, and low noise microwave element designed as a first stage cryogenic amplifier for dispersive readout of superconducting qubits. High forward gain is paired with simultaneous high reverse isolation such that bulky, expensive cryogenic circulators and isolators might be eliminated from the microwave readout chain. Here we present recent experimental data on SLUG gain, noise, and reverse isolation. We achieve gain over 10 dB at 7 GHz across a band of several hundred MHz, with system added noise of order one photon. For appropriate flux bias of the device, reverse isolation is better than -20 dB. These qualities make the SLUG a very desirable first stage amplifier for a scalable superconducting qubit readout.

  6. High-performance Ka-band and V-band HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, K. H. George; Chao, Pane-Chane; Smith, Phillip M.; Lester, Luke F.; Lee, Benjamin R.

    1988-01-01

    Quarter-micron-gate-length high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have exhibited state-of-the-art low-noise performance at millimeter-wave frequencies, with minimum noise figures of 1.2 dB at 32 GHz and 1.8 dB at 60 GHz. At Ka-band, two-stage and three-stage HEMT low noise amplifiers have demonstrated noise figures of 1.7 and 1.9 dB, respectively, with associated gains of 17.0 and 24.0 dB at 32 GHz. At V-band, two stage and three-stage HEMT amplifiers yielded noise figures of 3.2 and 3.6 dB, respectively, with associated gains of 12.7 and 20.0 dB at 60 GHz. The 1-dB-gain compression point of all the amplifiers is greater than +6 dBm. The results clearly show the potential of short-gate-length HEMTs for high-performance millimeter-wave receiver applications.

  7. A 2.3-GHz low-noise cryo-FET amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loreman, J.

    1988-01-01

    A cryogenic cooled, low-noise Field Effect Transistor (FET) amplifier assembly for use at 2.2 to 2.3 GHz was developed for the DSN to meet the requirements of a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) upgrade. An amplifier assembly was developed at JPL that uses a commercial closed-cycle helium refrigerator (CCR) to cool a FET amplifier to an operating temperature of 15 K. A cooled probe waveguide-to-coaxial transition similar to that used in the research and development Ultra-Low-Noise S-band Traveling Wave Maser (TWM) is used to minimize input line losses. Typical performance includes an input flange equivalent noise contribution of 14.5 K, a gain slope of less than 0.05 dB/MHz across a bandwidth of 2.2 to 2.3 GHz, an input VSWR of 1.5:1 at 2.25 GHz, and an insertion gain of 45 + or - 1 dB across the bandwidth of 2.2 to 2.3 GHz. Three 2.3 GHz FET/CCR assemblies were delivered to the DSN in the spring of 1987.

  8. Tests of Low-Noise MMIC Amplifier Module at 290 to 340 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Deal, William; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A document presents data from tests of a low-noise amplifier module operating in the frequency range from 290 to 340 GHz said to be the highest-frequency low-noise, solid-state amplifier ever developed. The module comprised a three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier integrated with radial probe MMIC/waveguide transitions and contained in a compact waveguide package, all according to the concepts described in the immediately preceding article and in the referenced prior article, "Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide" (NPO-43957), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 38. The tests included measurements by the Y-factor method, in which noise figures are measured repeatedly with an input noise source alternating between an "on" (hot-load) condition and an "off" (cold-load) condition. (The Y factor is defined as the ratio between the "on" and "off" noise power levels.) The test results showed that, among other things, the module exhibited a minimum noise figure of about 8.7 dB at 325 GHz and that the gain at that frequency under the bias conditions that produced the minimum noise figure was between about 9 and 10 dB.

  9. A 4MP high-dynamic-range, low-noise CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Chang, Yuchun; Wang, Xinyang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a 4 Megapixel high dynamic range, low dark noise and dark current CMOS image sensor, which is ideal for high-end scientific and surveillance applications. The pixel design is based on a 4-T PPD structure. During the readout of the pixel array, signals are first amplified, and then feed to a low- power column-parallel ADC array which is already presented in [1]. Measurement results show that the sensor achieves a dynamic range of 96dB, a dark noise of 1.47e- at 24fps speed. The dark current is 0.15e-/pixel/s at -20oC.

  10. Development of a cryogenic DC-low noise amplifier for SQuID-based readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macculi, C.; Torrioli, G.; Di Giorgio, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Piro, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    We present the preliminary results of the design and test activities for a DC cryogenic low noise amplifier for the SAFARI imaging spectrometer, planned to be onboard the SPICA mission, necessary not only to drive, as usual, the voltage signal produced by the SQuID but also to boost such signals over about 7 meter of path towards the warm feedback electronics. This development has been done in the framework of the mission preparation studies, within the European Consortium for the development of the SAFARI instrument. The actual configuration of the SAFARI focal plane assembly (FPA), indeed, foresees a long distance to the warm back end electronics. It is therefore mandatory to boost the faint electric signal coming from the SQuID device by keeping under control both power dissipation and noise: this is the main role of the designed Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). Working at 136K, it has a differential input gain-stage, and a differential balanced voltage buffer output stage, running at few mW target overall power. At present the design is based on the use of Heterojunction Si:Ge transistors, the required bandwidth is DC-4MHz and the required noise lower than 1 nV/rtHz.

  11. 50 W low noise dual-frequency laser fiber power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ying; Cheng, Lijun; Yang, Suhui; Zhao, Changming; Zhang, Haiyang; He, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A three-stage dual-frequency laser signal amplification system is presented. An output from a narrow-linewidth Nd:YAG nonplanar ring-oscillator (NPRO) is split into two parts, one of them is frequency shifted by an acoustooptic modulator (AOM) then coupled into a single mode optical fiber. The other part is coupled into another single mode fiber then combined with the frequency-shifted beam with a 2 to 1 single mode fiber coupler. The combined beam has a power of 20 mW containing two frequency components with frequency separation of 150 ± 25 MHz. The dual-frequency signal is amplified via a three-stage Yb3+-doped diode pumped fiber power amplifier. The maximum amplified power is 50.3 W corresponding to a slope efficiency of 73.72% of the last stage. The modulation depth and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the beat signal are well maintained in the amplifying process. The dual-frequency laser fiber power amplifier provides robust optical carried RF signal with high power and low noise. PMID:27137536

  12. Micropower CMOS Integrated Low-Noise Amplification, Filtering, and Digitization of Multimodal Neuropotentials

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Murari, Kartikeya; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Thakor, Nitish

    2009-01-01

    Electrical activity in the brain spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring simultaneous recording of multiple modalities of neurophysiological signals in order to capture various aspects of brain state dynamics. Here, we present a 16-channel neural interface integrated circuit fabricated in a 0.5 μm 3M2P CMOS process for selective digital acquisition of biopotentials across the spectrum of neural signal modalities in the brain, ranging from single spike action potentials to local field potentials (LFP), electrocorticograms (ECoG), and electroencephalograms (EEG). Each channel is composed of a tunable bandwidth, fixed gain front-end amplifier and a programmable gain/resolution continuous-time incremental ΔΣ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A two-stage topology for the front-end voltage amplifier with capacitive feedback offers independent tuning of the amplifier bandpass frequency corners, and attains a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.9 at 8.2 kHz bandwidth for spike recording, and a NEF of 3.2 at 140 Hz bandwidth for EEG recording. The amplifier has a measured midband gain of 39.6 dB, frequency response from 0.2 Hz to 8.2 kHz, and an input-referred noise of 1.94 μVrms while drawing 12.2 μA of current from a 3.3 V supply. The lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the bandpass filter are adjustable from 0.2 to 94 Hz and 140 Hz to 8.2 kHz, respectively. At 10-bit resolution, the ADC has an SNDR of 56 dB while consuming 76 μW power. Time-modulation feedback in the ADC offers programmable digital gain (1–4096) for auto-ranging, further improving the dynamic range and linearity of the ADC. Experimental recordings with the system show spike signals in rat somatosensory cortex as well as alpha EEG activity in a human subject. PMID:20046962

  13. Micropower CMOS Integrated Low-Noise Amplification, Filtering, and Digitization of Multimodal Neuropotentials.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, M; Murari, K; Cauwenberghs, G; Thakor, N

    2009-02-01

    Electrical activity in the brain spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring simultaneous recording of multiple modalities of neurophysiological signals in order to capture various aspects of brain state dynamics. Here, we present a 16-channel neural interface integrated circuit fabricated in a 0.5 mum 3M2P CMOS process for selective digital acquisition of biopotentials across the spectrum of neural signal modalities in the brain, ranging from single spike action potentials to local field potentials (LFP), electrocorticograms (ECoG), and electroencephalograms (EEG). Each channel is composed of a tunable bandwidth, fixed gain front-end amplifier and a programmable gain/resolution continuous-time incremental DeltaSigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A two-stage topology for the front-end voltage amplifier with capacitive feedback offers independent tuning of the amplifier bandpass frequency corners, and attains a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.9 at 8.2 kHz bandwidth for spike recording, and a NEF of 3.2 at 140 Hz bandwidth for EEG recording. The amplifier has a measured midband gain of 39.6 dB, frequency response from 0.2 Hz to 8.2 kHz, and an input-referred noise of 1.94 muV rms while drawing 12.2 muA of current from a 3.3 V supply. The lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the bandpass filter are adjustable from 0.2 to 94 Hz and 140 Hz to 8.2 kHz, respectively. At 10-bit resolution, the ADC has an SNDR of 56 dB while consuming 76 muW power. Time-modulation feedback in the ADC offers programmable digital gain (1-4096) for auto-ranging, further improving the dynamic range and linearity of the ADC. Experimental recordings with the system show spike signals in rat somatosensory cortex as well as alpha EEG activity in a human subject. PMID:20046962

  14. Updated design for a low-noise, wideband transimpedance photodiode amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S. F.; Marsala, R.

    2006-10-15

    The high-speed rotation diagnostic developed for Columbia's HBT-EP tokamak requires a high quantum efficiency, very low drift detector/amplifier combination. An updated version of the circuit developed originally for the beam emission spectroscopy experiment on TFTR is being used. A low dark current (2 nA at 15 V bias), low input source capacitance (2 pF) FFD-040 N-type Si photodiode is operated in photoconductive mode. It has a quantum efficiency of 40% at the 468.6 nm (He II line that is being observed). A low-noise field-effect transistor (InterFET IFN152 with e{sub Na}=1.2 nV/{radical}Hz) is used to reduce the noise in the transimpedance preamplifier (A250 AMPTEK op-amp) and a very high speed (unity-gain bandwidth=200 MHz) voltage feedback amplifier (LM7171) is used to restore the frequency response up to 100 kHz. This type of detector/amplifier is photon-noise limited at this bandwidth for incident light with a power of >{approx}2 nW. The circuit has been optimized using SIMETRIX 4.0 SPICE software and a prototype circuit has been tested successfully. Though photomultipliers and avalanche photodiodes can detect much lower light levels, for light levels >2 nW and a 10 kHz bandwidth, this detector/amplifier combination is more sensitive because of the absence of excess (internally generated) noise.

  15. Envelope tracking CMOS power amplifier with high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier for mobile handsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Sakai, Yasufumi; Oishi, Kazuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Mori, Toshihiko; Yamaura, Shinji; Suto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    A high-efficiency CMOS power amplifier (PA) based on envelope tracking (ET) has been reported for a wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and long term evolution (LTE) application. By adopting a high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier with current direction sensing, a 5% improvement in total power-added efficiency (PAE) and a 11 dB decrease in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) are achieved with a W-CDMA signal. Moreover, the proposed PA achieves a PAE of 25.4% for a 10 MHz LTE signal at an output power (Pout) of 25.6 dBm and a gain of 24 dB.

  16. A 55 nm CMOS ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WLAN transceivers with low noise filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingyi, Chen; Xiaojie, Chu; Peng, Yu; Jun, Yan; Yin, Shi

    2013-10-01

    A fully integrated ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer fabricated in a 55 nm CMOS technology is presented for the application of IEEE 802.11b/g wireless local area network (WLAN) transceivers. A low noise filter, occupying a small die area, whose power supply is given by a high PSRR and low noise LDO regulator, is integrated on chip. The proposed synthesizer needs no off-chip components and occupies an area of 0.72 mm2 excluding PAD. Measurement results show that in all channels, the phase noise of the synthesizer achieves -99 dBc/Hz and -119 dBc/Hz in band and out of band respectively with a reference frequency of 40 MHz and a loop bandwidth of 200 kHz. The integrated RMS phase error is no more than 0.6°. The proposed synthesizer consumes a total power of 15.6 mW.

  17. Validation of the ultrastable low-noise current amplifier as travelling standard for small direct currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, D.; Krause, C.; Giblin, S. P.; Djordjevic, S.; Piquemal, F.; Séron, O.; Rengnez, F.; Götz, M.; Pesel, E.; Scherer, H.

    2015-12-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of small-current generation and measurement capability is presented with the ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) acting as travelling standard. Various measurements at direct currents between 0.16 nA and 13 nA were performed to verify the degree of agreement between the three national metrology institutes involved in the study. Consistency well within one part per million (ppm) was found. Due to harsh environmental conditions during shipment, the ULCA’s transfer accuracy had been limited to about  ±0.4 ppm. Supplemental measurements performed at PTB indicate that further improvements in accuracy are possible. Relative uncertainties of 0.1 ppm are achieved by applying on-site calibration of the ULCA with a suitable cryogenic current comparator.

  18. A low-noise instrumentation amplifier with DC suppression for recording ENG signals.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Sivylla E; Eftekhar, Amir; Kulasekeram, Nishanth; Toumazou, Christofer

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier for electroneurogram (ENG) activity recording. For this design, we evaluate gain and noise requirements based on interference sources (electrodes, power line, EMG). The circuit has been implemented in a commercially-available 0.35μm CMOS technology with total power consumption 460μW. The amplifier achieves CMRR 107 dB and integrated input referred noise 940 nV. The gain is 63 dB and the bandwidth is 0.5 Hz- 13 kHz. The chosen topology enables to minimise on-chip capacitance (only 27 pF), with a total chip area of 0.4mm2. PMID:26736847

  19. Wideband ultra-low noise cryogenic InP IF amplifiers for the Herschel mission radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Isaac; Gallego-Puyol, Juan D.; Diez, Carmen; Barcia, Alberto; Martin-Pintado, Jesus

    2003-02-01

    The sub-millimeter radiometers of the Herschel mission have very stringent requirements. The scientific goals require an instantaneous bandwidth of four GHz with very low noise, flat gain and low power dissipation. Short-term gain stability of the amplifier is important, because gain fluctuations could limit the sensitivity of the instrument. Besides, a highly reliable, low weight unit is required to be compatible with the space instrumentation standards. The amplifiers will be used in conjunction with HEB and SIS mixers in all 7 channels of the instrument. This paper describes the design, the special construction techniques and the results of the amplifiers built by Centro Astronómico de Yebes for the development model of the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument. The average noise temperature obtained in the 4-8 GHz band is 3.5 K, with a gain of 27 +/-1.1 dB at an ambient temperature of 15 K and keeping the total power dissipation below the allowed 4 mW. Normalized gain fluctuations were carefully measured, being lower than 1.5·10-4 Hz-1/2 @ 1 Hz. Space qualification of the design is in progress.

  20. Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.

    1998-10-01

    ``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The

  1. Simple nonlinearity evaluation and modeling of low-noise amplifiers with application to radio astronomy receivers.

    PubMed

    Casas, F J; Pascual, J P; de la Fuente, M L; Artal, E; Portilla, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a comparative nonlinear analysis of low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) under different stimuli for use in astronomical applications. Wide-band Gaussian-noise input signals, together with the high values of gain required, make that figures of merit, such as the 1 dB compression (1 dBc) point of amplifiers, become crucial in the design process of radiometric receivers in order to guarantee the linearity in their nominal operation. The typical method to obtain the 1 dBc point is by using single-tone excitation signals to get the nonlinear amplitude to amplitude (AM-AM) characteristic but, as will be shown in the paper, in radiometers, the nature of the wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals makes the amplifiers present higher nonlinearity than when using single tone excitation signals. Therefore, in order to analyze the suitability of the LNA's nominal operation, the 1 dBc point has to be obtained, but using realistic excitation signals. In this work, an analytical study of compression effects in amplifiers due to excitation signals composed of several tones is reported. Moreover, LNA nonlinear characteristics, as AM-AM, total distortion, and power to distortion ratio, have been obtained by simulation and measurement with wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals. This kind of signal can be considered as a limit case of a multitone signal, when the number of tones is very high. The work is illustrated by means of the extraction of realistic nonlinear characteristics, through simulation and measurement, of a 31 GHz back-end module LNA used in the radiometer of the QUIJOTE (Q U I JOint TEnerife) CMB experiment. PMID:20687750

  2. Low-noise kinetic inductance traveling-wave amplifier using three-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, M. R.; Erickson, R. P.; Ku, H.-S.; Vale, Leila; Wu, Xian; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated a wide-bandwidth, high dynamic range, low-noise cryogenic amplifier based on a superconducting kinetic inductance traveling-wave device. The device was made from NbTiN and consisted of a long, coplanar waveguide on a silicon chip. By adding a DC current and an RF pump tone, we are able to generate parametric amplification using three-wave mixing (3WM). The devices exhibit gain of more than 15 dB across an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 8 GHz. The total usable gain bandwidth, including both sides of the signal-idler gain region, is more than 6 GHz. The noise referred to the input of the devices approaches the quantum limit, with less than 1 photon excess noise. We compare these results directly to the four-wave mixing amplification mode, i.e., without DC-biasing. We find that the 3WM mode allows operation with the pump at lower RF power and at frequencies far from the signal. We have used this knowledge to redesign the amplifiers to utilize primarily 3WM amplification, thereby allowing for direct integration into large scale qubit and detector applications.

  3. Low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit development in standard CMOS technology for 4 K applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Souverijns, Tim; Putzeys, Jan; Creten, Ybe; Van Hoof, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) project IMEC designed the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for this circuit were high linearity, low power consumption and low noise at an operating temperature of 4.2K. We have implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology which guarantees high yield and uniformity, and design portability. A drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. We will present the design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance. We will show how the library that was developed for PACS served as a baseline for the designs used in the Darwin-far-infrared detector array, where a cryogenic 180 channel, 30μm pitch, Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for flip-chip integration was developed. Other designs and topologies for low noise and low power applications will be equally presented.

  4. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter

    PubMed Central

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31×31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0.13μm standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0.2μV RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0.6 nW at 270 GHz and 0.8 nW at 600 GHz. PMID:26950131

  5. A low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit at 4 K in standard CMOS technology for PACS/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Creten, Ybe; Putzeys, Jan; Souverijns, Tim; Van Hoof, Chris

    2004-10-01

    IMEC has designed, in the framework of the PACS project (for the European Herschel Space Observatory) the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for the CRE were high linearity (3 %), low power consumption (80 μW for an 18 channel array), and very low noise (200 e-) at an operating temperature of 4.2 K (LHT - Liquid Helium Temperature). IMEC has implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology (AMIS 0.7 μm), which guarantees high production yield and uniformity, relatively easy availability of the technology and portability of the design. However, the drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K, known as kink and hysteresis effects and under certain conditions the presence of excess noise. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits or building blocks like buffer amplifiers and opamps. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. These techniques have been validated in an automated cryogenic test set-ups developed at IMEC. We will present here in detail the full design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance and demonstrate that all major specifications at 4.2 K were met. Future designs and implementations will be equally presented.

  6. S-band low noise amplifier and 40 kW high power amplifier subsystems of Japanese Deep Space Earth Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, K.; Handa, K.; Akinaga, W.; Doi, M.; Matsuzaki, O.

    This paper describes the design and the performance of the S-band low noise amplifier and the S-band high power amplifier that have been developed for the Usuda Deep Space Station of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. The S-band low noise amplifier consists of a helium gas-cooled parametric amplifier followed by three-stage FET amplifiers and has a noise temperature of 8 K. The high power amplifier is composed of two 28 kW klystrons, capable of transmitting 40 kW continuously when two klystrons are combined. Both subsystems are operating quite satisfactorily in the tracking of Sakigake and Suisei, the Japanese interplanetary probes for Halley's comet exploration, launched by ISAS in 1985.

  7. Analysis and design of low noise column stage in CMOS ROIC for UV GaN focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yonggang; Xie, Jing; Wang, Jiqiang; Ma, Ding; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    A novel column-stage structure of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for GaN ultraviolet (UV) focal plane array (FPA) working in "solar-blind" band is proposed. The column stage has better drive capability, higher dynamic range, stable bias current and low impedance. The noise voltage of the column readout stage is discussed, which has been reduced by small-current driving, column-stage sample and hold and the technology of divided-output-bus. This research on low-noise ROIC is designed for weak-current UV FPA. It is designed, simulated and laid out using the 0.35um 2P4M CMOS 5V process. The clock rate operates at 8MHz. The simulation input current sets 0.01nA. The output swing is 2.6V and power consumption is 40 mW according to the measurement results.

  8. A 5.5Mpixel 100 frames/sec wide dynamic range low noise CMOS image sensor for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Boyd; Liu, Chiao; Mims, Steve; Balicki, Janusz; Li, Wang; Do, Hung; Appelbaum, Jeff; Vu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a 5.5Mpixel 100 frames/sec wide-dynamic-range low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) designed for scientific applications. The sensor has 6.5μm pitch 5T pixels with pinned photodiodes and integrated microlenses. The 5T pixel architecture enables low noise rolling and global shutter operation. The measured peak quantum efficiency of the sensor is greater than 55% at 550nm, the Nyquist MTF is greater than 0.4 at 550nm, and the linear full well capacity is greater than 35ke-. The measured rolling and global shutter readout noise are 1.28e- RMS and 2.54e- RMS respectively at 30 f/s and 20°C. The pinned photodiode dark current is less than 3.8pA/cm2 at 20°C. The sensor achieves an intra-scene linear dynamic range in rolling shutter operation of greater than 86dB (20000:1) at room temperature. In global shutter readout the shutter efficiency is greater than 1000:1 with 500nm illumination.

  9. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765

  10. A CMOS-Compatible, Low-Noise ISFET Based on High Efficiency Ion-Modulated Lateral-Bipolar Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sheng-Ren; Chen, Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Ion-sensitive, field-effect transistors (ISFET) have been useful biosensors in many applications. However, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET is limited by its intrinsic, low-frequency noise. This paper presents an ISFET capable of utilizing lateral-bipolar conduction to reduce low-frequency noise. With a particular layout design, the conduction efficiency is further enhanced. Moreover, the ISFET is compatible with the standard CMOS technology. All materials above the gate-oxide are removed by simple, die-level post-CMOS process, allowing ions to modulate the lateral-bipolar current directly. By varying the gate-to-bulk voltage, the operation mode of the ISFET is controlled effectively, so is the noise performance measured and compared. Finally, the biasing conditions preferable for different low-noise applications are identified. Under the identified biasing condition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET as a pH sensor is proved to be improved by more than five times. PMID:22408508

  11. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765

  12. Method and apparatus for linear low-frequency feedback in monolithic low-noise charge amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2006-02-14

    A charge amplifier includes an amplifier, feedback circuit, and cancellation circuit. The feedback circuit includes a capacitor, inverter, and current mirror. The capacitor is coupled across the signal amplifier, the inverter is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier, and the current mirror is coupled to the input of the signal amplifier. The cancellation circuit is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier. A method of charge amplification includes providing a signal amplifier; coupling a first capacitor across the signal amplifier; coupling an inverter to the output of the signal amplifier; coupling a current mirror to the input of the signal amplifier; and coupling a cancellation circuit to the output of the signal amplifier. A front-end system for use with radiation sensors includes a charge amplifier and a current amplifier, shaping amplifier, baseline stabilizer, discriminator, peak detector, timing detector, and logic circuit coupled to the charge amplifier.

  13. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into a hybrid circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/seismology circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  14. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into an active circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/semiconducting circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  15. A 3.5-4.5 GHz Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Ultrawideband Receiver Frontend Low-Noise Amplifier with On-Chip Integrated Antenna for Interchip Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Afreen; Kimoto, Kentaro; Sasaki, Nobuo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2010-04-01

    Chip-to-chip ultrawideband (UWB) wireless interconnections are essential for reducing resistance capacitance (RC) delay in wired interconnections and three-dimensional (3D) highly integrated packaging. In this study, we demonstrated a wireless interchip signal transmission between two on-chip meander antennas on printed circuit board (PCB) for 1 to 20 mm transmission distances where the low power gain of each antenna due to a lossy Si substrate has been amplified by a low-noise amplifier (LNA). The measured result shows that the LNA produces 26 dB of improvement in antenna power gain at 4.5 GHz on a lossy Si substrate. Moreover, a Gaussian monocycle pulse with a center frequency of 2.75 GHz was also received by an on-chip antenna and amplified by the LNA. The LNA was integrated with an on-chip antenna on a Si substrate with a resistivity of 10 Ω·cm using 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The investigated system is required for future single chip transceiver front ends, integrated with an on-chip antenna for 3D mounting on a printed circuit (PC) board.

  16. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ≥ 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ≥ 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  17. Computer simulations of low noise states in a high-power crossed-field amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chernin, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    A large body of experimental data has been accumulated over the past 15 years or so on the remarkable ability of both magnetrons and CFA`s to operate under certain conditions at noise levels comparable to those achieved in linear beam tubes. The physical origins of these low noise states have been the subjects of considerable speculation, fueled at least in part by results from computer simulation. While computer models have long been able to predict basic operating parameters like gain, efficiency, and peak power dissipation on electrode surfaces with reasonable accuracy, it is only within the past few years that any success could be reported on the simulation of noise. SAIC`s MASK code, a 2{1/2}-D particle-in-cell code, has been able to compute total, integrated noise power to an accuracy of {+-} a few dB in a high-power CFA, operating with a typical intra-pulse spectral noise density of {approximately}47--50 dB/MHz. Under conditions that produced low noise ({approximately}60--100 dB/MHz) in laboratory experiments, the MASK code has been, until now, unable to reproduce similar results. The present paper reports the first successful production of a very low noise state in a CFA simulation using the MASK code. The onset of this low noise state is quite sudden, appearing abruptly as the current is raised to a point near which the cathode operates as nearly emission limited. This behavior is similar to that seen in an experimentally observed transition between low noise and high noise operation in the SFD-266, a Varian[CPI] low noise CFA. Some comments are made concerning the nature of the noise as observed in the simulation and in the laboratory.

  18. Recent Advances In Cryogenic Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Low Noise Amplifiers For Astrophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Church, S.; Cleary, K.; Gaier, T.; Gawande, R.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C.; Readhead, A.; Reeves, R.; Seiffert, M.; Sieth, M.; Varonen, M.; Voll, P.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we discuss advances in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low noise amplifier (LNA) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs) for use as front end amplifiers in ultra-low noise receivers. Applications include focal plane arrays for studying the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and foreground separation, receiver arrays for molecular spectroscopy, and high redshift CO surveys for probing the epoch of reionization. Recent results and a summary of best indium phosphide (InP) low noise amplifier data will be presented. Cryogenic MMIC LNAs using state-of-the-art InP technology have achieved record performance, and have advantages over other detectors in the 30-300 GHz range. InP MMIC LNAs operate at room temperature and may achieve near-optimum performance at 20K, a temperature readily achieved with modern cryo-coolers. In addition, wide-bandwidth LNAs are suitable for heterodyne applications as well as direct detector applications. Recent results include Ka-band MMICs with 15K noise temperature performance, and Q-Band MMICs with on-wafer measured cryogenic noise of 12K at 38 GHz. In addition, W-Band amplifiers with 25K noise temperature at 95 GHz will be presented, as well as wide-band LNAs with noise temperature below 45K up to 116 GHz. At higher frequencies, we will discuss progress on MMIC LNAs and receiver modules in G-Band (140-220 GHz), where our group has achieved less than 60K receiver noise temperature at 166 GHz. We will address extending the high performance of these MMIC LNAs to even higher frequencies for spectroscopic surveys, and make projections on future performance given current trends. These MMIC amplifiers can play a key role in future ground-based and space-based instruments for astrophysical observations.

  19. Cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier for radio-astronomical observations and centimeter-wave deep-space communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, V. F.; Grachev, V. G.; Dryagin, S. Yu.; Eliseev, A. I.; Kamaletdinov, R. K.; Korotaev, D. V.; Lesnov, I. V.; Mansfeld, M. A.; Pevzner, E. L.; Perminov, V. G.; Pilipenko, A. M.; Sapozhnikov, B. D.; Saurin, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a design solution for a highly reliable, low-noise and extremely efficient cryogenically cooled transmit/receive unit for a large antenna system meant for radio-astronomical observations and deep-space communications in the X band. We describe our design solution and the results of a series of laboratory and antenna tests carried out in order to investigate the properties of the cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier developed. The transmit/receive unit designed for deep-space communications (Mars missions, radio observatories located at Lagrangian point L2, etc.) was used in practice for communication with live satellites including "Radioastron" observatory, which moves in a highly elliptical orbit.

  20. A two-step A/D conversion and column self-calibration technique for low noise CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jaeyoung; Kim, Daeyun; Ham, Seokheon; Chae, Youngcheol; Song, Minkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps) low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC) and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times) than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC). However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB. PMID:24999716

  1. A Two-Step A/D Conversion and Column Self-Calibration Technique for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jaeyoung; Kim, Daeyun; Ham, Seokheon; Chae, Youngcheol; Song, Minkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps) low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC) and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times) than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC). However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB. PMID:24999716

  2. The present status and future development of low noise amplifiers for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinaga, W.; Handa, K.; Fujiki, Y.; Fukuda, S.; Haga, I.

    The LNAs for use in satellite communications have made remarkable progress in recent years. This paper describes the present status and future prospects of the two principal LNA types, the parametric LNA and the GaAs FET LNA, operating in the 2 GHz band through millimetric wavelength range, as regards their noise temperature characteristics. In a few years to come, the parametric LNA and the GaAs FET LNA will be coexistent, but the former will be restricted to the cryogenically cooled and the super-low-noise thermoelectrically cooled type, while the latter will occupy the majority of the LNAs for satellite communications use.

  3. Low noise parametric amplifiers for radio astronomy observations at 18-21 cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanevskiy, B. Z.; Veselov, V. M.; Strukov, I. A.; Etkin, V. S.

    1974-01-01

    The principle characteristics and use of SHF parametric amplifiers for radiometer input devices are explored. Balanced parametric amplifiers (BPA) are considered as the SHF signal amplifiers allowing production of the amplifier circuit without a special filter to achieve decoupling. Formulas to calculate the basic parameters of a BPA are given. A modulator based on coaxial lines is discussed as the input element of the SHF. Results of laboratory tests of the receiver section and long-term stability studies of the SHF sector are presented.

  4. Performance of a wideband GaAs low-noise amplifier at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toncich, S. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Chen, T. K.; Claspy, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The gain and noise figure performance of a GaAs amplifier at cryogenic temperatures has been studied. Results obtained indicate that a lower noise figure and a higher gain are induced by decreasing the temperature, while no significant change in the input 1-dB compression point is observed. Repeated temperature cycling had no adverse effect on the amplifier performance.

  5. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier: A novel device for measuring small electric currents with high accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Drung, D.; Krause, C.; Becker, U.; Scherer, H.; Ahlers, F. J.

    2015-02-15

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MΩ reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA’s transfer coefficient is highly stable versus time, temperature, and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of ±5 nA. The low noise level of 2.4 fA/√Hz helps to keep averaging times short at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Within one week after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations and drift of the transresistance is about 0.1 parts per million (ppm). The long-term drift is typically 5 ppm/yr. A high-accuracy variant is available that shows improved stability of the input gain at the expense of a higher noise level of 7.5 fA/√Hz. The ULCA also allows the traceable generation of small electric currents or the calibration of high-ohmic resistors.

  6. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier: A novel device for measuring small electric currents with high accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, D.; Krause, C.; Becker, U.; Scherer, H.; Ahlers, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MΩ reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA's transfer coefficient is highly stable versus time, temperature, and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of ±5 nA. The low noise level of 2.4 fA/√Hz helps to keep averaging times short at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Within one week after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations and drift of the transresistance is about 0.1 parts per million (ppm). The long-term drift is typically 5 ppm/yr. A high-accuracy variant is available that shows improved stability of the input gain at the expense of a higher noise level of 7.5 fA/√Hz. The ULCA also allows the traceable generation of small electric currents or the calibration of high-ohmic resistors.

  7. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier: a novel device for measuring small electric currents with high accuracy.

    PubMed

    Drung, D; Krause, C; Becker, U; Scherer, H; Ahlers, F J

    2015-02-01

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MΩ reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA's transfer coefficient is highly stable versus time, temperature, and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of ±5 nA. The low noise level of 2.4 fA/√Hz helps to keep averaging times short at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Within one week after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations and drift of the transresistance is about 0.1 parts per million (ppm). The long-term drift is typically 5 ppm/yr. A high-accuracy variant is available that shows improved stability of the input gain at the expense of a higher noise level of 7.5 fA/√Hz. The ULCA also allows the traceable generation of small electric currents or the calibration of high-ohmic resistors. PMID:25725866

  8. In-circuit-measurement of parasitic elements in high gain high bandwidth low noise transimpedance amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A; Zimmermann, S

    2014-12-01

    Parasitic elements play an important role in the development of every high performance circuit. In the case of high gain, high bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers, the most important parasitic elements are parasitic capacitances at the input and in the feedback path, which significantly influence the stability, the frequency response, and the noise of the amplifier. As these parasitic capacitances range from a few picofarads down to only a few femtofarads, it is nearly impossible to measure them accurately using traditional LCR meters. Unfortunately, they also cannot be easily determined from the transfer function of the transimpedance amplifier, as it contains several overlapping effects and its measurement is only possible when the circuit is already stable. Therefore, we developed an in-circuit measurement method utilizing minimal modifications to the input stage in order to measure its parasitic capacitances directly and with unconditional stability. Furthermore, using the data acquired with this measurement technique, we both proposed a model for the complicated frequency response of high value thick film resistors as they are used in high gain transimpedance amplifiers and optimized our transimpedance amplifier design. PMID:25554310

  9. Low-noise wide-band amplifiers for stochastic beam cooling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1982-09-05

    Noise characteristics of the continuous-wave wide-band amplifier systems for stochastic beam cooling experiments are presented. Also, the noise performance, bandwidth capability and gain stability of components used in these amplifiers are summarized and compared in the 100 MHz to 40 GHz frequency range. This includes bipolar and field-effect transistors, parametric amplifier, Schottky diode mixer and maser. Measurements of the noise characteristics and scattering parameters of variety GaAs FETs as a function of ambient temperature are also given. Performance data and design information are presented on a broadband 150-500 MHz preamplifier having noise temperature of approximately 35/sup 0/K at ambient temperature of 20/sup 0/K. An analysis of preamplifier stability based on scattering parameters concept is included.

  10. Low noise, tunable Ho:fiber soliton oscillator for Ho:YLF amplifier seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Ruehl, Axel; Bransley, Colleen; Hartl, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    We present a passively mode-locked, tunable soliton Ho:fiber ring oscillator, optimized for seeding of holmium-doped yttrium lithium flouride (Ho:YLF) amplifiers. The oscillator is independently tunable in central wavelength and spectral width from 2040 to 2070 nm and from 5 to 10 nm, respectively. At all settings the pulse energy within the soliton is around 800 pJ. The soliton oscillator was optimized to fully meet the spectral requirements for seeding Ho:YLF amplifiers. Its Kelly sidebands are located outside the amplifier gain spectrum, resulting in a train of about 1 ps long pedestal-free pulses with relative intensity noise of only 0.13% RMS when integrated from 1 Hz to Nyquist frequency.

  11. Low-noise Raman fiber amplifier pumped by semiconductor disk laser.

    PubMed

    Chamorovskiy, A; Rautiainen, J; Rantamäki, A; Okhotnikov, O G

    2011-03-28

    A 1.3 µm Raman fiber amplifier pumped by 1.22 µm semiconductor disk laser in co-propagation geometry is demonstrated. Measured relative intensity noise of -148 dB/Hz over frequency range up to 3.5 GHz was measured at 900 mW of pump power. 9 dB gain was achieved with co-propagating pumping geometry with less than 2 dB additional noise induced by amplifier to the signal. Nearly shot-noise-limited operation of semiconductor disk laser combined with the diffraction-limited beam allows for efficient core-pumping of the single-mode fiber Raman amplifiers and represents a highly practical approach which takes full advantage of co-propagating pumping. PMID:21451669

  12. Comparison of cryogenic W band low noise amplifier based on different III-V HEMT foundry process and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, L.; Zannoni, M.; Mariotti, S.; Cremonini, A.; De Rosa, A.; Banfi, S.; Baó, A.; Gervasi, M.; Limiti, E.; Passerini, A.; Schiavone, F.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a development activity for cryogenic Low Noise Amplifiers based on HEMT technology for ground based and space-borne application. We have developed and realized two LNA design in W band, based on m-HEMT technology. MMIC chips have been manufactured by European laboratories and companies and assembled in test modules by our team. We compare performances with other technologies and manufacturers. LNA RF properties (noise figures, S-parameters) have been measured at room and cryogenic temperature and test results are reported in this paper. Performance are compared with those of state-of-the-art devices, as available in the literature. Strengths and improvements of this project are also discussed.

  13. FM notch filter in front - and - behind the low noise amplifier of a Callisto Radio Spectrometer in Gauribidanur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, C.

    2014-03-01

    In the framework of IHY2007 a Callisto spectrometer [Benz(2004)] was installed and set into operation at the location of the solar heliograph in Gauribidanur, India. At that time the level of radio frequency interference (RFI) was amazingly low. In recent years more and more FM broadcast transmitters were installed with high power compared to the requirements of radio astronomical observations. So, the spectral observations with Callisto experienced more and more interference by these FM transmitters. Recently an FM-notch filter was installed between the low noise amplifier and Callisto, but it did not work out. The notch filter was then moved to the input of the LNA and the result was much better, as expected from theoretical concepts.

  14. Aspects of the design of low noise, negative resistance, reflection mode transistor amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Peter; Paul, Dipak K.

    1991-11-01

    The authors consider the use of microwave transistors in negative resistance reflection mode and present the conditions for optimum noise performance. Possible advantages include the possibility of higher gain in the millimeter-wave region, which can be achieved by absorbing the parasitic common lead inductance into the feedback circuit designed to generate the negative resistance, and the existence of a failsafe mode of operation, in that the failure of the active device or its power supply is likely to lead a low return loss, resulting in a small insertion loss through the amplifiers, which may permit continued, although degraded, system operation. The latter potential advantage has proved to be of interest to radar system designers.

  15. Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    One of the great technical challenges facing the Deep Space Network is receiving signals from a severely weight limited spacecraft hundreds of thousands to billions of kilometers from Earth. This weight limitation has always imposed strict limitations on the size of the spacecraft antenna and the amount of transmitter power radiated. The communication burden is placed upon the ground systems of the Deep Space Network which must recover an extremely weak signal in the presence of nearly overwhelming amounts of noise. Two key parameters that determine the signal to noise ratio of a received signal using a deep space station are the collecting area and efficiency of the antenna, and the amount of noise which is generated in, as well as allowed to enter in, the antenna-mounted receiver. These parameters are used to describe the relative ability of a deep space station to receive weak signals. As spacecraft to Earth communication distances have increased, the Deep Space Network engages in a relentless effort to increase the figure of merit through larger and more efficient antennas, higher frequencies, and lower system noise temperature.

  16. Low noise amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.

    1983-07-01

    One of the great technical challenges facing the Deep Space Network is receiving signals from a severely weight limited spacecraft hundreds of thousands to billions of kilometers from Earth. This weight limitation has always imposed strict limitations on the size of the spacecraft antenna and the amount of transmitter power radiated. The communication burden is placed upon the ground systems of the Deep Space Network which must recover an extremely weak signal in the presence of nearly overwhelming amounts of noise. Two key parameters that determine the signal to noise ratio of a received signal using a deep space station are the collecting area and efficiency of the antenna, and the amount of noise which is generated in, as well as allowed to enter in, the antenna-mounted receiver. These parameters are used to describe the relative ability of a deep space station to receive weak signals. As spacecraft to Earth communication distances have increased, the Deep Space Network engages in a relentless effort to increase the figure of merit through larger and more efficient antennas, higher frequencies, and lower system noise temperature.

  17. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, S; Frost, F Dion R.; Groulx, R; Holland, S E; Karcher, A; Kolbe, W F; Roe, N A; Wang, G; Yu, Y

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 μm × 2 μm are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup -} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  18. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  19. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of “Violin-Mode” resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup −1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  20. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations-this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m(-1)(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm. PMID:25430131

  1. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m-1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  2. Development of a Low-Noise High Common-Mode-Rejection Instrumentation Amplifier. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, Kenneth; Blalock, T. V.; Kennedy, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several previously used instrumentation amplifier circuits were examined to find limitations and possibilities for improvement. One general configuration is analyzed in detail, and methods for improvement are enumerated. An improved amplifier circuit is described and analyzed with respect to common mode rejection and noise. Experimental data are presented showing good agreement between calculated and measured common mode rejection ratio and equivalent noise resistance. The amplifier is shown to be capable of common mode rejection in excess of 140 db for a trimmed circuit at frequencies below 100 Hz and equivalent white noise below 3.0 nv/square root of Hz above 1000 Hz.

  3. A 5.4-9.2 GHz 19.5 dB Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Ultrawide-Band Receiver Front-End Low-Noise Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Afreen; Kubota, Shinichi; Toya, Akihiro; Sasaki, Nobuo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present an ultrawide-band (UWB) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) low-noise amplifier (LNA) for wireless communication in the upper UWB band, that is, from 5.4-9.2 GHz bandwidth with a wide-band 50 Ω input matching network in front of the LNA. A three-stage cascode-topology-based LNA with high-transconductance MOS transistors, was employed to improve the voltage gain up to 23 dB at 7.5 GHz, with 4.5-9.2 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The maximum output power S21 was 19.5 dB at 7.3 GHz, with 5.4-9.2 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The input matching circuit was designed with a reduced number of passive elements, resulting in an input reflection coefficient S11 of less than -10 dB from 4.5-9.2 GHz. The noise figure of the LNA was as low as 3.5 dB and the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) was -8 dBm. The LNA has output reflection coefficient S22 of less than -10 dB from 5-7 GHz and a good reverse isolation, that is, S12 of < -45 dB in the entire UWB, due to a cascode topology. The LNA was fabricated using 180 nm CMOS technology, which consumes 56 mW power at 1.8 V power supply. In this paper, we also demonstrate a wireless communication of 7 GHz Gaussian monocycle pulse (GMP) by horn antennas and the LNA from 20 cm transmission distance.

  4. Cryogenic 36-45 GHz InP Low-Noise Amplifier MMIC's with Improved Noise Temperature by Eliminating Parasitic Parallel-Plate Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Ohno, Takeshi; Hirachi, Yasutake; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes cryogenic 36-45 GHz InP low-noise amplifier monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) with an improved noise temperature by eliminating parasitic parallel-plate resonance modes. These MMIC's are used for a Radio Astronomical receiver, which needs the ultimate super low-noise and wide-band frequency characteristics, such as those in ALMA Band 1. The MMIC chips were designed in the coplanar waveguide (CPW), and mounted to the AlN substrate with a flip-chip assembly, which was promising compared to wire bonding. The flip-chip assemblies, however, are prone to cause the parasitic parallel plate resonance mode (PPM). The relationship between the S-parameters and the PPM was investigated by using a 3D-electromagnetic simulation of the simple transmission-line test-chip with the same chip size as that of the actual MMIC. In order to eliminate the PPM, additional bumps were mounted on the simple transmission-line test-chip, and the effect of these bumps was confirmed by the simulation. These results obtained from the simple transmission-line test-chip were applied to an actual MMIC chip assembly. The MMIC assembled with the additional bumps had no abnormality in the measured S-parameters, and the PPM had been eliminated up to 65 GHz. Moreover, the stability factor, K, became more than 2.4 over 36-45 GHz. This InP low-noise amplifier MMIC exhibited a gain of 15 dB and a noise temperature of 180-240 K at room temperature in the frequency range of 36-45 GHz. When cooled to 28 K, a gain of 17 dB and a noise temperature of 22-35 K were obtained at a power consumption of 4.7 mW over 36-45 GHz. A high-gain amplifier module consisting of two cascaded chips, exhibited a gain of 27-30 dB and a noise temperature of 25-30 K at the ambient temperature of 22 K in the frequency range of 41-45 GHz.

  5. Dose rate dependence of the current noise performance of an ultra-low noise precision bipolar operational amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, D.M.

    1999-12-01

    The dose rate dependence of the current noise of a bipolar operational amplifier is presented. Total current noise performance degrades linearly with increasing dose rate. Generation-recombination, white and 1/f spectral components contribute to the degradation. The generation-recombination component is the most significant contributor to dose rate dependent current noise degradation.

  6. Low-noise RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillators: physics and operation.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Grein, Matthew E; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Juodawlkis, Paul W

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a 10-GHz RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillator (SCOW-COEO) system operating with low phase-noise (<-115 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset) and large sidemode suppression (>70 dB measurement-limited). The optical pulses generated by the SCOW-COEO exhibit 26.8-ps pulse width (post compression) with a corresponding spectral bandwidth of 0.25 nm (1.8X transform-limited). We also investigate the mechanisms that limit the performance of the COEO. Our measurements indicate that degradation in the quality factor (Q) of the optical cavity significantly impacts COEO phase-noise through increases in the optical amplifier relative intensity noise (RIN). PMID:23038585

  7. Low noise gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier by utilizing fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Guo, Yubin; Yan, Hongwei; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Ke

    2006-11-01

    A novel gain-clamped long wavelength band (L-band) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is proposed and experimented by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) at the input end of the amplifier. This design provides a good gain clamping and decreases noise effectively. It uses two sections of erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pumped by a 1480-nm laser diode (LD) for higher efficiency and lower noise figure (NF). The gain is clamped at 23 dB with a variation of 0.5 dB from input signal power of -30 to -8 dBm for 1589 nm and NF below 5 dB is obtained. At the longer wavelength in L-band higher gain is also obtained and the gain is clamped at 16 dB for 1614 nm effectively. Because the FBG injects a portion of backward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) back into the system, the gain enhances 5 dB with inputting small signal.

  8. Enhancing the noise performance of monolithic microwave integrated circuit-based low noise amplifiers through the use of a discrete preamplifying transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Mark A.; Melhuish, Simon J.; Piccirillo, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    An approach to enhancing the noise performance of an InP monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)-based low noise amplifiers (LNA) through the use of a discrete 100-nm gate length InP high electron mobility transistor is outlined. This LNA, known as a transistor in front of MMIC (T + MMIC) LNA, possesses a gain in excess of 40 dB and an average noise temperature of 9.4 K across the band 27 to 33 GHz at a physical temperature of 8 K. This compares favorably with 14.5 K for an LNA containing an equivalent MMIC. A simple advanced design system model offering further insights into the operation of the LNA is also presented and the LNA is compared with the current state-of-the-art Planck LFI LNAs.

  9. Advances In Cryogenic Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Low Noise Amplifiers For CO Intensity Mapping and ALMA Band 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Cleary, Kieran; Church, Sarah E.; Cuadrado-Calle, David; Fung, Andy; gaier, todd; gawande, rohit; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lai, Richard; Lawrence, Charles R.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Seiffert, Michael D.; Sieth, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We will present results of the latest InP HEMT MMIC low noise amplifiers in the 30-300 GHz range, with emphasis on LNAs and mixers developed for CO intensity mapping in the 40-80 GHz range, as well as MMIC LNAs suitable for ALMA Band 2 (67-90 GHz). The LNAs have been developed together with NGC in a 35 nm InP HEMT MMIC process. Recent results and a summary of best InP low noise amplifier data will be presented. This work describes technologies related to the detection and study of highly redshifted spectral lines from the CO molecule, a key tracer for molecular hydrogen. One of the most promising techniques for observing the Cosmic Dawn is intensity mapping of spectral-spatial fluctuations of line emission from neutral hydrogen (H I), CO, and [C II]. The essential idea is that instead of trying to detect line emission from individual galaxies, one measures the total line emission from a number of galaxies within the volume defined by a spectral-spatial pixel. Fluctuations from pixel to pixel trace large scale structure, and the evolution with redshift is revealed as a function of receiver frequency. A special feature of CO is the existence of multiple lines with a well-defined frequency relationship from the rotational ladder, which allows the possibility of cleanly separating the signal from other lines or foreground structure at other redshifts. Making use of this feature (not available to either HI or [C II] measurements) requires observing multiple frequencies, including the range 40-80 GHz, much of which is inaccessible from the ground or balloons.Specifically, the J=1->0 transition frequency is 115 GHz; J=2->1 is 230 GHz; J=3->2 is 345 GHz, etc. At redshift 7, these lines would appear at 14.4, 28.8, and 43.2 GHz, accessible from the ground. Over a wider range of redshifts, from 3 to 7, these lines would appear at frequencies from 14 to 86 GHz. A ground-based CO Intensity mapping experiment, COMAP, will utilize InP-based HEMT MMIC amplifier front ends in the

  10. Influence of gate metal engineering on small-signal and noise behaviour of silicon nanowire MOSFET for low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neha; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the small-signal behaviour and RF noise performance of gate electrode workfunction engineered (GEWE) silicon nanowire (SiNW) MOSFET, and the results so obtained are simultaneously compared with SiNW and conventional MOSFET at THz frequency range. This work examines reflection and transmission coefficients, noise conductance, minimum noise figure and cross-correlation factor. Results reveal significant reduction in input/output reflection coefficient and an increase in forward/reverse transmission coefficient owing to improved transconductance in GEWE-SiNW in comparison with conventional counterparts. It is also observed that minimum noise figure and noise conductance of GEWE-SiNW is reduced by 17.4 and 31.2 %, respectively, in comparison with SiNW, thus fortifying its potential application for low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) at radio frequencies. Moreover, the efficacy of gate metal workfunction engineering is also studied and the results validate that tuning of workfunction difference results further improvement in device small-signal behaviour and noise performance.

  11. 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with mode-locking structure to enhance gain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhyun; Park, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 μm RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm(2). PMID:25045755

  12. 2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 μm RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm2. PMID:25045755

  13. Scalable, Low-Noise Architecture for Integrated Terahertz Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergelyi, Domonkos; Földesy, Péter; Zarándy, Ákos

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scalable, low-noise imager architecture for terahertz recordings that helps to build large-scale integrated arrays from any field-effect transistor (FET)- or HEMT-based terahertz detector. It enhances the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by inherently enabling complex sampling schemes. The distinguishing feature of the architecture is the serially connected detectors with electronically controllable photoresponse. We show that this architecture facilitate room temperature imaging by decreasing the low-noise amplifier (LNA) noise to one-sixteenth of a non-serial sensor while also reducing the number of multiplexed signals in the same proportion. The serially coupled architecture can be combined with the existing read-out circuit organizations to create high-resolution, coarse-grain sensor arrays. Besides, it adds the capability to suppress overall noise with increasing array size. The theoretical considerations are proven on a 4 by 4 detector array manufactured on 180 nm feature sized standard CMOS technology. The detector array is integrated with a low-noise AC-coupled amplifier of 40 dB gain and has a resonant peak at 460 GHz with 200 kV/W overall sensitivity.

  14. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco

    2013-12-01

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm. PMID:24387425

  15. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  16. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhangming, Zhu; Lianxi, Liu; Yintang, Yang; Han, Lei

    2009-02-01

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 × 1.52 mm2. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  17. A CMOS variable gain amplifier for PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter and RICH energy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Palmer, R.L.; Moscone, C.G.; Jackson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    A variable gain amplifier (VGA) has been developed equalizing the gains of integrating amplifier channels used with multiple photomultiplier tubes operating from common high-voltage supplies. The PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter will operate in that manner, and gain equalization is needed to preserve the dynamic range of the analog memory and ADC following the integrating amplifier. The VGA is also needed for matching energy channel gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5-bit digital control, and the risetime is held between 15 and 23 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. An additional feature is gated baseline restoration. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2-{mu}m Orbit CMOS are presented.

  18. A low-noise readout circuit in 0.35-μm CMOS for low-cost uncooled FPA infrared network camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesgarzadeh, Behzad; Sadeghifar, M. Reza; Fredriksson, Per; Jansson, Christer; Niklaus, Frank; Alvandpour, Atila

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a differential readout circuit technique for uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) sensors. The differential operation allows an efficient rejection of the common-mode noise during the biasing and readout of the detectors. This has been enabled by utilizing a number of blind and thermally-isolated IR bolometers as reference detectors. In addition, a pixel-wise detector calibration capability has been provided in order to allow efficient error corrections using digital signal processing techniques. The readout circuit for a 64×64 test bolometer-array has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process. Circuit simulations show that the analog readout at 60 frames/s consumes 30 mW from a 3.3-V supply and results in a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 125 mK for infrared optics.

  19. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  20. Continuous-time ΣΔ ADC with implicit variable gain amplifier for CMOS image sensor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Bermak, Amine; Abbes, Amira; Benammar, Mohieddine Amor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a column-parallel continuous-time sigma delta (CTSD) ADC for mega-pixel resolution CMOS image sensor (CIS). The sigma delta modulator is implemented with a 2nd order resistor/capacitor-based loop filter. The first integrator uses a conventional operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), for the concern of a high power noise rejection. The second integrator is realized with a single-ended inverter-based amplifier, instead of a standard OTA. As a result, the power consumption is reduced, without sacrificing the noise performance. Moreover, the variable gain amplifier in the traditional column-parallel read-out circuit is merged into the front-end of the CTSD modulator. By programming the input resistance, the amplitude range of the input current can be tuned with 8 scales, which is equivalent to a traditional 2-bit preamplification function without consuming extra power and chip area. The test chip prototype is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process and the measurement result shows an ADC power consumption lower than 63.5 μW under 1.4 V power supply and 50 MHz clock frequency. PMID:24772012

  1. Design and analysis of 20 Gb/s inductorless limiting amplifier in 65 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, He; Jianfei, Xu; Na, Yan; Jie, Sun; Liqian, Bian; Hao, Min

    2014-10-01

    A high speed inductorless limiting amplifier (LA) in an optical communication receiver with the working speed up to 20 Gb/s is presented. The LA includes an input matching network, a four-stage 3rd order amplifier core, an output buffer for the test and a DC offset cancellation (DCOC). It uses the active interleaving feedback technique both to broaden the bandwidth and achieve the flatness response. Based on our careful analysis of the DCOC and stability, an error amplifier is added to the DCOC loop in order to keep the offset voltage reasonable. Fabricated in the 65 nm CMOS technology, the LA only occupies an area of 0.45 × 0.25 mm2 (without PAD). The measurement results show that the LA achieves a differential voltage gain of 37 dB, and a 3-dB bandwidth of 16.5 GHz. Up to 26.5 GHz, the Sdd11 and Sdd22 are less than -16 dB and -9 dB. The chip excluding buffer is supplied by 1.2 V VDD and draws a current of 50 mA.

  2. All CMOS Low-Power Wide-Gain Range Variable Gain Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Quoc-Hoang; Kim, Chang-Wan; Lee, Sang-Gug

    Two variable gain amplifiers (VGAs) that adopt new approximated exponential equations are proposed in this paper. The dB-linear range of the proposed VGAs is extended more than what the approximated exponential equations predict by a bias circuit technique that adopts negative feedback. The proposed VGAs feature wide gain variation, low-power, high linearity, wide control signal range, and small chip size. One of the proposed VGAs is fabricated in 0.18μm CMOS technology and measurements show a gain variation of 83dB (-36-47dB) with a gain error of less than ±2dB, and P1dB/IIP3 from -55/8 to -20/20.5dBm, while consuming an average current of 3.4mA from a 1.8V supply; the chip occupies 0.4mm2. The other VGA is simulated in 0.18μm CMOS technology and simulations show a gain variation of 91dB (-41-50dB), and P1dB/IIP3 from -50/-25 to -33/0dBm, while consuming an average current of 1.5mA from a 1.8V supply.

  3. Transmission of wireless neural signals through a 0.18 µm CMOS low-power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Gazziro, M; Braga, C F R; Moreira, D A; Carvalho, A C P L F; Rodrigues, J F; Navarro, J S; Ardila, J C M; Mioni, D P; Pessatti, M; Fabbro, P; Freewin, C; Saddow, S E

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) researchers still are not able to produce clinically viable solutions that meet the requirements of long-term operation without the use of wires or batteries. Another problem is neural compatibility with the electrode probes. One of the possible ways of approaching these problems is the use of semiconductor biocompatible materials (silicon carbide) combined with an integrated circuit designed to operate with low power consumption. This paper describes a low-power neural signal amplifier chip, named Cortex, fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process technology with all electronics integrated in an area of 0.40 mm(2). The chip has 4 channels, total power consumption of only 144 μW, and is impedance matched to silicon carbide biocompatible electrodes. PMID:26737437

  4. A fully integrated 3.5 GHz CMOS differential power amplifier driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaodong, Xu; Haigang, Yang; Tongqiang, Gao; Hongfeng, Zhang

    2013-07-01

    A fully integrated CMOS differential power amplifier driver (PAD) is proposed for WiMAX applications. In order to fulfill the differential application requirements, a transmission line transformer is used as the output matching network. A differential inductance constitutes an inter-stage matching network. Meanwhile, an on chip balun realizes input matching as well as single-end to differential conversion. The PAD is fabricated in a 0.13 μm RFCMOS process. The chip size is 1.1 × 1.1 mm2 with all of the matching network integrated on chip. The saturated power is around 10 dBm and power gain is about 12 dB.

  5. A low-power CMOS trans-impedance amplifier for FM/cw ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Zhao, Yi-qiang; Sheng, Yun; Zhao, Hong-liang; Yu, Hai-xia

    2013-09-01

    A scannerless ladar imaging system based on a unique frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique is able to entirely capture the target environment, using a focal plane array to construct a 3D picture of the target. This paper presents a low power trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) designed and implemented by 0.18 μm CMOS technology, which is used in the FM/cw imaging ladar with a 64×64 metal-semiconductor-metal(MSM) self-mixing detector array. The input stage of the operational amplifier (op amp) in TIA is realized with folded cascade structure to achieve large open loop gain and low offset. The simulation and test results of TIA with MSM detectors indicate that the single-end trans-impedance gain is beyond 100 kΩ, and the -3 dB bandwidth of Op Amp is beyond 60 MHz. The input common mode voltage ranges from 0.2 V to 1.5 V, and the power dissipation is reduced to 1.8 mW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The performance test results show that the TIA is a candidate for preamplifier of the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) in the FM/cw scannerless ladar imaging system.

  6. Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

  7. A 65-nm low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for audio applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Lu, Liao; Hao, Luo; Xiaopeng, Liu; Xiaoxia, Han; Yan, Han

    2012-02-01

    This paper introduces a low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for digital audio analog-to-digital conversion. By adopting a low-noise large-output swing operation amplifier, not only is the flicker noise greatly inhibited, but also the power consumption is reduced. Also the area cost is relatively small. The modulator was implemented in a SMIC standard 65-nm CMOS process. Measurement results show it can achieve 96 dB peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) and 105 dB dynamic range (DR) over the 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 0.16 mm2. The power consumption of the proposed modulator is 4.9 mW from a 2.5 V power supply, which is suitable for high-performance, low-cost audio codec applications.

  8. Very Low Noise Multiplexing with SQUIDs and SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for Readout of Large Superconducting Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, F.; Bréelle, E.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.; Klisnick, G.; Sou, G.; Redon, M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an ultra low noise instrumentation based on a standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm ASIC operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of the electronic circuit are the readout and the multiplexing of SQUIDs/TES. We report the cryogenic operation of the ASIC dedicated to the readout of a 2×4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasize on the development and the test phases of an ultra low noise ( 0.2 nV/sqrt{Hz} ) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed inputs. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented.

  9. Very-low-noise multiplexing with SQUIDs and SiGe HBTs for readout of large superconducting bolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Klisnick, G.; Sou, G.; Redon, M.; Bréelle, E.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.

    2007-08-01

    We present an ultra-low-noise instrumentation based on a standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm ASIC operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of the electronic circuit are the readout and the multiplexing of SQUIDs/TES arrays. We report the cryogenic operation of the ASIC dedicated to the readout of a 2×4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasise on the development, and the test phases of an ultra-low-noise (0.2 nV/√Hz) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed input. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented.

  10. A 180-Vpp Integrated Linear Amplifier for Ultrasonic Imaging Applications in a High-Voltage CMOS SOI Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kexu; Gao, Zheng; Gui, Ping; Wang, Rui; Oguzman, Ismail; Xu, Xiaochen; Vasanth, Karthik; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a monolithically integrated fully differential linear HV amplifier as the driver of an ultrasonic transducer. The linear amplifier is capable of transmitting HV arbitrary signals with a very low harmonic distortion, which is suitable for tissue harmonic imaging and other ultrasonic modes for enhanced imaging quality. The amplifier is designed and implemented using the 0.7-μm CMOS silicon-on-insulator process with 120-V devices. The amplifier, when driving a load of 300 pF in parallel with 100 Ω, is capable of transmitting a sine-wave signal with a frequency of up to 4.4 MHz, a maximum signal swing of 180 Vpp, and a second-order harmonic distortion (HD2) of −56 dBc but only dissipating an average power of 62 mW with a 0.1% duty cycle. PMID:25914609

  11. Digital Switching CMOS Power Amplifier for Multiband and Multimode Handset Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Toshifumi

    This thesis is directed towards the development of a digitally-assisted radio frequency power amplifier (RF PA) which is one of the potential solutions to realize a multiband and multimode transmitter with high efficiency for handset applications. To improve efficiency and linearity in multiple conditions, PA circuits and digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are co-designed. In the dissertation, a proposed architecture employs a current-mode class-D (CMCD) configuration for high efficiency, and a polar modulation scheme driven by digital inputs. Detail design, fabrication and experimental results are given for circuit implementation and DSP of this architecture. First, a multiband watt-class complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) PA is demonstrated using 0.15 um CMOS integrated circuits (ICs), off-chip inductor and balun. To obtain high breakdown voltage, stacked field effect transistors (FETs) are used. The CMCD PA is tuned by band-switching capacitors, operating in the 0.7-1.8 GHz frequency band. The overall efficiencies of 27.1 / 25.6 % are achieved at 30.2 / 28.9 dBm CW output powers and 0.85 / 1.75 GHz carrier frequencies, respectively. Next, to achieve wide output power dynamic range, an architecture consisting of small segmented unti-cells is introduced into the PA, where multiple three-state unit-cells are used and the state of each unit-cell is controlled to provide a specific output power. The overall dynamic ranges are expanded to approximately 90 dB and 85 dB at and 0.85 / 1.75 GHz, respectively. The dissertation then presents digital modulation algorithms. The digital compensation techniques are developed to maintain linearity of an envelope modulator of the polar transmitter. A new digital pulse width modulation algorithm is also shown to partially suppress spurious signals associated with the digital input envelope signal. When wideband code-division multiple access (WCDMA) modulation is implemented, spur suppression of 9-10 dB is

  12. EHF low-noise FET receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellenberg, J. M.; Watkins, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Extremely high frequency (EHF) receivers for military and NASA programs must be small, lightweight, and highly reliable. In connection with recent advances in the development of mm-wave FET devices and circuits, a basis has been obtained for the eventual replacement of diode mixer front-ends by FET preamplifiers in receivers up to 94 GHz. By placing a low noise amplifier in front of the mixer it is possible to achieve a lower system noise figure than that found in conventional mm-wave receivers. A broader bandwidth can also be provided. Attention is given to the receiver configuration, a low noise FET amplifier, an image rejection filter, a dual-gate FET mixer, a FET local oscillator, and a FET receiver.

  13. Ultra-low-noise microwave amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Trowbridge, D.

    1980-01-01

    The highlights of 20 years of maser use and development are presented. Masers discussed include cavity, traveling wave, K band, and S band. Noise temperatures measured since 1960 are summarized. Use of masers in the Deep Space Network is presented. Costs associated with the construction of masers systems are given.

  14. 60 GHz low noise wideband receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knust-Graichen, R. A.; Bui, L.

    1985-01-01

    The printed circuit and GaAs beam lead technology-based, low noise integrated receiver presented was developed for low cost space communications and operates in the 59-64 GHz range, using a phase-locked Gunn oscillator at 51.5 GHz. An IF output of 7.5-12.5 GHz is obtained. With the exception of the IF amplifier, and of the E-plane technology-based RF preselect filter, all circuits of the device employ suspended stripline construction.

  15. Concentric Parallel Combining Balun for Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifier in Low-Power CMOS with High-Power Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiang-An; Kong, Zhi-Hui; Ma, Kaixue; Yeo, Kiat Seng; Lim, Wei Meng

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel balun for a millimeter-wave power amplifier (PA) design to achieve high-power density in a 65-nm low-power (LP) CMOS process. By using a concentric winding technique, the proposed parallel combining balun with compact size accomplishes power combining and unbalance-balance conversion concurrently. For calculating its power combination efficiency in the condition of various amplitude and phase wave components, a method basing on S-parameters is derived. Based on the proposed parallel combining balun, a fabricated 60-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band PA with single-ended I/O achieves an 18.9-dB gain and an 8.8-dBm output power at 1-dB compression and 14.3-dBm saturated output power (P sat) at 62 GHz. This PA occupying only a 0.10-mm2 core area has demonstrated a high-power density of 269.15 mW/mm2 in 65 nm LP CMOS.

  16. Studies of the LBL CMOS integrated amplifier/discriminator for randomly timed inputs from fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, J.S.; Yarema, R.J.; Zimmerman, T.

    1988-12-01

    A group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has reported an elegant CMOS VLSI circuit for amplifying, discriminating, and encoding the signals from highly-segmented charge output devices, e.g., silicon strip detectors or pad readout structures in gaseous detectors. The design exploits switched capacitor circuits and the well-known time structure of data acquisition in colliding beam accelerators to cancel leakage effects and switching noise. For random inputs, these methods are not directly applicable. However, the high speed of the reset switches makes possible a mode of operation for fixed target experiments that uses fast resets to erase unwanted data from random triggers. Data acquisition in this mode has been performed. Details of operation and measurements of noise and rate capability will be presented. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  17. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Lioe, De Xing; Mars, Kamel; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM) for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF) and switched-capacitor (SC) integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated) components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated) components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise) components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10(-)⁵ is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed. PMID:27089339

  18. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Lioe, De Xing; Mars, Kamel; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM) for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF) and switched-capacitor (SC) integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated) components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated) components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise) components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10−5 is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed. PMID:27089339

  19. Variable-gain, low-noise amplification for sampling front ends.

    PubMed

    Rieger, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a low-noise front-end amplifier with configurable gain, targeting the recording of small signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) or electroneurogram (ENG). The circuit consists of a continuous-time input stage using lateral bipolar transistors realized in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology followed by a switched-capacitor integrating stage. The voltage gain is adjustable by varying the phase delay between two system clocks. Simulated and measured results for a chip fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS technology are reported. The amplifier occupies an active area of 0.064 mm(2), yields a nominal gain of 630 V/V with more than a 50-dB tuning range, less than 16 nVrms/√Hz input noise and a common-mode rejection of more than 97 dB. Its power consumption is 280 μW with a ±1.5-V supply. PMID:23851476

  20. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, Jens; Ackermann, Joerg; Uffmann, Dirk; Aderhold, Jochen

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.

  1. An inductorless CMOS programmable-gain amplifier with a > 3 GHz bandwidth for 60 GHz wireless transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhu; Baoyong, Chi; Lixue, Kuang; Wen, Jia; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-10-01

    An inductorless wideband programmable-gain amplifier (PGA) for 60 GHz wireless transceivers is presented. To attain wideband characteristics, a modified Cherry—Hooper amplifier with a negative capacitive neutralization technique is employed as the gain cell while a novel circuit technique for gain adjustment is adopted; this technique can be universally applicable in wideband PGA design and greatly simplifying the design of wideband PGA. By cascading two gain cells and an output buffer stage, the PGA achieves the highest gain of 30 dB with the bandwidth much wider than 3 GHz. The PGA has been integrated into one whole 60 GHz wireless transceiver and implemented in the TSMC 65 nm CMOS process. The measurements on the receiver front-end show that the receiver front-end achieves an 18 dB variable gain range with a > 3 GHz bandwidth, which proves the proposed PGA achieves an 18 dB variable gain range with a bandwidth much wider than 3 GHz. The PGA consumes 10.7 mW of power from a 1.2-V supply voltage with a core area of only 0.025 mm2.

  2. A 0.5-V multi-channel low-noise readout front-end for portable EEG acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wen-Yen Huang; Yu-Wei Cheng; Kea-Tiong Tang

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a low-noise readout front-end suitable for Electroencephalogram (EEG) acquisition. The chip includes 8-channel fully-differential instrumentation amplifiers, utilizing chopper stabilization technique for reducing the flicker noise, each amplifier with a small Gm-C low-pass filter, a programmable gain amplifier, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC with a detect logic for DAC switching. The chip is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The low-noise readout front-end has simulated frequency response from 0.57 Hz to 213 Hz, programmable gain from 54.4 dB to 87.6 dB, integrated input-referred noise of 0.358 μVrms within EEG bandwidth, a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.43, and a power efficiency factor (PEF) of 2.95. The overall system consumes 32.08 μW under 0.5-V supply. PMID:26736392

  3. Low-noise nozzle valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwin, Hal S. (Inventor); Aaron, James (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A low noise, variable discharage area, valve is constructed having opposed recesses within which a pair of gates are slidably disposed. Each of the gates is provided with upstream edges having a radius thereon, the radius enabling smooth, accelerated, low noise flow therebetween. The gates are further provided with tracks along each side, which in turn slide along splines set in the side walls of the valve. A threaded rod which rotates in a threaded insert in a rear wall of each of the gates, serves to move the gates within their respective recesses.

  4. Low-noise nozzle valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwin, Hal S.; Aaron, James

    1990-09-01

    A low noise, variable discharage area, valve is constructed having opposed recesses within which a pair of gates are slidably disposed. Each of the gates is provided with upstream edges having a radius thereon, the radius enabling smooth, accelerated, low noise flow therebetween. The gates are further provided with tracks along each side, which in turn slide along splines set in the side walls of the valve. A threaded rod which rotates in a threaded insert in a rear wall of each of the gates, serves to move the gates within their respective recesses.

  5. Analysis and design of a low-noise ROIC for hybrid InGaAs infrared FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, SongLei; Huang, ZhangCheng; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2011-08-01

    The noises of CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for hybrid focal plane array (FPA) may occupy a great part of total noise in conditions that a low resistance or large capacitor detector interfacing with CTIA input stage. A novel low noise low power preamplifier with shared current-mirrors bias is designed. It has a gain of more than 90dB, which makes enough inject efficiency and low detector bias offset. Besides, it has strong detector bias control, because the shared current-mirror copies the DC current of the amplifier and generates the bias control voltage. A pixel level Correlated Double Sample circuits is designed in order to suppress the reset KTC noise and 1/f noise from preamplifier. An experimental chip of 30μm pitch 32×32 array was fabricated in standard 0.5μm CMOS mixed signal process. A few experimental structures are designed to study the allocating of layout area for low noise designing. The ROIC is bonded to an existing back-illuminated 30μm pitch InGaAs photodiode array with indium bump fabrication. The test of both the ROIC chips and InGaAs focal plane array is shown in this paper, and the contrast of different structure is shown and analyzed.

  6. Ultra low-noise charge coupled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Special purpose CCD designed for ultra low-noise imaging and spectroscopy applications that require subelectron read noise floors, wherein a non-destructive output circuit operating near its 1/f noise regime is clocked in a special manner to read a single pixel multiple times. Off-chip electronics average the multiple values, reducing the random noise by the square-root of the number of samples taken. Noise floors below 0.5 electrons rms are possible in this manner. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a three-phase CCD horizontal register is used to bring a pixel charge packet to an input gate adjacent a floating gate amplifier. The charge is then repeatedly clocked back and forth between the input gate and the floating gate. Each time the charge is injected into the potential well of the floating gate, it is sensed non-destructively. The floating gate amplifier is provided with a reference voltage of a fixed value and a pre-charge gate for resetting the amplifier between charge samples to a constant gain. After the charge is repeatedly sampled a selected number of times, it is transferred by means of output gates, back into the horizontal register, where it is clocked in a conventional manner to a diffusion MOSFET amplifier. It can then be either sampled (destructively) one more time or otherwise discarded.

  7. Support assembly for cryogenically coolable low-noise choke waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccrea, F. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A compact cryogenically coolable choked waveguide for low-noise input coupling into a cryogenically cooled device, such as a maser or parametric amplifier, utilizes coaxial stainless steel support tubes surrounding the waveguide and connected in cascade to provide a folded low thermal conduction path. The edges of the tubes connected are welded.

  8. A compact rail-to-rail CMOS buffer amplifier with very low quiescent current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Emre; Yıldız, Merih; Minaei, Shahram

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a very compact, rail-to-rail, high-speed buffer amplifier for liquid crystal display (LCD) applications is proposed. Compared to other buffer amplifiers, the proposed circuit has a very simple architecture, occupies a small number of transistors and also has a large driving capacity with very low quiescent current. It is composed of two complementary differential input stages to provide rail-to-rail driving capacity. The push-pull transistors are directly connected to the differential input stage, and the output is taken from an inverter. The proposed buffer circuit is laid out using Mentor Graphics IC Station layout editor using AMS 0.35 μm process parameters. It is shown by post-layout simulations that the proposed buffer can drive a 1 nF capacitive load within a small settling time under a full voltage swing, while drawing only 1.6 μA quiescent current from a 3.3 V power supply.

  9. A high speed CMOS image sensor with a novel digital correlated double sampling and a differential difference amplifier.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyeok; Bae, Jaeyoung; Song, Minkyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the operating speed of a CMOS image sensor (CIS), a new technique of digital correlated double sampling (CDS) is described. In general, the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of a CIS has been reduced with the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal. This is because a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has been normally adopted in the conventional digital CDS with the reset ramp and signal ramp. Thus, the operating speed of a digital CDS is much slower than that of an analog CDS. In order to improve the operating speed, we propose a novel digital CDS based on a differential difference amplifier (DDA) that compares the reset signal and the pixel signal using only one ramp. The prototype CIS has been fabricated with 0.13 µm CIS technology and it has the VGA resolution of 640 × 480. The measured conversion time is 16 µs, and a high frame rate of 131 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. PMID:25738765

  10. A High Speed CMOS Image Sensor with a Novel Digital Correlated Double Sampling and a Differential Difference Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehyeok; Bae, Jaeyoung; Song, Minkyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the operating speed of a CMOS image sensor (CIS), a new technique of digital correlated double sampling (CDS) is described. In general, the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of a CIS has been reduced with the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal. This is because a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has been normally adopted in the conventional digital CDS with the reset ramp and signal ramp. Thus, the operating speed of a digital CDS is much slower than that of an analog CDS. In order to improve the operating speed, we propose a novel digital CDS based on a differential difference amplifier (DDA) that compares the reset signal and the pixel signal using only one ramp. The prototype CIS has been fabricated with 0.13 µm CIS technology and it has the VGA resolution of 640 × 480. The measured conversion time is 16 µs, and a high frame rate of 131 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. PMID:25738765

  11. An approximate HSPICE model for orbit low noise analog bipolar NPN transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, T.

    1991-07-01

    Vertical bipolar NPN transistors can be fabricated cheaply through MOSIS by using the Orbit 2 um Low Noise Analog CMOS process. The collector is formed from an N-well, the base from a p-base diffusion, and the emitter from an N-diffusion. However, since this is a CMOS process there is no buried layer in the collector. Therefore the collector resistance is quite large. Also, the minimum emitter size is 8 um {times} 8 um, which is substantially larger than many fast bipolar processes. For certain applications, though, such as common base or emitter follower amplifiers, the performance of this transistor may be quite acceptable. However, no AC SPICE model is published for this device. This paper describes a simple approximate measurement method that was used at Fermilab to formulate an HSPICE model for these transistor. This method requires only a fast pulse generator and a good digitizing oscilloscope with an active FET probe for the AC measurements. Model parameters for two transistors of different size are then given. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  12. Low-voltage constant- g m rail-to-rail CMOS operational amplifier input stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Yao, Ruo He

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a rail-to-rail constant-gm operational amplifier input stage. The proposed circuit changes the tail current of the input differential pairs dynamically for a constant-gm by using dummy input differential pairs. The problem which causes total gm variation is input pairs and dummy input pairs can not take effect at the same time with the common-mode input voltage changes, because the tail current transistor of the input pairs are in triode region when the input pairs are turned off, the dummy input pairs will enter subthreshold region from cut-off region before the input pairs when common-mode voltage changes. The effect of this problem is more obviously in low supply voltage design. To solve this problem, compensate current sources is added to the tail current transistors of each dummy input differential pairs for lower gm variation. The gm of this Op Amp's input stage varies around ±2%.

  13. Analog CMOS design for optical coherence tomography signal detection and processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Mathine, David L; Barton, Jennifer K

    2008-02-01

    A CMOS circuit was designed and fabricated for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detection and processing. The circuit includes a photoreceiver, differential gain stage and lock-in amplifier based demodulator. The photoreceiver consists of a CMOS photodetector and low noise differential transimpedance amplifier which converts the optical interference signal into a voltage. The differential gain stage further amplifies the signal. The in-phase and quadrature channels of the lock-in amplifier each include an analog mixer and switched-capacitor low-pass filter with an external mixer reference signal. The interferogram envelope and phase can be extracted with this configuration, enabling Doppler OCT measurements. A sensitivity of -80 dB is achieved with faithful reproduction of the interferometric signal envelope. A sample image of finger tip is presented. PMID:18269983

  14. Design of matching networks for low noise preamplifiers.

    PubMed

    Reykowski, A; Wright, S M; Porter, J R

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses matching networks that minimize inductive coupling between the antennas within an array while simultaneously insuring minimum noise contributions from preamplifiers. Typical low noise preamplifier designs require a strong mismatch between the source impedance and the amplifier input impedance (reflection coefficient close to one) to achieve optimal noise performance. This is in contrast to the familiar impedance match known from communication theory where input and source impedances have complex conjugate values for maximizing the power transfer from source to amplifier. The high input reflection coefficient of low noise amplifiers can be exploited to reduce antenna currents by using lossless impedance transformations to create a high impedance at the coil terminals while simultaneously maintaining a low noise figure for the amplifier. The networks presented here constitute an improvement over previous work because they give additional freedoms regarding the values of the network components and the amplifier input impedance. The technique has been formalized and coded in MathCad, making the design of realizable networks a simple process. PMID:7651124

  15. High-gain, high-bandwidth, rail-to-rail, constant-gm CMOS operational amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo-Ruei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a high-gain, high-bandwidth, constant-gm , rail-to-rail operational amplifier (op-amp). The constant transconductance is improved with a source-to-bulk bias control of an input pair. A source degeneration scheme is also adapted to the output stage for receiving wide input range without degradation of the gain. Additionally, several compensation schemes are employed to enhance the stability. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. The active area of the op-amp is 181 × 173 µm2 and it consumes a power of 2.41 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The op-amp achieves a dc gain of 94.3 dB and a bandwidth of 45 MHz when the output capacitive load is connected to an effective load of 42.5 pF. A class-AB output stage combining a slew rate (SR) boost circuit provides a sinking current of 6 mA and an SR of 17 V/µs.

  16. The 30 GHz communications satellite low noise receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffek, L. J.; Smith, D. W.

    1983-10-01

    A Ka-band low noise front end in proof of concept (POC) model form for ultimate spaceborne communications receiver deployment was developed. The low noise receiver consists of a 27.5 to 30.0 GHz image enhanced mixer integrated with a 3.7 to 6.2 GHz FET low noise IF amplifier and driven by a self contained 23.8 GHz phase locked local oscillator source. The measured level of receiver performance over the 27.3 to 30.0 GHz RF/3.7 to 6.2 GHz IF band includes 5.5 to 6.5 dB (typ) SSB noise figure, 20.5 + or - 1.5 dB conversion gain and +23 dBm minimum third order two tone intermodulation output intercept point.

  17. The 30 GHz communications satellite low noise receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffek, L. J.; Smith, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A Ka-band low noise front end in proof of concept (POC) model form for ultimate spaceborne communications receiver deployment was developed. The low noise receiver consists of a 27.5 to 30.0 GHz image enhanced mixer integrated with a 3.7 to 6.2 GHz FET low noise IF amplifier and driven by a self contained 23.8 GHz phase locked local oscillator source. The measured level of receiver performance over the 27.3 to 30.0 GHz RF/3.7 to 6.2 GHz IF band includes 5.5 to 6.5 dB (typ) SSB noise figure, 20.5 + or - 1.5 dB conversion gain and +23 dBm minimum third order two tone intermodulation output intercept point.

  18. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  19. Low noise lead screw positioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A very precise and low noise lead screw positioner, for positioning a retroreflector in an interferometer is described. A gas source supplies inert pressurized gas, that flows through narrow holes into the clearance space between a nut and the lead screw. The pressurized gas keeps the nut out of contact with the screw. The gas flows axially along the clearance space, into the environment. The small amount of inert gas flowing into the environment minimizes pollution. By allowing such flow into the environment, no seals are required between the end of the nut and the screw.

  20. Low noise charge ramp electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.; Piper, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    An electrometer capable of measuring small currents without the use of a feedback resistor which tends to contribute a large noise factor to the measured data. The electrometer eliminates the feedback resistor through the use of a feedback capacitor located across the electrometer amplifier. The signal from the electrometer amplifier is transferred to a electrometer buffer amplifier which serves to transfer the signal to several receptors. If the electrometer amplifier is approaching saturation, the buffer amplifier signals a reset discriminator which energizes a coil whose magnetic field closes a magnetic relay switch which in turn resets or zeros the feedback capacitor. In turn, a reset complete discriminator restarts the measurement process when the electrometer amplifier approaches its initial condition. The buffer amplifier also transmits the voltage signal from the electrometer amplifier to a voltage-to-frequency converter. The signals from the voltage-to-frequency converter are counted over a fixed period of time and the information is relayed to a data processor. The timing and sequencing of the small current measuring system is under the control of a sequence control logic unit.

  1. Low noise charge ramp electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, J.P.; Piper, T.C.

    1992-10-06

    An electrometer capable of measuring small currents without the use of a feedback resistor which tends to contribute a large noise factor to the measured data. The electrometer eliminates the feedback resistor through the use of a feedback capacitor located across the electrometer amplifier. The signal from the electrometer amplifier is transferred to a electrometer buffer amplifier which serves to transfer the signal to several receptors. If the electrometer amplifier is approaching saturation, the buffer amplifier signals a reset discriminator which energizes a coil whose magnetic field closes a magnetic relay switch which in turn resets or zeros the feedback capacitor. In turn, a reset complete discriminator restarts the measurement process when the electrometer amplifier approaches its initial condition. The buffer amplifier also transmits the voltage signal from the electrometer amplifier to a voltage-to-frequency converter. The signals from the voltage-to-frequency converter are counted over a fixed period of time and the information is relayed to a data processor. The timing and sequencing of the small current measuring system is under the control of a sequence control logic unit. 2 figs.

  2. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  3. 0.18μm CMOS inductorless AGC amplifier with 50dB input dynamic range for 10GBase-LX4 ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, F.; Celma, S.; Calvo, B.; Aldea, C.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a new automatic gain control main amplifier for 10GBase-LX4 Ethernet realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The proposed optical-fiber differential post-amplifier is based on a very compact inductorless design which comprises three main digitally programmable gain stages followed by a buffer. It is characterized by a -3 dB cutoff frequency above 3 GHz over a -3 to 33 dB linear-in-dB gain control. It includes a DC offset cancellation network and an automatic gain control loop which establishes a setting time below 1μs. Results show a sensitivity of 2.1 mV for BER = 10-12 and an input dynamic range above 50 dB. The power consumption is 58 mW at a single supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  4. A low-power 20 GSps track-and-hold amplifier in 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Tang; Qiao, Meng; Zhigong, Wang; Yi, Zhang; Kuai, Yin; Ting, Guo

    2013-09-01

    An open-loop 20 GSps track-and-hold amplifier (THA) using fully-differential architecture to mitigate common-mode noise and suppress even-order harmonics is presented. CMOS switch and dummy switches are adopted to achieve high speed and good linearity. A cross-coupled pair is used in the input buffer to suppress the charge injection and clock feedthrough. Both the input and output buffers use an active inductor load to achieve high signal bandwidth. The THA is realized with 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology using only CMOS devices at a 1.8 V voltage supply and with a core area of 0.024 mm2. The measurement results show that the SFDR is 32.4 dB with a 4 GHz sine wave input at a 20 GSps sampling rate, and the third harmonic distortion is -48 dBc. The effective resolution bandwidth of the THA is 12 GHz and the figure of merit is only 0.028 mW/GHz.

  5. Novel active signal compression in low-noise analog readout at future X-ray FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghisoni, M.; Comotti, D.; Gaioni, L.; Lodola, L.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the design of a low-noise front-end implementing a novel active signal compression technique. This feature can be exploited in the design of analog readout channels for application to the next generation free electron laser (FEL) experiments. The readout architecture includes the low-noise charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time variant shaper used to process the signal at the preamplifier output and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The channel will be operated in such a way to cope with the high frame rate (exceeding 1 MHz) foreseen for future XFEL machines. The choice of a 65 nm CMOS technology has been made in order to include all the building blocks in the target pixel pitch of 100 μm. This work has been carried out in the frame of the PixFEL Project funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy.

  6. Low noise multiwasher superconducting interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, P.; Castellano, M.G.; Torrioli, G.; Leoni, R.

    1998-01-01

    The dc-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a low-noise converter from magnetic flux to voltage which can have, in principle, an energy sensitivity near the quantum limit of {h_bar}/2. A critical parameter for the ideal performance is the device inductance, which must be kept as small as possible. Minimizing the SQUID inductance, however, is a major concern for a practical device; this requirement implies a small SQUID ring and hence magnetic coupling with an external signal is more difficult to achieve. Here we present an original scheme (called multiwasher) to circumvent this problem, and its implementation in an all-refractory thin-film device. Our scheme not only provides good magnetic coupling with a large input coil (0.5 {mu}H) and very low SQUID inductance, but also shielding from outside uniform fields, such as those generated by ambient disturbances. The measured coupled spectral energy sensitivity in the white region at about 1 kHz is 28{h_bar} at 4.2 K and 5.5{h_bar} in a pumped helium bath at 0.9 K. The flux noise spectral density at 0.1 Hz and 0.9 K is {Phi}{sub n}=1{times}10{sup {minus}6}{Phi}{sub 0}/{radical} (Hz) . {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Low-Power SOI CMOS Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Technical Monitor); Cheruiyot, K.; Cothern, J.; Huang, D.; Singh, S.; Zencir, E.; Dogan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The work aims at developing a low-power Silicon on Insulator Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS) Transceiver for deep-space communications. RF Receiver must accomplish the following tasks: (a) Select the desired radio channel and reject other radio signals, (b) Amplify the desired radio signal and translate them back to baseband, and (c) Detect and decode the information with Low BER. In order to minimize cost and achieve high level of integration, receiver architecture should use least number of external filters and passive components. It should also consume least amount of power to minimize battery cost, size, and weight. One of the most stringent requirements for deep-space communication is the low-power operation. Our study identified that two candidate architectures listed in the following meet these requirements: (1) Low-IF receiver, (2) Sub-sampling receiver. The low-IF receiver uses minimum number of external components. Compared to Zero-IF (Direct conversion) architecture, it has less severe offset and flicker noise problems. The Sub-sampling receiver amplifies the RF signal and samples it using track-and-hold Subsampling mixer. These architectures provide low-power solution for the short- range communications missions on Mars. Accomplishments to date include: (1) System-level design and simulation of a Double-Differential PSK receiver, (2) Implementation of Honeywell SOI CMOS process design kit (PDK) in Cadence design tools, (3) Design of test circuits to investigate relationships between layout techniques, geometry, and low-frequency noise in SOI CMOS, (4) Model development and verification of on-chip spiral inductors in SOI CMOS process, (5) Design/implementation of low-power low-noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer for low-IF receiver, and (6) Design/implementation of high-gain LNA for sub-sampling receiver. Our initial results show that substantial improvement in power consumption is achieved using SOI CMOS as compared to standard CMOS

  8. 25 Gb/s photoreceiver based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetector and CMOS amplifier circuit for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Sun Ae; Kim, Gyungock; Jeong, Gyu-Seob; Chi, Hankyu; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    2015-02-01

    We report the silicon photonic receivers based on the hybrid-integrated vertical-illumination-type germanium-on-silicon photodetector and CMOS amplifier circuit, for optical interconnects. The high-speed vertical-illumination-type Ge-on-Si photodetector is defined on a bulk-silicon wafer, and the CMOS amplifier chip was designed with 65nm ground rule. The PCB-packaged 4 channel 25 Gb/s photoreceiver exhibits a resposivity of 0.68A/W. The sensitivity measured at a BER of 10-12 is -8.3 dBm and -2.4dBm for 25Gb/s and 32Gb/s, respectively. The energy efficiency is 2.19 pJ/bit at 25 Gb/s. The single-channel butterfly-packaged photoreceiver exhibits the sensitivity of -11dBm for 25 Gb/s at a BER of 10-12. The energy efficiency is 2.67 pJ/bit at 25 Gb/s.

  9. A Glucose Biosensor Using CMOS Potentiostat and Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A; Islam, Syed K; Hensley, Dale K; McFarlane, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a linear, low power, and compact CMOS based potentiostat for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) based amperometric glucose sensors. The CMOS based potentiostat consists of a single-ended potential control unit, a low noise common gate difference-differential pair transimpedance amplifier and a low power VCO. The potentiostat current measuring unit can detect electrochemical current ranging from 500 nA to 7 [Formula: see text] from the VACNF working electrodes with high degree of linearity. This current corresponds to a range of glucose, which depends on the fiber forest density. The potentiostat consumes 71.7 [Formula: see text] of power from a 1.8 V supply and occupies 0.017 [Formula: see text] of chip area realized in a 0.18 [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process. PMID:27337723

  10. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the

  11. Note: Broadband low-noise photodetector for Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnis, Shreyas; Vutha, Amar C.

    2016-07-01

    The Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization technique requires a fast, low-noise photodetector. We present a simple photodetector design that uses a transformer as an intermediary between a photodiode and cascaded low-noise radio-frequency amplifiers. Our implementation using a silicon photodiode yields a detector with 50 MHz bandwidth, gain >105 V/A, and input current noise <4 pA/ √{ Hz } , allowing us to obtain shot-noise-limited performance with low optical power.

  12. A 3.125-Gb/s inductorless transimpedance amplifier for optical communication in 0.35 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Xu; Jun, Feng; Quan, Liu; Wei, Li

    2011-10-01

    A 3.125-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for an optical communication system is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The proposed TIA employs a regulated cascode configuration as the input stage, and adopts DC-cancellation techniques to stabilize the DC operating point. In addition, noise optimization is processed. The on-wafer measurement results show the transimpedance gain of 54.2 dBΩ and -3 dB bandwidth of 2.31 GHz. The measured average input referred noise current spectral density is about . The measured eye diagram is clear and symmetrical for 2.5-Gb/s and 3.125-Gb/s PRBS. Under a single 3.3-V supply voltage, the TIA consumes only 58.08 mW, including 20 mW from the output buffer. The whole die area is 465 × 435 μm2.

  13. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  14. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  15. MEDUSA-32: A low noise, low power silicon strip detector front-end electronics, for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicuttin, Andres; Colavita, Alberto; Cerdeira, Alberto; Fratnik, Fabio; Vacchi, Andrea

    1997-02-01

    In this report we describe a mixed analog-digital integrated circuit (IC) designed as the front-end electronics for silicon strip-detectors for space applications. In space power consumption, compactness and robustness become critical constraints for a pre-amplifier design. The IC is a prototype with 32 complete channels, and it is intended for a large area particle tracker of a new generation of gamma ray telescopes. Each channel contains a charge sensitive amplifier, a pulse shaper, a discriminator and two digital buffers. The reference trip point of the discriminator is adjustable. This chip also has a custom PMOSFET transistor per channel, included in order to provide the high dynamic resistance needed to reverse-bias the strip diode. The digital part of the chip is used to store and serially shift out the state of the channels. There is also a storage buffer that allows the disabling of non-functioning channels if it is required by the data acquisition system. An input capacitance of 30 pF introduced at the input of the front-end produces less than 1000 electrons of RMS equivalent noise charge (ENC), for a total power dissipation of only 60 μW per channel. The chip was made using Orbit's 1.2 μm double poly, double metal n-well low noise CMOS process. The dimensions of the IC are 2400 μm × 8840 μm.

  16. Development of components and subsystems for low noise receivers at micro- and millimeter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, Juhani K.

    1990-09-01

    The development of low noise receivers at micro- and millimeter wave frequencies mainly intended for radio astronomical studies and remote sensing applications are discussed. The work is divided into three parts: design and construction of cryogenic, low noise MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) and HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers, studies on semiconductor local oscillators and phase locking of mm wave Gunn oscillators. The basic theory of low noise transistor amplifiers employing scattering and noise parameters of an active device is reviewed. Stability problems of amplifiers and noise measurement techniques especially applicable to cryogenic systems are discussed. Several low noise amplifiers were constructed for the frequency range of 1 to 22 GHz. As an example, a 4 GHz cryogenic MESFET IF amplifier with 20 K noise temperature was developed. A two stage coaxial HEMT amplifier with T(sub A) = 300 K at room temperature was constructed. Various designs of semiconductor local oscillators needed for mm wave receivers are reviewed. Experimental verification of the theoretical model for the waveguide mounting structure of Gunn diodes is given at frequencies of 35 to 53 GHz. Fundamental frequency local oscillators with an output power of approximately 50 mW and mechanical tuning range of 5 to 10 GHz (center frequency of 45 GHz) were constructed. Description of the phase locking scheme (exploiting bias tuning of Gunn oscillators) of the 72 to 115 GHz receiver is given. The additional factors needed in application of the basic phaselock theory to mm wave oscillators are discussed.

  17. Low-noise video amplifiers for imaging CCD's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scinicariello, F.

    1976-01-01

    Various techniques were developed which enable the CCD (charge coupled device) imaging array user to obtain optimum performance from the device. A CCD video channel was described, and detector-preamplifier interface requirements were examined. A noise model for the system was discussed at length and laboratory data presented and compared to predicted results.

  18. Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.

  19. Silicon on Insulator MESFETs for RF Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Balijepalli, Asha; Ervin, Joseph; Lepkowski, William; Thornton, Trevor J.

    2010-01-01

    CMOS compatible, high voltage SOI MESFETs have been fabricated using a standard 3.3V CMOS process without any changes to the process flow. A 0.6μm gate length device operates with a cut-off frequency of 7.3GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 21GHz. There is no degradation in device performance up to its breakdown voltage, which greatly exceeds that of CMOS devices on the same process. Other figures of merit of relevance to RF front-end design are presented, including the maximum stable gain and noise figure. An accurate representation of the device in SPICE has been developed using the commercially available TOM3 model. Using the SOI MESFET model, a source degenerated low noise RF amplifier targeting operation near 1GHz has been designed. The amplifier was fabricated on a PCB board and operates at 940MHz with a minimum NF of 3.8dB and RF gain of 9.9dB while only consuming 5mW of DC power. PMID:20657816

  20. Silicon on Insulator MESFETs for RF Amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Seth J; Balijepalli, Asha; Ervin, Joseph; Lepkowski, William; Thornton, Trevor J

    2010-03-01

    CMOS compatible, high voltage SOI MESFETs have been fabricated using a standard 3.3V CMOS process without any changes to the process flow. A 0.6μm gate length device operates with a cut-off frequency of 7.3GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 21GHz. There is no degradation in device performance up to its breakdown voltage, which greatly exceeds that of CMOS devices on the same process. Other figures of merit of relevance to RF front-end design are presented, including the maximum stable gain and noise figure. An accurate representation of the device in SPICE has been developed using the commercially available TOM3 model. Using the SOI MESFET model, a source degenerated low noise RF amplifier targeting operation near 1GHz has been designed. The amplifier was fabricated on a PCB board and operates at 940MHz with a minimum NF of 3.8dB and RF gain of 9.9dB while only consuming 5mW of DC power. PMID:20657816

  1. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  2. Low-Noise Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Coy, John J.; Henry, Zachary; Thomas, John; Litvin, Faydor L.

    1994-01-01

    Modified spiral bevel gears that generate relatively little noise and vibration designed and fabricated for use in U.S. Army OH-58D helicopter. Noise reduced by 12 to 19 dB. Similar low-noise, low-vibration spiral bevel gears used in other helicopters, with consequent benefits in comfort and health of pilots and passengers, enhancement of pilots' performance and safety through reduction of audible distraction, and reduction in cost and weight of helicopters through reduction in amount of sound-proofing material. Low-noise, low-vibration spiral bevel gears also used in drive axles of cars and trucks for smoother, quieter rides.

  3. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Ren; Kefeng, Zhang; Lanqi, Liu; Cong, Li; Xiaofei, Chen; Dongsheng, Liu; Zhenglin, Liu; Xuecheng, Zou

    2015-09-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076030).

  4. Nano watt power rail-to-rail CMOS amplifier with adaptive biasing circuits for ultralow-power analog LSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Toshihiro; Hirose, Tetsuya; Tsubaki, Keishi; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a rail-to-rail folded-cascode amplifier (AMP) with adaptive biasing circuits (ABCs). The circuit uses a nano ampere current reference circuit to achieve ultralow-power and ABCs to achieve high-speed operation. The ABCs are based on conventional circuits and modified to be suitable for rail-to-rail operation. The measurement results demonstrated that the AMP with the proposed ABCs can operate with an ultralow-power of 384 nA when the input voltage was 0.9 V and achieve high speeds of 0.162 V/µs at the rise time and 0.233 V/µs at the fall time when the input pulse frequency and the amplitude were 10 kHz and 1.5 Vpp, respectively.

  5. A low noise high readout speed 512×128 ROIC for shortwave InGaAs FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, SongLei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Tang, Hengjing; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-03-01

    A low noise high readout speed 512×128 readout Integrated circuit (ROIC) based on capacitance trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA) is designed in this paper. The ROIC is flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to InGaAs detectors which cutoff wavelength is 1.7μm, as a hybrid structure (InGaAs FPA). The ROIC with 30μm pixel pitch and 50fF integrated capacitance, is fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results show that output noise is about 3.0E-4V which equivalent readout noise is 95e-, output voltage swing is better than 2.5V; the dynamic range of InGaAs FPA reaches 69.7dB@2ms, and the power dissipation is about 175mw. The peak detectivity of InGaAs FPA reaches 2E12cmHz1/2w-1 at 300K without TEC cooling.

  6. A low noise low power 512×256 ROIC for extended wavelength InGaAs FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songlei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Tao; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-05-01

    A low noise low power 512×256 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on Capacitance Trans-impedance Amplifier (CTIA) was designed in this paper. The ROIC with 30μm pixel-pitch and 70 fF integrated capacitance as normal structure and test structure capacitance from 5 to 60 fF, was fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results showed that output voltage was larger than 2.0V and power consumption was about 150mW, output ROIC noise was about 3.6E-4V which equivalent noise was 160e-, and the test structure noise was from 20e- to 140 e-. Compared the readout noises in Integration Then Readout (ITR) mode and Integration While Readout (IWR) mode, it indicated that in IWR mode, readout noise comes mainly from both integration capacitance and sampling capacitance, while in ITR mode, readout noise comes mostly from sampling capacitance. Finally the ROIC was flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to extended wavelength InGaAs detectors with cutoff wavelength 2.5μm at 200K. The peak detectivity exceeded 5E11cmHz1/2/w with 70nA/cm2 dark current density at 200K.

  7. Low-noise macroscopic twin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskhakov, Timur Sh.; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim; Chekhova, Maria V.; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Applying a multiphoton-subtraction technique to the two-color macroscopic squeezed vacuum state of light generated via high-gain parametric down-conversion we conditionally prepare a different state of light: bright multimode low-noise twin beams. A lower noise in the sum of the photon numbers opens a possibility to encode information into this variable while keeping the nonclassical character of the state. The obtained results demonstrate up to eightfold suppression of noise in each beam while preserving and even moderately improving the nonclassical photon-number correlations between the beams. The prepared low-noise macroscopic state, containing up to 2000 photons per mode, is not among the Gaussian states achievable through nonlinear optical processes. Apart from that, we suggest a method for measuring quantum efficiency, which is based on the Fano factor measurement. The proposed technique substantially improves the usefulness of twin beams for quantum communication and metrology.

  8. A low noise 500 MHz frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcan, A.; Bloch, M.; Tanski, W.

    A low-noise signal source providing multiple 500 MHz and 400 MHz outputs is presented whose noise characteristics approach the thermal limit at frequencies spaced greater than 1 MHz from the carrier. The unit uses bulk and surface acoustic wave resonators to insure low phase noise and spurious outputs and is totally redundant for failsafe operation. The packaging concept minimizes subassembly interconnections and provides both physical and electrical independence of two redundant generators; package shielding insures minimum conducted and radiated susceptibility.

  9. The low noise limit in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.

  10. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  11. The Low Noise Limit in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Roy D.; Razooky, Brandon S.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can–and in the case of E. coli does–control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. These results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes. PMID:26488303

  12. Ultra-low-noise preamplifier for condenser microphones.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the design of a low-noise preamplifier dedicated for condenser measurement microphones used in high sensitivity applications, in which amplifier noise is the main factor limiting sensitivity of the measurements. In measurement microphone preamplifiers, the dominant source of noise at lower frequencies is the bias resistance of the input stage. In the presented solution, resistors were connected to the input stage by means of switches. The switches are opened during measurements, which disconnects the resistors from the input stage and results in noise reduction. Closing the switches allows for fast charging of the microphone capacitance. At low frequencies the noise of the designed preamplifier is a few times lower in comparison to similar, commercially available instruments. PMID:21198039

  13. A battery-based, low-noise voltage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anke; Sturm, Sven; Schabinger, Birgit; Blaum, Klaus; Quint, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A highly stable, low-noise voltage source was designed to improve the stability of the electrode bias voltages of a Penning trap. To avoid excess noise and ground loops, the voltage source is completely independent of the public electric network and uses a 12 V car battery to generate output voltages of ±15 and ±5 V. First, the dc supply voltage is converted into ac-voltage and gets amplified. Afterwards, the signal is rectified, filtered, and regulated to the desired output value. Each channel can deliver up to 1.5 A. The current as well as the battery voltage and the output voltages can be read out via a universal serial bus (USB) connection for monitoring purposes. With the presented design, a relative voltage stability of 7×10-7 over 6.5 h and a noise level equal or smaller than 30 nV/√Hz is achieved.

  14. A battery-based, low-noise voltage source.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anke; Sturm, Sven; Schabinger, Birgit; Blaum, Klaus; Quint, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A highly stable, low-noise voltage source was designed to improve the stability of the electrode bias voltages of a Penning trap. To avoid excess noise and ground loops, the voltage source is completely independent of the public electric network and uses a 12 V car battery to generate output voltages of +/-15 and +/-5 V. First, the dc supply voltage is converted into ac-voltage and gets amplified. Afterwards, the signal is rectified, filtered, and regulated to the desired output value. Each channel can deliver up to 1.5 A. The current as well as the battery voltage and the output voltages can be read out via a universal serial bus (USB) connection for monitoring purposes. With the presented design, a relative voltage stability of 7 x 10(-7) over 6.5 h and a noise level equal or smaller than 30 nV/square root(Hz) is achieved. PMID:20590260

  15. Ultra-low-noise preamplifier for condenser microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the design of a low-noise preamplifier dedicated for condenser measurement microphones used in high sensitivity applications, in which amplifier noise is the main factor limiting sensitivity of the measurements. In measurement microphone preamplifiers, the dominant source of noise at lower frequencies is the bias resistance of the input stage. In the presented solution, resistors were connected to the input stage by means of switches. The switches are opened during measurements, which disconnects the resistors from the input stage and results in noise reduction. Closing the switches allows for fast charging of the microphone capacitance. At low frequencies the noise of the designed preamplifier is a few times lower in comparison to similar, commercially available instruments.

  16. Note: Broadband low-noise photodetector for Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization.

    PubMed

    Potnis, Shreyas; Vutha, Amar C

    2016-07-01

    The Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization technique requires a fast, low-noise photodetector. We present a simple photodetector design that uses a transformer as an intermediary between a photodiode and cascaded low-noise radio-frequency amplifiers. Our implementation using a silicon photodiode yields a detector with 50 MHz bandwidth, gain >10(5) V/A, and input current noise <4 pA/Hz, allowing us to obtain shot-noise-limited performance with low optical power. PMID:27475611

  17. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems. PMID:27410361

  18. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  19. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-01-03

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

  20. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

  1. A LOW NOISE RF SOURCE FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HAYES,T.

    2004-07-05

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires a low noise rf source to ensure that beam lifetime during a store is not limited by the rf system. The beam is particularly sensitive to noise from power line harmonics. Additionally, the rf source must be flexible enough to handle the frequency jump required for rebucketing (transferring bunches from the acceleration to the storage rf systems). This paper will describe the design of a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) based system that provides both the noise performance and the flexibility required.

  2. Design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gan; Tingcun, Wei; Wu, Gao; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CdZnTe detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier, an analog output buffer, a fast shaper, and a discriminator. An 8-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35-μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. The input energy range is from 5 to 350 keV. For this 8-channel prototype ASIC, the measured electrical characteristics are as follows: the overall gain of the readout channel is 210 V/pC, the linearity error is less than 2%, the crosstalk is less than 0.36%, The equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 52.9 e‑ at zero farad plus 8.2 e‑ per picofarad, and the power consumption is less than 2.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement together with a CdZnTe detector, the energy resolution is 5.9% at the 59.5-keV line under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments show that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad(Si). Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475136, 11575144, 61176094), and the Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JM1016).

  3. Evaluation of charge-integrating amplifier with silicon MOSFETs for cryogenic readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Manabu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Watabe, Toyoki; Hirao, Takanori; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu

    1998-08-01

    Low-noise and low-power cryogenic readout electronics are developed for a focal plane instrument of the IR Imaging Surveyor. We measured the static characteristics and the noise spectra of several types of silicon MOSFETs at the cryogenic temperature where silicon JFETs do not work well due to the carrier freeze-out. The 'kink' behavior of n- channel MOSFETs was observed below the carrier freeze-out temperature, but it was not obvious for the p-channel MOSFET. It was demonstrated the p-channel MOSFETs can be used for the cryogenic readout electronics of the IRIS's far-IR array with an acceptable performance. The amplifier integrated with these MOSFETs showed low-noise at 2K under a low power consumption of 1 (mu) W per MOSFET. We now design and evaluate several circuits that are fabricated by the CMOS process for cryogenic readout.

  4. Amplifier arrays for CMB polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Lawrence, Charles R.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Wells, Mary M.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic low noise amplifier technology has been successfully used in the study of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). MMIC (Monolithic Millimeter wave Integrated Circuit) technology makes the mass production of coherent detection receivers feasible.

  5. A wideband RF amplifier for satellite tuners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqing, Hu; Zheng, Gong; Yin, Shi; Foster, Dai Fa

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the design and measured performance of a wideband amplifier for a direct conversion satellite tuner. It is composed of a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA) and a two-stage RF variable gain amplifier (VGA) with linear gain in dB and temperature compensation schemes. To meet the system linearity requirement, an improved distortion compensation technique and a bypass mode are applied on the LNA to deal with the large input signal. Wideband matching is achieved by resistive feedback and an off-chip LC-ladder matching network. A large gain control range (over 80 dB) is achieved by the VGA with process voltage and temperature compensation and dB linearization. In total, the amplifier consumes up to 26 mA current from a 3.3 V power supply. It is fabricated in a 0.35-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 0.25 mm2.

  6. A 90dB 1.32mW 1.2V 0.13mm2 Two-Stage Variable Gain Amplifier in 0.18μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Quoc-Hoang; Lee, Jeong-Seon; Min, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Joong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Gug

    An all CMOS variable gain amplifier (VGA) which features wide dB-linear gain range per stage (45dB), low power consumption (1.32mW), small chip size (0.13mm2), and low supply voltage (1.2V) is described. The dB-linear range is extended by reducing the supply voltage of the conventional V-to-I converter. The two-stage VGA implemented in 0.18μm CMOS offers 90dB of gain variation, 3dB bandwidth of greater than 21MHz, and max/min input IP3 and P1 dB, respectively, of -5/-42 and -12/-50 dBm.

  7. European low-noise MMIC technologies for cryogenic millimetre wave radio astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Andrea; Mariotti, Sergio; Valenziano, Luca

    2012-09-01

    The Low Noise technology has a paramount relevance on radiotelescopes and radiometers performances. Its influence on sensitivity and temporal stability has a deep impact on obtainable scientific results. As well known, front end active part of scientific instruments are cryocooled in order to drastically reduce the intrinsic thermal noise generated by its electronic parts and consequently increase the sensitivity. In this paper we will describe the obtained results by an Italian Space Agency funded activity. The aim is to validate European MMIC Low Noise technologies and designs for cryogenic environments in the range of millimetre wave. As active device, HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) are considered the best device for high frequency and low noise cryo applications. But not all the semiconductor foundry process are suitable for applications in such environment. Two European Foundries has been selected and two different HEMT based Low Noise Amplifiers have been designed and produced. The main goal of this activity is identify an European technology basement for space and ground based low noise cryogenic applications. Designs, layout, architectures, foundry processes and results will be compared.

  8. A low-noise wide-dynamic-range event-driven detector using SOI pixel technology for high-energy particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sumeet; Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a low-noise wide-dynamic-range pixel design for a high-energy particle detector in astronomical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) based detector is used for the detection of wide energy range of high energy particles (mainly for X-ray). The sensor has a thin layer of SOI CMOS readout circuitry and a thick layer of high-resistivity detector vertically stacked in a single chip. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. The event detection circuit consisting of a comparator and logic circuits which detect the incidence of high energy particle categorizes the incident photon it into two energy groups using an appropriate energy threshold and generate a two-bit code for an event and energy level. The code for energy level is then used for selection of the gain of the in-pixel amplifier for the detected signal, providing a function of high-dynamic-range signal measurement. The two-bit code for the event and energy level is scanned in the event scanning block and the signals from the hit pixels only are read out. The variable-gain in-pixel amplifier uses a continuous integrator and integration-time control for the variable gain. The proposed design allows the small signal detection and wide dynamic range due to the adaptive gain technique and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique of kTC noise canceling of the charge detector.

  9. Design of 800×2 low-noise readout circuit for near-infrared InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhangcheng; Huang, Songlei; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2012-12-01

    InGaAs near-infrared (NIR) focal plane arrays (FPA) have important applications in space remote sensing. A design of 800×2 low-noise readout integrated circuit (T800 ROIC) with a pitch of 25 μm is presented for a dual-band monolithic InGaAs FPA. Mathematical analysis and transient noise simulations have been presented for predicting and lowering the noise in T800 ROIC. Thermal noise from input-stage amplifier which plays a dominant role in ROIC is reduced by increasing load capacitor under tradeoff and a low input offset voltage in the range of +/-5 mV is obtained by optimizing transistors in the input-stage amplifier. T800 ROIC has been fabricated with 0.5-μm 5V mixed signal CMOS process and interfaced with InGaAs detector arrays. Test results show that ROIC noise is around 90 μV and input offset voltage shows a good correspondence with simulation results. 800×2 InGaAs FPA has a peak detectivity (D*) of about 1.1×1012 cmHz1/2/ W, with dynamic range of above 80dB.

  10. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S-K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e- at zero farad plus 14 e- per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of 241Am source.

  11. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm CMOS foundry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, A.; Yemenicioglu, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Corigliano, E.; Milaninia, K.; Theogarajan, L.

    2013-04-01

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA-base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor’s 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the n+ polysilicon/SiO2/n+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3, which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3.

  12. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm CMOS foundry process.

    PubMed

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-04-19

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA-base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor's 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the n+ polysilicon/SiO2/n+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3, which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3. PMID:23519330

  13. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm cmos foundry process

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-01-01

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor’s 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the N+ polysilicon/SiO2/N+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3 which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3. PMID:23519330

  14. Low-noise fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Heidelberg, Laurence J. (Inventor); Envia, Edmane (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Low-noise fan exit guide vanes are disclosed. According to the present invention a fan exit guide vane has an outer shell substantially shaped as an airfoil and defining an interior cavity. A porous portion of the outer shell allows communication between the fluctuations in the air passing over the guide vane and the interior cavity. At least one acoustically resonant chamber is located within the interior cavity. The resonant chamber is in communication with the porous portion of the outer perimeter. The resonant chamber is configured to reduce the noise generated at a predetermined frequency. In various preferred embodiments, there is a plurality of acoustically resonant chambers located within the interior cavity. The resonant chambers can be separated by one or more partitions within the interior cavity. In these embodiments, the resonant chambers can be configured to reduce the noise generated over a range of predetermined frequencies.

  15. Low noise and conductively cooled microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) dynamic range has recently been enhanced for both very low and very high input flux conditions. Improvements in MCP manufacturing technology reported earlier have led to MCPs with substantially reduced radioisotope levels, giving dramatically lower internal background-counting rates. An update is given on the Galileo low noise MCP. Also, new results in increasing the MCP linear counting range for high input flux densities are presented. By bonding the active face of a very low resistance MCP (less than 1 megaohm) to a substrate providing a conductive path for heat transport, the bias current limit (hence, MCP output count rate limit) can be increased up to two orders of magnitude. Normal pulse-counting MCP operation was observed at bias currents of several mA when a curved-channel MCP (80:1) was bonded to a ceramic multianode substrate; the MCP temperature rise above ambient was less than 40 C.

  16. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  17. An inductorless multi-mode RF front end for GNSS receiver in 55 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanbin, Luo; Chengyan, Ma; Yebing, Gan; Min, Qian; Tianchun, Ye

    2015-10-01

    An inductorless multi-mode RF front end for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver is presented. Unlike the traditional topology of a low noise amplifier (LNA), the inductorless current-mode noise-canceling LNA is applied in this design. The high-impedance-input radio frequency amplifier (RFA) further amplifies the GNSS signals and changes the single-end signal path into fully differential. The passive mixer down-converts the signals to the intermediate frequency (IF) band and conveys the signals to the analogue blocks. The local oscillator (LO) buffer divides the output frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and generates 25%-duty-cycle quadrature square waves to drive the mixer. Our measurement results display that the implemented RF front end achieves good overall performance while consuming only 6.7 mA from 1.2 V supply. The input return loss is better than -26 dB and the ultra low noise figure of 1.43 dB leads to high sensitivity of the GNSS receiver. The input 1 dB compression point is -43 dBm at the high gain of 48 dB. The designed circuit is fabricated in 55 nm CMOS technology and the die area, which is much smaller than traditional circuit, is around 220 × 280 μm2.

  18. Developing Low-Noise GaAs JFETs For Cryogenic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses aspects of effort to develop low-noise, low-gate-leakage gallium arsenide-based junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) for operation at temperature of about 4 K as readout amplifiers and multiplexing devices for infrared-imaging devices. Transistors needed to replace silicon transistors, relatively noisy at 4 K. Report briefly discusses basic physical principles of JFETs and describes continuing process of optimization of designs of GaAs JFETs for cryogenic operation.

  19. Development of an ultra low noise, miniature signal conditioning device for vestibular evoked response recordings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inner ear evoked potentials are small amplitude (<1 μVpk) signals that require a low noise signal acquisition protocol for successful extraction; an existing such technique is Electrocochleography (ECOG). A novel variant of ECOG called Electrovestibulography (EVestG) is currently investigated by our group, which captures vestibular responses to a whole body tilt. The objective is to design and implement a bio-signal amplifier optimized for ECOG and EVestG, which will be superior in noise performance compared to low noise, general purpose devices available commercially. Method A high gain configuration is required (>85 dB) for such small signal recordings; thus, background power line interference (PLI) can have adverse effects. Active electrode shielding and driven-right-leg circuitry optimized for EVestG/ECOG recordings were investigated for PLI suppression. A parallel pre-amplifier design approach was investigated to realize low voltage, and current noise figures for the bio-signal amplifier. Results In comparison to the currently used device, PLI is significantly suppressed by the designed prototype (by >20 dB in specific test scenarios), and the prototype amplifier generated noise was measured to be 4.8 nV/Hz @ 1 kHz (0.45 μVRMS with bandwidth 10 Hz-10 kHz), which is lower than the currently used device generated noise of 7.8 nV/Hz @ 1 kHz (0.76 μVRMS). A low noise (<1 nV/Hz) radio frequency interference filter was realized to minimize noise contribution from the pre-amplifier, while maintaining the required bandwidth in high impedance measurements. Validation of the prototype device was conducted for actual ECOG recordings on humans that showed an increase (p < 0.05) of ~5 dB in Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR), and for EVestG recordings using a synthetic ear model that showed a ~4% improvement (p < 0.01) over the currently used amplifier. Conclusion This paper presents the design and evaluation of an ultra-low noise and miniaturized bio

  20. A gimbaled low noise momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichler, U.; Eckardt, T.

    1993-01-01

    The bus actuators are the heart and at the same time the Achilles' heel of accurate spacecraft stabilization systems, because both their performance and their perturbations can have a deciding influence on the achievable pointing accuracy of the mission. The main task of the attitude actuators, which are mostly wheels, is the generation of useful torques with sufficiently high bandwidth, resolution and accuracy. This is because the bandwidth of the whole attitude control loop and its disturbance rejection capability is dependent upon these factors. These useful torques shall be provided, without - as far as possible - parasitic noise like unbalance forces and torques and harmonics. This is because such variable frequency perturbations excite structural resonances which in turn disturb the operation of sensors and scientific instruments. High accuracy spacecraft will further require bus actuators for the three linear degrees of freedom (DOF) to damp structural oscillations excited by various sources. These actuators have to cover the dynamic range of these disturbances. Another interesting feature, which is not necessarily related to low noise performance, is a gimballing capability which enables, in a certain angular range, a three axis attitude control with only one wheel. The herein presented Teldix MWX, a five degree of freedom Magnetic Bearing Momentum Wheel, incorporates all the above required features. It is ideally suited to support, as a gyroscopic actuator in the attitude control system, all High Pointing Accuracy and Vibration Sensitive space missions.

  1. Low Noise Exhaust Nozzle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Balan, C.; Mengle, V.; Brausch, J. F.; Shin, H.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry have been assessing the economic viability and environmental acceptability of a second-generation supersonic civil transport, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Development of a propulsion system that satisfies strict airport noise regulations and provides high levels of cruise and transonic performance with adequate takeoff performance, at an acceptable weight, is critical to the success of any HSCT program. The principal objectives were to: 1. Develop a preliminary design of an innovative 2-D exhaust nozzle with the goal of meeting FAR36 Stage III noise levels and providing high levels of cruise performance with a high specific thrust for Mach 2.4 HSCT with a range of 5000 nmi and a payload of 51,900 lbm, 2. Employ advanced acoustic and aerodynamic codes during preliminary design, 3. Develop a comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic database through scale-model testing of low-noise, high-performance, 2-D nozzle configurations, based on the preliminary design, and 4. Verify acoustic and aerodynamic predictions by means of scale-model testing. The results were: 1. The preliminary design of a 2-D, convergent/divergent suppressor ejector nozzle for a variable-cycle engine powered, Mach 2.4 HSCT was evolved, 2. Noise goals were predicted to be achievable for three takeoff scenarios, and 3. Impact of noise suppression, nozzle aerodynamic performance, and nozzle weight on HSCT takeoff gross weight were assessed.

  2. A gimbaled low noise momentum wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, U.; Eckardt, T.

    1993-05-01

    The bus actuators are the heart and at the same time the Achilles' heel of accurate spacecraft stabilization systems, because both their performance and their perturbations can have a deciding influence on the achievable pointing accuracy of the mission. The main task of the attitude actuators, which are mostly wheels, is the generation of useful torques with sufficiently high bandwidth, resolution and accuracy. This is because the bandwidth of the whole attitude control loop and its disturbance rejection capability is dependent upon these factors. These useful torques shall be provided, without - as far as possible - parasitic noise like unbalance forces and torques and harmonics. This is because such variable frequency perturbations excite structural resonances which in turn disturb the operation of sensors and scientific instruments. High accuracy spacecraft will further require bus actuators for the three linear degrees of freedom (DOF) to damp structural oscillations excited by various sources. These actuators have to cover the dynamic range of these disturbances. Another interesting feature, which is not necessarily related to low noise performance, is a gimballing capability which enables, in a certain angular range, a three axis attitude control with only one wheel. The herein presented Teldix MWX, a five degree of freedom Magnetic Bearing Momentum Wheel, incorporates all the above required features. It is ideally suited to support, as a gyroscopic actuator in the attitude control system, all High Pointing Accuracy and Vibration Sensitive space missions.

  3. Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section. The purpose of the aft-swept region is to provide a partial balance to pitching moments produced by the outboard forward-swept portion of the blade. The rotor blade has a constant chord width; or has a chord width which decreases linearly along the entire blade span; or combines constant and decreasing chord widths, wherein the blade is of constant chord width from the blade root to a certain location on the rotor blade, then decreases linearly to the blade tip thereafter. The noise source showing maximum noise reduction is blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also reduced are thickness, noise, high speed impulsive noise, cabin vibration and loading noise.

  4. A low-noise beta-radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, G.I.; Savina, V.I.

    1995-12-01

    The two-channel detector for a low-noise (down to 0.06 sec{sup -1}) beta-radiometer for measuring the mass concentration of {sup 90}Sr in the environment after the chemical extraction of strontium by the oxalate-nitrate method was certified at the D.I. Mendeleev Institute of Metrology (certificate No. 137/93). A detector unit using two end-window self-quenching counters with thin input windows (8 {mu}m thick and 60 mm in diameter) operating as a Geiger-Mueller counter and filled with a mixture of 90% helium (atomic gas) and 10% ethanol (organic molecules) can measure the beta-activity of two substrates concurrently. It is often used to detect the beta-radiation of {sup 90}Sr. This isotope produces particles with energies ranging from 180 to 1000 keV, and the detection efficiency is 50% at a level of 0.1 Bq after measuring for 20 min with an uncertainty of 25%.

  5. A Low-Noise, Wideband Preamplifier for a Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Raman; Knepper, Ronald W.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    FTMS performance parameters such as limits of detection, dynamic range, sensitivity, and even mass accuracy and resolution can be greatly improved by enhancing its detection circuit. An extended investigation of significant design considerations for optimal signal-to-noise ratio in an FTMS detection circuit are presented. A low noise amplifier for an FTMS is developed based on the discussed design rules. The amplifier has a gain of ≈ 3500 and a bandwidth of 10 kHz - 1 MHz corresponding to m/z range of 100 Da to 10 kDa (at 7 Tesla). The performance of the amplifier was tested on a MALDI-FTMS, and has demonstrated a 25-fold reduction in noise in a mass spectrum of C60 compared to that of a commercial amplifier. PMID:18029195

  6. Ultra-Low Noise HEMT Device Models: Application of On-Wafer Cryogenic Noise Analysis and Improved Parameter Extraction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Hamai, M.; Nishimoto, M.; Laskar, J.; Szydlik, P.; Lai, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of HEMT technology have resulted in high performance cryogenic low noise amplifiers whose noise temperatures are within an order of magnitude of the quantum noise limit. Key to the identification of optimum HEMT structures at cryogenic temperatures is the development of on-wafer noise and device parameter extraction techniques. Techniques and results are described.

  7. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  8. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e- at zero farad plus 10 e- per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si).

  9. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  10. Low-noise hybrid superconductor/semiconductor 7.4 GHz receiver downconverter for NASA space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Javadi, H.H.S.; Barner, J.B.; Bautista, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    A low-noise microwave receiver downconverter utilizing thin-film high-critical-temperature superconducting (HTS) passive circuitry and semiconductor active devices has been developed for use in space. It consists of an HTS preselect filter, a cryogenic low-noise amplifier, a cryogenic mixer, and a cryogenic oscillator with an HTS resonator. The downconverter converts a 200 MHz wide band centered around 7.35 GHz to a band centered around 1.0 GHz. When cooled to 77 K, the downconverter plus cables inside a cryogenic refrigerator produced a noise temperature measured at the refrigerator port of approximately 50 K with conversion gain of 18 dB.