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Sample records for cnidarian dinoflagellate mutualism

  1. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  2. Are Niemann-Pick type C proteins key players in cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbioses?

    PubMed

    Dani, Vincent; Ganot, Philippe; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cecile

    2014-09-01

    The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians, such as corals and sea anemones, and the unicellular algae Symbiodinium is regulated by yet poorly understood cellular mechanisms, despite the ecological importance of coral reefs. These mechanisms, including host-symbiont recognition and metabolic exchange, control symbiosis stability under normal conditions, but also lead to symbiosis breakdown (bleaching) during stress. This study describes the repertoire of the sterol-trafficking proteins Niemann-Pick type C (NPC1 and NPC2) in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We found one NPC1 gene in contrast to the two genes (NPC1 and NPC1L1) present in vertebrate genomes. While only one NPC2 gene is present in many metazoans, this gene has been duplicated in cnidarians, and we detected four NPC2 genes in A. viridis. However, only one gene (AvNPC2-d) was upregulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic sea anemones and displayed higher expression in the gastrodermis (symbiont-containing tissue) than in the epidermis. We performed immunolabelling experiments on tentacle cross sections and demonstrated that the AvNPC2-d protein was closely associated with symbiosomes. In addition, AvNPC1 and AvNPC2-d gene expression was strongly downregulated during stress. These data suggest that AvNPC2-d is involved in both the stability and dysfunction of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. PMID:25066219

  3. Adaptations to Endosymbiosis in a Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Association: Differential Gene Expression and Specific Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K–dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  4. Symbiont type influences trophic plasticity of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Hoadley, Kenneth; Pettay, D Tye; Grajales, Alejandro; Calado, Ricardo; Warner, Mark E

    2015-03-01

    The association between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium is a prevalent relationship in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Although the diversity of Symbiodinium provides a possible axis for niche diversification, increased functional range and resilience to physical stressors such as elevated temperature, how such diversity relates to the physiological balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy of the host animal remains unknown. Here, we experimentally show interspecific and intraspecific variability of photosynthetic carbon fixation and subsequent translocation by Symbiodinium to the model cnidarian host Aiptasia pallida. By using a clonal anemone line harboring different species of Symbiodinium, we determined that symbiont identity influences trophic plasticity through its density, capacity to fix carbon, quantity of translocated carbon and ultimately the host's capacity to ingest and digest prey. Symbiont carbon translocation and host prey ingestion were positively correlated across symbiont combinations that consisted of different isoclonal lines of Symbiodinium minutum, while a combination with type D4-5 Symbiodinium displayed lower carbon translocation, and prey capture and digestion more similar to Aiptasia lacking symbionts. The absence of a shift toward greater heterotrophy when carbon translocation is low suggests that the metabolic demand of feeding and digestion may overwhelm nutritional stores when photosynthesis is reduced, and amends the possible role of animal feeding in resistance to or recovery from the effects of climate change in more obligate symbioses such as reef-building corals. PMID:25617454

  5. Characterisation of coral explants: a model organism for cnidarian-dinoflagellate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, S. G.; Nielsen, D. A.; Petrou, K.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coral cell cultures made from reef-building scleractinian corals have the potential to aid in the pursuit of understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Various methods have previously been described for the production of cell cultures in vitro with a range of success and longevity. In this study, viable tissue spheroids containing host tissue and symbionts (coral explants) were grown from the tissues of Fungia granulosa. The cultured explants remained viable for over 2 months and showed morphological similarities in tissue structure and internal microenvironment to reef-building scleractinian corals. The photophysiology of the explants (1 week old) closely matched that of the parent coral F. granulosa. This study provides the first empirical basis for supporting the use of coral explants as laboratory models for studying coral symbioses. In particular, it highlights how these small, self-sustaining, skeleton-free models can be useful for a number of molecular, genetic and physiological analyses necessary for investigating host-symbiont interactions at the microscale.

  6. A Lipidomic Approach to Understanding Free Fatty Acid Lipogenesis Derived from Dissolved Inorganic Carbon within Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Simon R.; Thomas, Michael C.; Nette, Geoffrey W.; Dove, Sophie G.

    2012-01-01

    The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is arguably one of the most important within the marine environment in that it is integral to the formation of coral reefs. However, the regulatory processes that perpetuate this symbiosis remain unresolved. It is essential to understand these processes, if we are to elucidate the mechanisms that support growth and resource accumulation by coral host, and conversely, recently observed reduction and/or mortality of corals in response to rapid environmental change. This study specifically focused on one area of metabolic activity within the symbiosis, that of free fatty acid synthesis within both the dinoflagellate symbionts and cnidarian host. The main model system used was Aiptasia pulchella and Symbiodinium sp. in combination with aposymbiotic A. pulchella, the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora system and dinoflagellate culture. Fatty acids (FAs) were selected because of their multiple essential roles inclusive of energy storage (resource accumulation), membrane structure fluidity and cell signaling. The study addressed free FA lipogenesis by using a new method of enriched stable isotopic (13C) incorporation from dissolved inorganic carbon (DI13C) combined with HPLC-MS. FAs derived from DI13C aligned with a mixture of known lipogenesis pathways with the addition of some unusual FAs. After 120 hr, 13C-enriched FA synthesis rates were attributed to only a complex integration of both n–3 and n–6 lipogenesis pathways within the dinoflagellate symbionts. Furthermore, there was no detectible evidence of symbiont derived enriched isotope fatty acids, catabolized 13C derivatives or DI13C being directly utilized, in host late n–6 pathway long-chain FA lipogenesis. These findings do not align with a popular mutualistic translocation model with respect to the use of translocated symbiont photoassimilates in host long-chain FA lipogenesis, which has important connotations for linking nutrient sources with metabolite production and

  7. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  8. Metabolite profiling of symbiont and host during thermal stress and bleaching in a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Katie E; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Bôas, Silas; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Bleaching (dinoflagellate symbiont loss) is one of the greatest threats facing coral reefs. The functional cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, which forms coral reefs, is based on the bi-directional exchange of nutrients. During thermal stress this exchange breaks down; however, major gaps remain in our understanding of the roles of free metabolite pools in symbiosis and homeostasis. In this study we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore thermally induced changes in intracellular pools of amino and non-amino organic acids in each partner of the model sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Elevated temperatures (32 °C for 6 days) resulted in symbiont photoinhibition and bleaching. Thermal stress induced distinct changes in the metabolite profiles of both partners, associated with alterations to central metabolism, oxidative state, cell structure, biosynthesis and signalling. Principally, we detected elevated pools of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the symbiont, indicative of modifications to lipogenesis/lysis, membrane structure and nitrogen assimilation. In contrast, reductions of multiple PUFAs were detected in host pools, indicative of increased metabolism, peroxidation and/or reduced translocation of these groups. Accumulations of glycolysis intermediates were also observed in both partners, associated with photoinhibition and downstream reductions in carbohydrate metabolism. Correspondingly, we detected accumulations of amino acids and intermediate groups in both partners, with roles in gluconeogenesis and acclimation responses to oxidative stress. These data further our understanding of cellular responses to thermal stress in the symbiosis and generate hypotheses relating to the secondary roles of a number of compounds in homeostasis and heat-stress resistance. PMID:26685173

  9. The Role of Complement in Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis and Immune Challenge in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Poole, Angela Z; Kitchen, Sheila A; Weis, Virginia M

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP) have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, (2) investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3) examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b) and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast, was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore, the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggest that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together, these results indicate functional divergence between Ap_Bf-1

  10. The Role of Complement in Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis and Immune Challenge in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia pallida

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Angela Z.; Kitchen, Sheila A.; Weis, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP) have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, (2) investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3) examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b) and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast, was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore, the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggest that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together, these results indicate functional divergence between Ap_Bf-1

  11. PSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Roberty, Stéphane; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Franck, Fabrice; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have developed various photoprotective mechanisms to cope with exposure to high light intensities. In photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians, the nature and relative amplitude of these regulatory mechanisms are a matter of debate. In our study, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEF) to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction), the mitochondrial respiration and the Photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron flow were investigated in strains belonging to three clades (A1, B1 and F1) of Symbiodinium. Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained under identical environmental conditions, and measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). A light- and O2 -dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This electron transfer chain involves PSII and PSI and is insensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial activity and carbon fixation. We demonstrate that in all strains, the Mehler reaction responsible for photoreduction of oxygen by the PSI under high light, is the main AEF at the onset and at the steady state of photosynthesis. This sustained photosynthetic AEF under high light intensities acts as a photoprotective mechanism and leads to an increase of the ATP/NADPH ratio. PMID:24975027

  12. Extensive Differences in Gene Expression Between Symbiotic and Aposymbiotic Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Erik M.; Mouchka, Morgan E.; Burriesci, Matthew S.; Gallo, Natalya D.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Pringle, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs provide habitats for a disproportionate number of marine species relative to the small area of the oceans that they occupy. The mutualism between the cnidarian animal hosts and their intracellular dinoflagellate symbionts provides the nutritional foundation for coral growth and formation of reef structures, because algal photosynthesis can provide >90% of the total energy of the host. Disruption of this symbiosis (“coral bleaching”) is occurring on a large scale due primarily to anthropogenic factors and poses a major threat to the future of coral reefs. Despite the importance of this symbiosis, the cellular mechanisms involved in its establishment, maintenance, and breakdown remain largely unknown. We report our continued development of genomic tools to study these mechanisms in Aiptasia, a small sea anemone with great promise as a model system for studies of cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis. Specifically, we have generated de novo assemblies of the transcriptomes of both a clonal line of symbiotic anemones and their endogenous dinoflagellate symbionts. We then compared transcript abundances in animals with and without dinoflagellates. This analysis identified >900 differentially expressed genes and allowed us to generate testable hypotheses about the cellular functions affected by symbiosis establishment. The differentially regulated transcripts include >60 encoding proteins that may play roles in transporting various nutrients between the symbiotic partners; many more encoding proteins functioning in several metabolic pathways, providing clues regarding how the transported nutrients may be used by the partners; and several encoding proteins that may be involved in host recognition and tolerance of the dinoflagellate. PMID:24368779

  13. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  14. Study of cnidarian-algal symbiosis in the "omics" age.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eli; Weis, Virginia M

    2012-08-01

    The symbiotic associations between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) support productive and diverse ecosystems in coral reefs. Many aspects of this association, including the mechanistic basis of host-symbiont recognition and metabolic interaction, remain poorly understood. The first completed genome sequence for a symbiotic anthozoan is now available (the coral Acropora digitifera), and extensive expressed sequence tag resources are available for a variety of other symbiotic corals and anemones. These resources make it possible to profile gene expression, protein abundance, and protein localization associated with the symbiotic state. Here we review the history of "omics" studies of cnidarian-algal symbiosis and the current availability of sequence resources for corals and anemones, identifying genes putatively involved in symbiosis across 10 anthozoan species. The public availability of candidate symbiosis-associated genes leaves the field of cnidarian-algal symbiosis poised for in-depth comparative studies of sequence diversity and gene expression and for targeted functional studies of genes associated with symbiosis. Reviewing the progress to date suggests directions for future investigations of cnidarian-algal symbiosis that include (i) sequencing of Symbiodinium, (ii) proteomic analysis of the symbiosome membrane complex, (iii) glycomic analysis of Symbiodinium cell surfaces, and (iv) expression profiling of the gastrodermal cells hosting Symbiodinium. PMID:22983032

  15. Induction of Gametogenesis in the Cnidarian Endosymbiosis Model Aiptasia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Grawunder, Désirée; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Bucher, Madeline; Wolfowicz, Iliona; Bechtoldt, Natascha; Guse, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiosis is widespread among cnidarians and is of high ecological relevance. The tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. is a laboratory model system for endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Here we identify the key environmental cues to induce reproducible spawning in Aiptasia under controlled laboratory conditions. We find that simulating a lunar cycle with blue-wavelength light is necessary to promote abundant gamete production and synchronous release in well-fed animals. Sexual reproduction rates are genetically determined and differ among clonal lines under similar conditions. We also find the inverse difference in rates of asexual reproduction. This study provides the requisite basis for further development of the Aiptasia model system, allowing analysis of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms in the laboratory as well as investigations of broad questions of ecological and evolutionary relevance. PMID:26498008

  16. Intracellular pH of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbin, E. M.; Davy, S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) is likely to play a key role in maintaining the functional success of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, yet until now the pHi of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has never been quantified. Flow cytometry was used in conjunction with the ratiometric fluorescent dye BCECF to monitor changes in pHi over a daily light/dark cycle. The pHi of Symbiodinium type B1 freshly isolated from the model sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella was 7.25 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE) in the light and 7.10 ± 0.02 in the dark. A comparable effect of irradiance was seen across a variety of cultured Symbiodinium genotypes (types A1, B1, E1, E2, F1, and F5) which varied between pHi 7.21-7.39 in the light and 7.06-7.14 in the dark. Of note, there was a significant genotypic difference in pHi, irrespective of irradiance.

  17. Acquisition and Use of Nematocysts by Cnidarian Predators

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Although toxic, physically destructive, and produced solely by cnidarians, cnidocysts are acquired, stored, and used by some predators of cnidarians. Despite knowledge of this phenomenon for well over a century, little empirical evidence details the mechanisms of how (and even why) these organisms use organelles of cnidarians. However, in the past twenty years a number of published experimental investigations address two of the fundamental questions of nematocyst acquisition and use by cnidarian predators: 1) how are cnidarian predators protected from cnidocyst discharge during feeding, and 2) how are the nematocysts used by the predator? PMID:19269306

  18. Adhesion networks of cnidarians: a postgenomic view.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Richard P; Adams, Josephine C

    2014-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell adhesion systems are fundamental to the multicellularity of metazoans. Members of phylum Cnidaria were classified historically by their radial symmetry as an outgroup to bilaterian animals. Experimental study of Hydra and jellyfish has fascinated zoologists for many years. Laboratory studies, based on dissection, biochemical isolations, or perturbations of the living organism, have identified the ECM layer of cnidarians (mesoglea) and its components as important determinants of stem cell properties, cell migration and differentiation, tissue morphogenesis, repair, and regeneration. Studies of the ultrastructure and functions of intercellular gap and septate junctions identified parallel roles for these structures in intercellular communication and morphogenesis. More recently, the sequenced genomes of sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Hydra magnipapillata, and coral Acropora digitifera have opened up a new frame of reference for analyzing the cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion molecules of cnidarians and examining their conservation with bilaterians. This chapter integrates a review of literature on the structure and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion systems in cnidarians with current analyses of genome-encoded repertoires of adhesion molecules. The postgenomic perspective provides a fresh view on fundamental similarities between cnidarian and bilaterian animals and is impelling wider adoption of species from phylum Cnidaria as model organisms. PMID:24411175

  19. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  20. Cnidarian Nerve Nets and Neuromuscular Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are considered "nerve net animals" even though their nervous systems include various forms of condensation and centralization. Yet, their broad, two-dimensional muscle sheets are innervated by diffuse nerve nets. Do the motor nerve nets represent a primitive organization of multicellular nervous systems, do they represent a consequence of radial symmetry, or do they offer an efficient way to innervate a broad, two-dimensional muscle sheet, in which excitation of the muscle sheet can come from multiple sites of initiation? Regarding the primitive nature of cnidarian nervous systems, distinct neuronal systems exhibit some adaptations that are well known in higher animals, such as the use of oversized neurons with increased speed of conduction, and condensation of neurites into nerve-like tracts. A comparison of neural control of two-dimensional muscle sheets in a mollusc and jellyfish suggests that a possible primitive feature of cnidarian neurons may be a lack of regional specialization into conducting and transmitting regions. PMID:26105595

  1. A genomic view of 500 million years of cnidarian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Robert E.; David, Charles N.; Technau, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Cnidarians (corals, anemones, jellyfish, and hydras) are a diverse group of animals of interest to evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and developmental biologists. With the publication of the genome sequences of Hydra and Nematostella, whose last common ancestor was the stem cnidarian, we are beginning to see the genomic underpinnings of cnidarian biology. Cnidarians are known for the remarkable plasticity of their morphology and life cycles. This plasticity is reflected in the Hydra and Nematostella genomes, which differ to an exceptional degree in size, base composition, transposable element content, and gene conservation. We now know what cnidarian genomes are capable of doing given 500 million years; the next challenge is to understand how this genomic history has led to the striking diversity we see in cnidarians. PMID:21047698

  2. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment. PMID:27582179

  3. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Voolstra, Christian R; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment. PMID:27582179

  4. Dinoflagellate-Related Amphidinolides from the Brazilian Octocoral Stragulum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gomes, Bruno A; Luongo, Elvira; Torres, Maria C M; Santos, Evelyne A; Cutignano, Adele; Pessoa, Otília D L; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Fontana, Angelo

    2016-07-22

    Benthic cnidarians are colonial marine animals that host a rich population of associated and symbiotic microorganisms. In a recent paper we described for the first time the isolation of amphidinolide P (1) from the Brazilian octocoral Stragulum bicolor. Amphidinolides and similar compounds had been previously reported only from dinoflagellates of the genus Amphidinium; thus the presence of 1 in the invertebrate opens intriguing questions on the role and occurrence of these molecules in marine ecosystems. Here we report the identification of four further amphidinolides from the same soft coral, including the known amphidinolide T1 (2) and the new analogues here named amphidinolides C4 (3), B8 (4), and B9 (5). The chemical structures have been elucidated mainly by extensive study of spectroscopic data. Cytotoxic activities of 3 and 4 were evaluated against the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116. PMID:27400333

  5. Recent advances in genomics and transcriptomics of cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Technau, Ulrich; Schwaiger, Michaela

    2015-12-01

    The advent of the genomic era has provided important and surprising insights into the deducted genetic composition of the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. This has changed our view of how genomes of metazoans evolve and when crucial gene families arose and diverged in animal evolution. Sequencing of several cnidarian genomes showed that cnidarians share a great part of their gene repertoire as well as genome synteny with vertebrates, with less gene losses in the anthozoan cnidarian lineage than for example in ecdysozoans like Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans. The Hydra genome on the other hand has evolved more rapidly indicated by more divergent sequences, more cases of gene losses and many taxonomically restricted genes. Cnidarian genomes also contain a rich repertoire of transcription factors, including those that in bilaterian model organisms regulate the development of key bilaterian traits such as mesoderm, nervous system development and bilaterality. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, and possibly cnidarians in general, does not only share its complex gene repertoire with bilaterians, but also the regulation of crucial developmental regulatory genes via distal enhancer elements. In addition, epigenetic modifications on DNA and chromatin are shared among eumetazoans. This suggests that most conserved genes present in our genomes today, as well as the mechanisms guiding their expression, evolved before the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians about 600 Myr ago. PMID:26421490

  6. A journey into the wild of the cnidarian model system Aiptasia and its symbionts.

    PubMed

    Voolstra, Christian R

    2013-09-01

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems relies critically on the mutualistic relationship between calcifying cnidarians and photosynthetic, dinoflagellate endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. Reef-corals have declined globally due to anthropogenic stressors, for example, rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution that often disrupt these symbiotic relationships (known as coral bleaching), exacerbating mass mortality and the spread of disease. This threatens one of the most biodiverse marine ecosystems providing habitats to millions of species and supporting an estimated 500 million people globally (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Our understanding of cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbioses has improved notably with the recent application of genomic and transcriptomic tools (e.g. Voolstra et al. 2009; Bayer et al. 2012; Davy et al. 2012), but a model system that allows for easy manipulation in a laboratory environment is needed to decipher underlying cellular mechanisms important to the functioning of these symbioses. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia, otherwise known as a ‘pest’ to aquarium hobbyists, is emerging as such a model system (Schoenberg & Trench 1980; Sunagawa et al. 2009; Lehnert et al. 2012). Aiptasia is easy to grow in culture and, in contrast to its stony relatives, can be maintained aposymbiotically (i.e. dinoflagellate free) with regular feeding. However, we lack basic information on the natural distribution and genetic diversity of these anemones and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. These data are essential for placing the significance of this model system into an ecological context. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thornhill et al. (2013) are the first to present genetic evidence on the global distribution, diversity and population structure of Aiptasia and its associated Symbiodinium spp. By integrating analyses of the host and symbiont, this research concludes that the current Aitpasia taxonomy probably needs revision and that

  7. Thermal Stress Promotes Host Mitochondrial Degradation in Symbiotic Cnidarians: Are the Batteries of the Reef Going to Run Out?

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Simon R.; Pernice, Mathieu; Green, Kathryn; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie G.

    2012-01-01

    The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and their dinoflagellate symbionts, Symbiodinium spp, which underpins the formation of tropical coral reefs, can be destabilized by rapid changes to environmental conditions. Although some studies have concluded that a breakdown in the symbiosis begins with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation within the symbiont due to a decoupling of photosynthesis, others have reported the release of viable symbionts via a variety of host cell derived mechanisms. We explored an alternative model focused upon changes in host cnidarian mitochondrial integrity in response to thermal stress. Mitochondria are often likened to being batteries of the cell, providing energy in the form of ATP, and controlling cellular pathway activation and ROS generation. The overall morphology of host mitochondria was compared to that of associated symbionts under an experimental thermal stress using confocal and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that hyperthermic stress induces the degradation of cnidarian host mitochondria that is independent of symbiont cellular deterioration. The potential sites of host mitochondrial disruption were also assessed by measuring changes in the expression of genes associated with electron transport and ATP synthesis using quantitative RT-PCR. The primary site of degradation appeared to be downstream of complex III of the electron transport chain with a significant reduction in host cytochrome c and ATP synthase expression. The consequences of reduced expression could limit the capacity of the host to mitigate ROS generation and maintain both organelle integrity and cellular energy supplies. The disruption of host mitochondria, cellular homeostasis, and subsequent cell death irrespective of symbiont integrity highlights the importance of the host response to thermal stress and in symbiosis dysfunction that has substantial implications for understanding how coral reefs will survive in the face of

  8. Nitrogen deprivation induces lipid droplet accumulation and alters fatty acid metabolism in symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; Lin, I-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations. PMID:25047647

  9. Nitrogen Deprivation Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Isolated from Aiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; -Ping Lin, I.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-07-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations.

  10. Nitrogen Deprivation Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Isolated from Aiptasia pulchella

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; -Ping Lin, I.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations. PMID:25047647

  11. Evolution of eumetazoan nervous systems: insights from cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Kelava, Iva; Rentzsch, Fabian; Technau, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, have a simple diffuse nervous system. This morphological simplicity and their phylogenetic position make them a crucial group in the study of the evolution of the nervous system. The development of their nervous systems is of particular interest, as by uncovering the genetic programme that underlies it, and comparing it with the bilaterian developmental programme, it is possible to make assumptions about the genes and processes involved in the development of ancestral nervous systems. Recent advances in sequencing methods, genetic interference techniques and transgenic technology have enabled us to get a first glimpse into the molecular network underlying the development of a cnidarian nervous system—in particular the nervous system of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis. It appears that much of the genetic network of the nervous system development is partly conserved between cnidarians and bilaterians, with Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling, and Sox genes playing a crucial part in the differentiation of neurons. However, cnidarians possess some specific characteristics, and further studies are necessary to elucidate the full regulatory network. The work on cnidarian neurogenesis further accentuates the need to study non-model organisms in order to gain insights into processes that shaped present-day lineages during the course of evolution. PMID:26554048

  12. Hemolytic venoms from marine cnidarian jellyfish – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian jellyfish are viewed as an emergent problem in several coastal zones throughout the world. Recurrent outbreaks pose a serious threat to tourists and bathers, as well as to sea-workers, involving health and economical aspects. As a rule, cnidarian stinging as a consequence of nematocyst firing induces merely local symptoms but cardiovascular or neurological complications can also occur. Hemolysis is a frequent effect of cnidarian stinging; this dangerous condition is known to be caused by several venoms and can sometimes be lethal. At present, the bulk of data concerning hemolytic cnidarian venoms comes from the study of benthic species, such as sea anemones and soft corals, but hemolytic factors were found in venoms of several siphonophore, cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfish, which are mainly involved in the envenomation of bathers and sea-workers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature concerning the hemolytic venoms from cnidarian jellyfish taking into consideration their importance in human pathology as well as health implications and possible therapeutic measures. PMID:25386336

  13. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  14. Development and Symbiosis Establishment in the Cnidarian Endosymbiosis Model Aiptasia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Madeline; Wolfowicz, Iliona; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis between photosynthetic algae and heterotrophic organisms is widespread. One prominent example of high ecological relevance is the endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals, which typically acquire symbionts anew each generation during larval stages. The tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. is a laboratory model system for this endosymbiosis and, similar to corals, produces non-symbiotic larvae that establish symbiosis by phagocytosing Symbiodinium from the environment into the endoderm. Here we generate the first overview of Aiptasia embryogenesis and larval development and establish in situ hybridization to analyze expression patterns of key early developmental regulators. Next, we quantify morphological changes in developing larvae and find a substantial enlargement of the gastric cavity over time. Symbiont acquisition starts soon after mouth formation and symbionts occupy a major portion of the host cell in which they reside. During the first 14 days of development, infection efficiency remains constant while in contrast, localization of phagocytosed symbionts changes, indicating that the occurrence of functional phagocytosing cells may be developmentally regulated. Taken together, here we provide the essential framework to further develop Aiptasia as a model system for the analysis of symbiosis establishment in cnidarian larvae at the molecular level. PMID:26804034

  15. Symbiotic state influences life-history strategy of a clonal cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brian L; Dimond, James L; Muller-Parker, Gisèle

    2014-08-22

    Along the North American Pacific coast, the common intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima engages in facultative, flexible symbioses with Symbiodinium muscatinei (a dinoflagellate) and Elliptochloris marina (a chlorophyte). Determining how symbiotic state affects host fitness is essential to understanding the ecological significance of engaging in such flexible relationships with diverse symbionts. Fitness consequences of hosting S. muscatinei, E. marina or negligible numbers of either symbiont (aposymbiosis) were investigated by measuring growth, cloning by fission and gonad development after 8.5-11 months of sustained exposure to high, moderate or low irradiance under seasonal environmental conditions. Both symbiotic state and irradiance affected host fitness, leading to divergent life-history strategies. Moderate and high irradiances led to a greater level of gonad development in individuals hosting E. marina, while high irradiance and high summer temperature promoted cloning in individuals hosting S. muscatinei and reduced fitness of aposymbiotic anemones. Associating with S. muscatinei may contribute to the success of A. elegantissima as a spatial competitor on the high shore: (i) by offsetting the costs of living under high temperature and irradiance conditions, and (ii) by promoting a high fission rate and clonal expansion. Our results suggest that basic life-history characteristics of a clonal cnidarian can be affected by the identity of the endosymbionts it hosts. PMID:25009060

  16. Population genetic data of a model symbiotic cnidarian system reveal remarkable symbiotic specificity and vectored introductions across ocean basins.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Daniel J; Xiang, Yu; Pettay, D Tye; Zhong, Min; Santos, Scott R

    2013-09-01

    The Aiptasia-Symbiodinium symbiosis is a promising model for experimental studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate associations, yet relatively little is known regarding the genetic diversity of either symbiotic partner. To address this, we collected Aiptasia from 16 localities throughout the world and examined the genetic diversity of both anemones and their endosymbionts. Based on newly developed SCAR markers, Aiptasia consisted of two genetically distinct populations: one Aiptasia lineage from Florida and a second network of Aiptasia genotypes found at other localities. These populations did not conform to the distributions of described Aiptasia species, suggesting that taxonomic re-evaluation is needed in the light of molecular genetics. Associations with Symbiodinium further demonstrated the distinctions among Aiptasia populations. According to 18S RFLP, ITS2-DGGE and microsatellite flanker region sequencing, Florida anemones engaged in diverse symbioses predominantly with members of Symbiodinium Clades A and B, but also C, whereas anemones from elsewhere harboured only S. minutum within Clade B. Symbiodinium minutum apparently does not form a stable symbiosis with other hosts, which implies a highly specific symbiosis. Fine-scale differences among S. minutum populations were quantified using six microsatellite loci. Populations of S. minutum had low genotypic diversity and high clonality (R = 0.14). Furthermore, minimal population structure was observed among regions and ocean basins, due to allele and genotype sharing. The lack of genetic structure and low genotypic diversity suggest recent vectoring of Aiptasia and S. minutum across localities. This first ever molecular-genetic study of a globally distributed cnidarian and its Symbiodinium assemblages reveals host-symbiont specificity and widely distributed populations in an important model system. PMID:23980764

  17. Heat Induction of Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I in the Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Yusuke; Takahashi, Shunichi; Minagawa, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Increases in seawater temperature impair photosynthesis (photoinhibition) in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium within cnidarian hosts, such as corals and sea anemones, and may destroy their symbiotic relationship. Although the degree of photoinhibition in Symbiodinium under heat stress differs among strains, the differences in their responses to increased temperatures, including cyclic electron flow (CEF), which sustains photoprotective thermal energy dissipation, have not been investigated. Here, we examined CEF in cultured Symbiodinium cells or those in an endosymbiotic relationship within a cnidarian host. The light-dependent reduction of the primary electron donor photosystem I, i.e. P700(+), was enhanced in any Symbiodinium cell by increasing temperatures, indicating CEF was induced by heat, which was accompanied by thermal energy dissipation activation. The critical temperatures for inducing CEF were different among Symbiodinium strains. The clade A strains with greater susceptibility to photoinhibition, OTcH-1 and Y106, exhibited higher CEF activities under moderate heat stress than a more phototolerant clade B strain Mf1.05b, suggesting that the observed CEF induction was not a preventive measure but a stress response in Symbiodinium. PMID:26951432

  18. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

  19. A hypothesis linking sub-optimal seawater pCO2 conditions for cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses with the exceedence of the interglacial threshold (> 260 ppmv)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, S. A.

    2011-11-01

    Most scleractinian corals and many other cnidarians host intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts ("zooxanthellae"). The zooxanthellae contribute to host metabolism and skeletogenesis to such an extent that this symbiosis is well recognised for its contribution in creating the coral reef ecosystem. The stable functioning of cnidarian symbioses is however dependent upon the host's ability to maintain demographic control of its algal partner. In this review, I explain how the modern envelope of seawater conditions found within many coral reef ecosystems (characterised by elevated temperatures, rising pCO2, and enriched nutrient levels) are antagonistic toward the dominant host processes that restrict excessive symbiont proliferation. Moreover, I outline a new hypothesis and initial evidence base, which support the suggestion that the additional "excess" zooxanthellae fraction permitted by seawater pCO2 levels beyond 260 ppmv significantly increases the propensity for symbiosis breakdown ("bleaching") in response to temperature and irradiance extremes. The relevance of this biological threshold is discussed in terms of historical reef extinction events, glacial-interglacial climate cycles and the modern decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  20. A hypothesis linking sub-optimal seawater pCO2 conditions for cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses with the exceedence of the interglacial threshold (>260 ppmv)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, S. A.

    2012-05-01

    Most scleractinian corals and many other cnidarians host intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts ("zooxanthellae"). The zooxanthellae contribute to host metabolism and skeletogenesis to such an extent that this symbiosis is well recognised for its contribution in creating the coral reef ecosystem. The stable functioning of cnidarian symbioses is however dependent upon the host's ability to maintain demographic control of its algal partner. In this review, I explain how the modern envelope of seawater conditions found within many coral reef ecosystems (characterised by elevated temperatures, rising pCO2, and enriched nutrient levels) are antagonistic toward the dominant host processes that restrict excessive symbiont proliferation. Moreover, I outline a new hypothesis and initial evidence base, which support the suggestion that the additional "excess" zooxanthellae fraction permitted by seawater pCO2 levels beyond 260 ppmv significantly increases the propensity for symbiosis breakdown ("bleaching") in response to temperature and irradiance extremes. The relevance of this biological threshold is discussed in terms of historical reef extinction events, glacial-interglacial climate cycles and the modern decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  1. Putting the N in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic data to assess the mechanism and impact of nitrogen metabolism in dinoflagellates and to compare the dinoflagellate responses with those of diatoms. PMID:24363653

  2. Symbiosis induces widespread changes in the proteome of the model cnidarian Aiptasia.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Clinton A; Ameismeier, Michael F; Peng, Lifeng; Weis, Virginia M; Grossman, Arthur R; Davy, Simon K

    2016-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are metabolically founded on the mutualism between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. The glass anemone Aiptasia sp. has become a tractable model for this symbiosis, and recent advances in genetic information have enabled the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in this model. We utilized label-free liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the effects of symbiosis on the proteomes of symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aiptasia. We identified and obtained relative quantification of more than 3,300 proteins in 1,578 protein clusters, with 81 protein clusters showing significantly different expression between symbiotic states. Symbiotic anemones showed significantly higher expression of proteins involved in lipid storage and transport, nitrogen transport and cycling, intracellular trafficking, endocytosis and inorganic carbon transport. These changes reflect shifts in host metabolism and nutrient reserves due to increased nutritional exchange with the symbionts, as well as mechanisms for supplying inorganic nutrients to the algae. Aposymbiotic anemones exhibited increased expression of multiple systems responsible for mediating reactive oxygen stress, suggesting that the host derives direct or indirect protection from oxidative stress while in symbiosis. Aposymbiotic anemones also increased their expression of an array of proteases and chitinases, indicating a metabolic shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. These results provide a comprehensive Aiptasia proteome with more direct relative quantification of protein abundance than transcriptomic methods. The extension of "omics" techniques to this model system will allow more powerful studies of coral physiology, ecosystem function, and the effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the coral-dinoflagellate mutualism. PMID:26716757

  3. Endobiotic bacteria and their pathogenic potential in cnidarian tentacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2010-09-01

    Endobiotic bacteria colonize the tentacles of cnidaria. This paper provides first insight into the bacterial spectrum and its potential of pathogenic activities inside four cnidarian species. Sample material originating from Scottish waters comprises the jellyfish species Cyanea capillata and C. lamarckii, hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa and sea anemone Sagartia elegans. Mixed cultures of endobiotic bacteria, pure cultures selected on basis of haemolysis, but also lyophilized samples were prepared from tentacles and used for DGGE-profiling with subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA fragments. Bacteria were detected in each of the cnidarian species tested. Twenty-one bacterial species including four groups of closely related organisms were found in culture material. The species within these groups could not be differentiated from each other (one group of Pseudoalteromonas spp., two groups of Shewanella spp., one group of Vibrio spp.). Each of the hosts exhibits a specific endobacterial spectrum. Solely Cyanea lamarckii harboured Moritella viscosa. Only in Cyanea capillata, members of the Shewanella group #2 and the species Pseudoalteromonas arctica, Shewanella violacea, Sulfitobacter pontiacus and Arcobacter butzleri were detected. Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa provided an amazingly wide spectrum of nine bacterial species. Exclusively, in the sea anemone Sagartia elegans, the bacterial species P. aliena was found. Overall eleven bacterial species detected were described recently as novel species. Four 16S rDNA fragments generated from lyophilized material displayed extremely low relationship to their next neighbours. These organisms are regarded as members of the endobiotic “terra incognita”. Since the origin of cnidarian toxins is unclear, the possible pathogenic activity of endobiotic bacteria has to be taken into account. Literature data show that their next neighbours display an interesting diversity of haemolytic, septicaemic and necrotic actions including

  4. Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Patrick R.H.; Kraus, Johanna E.M.; Larroux, Claire; U. Hammel, Jörg; Amon-Hassenzahl, Annette; Houliston, Evelyn; Wörheide, Gert; Nickel, Michael; Degnan, Bernard M.; Technau, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Striated muscles are present in bilaterian animals (e.g. vertebrates, insects, annelids) and some non-bilaterian eumetazoans (i.e. cnidarians and ctenophores). The striking ultrastructural similarity of striated muscles between these animal groups is thought to reflect a common evolutionary origin1, 2. Here we show that a muscle protein core set, including a Myosin type II Heavy Chain motor protein characteristic of striated muscles in vertebrates (MyHC-st), was already present in unicellular organisms before the origin of multicellular animals. Furthermore, myhc-st and myhc-non-muscle (myhc-nm) orthologues are expressed differentially in two sponges, compatible with the functional diversification of myhc paralogues before the origin of true muscles and the subsequent deployment of MyHC-st in fast-contracting smooth and striated muscle. Cnidarians and ctenophores possess myhc-st orthologues but lack crucial components of bilaterian striated muscles, such as troponin complex and titin genes, suggesting the convergent evolution of striated muscles. Consistently, jellyfish orthologues of a shared set of bilaterian z-disc proteins are not associated with striated muscles, but are instead expressed elsewhere or ubiquitously. The independent evolution of eumetazoan striated muscles through the addition of novel proteins to a pre-existing, ancestral contractile apparatus may serve as a paradigm for the evolution of complex animal cell types. PMID:22763458

  5. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. PMID:26646152

  6. Do All Dinoflagellates have an Extranuclear Spindle?

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunyoung; Nam, Seung Won; Shin, Woongghi; Park, Myung Gil; Coats, D Wayne

    2015-11-01

    The syndinean dinoflagellates are a diverse assemblage of alveolate endoparasites that branch basal to the core dinoflagellates. Because of their phylogenetic position, the syndineans are considered key model microorganisms in understanding early evolution in the dinoflagellates. Closed mitosis with an extranuclear spindle that traverses the nucleus in cytoplasmic grooves or tunnels is viewed as one of the morphological features shared by syndinean and core dinoflagellates. Here we describe nuclear morphology and mitosis in the syndinean dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp. from Akashiwo sanguinea, a member of the A. ceratii complex, as revealed by protargol silver impregnation, DNA specific fluorochromes, and transmission electron microscopy. Our observations show that not all species classified as dinoflagellates have an extranuclear spindle. In Amoebophrya sp. from A. sanguinea, an extranuclear microtubule cylinder located in a depression in the nuclear surface during interphase moves into the nucleoplasm via sequential membrane fusion events and develops into an entirely intranuclear spindle. Results suggest that the intranuclear spindle of Amoebophrya spp. may have evolved from an ancestral extranuclear spindle and indicate the need for taxonomic revision of the Amoebophryidae. PMID:26491972

  7. Aurelia aurita-Cnidarian with a prominent medusiod stage.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Ivan V; Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatiana G; Podgornaya, Olga I

    2012-01-15

    Aurelia aurita has a complex life cycle that consists of several stages including alternating generations of medusa and polyps, huge sexual, and tiny asexual stages. Cnidarian is thought to possess two tissue layers: endoderm (gastroderm) and ectoderm, which are separated by mesoglea in medusa. The determination of the composition of the A. aurita jellyfish mesoglea was performed. New protein "mesoglein" was determined as one of the main components of mesoglea. Mesoglein is synthesized by mesogleal cells (Mc), which are populated A. aurita mesoglea as a high molecular mass precursor. Mc are involved in the formation of noncollagenous "elastic" fibers. Deduced amino acid sequence of mesoglein contains Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain and Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 domain. According to reverse transcription PCR, mesoglein is expressed in the mature medusa exclusively in the Mc. The sperm binding to the ZP is particularly important for successful fertilization. Antibodies against mesoglein stain the plate in the place of contact of germinal epithelium and oocyte. The structure found was named the "contact plate." The contact plate could be the precursor of the ZP. All our data suggest that Mc and, probably, the whole mesoglea originate from the epidermis (ectoderm). Computer search for mesoglein relatives reveals Nematostella and Trichoplax proteins as predicted ORFs, indicating that ZP proteins are quite ancient purchase in the evolution. PMID:22081514

  8. Evolving lineages of Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates based on ITS1 rDNA.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates have been shown to be a diverse group of endosymbionts that associate mutualistically with many kinds of coral reef dwellers, including cnidarians, molluscs, and protists. A high number of genetically ITS types of symbionts have been reported to date. However, whether these recently identified Symbiodinium ITS types indeed represent independent evolutionary lineages is still unsettled. Here I tested the null hypothesis that certain group of symbionts sampled from different geographical locations are derived from a single evolutionary lineage using a nested clade analysis (NCA). I analyzed a total of 174 ITS1 sequences from GenBank and pooled them into 74 ITS1 distinct haplotypes. Using these haplotypes, the statistical parsimony criterion produced 23 independent network trees, each one corresponding to a genetically independent evolving lineage. Some of these lineages revealed certain degree of specificity with some host groups at least at the phylum level. Within the previously described 28S-rDNA phylotype A, five ITS1 lineages were resolved. Phylotypes B and C resolved each in two ITS1 lineages. The highest ITS1 symbiont diversity was observed within the phylotype F, in which 11 lineages were resolved. Moreover, most of these lineages were associated uniquely with protist hosts from the group of foraminiferans. Here it is suggested that this high genetic diversity of endosymbionts associated with foraminiferans is linked with the evolution of soritacean foraminifera, which seems to have been driven by endosymbiosis. Lastly, the absence of genetic recombination presented in this study, suggest a lack of hybridisation at least among the major 28S-rDNA phylotypes within Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates. This supports highly the idea that these phylotypes are indeed independent evolutionary units, which should be considered at least as different species. Whether they belong to the same genus or to different higher taxa still needs

  9. Taxonomic and Environmental Variation of Metabolite Profiles in Marine Dinoflagellates of the Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Klueter, Anke; Crandall, Jesse B.; Archer, Frederick I.; Teece, Mark A.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems are essential to environmental sustainability. In the marine environment, invertebrates often depend on metabolic cooperation with their endosymbionts. Coral reefs, one of the most important marine ecosystems, are based on the symbiosis between a broad diversity of dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and a wide phyletic diversity of hosts (i.e., cnidarian, molluscan, poriferan). This diversity is reflected in the ecology and physiology of the symbionts, yet the underlying biochemical mechanisms are still poorly understood. We examined metabolite profiles of four cultured species of Symbiodinium known to form viable symbioses with reef-building corals, S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194), S. minutum (cp-type B184), S. psygmophilum (cp-type B224) and S. trenchii (cp-type D206). Metabolite profiles were shown to differ among Symbiodinium species and were found to be affected by their physiological response to growth in different temperatures and light regimes. A combined Random Forests and Bayesian analysis revealed that the four Symbiodinium species examined primarily differed in their production of sterols and sugars, including a C29 stanol and the two sterols C28Δ5 and C28Δ5,22, as well as differences in metabolite abundances of a hexose and inositol. Inositol levels were also strongly affected by changes in temperature across all Symbiodinium species. Our results offer a detailed view of the metabolite profile characteristic of marine symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, and identify patterns of metabolites related to several growth conditions. PMID:25693143

  10. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin. PMID:23966031

  11. Endobacteria in the tentacles of selected cnidarian species and in the cerata of their nudibranch predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doepke, Hilke; Herrmann, Karl; Schuett, Christian

    2012-03-01

    This is the first genetic analysis comparing cultured endobacteria discovered in the tentacles of cnidarian species ( Tubularia indivisa, Tubularia larynx, Corymorpha nutans, Sagartia elegans) with those found in the cerata tips of selected nudibranch species ( Berghia caerulescens, Coryphella lineata, Coryphella gracilis, Janolus cristatus, Polycera faeroensis, Polycera quadrilineata, Doto coronata, Dendronotus frondosus). Shared pathogenic activities were found among other microorganisms in the Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis group (TTX), and the Vibrio splendidus group (haemolytic, septicaemic, necrotic activity). Specific autochthonous endobacteria of extremely low similarity to their next neighbours were detected in nudibranch cerata. These organisms are regarded as new and unknown endobacteria; among them were Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea (95%), Orientia tsutsugamushi (84%), Gracilimonas tropica (96%), Balneola alkaliphia (95%), Loktanella rosea (97%). SEM micrographs provide insight into endobacterial aggregates in cnidarian tentacles and nudibranch cerata. Since certain nudibranch predators prey on cnidarian species, it is assumed that cnidarian tentacle bacteria are directly transferred to nudibranch cerata. The pathogenic endobacteria may contribute to the chemical defence of both the nudibranch and cnidarian species investigated.

  12. Evolution of Linear Mitochondrial Genomes in Medusozoan Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G.; Pirro, Stacy; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2012-01-01

    In nearly all animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of a single circular molecule that encodes several subunits of the protein complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as well as part of the machinery for their expression. By contrast, mtDNA in species belonging to Medusozoa (one of the two major lineages in the phylum Cnidaria) comprises one to several linear molecules. Many questions remain on the ubiquity of linear mtDNA in medusozoans and the mechanisms responsible for its evolution, replication, and transcription. To address some of these questions, we determined the sequences of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa. All newly determined medusozoan mitochondrial genomes harbor the 17 genes typical for cnidarians and map as linear molecules with a high degree of gene order conservation relative to the anthozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs), polB and ORF314, are identified in cubozoan, schyphozoan, staurozoan, and trachyline hydrozoan mtDNA. polB belongs to the B-type DNA polymerase gene family, while the product of ORF314 may act as a terminal protein that binds telomeres. We posit that these two ORFs are remnants of a linear plasmid that invaded the mitochondrial genomes of the last common ancestor of Medusozoa and are responsible for its linearity. Hydroidolinan hydrozoans have lost the two ORFs and instead have duplicated cox1 at each end of their mitochondrial chromosome(s). Fragmentation of mtDNA occurred independently in Cubozoa and Hydridae (Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina). Our broad sampling allows us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of linear mtDNA in medusozoans. PMID:22113796

  13. Puncture mechanics of cnidarian cnidocysts: a natural actuator

    PubMed Central

    Oppegard, Shawn C; Anderson, Peter A; Eddington, David T

    2009-01-01

    Background Cnidocysts isolated from cnidarian organisms are attractive as a drug-delivery platform due to their fast, efficient delivery of toxins. The cnidocyst could be utilized as the means to deliver therapeutics in a wearable drug-delivery patch. Cnidocysts have been previously shown to discharge upon stimulation via electrical, mechanical, and chemical pathways. Cnidocysts isolated from the Portuguese Man O' War jellyfish (Physalia physalis) are attractive for this purpose because they possess relatively long threads, are capable of puncturing through hard fish scales, and are stable for years. Results As a first step in using cnidocysts as a functional component of a drug delivery system, the puncture mechanics of the thread were characterized. Tentacle-contained cnidocysts were used as a best-case scenario due to physical immobilization of the cnidocysts within the tentacle. Ex vivo tentacle-contained cnidocysts from Physalia possessed an elastic modulus puncture threshold of approximately 1-2 MPa, based on puncture tests of materials with a gamut of hardness. Also, a method for inducing discharge of isolated cnidocysts was found, utilizing water as the stimulant. Preliminary lectin-binding experiments were performed using fluorophore-conjugated lectins as a possible means to immobilize the isolated cnidocyst capsule, and prevent reorientation upon triggering. Lectins bound homogeneously to the surface of the capsule, suggesting the lectins could be used for cnidocyst immobilization but not orientation. Conclusion Cnidocysts were found to puncture materials up to 1 MPa in hardness, can be discharged in a dry state using water as a stimulant, and bind homogeneously to lectins, a potential means of immobilization. The information gained from this preliminary work will aid in determining the materials and design of the patch that could be used for drug delivery. PMID:19785761

  14. A genomic approach to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: studies of Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum

    PubMed Central

    Shinzato, Chuya; Mungpakdee, Sutada; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Far more intimate knowledge of scleractinian coral biology is essential in order to understand how diverse coral-symbiont endosymbioses have been established. In particular, molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the establishment and maintenance of obligate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates require further clarification. By extension, such understanding may also shed light upon environmental conditions that promote the collapse of this mutualism. Genomic data undergird studies of all symbiotic processes. Here we review recent genomic data derived from the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, and the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum. We discuss Acropora genes involved in calcification, embryonic development, innate immunity, apoptosis, autophagy, UV resistance, fluorescence, photoreceptors, circadian clocks, etc. We also detail gene loss in amino acid metabolism that may explain at least part of the Acropora stress-response. Characteristic features of the Symbiodinium genome are also reviewed, focusing on the expansion of certain gene families, the molecular basis for permanently condensed chromatin, unique spliceosomal splicing, and unusual gene arrangement. Salient features of the Symbiodinium plastid and mitochondrial genomes are also illuminated. Although many questions regarding these interdependent genomes remain, we summarize information necessary for future studies of coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. PMID:25071748

  15. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Christie L.; Yanagihara, Angel A.

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. PMID:27043628

  16. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Christie L; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2016-04-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. PMID:27043628

  17. New tricks with old genes: the genetic bases of novel cnidarian traits.

    PubMed

    Forêt, Sylvain; Knack, Brent; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Manuel, Michael; Quéinnec, Eric; Hayward, David C; Ball, Eldon E; Miller, David J

    2010-04-01

    Recent thought on genome evolution has focused on the creation of new genes and changes in regulatory mechanisms while ignoring the role of selective gene loss in shaping genomes. Using data from two cnidarians, the jellyfish Clytia and the coral Acropora, we examined the relative significance of new 'taxonomically restricted' genes and selectively retained ancestral genes in enabling the evolution of novel traits. Consistent with its more complex life-cycle, the proportion of novel genes identified in Clytia was higher than that in the 'polyp only' cnidarians Nematostella and Hydra, but each of these cnidarians has retained a proportion of ancestral genes not present in the other two. The ubiquity and near-stochastic nature of gene loss can explain the discord between patterns of gene distribution and taxonomy. PMID:20129693

  18. Expanding the population genetic perspective of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R

    2014-09-01

    The modern synthesis was a seminal period in the biological sciences, establishing many of the core principles of evolutionary biology that we know today. Significant catalysts were the contributions of R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright (and others) developing the theoretical underpinning of population genetics, thus demonstrating adaptive evolution resulted from the interplay of forces such as natural selection and mutation within groups of individuals occupying the same space and time (i.e. a population). Given its importance, it is surprising that detailed population genetic data remain lacking for numerous organisms vital to many ecosystems. For example, the coral reef ecosystem is well recognized for its high biodiversity and productivity, numerous ecological services and significant economic and societal values (Moberg & Folke 1999;Cinner 2014). Many coral reef invertebrates form symbiotic relationships with single-celled dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium Freudenthal (Taylor 1974), with hosts providing these (typically) intracellular symbionts with by-products of metabolism and in turn receiving photosynthetically fixed carbon capable of meeting hosts' respiratory demands (Falkowski et al. 1984; Muscatine et al. 1984). Unfortunately, the health and integrity of the coral reef ecosystem has been significantly and negatively impacted by onslaughts like anthropogenic eutrophication and disease in addition to global climate change, with increased incidences of 'bleaching' events (characterized as the loss of photosynthetic pigments from the algal cell or massive reduction of Symbiodinium density from hosts' tissue) and host mortality leading to staggering declines in geographic coverage (Bruno & Selig 2007) that have raised questions on the viability of this ecosystem as we know it (Bellwood et al. 2004; Parmesan 2006). One avenue towards anticipating the future of the coral reef ecosystem is by developing a broader and deeper

  19. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are not only important marine primary producers and grazers, but also the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. It has been reported that many dinoflagellate species can produce various natural toxins. These toxins can be extremely toxic and many of them are effective at far lower dosages than conventional chemical agents. Consumption of seafood contaminated by algal toxins results in various seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (ASP). Most of these poisonings are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission. Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically. They vary in both chemical structure and mechanism of action, and produce very distinct biological effects, which provides a potential application of these toxins in pharmacology and toxicology. This review summarizes the origin, structure and clinical symptoms of PSP, NSP, CFP, AZP, yessotoxin and palytoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:18728731

  20. Recognizing diversity in coral symbiotic dinoflagellate communities.

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy M; Gates, Ruth D

    2007-03-01

    A detailed understanding of how diversity in endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities maps onto the physiological range of coral hosts is critical to predicting how coral reef ecosystems will respond to climate change. Species-level taxonomy of the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium has been predominantly examined using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal array (rDNA ITS2) and downstream screening for dominant types using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Here, ITS2 diversity in the communities of Symbiodinium harboured by two Hawaiian coral species was explored using direct sequencing of clone libraries. We resolved sixfold to eightfold greater diversity per coral species than previously reported, the majority of which corresponds to a novel and distinct phylogenetic lineage. We evaluated how these sequences migrate in DGGE and demonstrate that this method does not effectively resolve this diversity. We conclude that the Porites spp. examined here harbour diverse assemblages of novel Symbiodinium types and that cloning and sequencing is an effective methodological approach for resolving the complexity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities harboured by reef corals. PMID:17391401

  1. Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds. PMID:24379089

  2. Inducible Mixotrophy in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Prorocentrum minimum is a neritic dinoflagellate that forms seasonal blooms and red tides in estuarine ecosystems. While known to be mixotrophic, previous attempts to document feeding on algal prey have yielded low grazing rates. In this study, growth and ingestion rates of P. minimum were measured as a function of nitrogen (-N) and phosphorous (-P) starvation. A P. minimum isolate from Chesapeake Bay was found to ingest cryptophyte prey when in stationary phase and when starved of N or P. Prorocentrum minimum ingested two strains of Teleaulax amphioxeia at higher rates than six other cryptophyte species. In all cases -P treatments resulted in the highest grazing. Ingestion rates of -P cells on T. amphioxeia saturated at ~5 prey per predator per day, while ingestion by -N cells saturated at 1 prey per predator per day. In the presence of prey, -P treated cells reached a maximum mixotrophic growth rate (μmax ) of 0.5 d(-1), while -N cells had a μmax of 0.18 d(-1). Calculations of ingested C, N, and P due to feeding on T. amphioxeia revealed that phagotrophy can be an important source of all three elements. While P. minimum is a proficient phototroph, inducible phagotrophy is an important nutritional source for this dinoflagellate. PMID:25510417

  3. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors. PMID:26061152

  4. Genome evolution of a tertiary dinoflagellate plastid.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Tove M; Minge, Marianne A; Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2011-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata. PMID:21541332

  5. Genome Evolution of a Tertiary Dinoflagellate Plastid

    PubMed Central

    Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2011-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata. PMID:21541332

  6. Relationships between host and symbiont cell cycles in sea anemones and their symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Pineda, Rea R; Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Bingham, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    The processes by which cnidarians and their algal endosymbionts achieve balanced growth and biomass could include coordination of host and symbiont cell cycles. We evaluated this theory with natural populations of sea anemones hosting symbiotic dinoflagellates, focusing on the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima symbiotic with Symbiodinium muscatinei in Washington State, USA, and the tropical anemone Stichodactyla helianthus associating with unknown Symbiodinium spp. in Belize. By extruding symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells from the relatively large tentacles of these species and using nuclear staining and flow cytometry, we selectively analyzed cell cycle distributions of the symbionts and the host gastrodermal cells that house them. We found no indications of diel synchrony in host and symbiont G2/M phases, and we observed evidence of diel periodicity only in Symbiodinium spp. associated with S. helianthus but not in the anemone itself. Seasonally, S. muscatinei showed considerable G2/M phase variability among samples collected quarterly over an annual period, while the G2/M phase of its host varied much less. Within samples taken at different times of the year, correlations between host and symbiont G2/M phases ranged from very weakly to very strongly positive, with significant correlations in only half of the samples (two of four A. elegantissima samples and one of two S. helianthus samples). Overall, the G2/M phase relationships across species and sampling periods were positive. Thus, while we found no evidence of close cell cycle coupling, our results suggest a loose, positive relationship between cell cycle processes of the symbiotic partners. PMID:24243963

  7. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3(-) transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3(-) to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  8. Precambrian animal life: probable developmental and adult cnidarian forms from Southwest China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jun-Yuan; Oliveri, Paola; Gao, Feng; Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Li, Chia-Wei; Bottjer, David J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of cnidarian and bilaterian lineages from their remote metazoan ancestor occurred at an unknown depth in time before the Cambrian, since crown group representatives of each are found in Lower Cambrian fossil assemblages. We report here a variety of putative embryonic, larval, and adult microfossils deriving from Precambrian phosphorite deposits of Southwest China, which may predate the Cambrian radiation by 25-45 million years. These are most probably of cnidarian affinity. Large numbers of fossilized early planula-like larvae were observed under the microscope in sections. Though several forms are represented, the majority display remarkable conformity, which is inconsistent with the alternative that they are artifactual mineral inclusions. Some of these fossils are preserved in such high resolution that individual cells can be discerned. We confirm in detail an earlier report of the presence in the same deposits of tabulates, an extinct crown group anthozoan form. Other sections reveal structures that most closely resemble sections of basal modern corals. A large number of fossils similar to modern hydrozoan gastrulae were also observed. These again displayed great morphological consistency. Though only a single example is available, a microscopic animal remarkably similar to a modern adult hydrozoan is also presented. Taken together, the new observations reported in this paper indicate the existence of a diverse and already differentiated cnidarian fauna, long before the Cambrian evolutionary event. It follows that at least stem group bilaterians must also have been present at this time.

  9. FoxO and Stress Responses in the Cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Diane; Theofiles, Alexander G.; Holler, Rebecca L.; Marcinkevicius, Emily; Steele, Robert E.; Martínez, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms. Methods/Principal Findings We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases. Conclusions These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals. PMID:20657733

  10. Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic dinoflagellates from planktonic foraminifera and radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Gast, R J; Caron, D A

    1996-11-01

    Recent analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (srDNA) from dinoflagellate symbionts of cnidaria have confirmed historical descriptions of a diverse but well-defined clade, Symbiodinium, as well as several other independent symbiont lineages (Rowan 1991; Rowan and Powers 1992; Sadler et al. 1992; McNally et al 1994). Dinoflagellates also occur as intracellular symbionts in a number of pelagic protistan taxa, but the srDNA of these symbionts has not been examined. We analyzed the srDNA sequences of the symbiotic dinoflagellates from four planktonic foraminiferal species and six radiolarian species. The symbionts from these sarcodines formed two distinct lineages within the dinoflagellates. Within each lineage, symbionts obtained from different host species showed few, if any, srDNA sequence differences. The planktonic foraminiferal symbionts were most closely related to Gymnodinium simplex and the Symbiodinium clade, whereas the radiolarian symbionts were most closely related to the dinoflagellate symbiont from the oceanic chondrophore, Velella velella. Therefore, although the dinoflagellate symbionts of foraminifera appear to be a sister taxon of the symbionts from benthic foraminifera and invertebrates, the symbionts of radiolaria are distinct and arose from an independent lineage of dinoflagellate symbionts that shares common ancestry with the symbiont of at least one pelagic metazoan. The lack of srDNA variability within the sarcodine symbiont lineages suggests that coevolution of host and symbiont has not occurred. PMID:8896371

  11. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats. PMID:26243150

  12. Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Chandrashekar Anil, Arga; Patil, Jagadish S.; Hegde, Sahana; D'Silva, Maria Shamina; Chourasia, Molji

    2008-03-01

    The changes in dinoflagellate community structure in both - the water column and sediment in a mesotrophic, tropical port environment were investigated in this study. Since the South West Monsoon (SWM) is the main source of climatic variation, observations were made during two consecutive post-monsoon periods (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon period (2002). The pre-monsoon period supported a more diverse dinoflagellate community in the water column compared to both post-monsoon periods. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in the water column as well as sediment. A seasonal cycling between vegetative and resting cysts of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates governed by the environmental characteristics of the study area was observed. Temperature, salinity and suspended particulate matter were the main factors affecting dinoflagellate community structure in both the water column and sediment. The dominant dinoflagellates in the water column differed during both post-monsoon periods that followed two dissimilar monsoon events. Prorocentroids and gonyaulacoids dominated the water column subsequent to the 2001 SWM, whereas dinophysoids and unidentified tiny dinoflagellates dominated during the next post-monsoon period. The 2001 SWM started in May, peaked during June-July and reduced gradually to end in October. The 2002 SWM was erratic; it started late (in June) and ended earlier (in September). These observations highlight the potential of the SWM to influence the community structure of dinoflagellates in tropical waters and points to the importance of long-term studies to discern robust variations in dinoflagellate communities in response to fluctuating monsoon regimes.

  13. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  14. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  15. Behavioral Ecology: Manipulative Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David P

    2015-09-21

    A new study reveals that an apparent mutualism between lycaenid caterpillars and their attendant ants may not be all it seems, as the caterpillars produce secretions that modify the brains and behavior of their attendant ants. PMID:26394105

  16. Apoptosis as a post-phagocytic winnowing mechanism in a coral-dinoflagellate mutualism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Simon R; Weis, Virginia M

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at detecting apoptosis as a post-phagocytic mechanism of symbiont selection during the onset of symbiosis in larvae of the scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria. Larvae were infected with one of three Symbiodinium types: freshly isolated homologous ITS-type C1f from adult F. scutaria, heterologous C31 from adult Montipora capitata, known to be unable to successfully colonize F. scutaria larvae, and type B1 from the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia spp. Apoptosis was detected by the activation of caspases, enzymes specific to apoptosis. Caspase activity was measured in situ by cleavage of a specific fluorophore and detection with confocal microscopy. At 6 h post infection, there was a significant increase in caspase activation in gastrodermal cells in C31-infected larvae, compared with larvae infected with C1f or B1 types. Compared with control larvae infected with C31, which had decreased infection rates present by 24 h post infection, when C31-infected larvae were incubated with a broad-scale caspase inhibitor, the per cent of larvae infected with C31 did not significantly decrease over time. This indicates that the reduction in infection success observed in untreated C31-infected larvae can be rescued with inhibition of caspases and apoptosis. This suggests the presence of a post-phagocytic recognition mechanism. Larvae infected with freshly isolated B1 retained infection success over time compared with C31-infected larvae, suggesting that there is host discrimination between heterologous algae. Initiation of this post-phagocytic response may occur more readily with a highly specific heterologous symbiont type such as C31, compared with a generalist heterologous type such as clade B1. PMID:19125818

  17. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  18. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  19. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  20. Evolution of Saxitoxin Synthesis in Cyanobacteria and Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Kulis, David M.; Anderson, Donald M.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Plumley, F. Gerald; Erdner, Deana L.

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites that have a significant impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also made by some freshwater cyanobacteria. Genes involved in STX synthesis have been identified in cyanobacteria but are yet to be reported in the massive genomes of dinoflagellates. We have assembled comprehensive transcriptome data sets for several STX-producing dinoflagellates and a related non-toxic species and have identified 265 putative homologs of 13 cyanobacterial STX synthesis genes, including all of the genes directly involved in toxin synthesis. Putative homologs of four proteins group closely in phylogenies with cyanobacteria and are likely the functional homologs of sxtA, sxtG, and sxtB in dinoflagellates. However, the phylogenies do not support the transfer of these genes directly between toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. SxtA is split into two proteins in the dinoflagellates corresponding to the N-terminal portion containing the methyltransferase and acyl carrier protein domains and a C-terminal portion with the aminotransferase domain. Homologs of sxtB and N-terminal sxtA are present in non-toxic strains, suggesting their functions may not be limited to saxitoxin production. Only homologs of the C-terminus of sxtA and sxtG were found exclusively in toxic strains. A more thorough survey of STX+ dinoflagellates will be needed to determine if these two genes may be specific to SXT production in dinoflagellates. The A. tamarense transcriptome does not contain homologs for the remaining STX genes. Nevertheless, we identified candidate genes with similar predicted biochemical activities that account for the missing functions. These results suggest that the STX synthesis pathway was likely assembled independently in the distantly related cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although using some

  1. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  2. Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, Theodore J.; Reynolds, Colin S.

    2003-03-01

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed to govern bloom-species selection and community organisation within these habitats. Assembly is moulded around an abiotic template of light energy, nutrient supply and physical mixing in permutative combinations. Species selected will have one of three basic ( C-, S-, R-) strategies: colonist species ( C-) which predominate in chemically disturbed habitats; nutrient stress tolerant species ( S-), and species ( R-) tolerant of shear/stress forces in physically disturbed water masses. This organisational plan of three major habitat variables and three major adaptive strategies is termed the 3-3 plan. The bloom behaviour and habitat specialisation of dinoflagellates and diatoms are compared. Dinoflagellates behave as annual species, bloom soloists, are ecophysiologically diverse, and habitat specialists whose blooms tend to be monospecific. Diatoms behave as perennial species, guild members, are habitat cosmopolites, have a relatively uniform bloom strategy based on species-rich pools and exhibit limited habitat specialisation. Dinoflagellate bloom-species selection follows a taxonomic hierarchical pathway which progresses from phylogenetic to generic to species selection, and in that sequence. Each hierarchical taxonomic level has its own adaptive requirements subject to rules of assembly. Dinoflagellates would appear to be well suited to exploit marine habitats and to be competitive with other phylogenetic groups, yet fail to do so.

  3. Development of a Dinoflagellate-Oriented PCR Primer Set Leads to Detection of Picoplanktonic Dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems. PMID:16885319

  4. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  5. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. PMID:24256552

  6. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  7. Modulation of COUP-TF Expression in a Cnidarian by Ectopic Wnt Signalling and Allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, David J.; Frank, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Background COUP transcription factors are required for the regulation of gene expression underlying development, differentiation, and homeostasis. They have an evolutionarily conserved function, being a known marker for neurogenesis from cnidarians to vertebrates. A homologue of this gene was shown previously to be a neuronal and nematocyte differentiation marker in Hydra. However, COUP-TFs had not previously been studied in a colonial cnidarian. Methodology/Principal Findings We cloned a COUP-TF homologue from the colonial marine cnidarian Hydractinia echinata. Expression of the gene was analysed during normal development, allorecognition events and ectopic Wnt activation, using in situ hybridisation and quantitative PCR. During normal Hydractinia development, the gene was first expressed in post-gastrula stages. It was undetectable in larvae, and its mRNA was present again in putative differentiating neurons and nematocytes in post-metamorphic stages. Global activation of canonical Wnt signalling in adult animals resulted in the upregulation of COUP-TF. We also monitored a strong COUP-TF upregulation in stolons undergoing allogeneic interactions. COUP-TF mRNA was most concentrated in the tissues that contacted allogeneic, non-self tissues, and decreased in a gradient away from the contact area. Interestingly, the gene was transiently upregulated during initial contact of self stolons, but dissipated rapidly following self recognition, while in non-self contacts high expression levels were maintained. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that COUP-TF is likely involved in neuronal/nematocyte differentiation in a variety of contexts. This has now been shown to include allorecognition, where COUP-TF is thought to have been co-opted to mediate allorejection by recruiting stinging cells that are the effectors of cytotoxic rejection of allogeneic tissue. Our findings that Wnt activation upregulates COUP-TF expression suggests that Wnts' role in neuronal differentiation

  8. Nuclear and cytoplasmic actin in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Ausseil, J; Géraud, M L

    1996-01-01

    Experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-actin antibodies allowed us to demonstrate the presence of F- or G-actin in original protists, dinoflagellates, either by biochemistry, immunofluorescence and in TEM. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and immunoblottings made either from total or nuclear protein extracts revealed the presence of a 44-kDa band reacting with monoclonal anti-actin antibody in two species, Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii, and thus demonstrated the presence of actin in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. After squash preparation of P micans cells, actin was identified within the nucleus and in some regions of the cytoplasm by immunofluorescence microscopy. Labelling of both the nucleolus and the centrosome region was evident together with amorphous nucleoplasmic material surrounding the chromosomes. The use of cryosections of intact P micans and C cohnii cells for immunofluorescence along with staining with DAPI to delineate the chromosomes themselves, yielded finer resolution of the intranuclear network labelling pattern and allowed us to complete our observations, in particular on the cytoplasmic labelling. In P micans, in addition to the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels passing through the nucleus in dividing cells are labelled. In C cohnii, the cortex, the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels, the region surrounding the nucleus, the filaments linking it to the cortex and the cleavage furrow are also labelled. In the nucleus of the two species, there is a prominent "weft' of fine actin filaments in the nucleoplasm forming a matrix of varying density around the persistent chromosomes. This actin matrix, of unknown function, is most conspicuous at the end of the S-phase of the cell cycle. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin, used as diagnostic cytochemical probes for polymeric actin (F-actin), gave similar results. Positive TEM immunolabelling of intranuclear actin confirms its presence in the nucleoplasm, in the

  9. Biochemical responses of cnidarian larvae to mercury and benzo(a)pyrene exposure.

    PubMed

    Farina, Oriana; Ramos, Ruth; Bastidas, Carolina; García, Elia

    2008-12-01

    The biochemical responses of planulae from the coral Porites astreoides exposed to 10 microg/L of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and to 10 microg/L of mercury (Hg) was evaluated. The survivorship of larvae only dropped significantly after 48 h of B(a)P exposure, whereas it remained at 98% for Hg exposure and up to 96 h. Exposure to B(a)P significantly increased free thiols, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were unaltered under exposure of any of the contaminants. This study is the first contribution of the biochemical effects in cnidarian larvae exposed to contaminants. PMID:18820822

  10. Initiating a regenerative response; cellular and molecular features of wound healing in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound healing is the first stage of a series of cellular events that are necessary to initiate a regenerative response. Defective wound healing can block regeneration even in animals with a high regenerative capacity. Understanding how signals generated during wound healing promote regeneration of lost structures is highly important, considering that virtually all animals have the ability to heal but many lack the ability to regenerate missing structures. Cnidarians are the phylogenetic sister taxa to bilaterians and are highly regenerative animals. To gain a greater understanding of how early animals generate a regenerative response, we examined the cellular and molecular components involved during wound healing in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Results Pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling blocks regeneration and wound healing in Nematostella. We characterized early and late wound healing events through genome-wide microarray analysis, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization to identify potential wound healing targets. We identified a number of genes directly related to the wound healing response in other animals (metalloproteinases, growth factors, transcription factors) and suggest that glycoproteins (mucins and uromodulin) play a key role in early wound healing events. This study also identified a novel cnidarian-specific gene, for a thiamine biosynthesis enzyme (vitamin B synthesis), that may have been incorporated into the genome by lateral gene transfer from bacteria and now functions during wound healing. Lastly, we suggest that ERK signaling is a shared element of the early wound response for animals with a high regenerative capacity. Conclusions This research describes the temporal events involved during Nematostella wound healing, and provides a foundation for comparative analysis with other regenerative and non-regenerative species. We have shown that the same genes that

  11. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  12. Mutual Adaptaion in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, Leslie Santee

    2016-01-01

    Building on an expanded concept of mutual adaptation, this chapter explores a distinctive and successful aspect of International Baccalaureate's effort to scale up, as they moved to expand their programs and support services in Title I schools. Based on a three-year, mixed-methods study, it offers a case where we see not only local adaptations…

  13. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. PMID:19481563

  14. Defending against pathogens - immunological priming and its molecular basis in a sea anemone, cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, in general, are long-lived organisms and hence may repeatedly encounter common pathogens during their lifespans. It remains unknown whether these early diverging animals possess some type of immunological reaction that strengthens the defense response upon repeated infections, such as that described in more evolutionary derived organisms. Here we show results that sea anemones that had previously encountered a pathogen under sub-lethal conditions had a higher survivorship during a subsequently lethal challenge than naïve anemones that encountered the pathogen for the first time. Anemones subjected to the lethal challenge two and four weeks after the sub-lethal exposure presented seven- and five-fold increases in survival, respectively, compared to the naïve anemones. However, anemones challenged six weeks after the sub-lethal exposure showed no increase in survivorship. We argue that this short-lasting priming of the defense response could be ecologically relevant if pathogen encounters are restricted to short seasons characterized by high stress. Furthermore, we discovered significant changes in proteomic profiles between naïve sea anemones and those primed after pathogen exposure suggesting a clear molecular signature associated with immunological priming in cnidarians. Our findings reveal that immunological priming may have evolved much earlier in the tree of life than previously thought. PMID:26628080

  15. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3− transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3− to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  16. Antimicrobials from Cnidarians. A New Perspective for Anti-Infective Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Grice, Irwin Darren

    2016-01-01

    The ability of microbes to counter the scientific and therapeutic advancements achieved during the second half of the twentieth century to provide effective disease treatments is currently a significant challenge for researchers in biology and medicine. The discovery of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of synthetic antimicrobial compounds, altered our therapeutic approach towards infectious diseases, and improved the quality and length of life for humans and other organisms. The current alarming rise in cases of antibiotic-resistance has forced biomedical researchers to explore new ways to recognize and/or produce new antimicrobials or to find other approaches for existing therapeutics. Aquatic organisms are known to be a source of compounds having the potential to play a role in fighting the battle against pathogenic microbes. In this connection, cnidarians occupy a pre-eminent role. Over the past few decades several studies have explored the antimicrobial/antibiotic properties of cnidarian extracts with the aim of isolating compounds possessing useful therapeutic features. This paper aims to review the existing data on this subject, taking into account the possible utilization of identified compounds. PMID:27005633

  17. Defending against pathogens – immunological priming and its molecular basis in a sea anemone, cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tanya; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, in general, are long-lived organisms and hence may repeatedly encounter common pathogens during their lifespans. It remains unknown whether these early diverging animals possess some type of immunological reaction that strengthens the defense response upon repeated infections, such as that described in more evolutionary derived organisms. Here we show results that sea anemones that had previously encountered a pathogen under sub-lethal conditions had a higher survivorship during a subsequently lethal challenge than naïve anemones that encountered the pathogen for the first time. Anemones subjected to the lethal challenge two and four weeks after the sub-lethal exposure presented seven- and five-fold increases in survival, respectively, compared to the naïve anemones. However, anemones challenged six weeks after the sub-lethal exposure showed no increase in survivorship. We argue that this short-lasting priming of the defense response could be ecologically relevant if pathogen encounters are restricted to short seasons characterized by high stress. Furthermore, we discovered significant changes in proteomic profiles between naïve sea anemones and those primed after pathogen exposure suggesting a clear molecular signature associated with immunological priming in cnidarians. Our findings reveal that immunological priming may have evolved much earlier in the tree of life than previously thought. PMID:26628080

  18. [Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Neves, Ricardo F; Amaral, Fernanda D; Steiner, Andrea Q

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians are among the most venomous organisms known to man. They are characterized by stinging cells called cnidocytes, and several species, such as the Portuguese-man-of-war and the jellyfish, can cause harm to human beings. Despite not attracting () much attention on the Brazilian coast, the studies that have been carried out to date show that the occurrence of this kind of accident is significant. The aim of this study was to survey cnidarian related accidents with beach goers on some beaches of the state of Pernambuco, as well as to investigate the knowledge of relevant professions on this theme. () Archives of hospitals and life guard posts were visited for the survey, and 17 professionals were interviewed. During the visits, records were obtained for a total of 35 accidents at Boa Viagem Beach (Recife) over a two-year period, as well as informal records of an average of four to five cases a week at Piedade Beach and an average of two to three cases a week for Pontas de Pedras Beach. As to the knowledge of the professionals interviewed, most answers agree, in general, with the literature available, despite a certain level of inadequate or insufficient information on the theme. PMID:17680074

  19. Cnidarian-like embryos associated with the first shelly fossils in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchinsky, Artem; Bengtson, Stefan; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    1999-07-01

    Phosphatized spheroids, ˜0.5 mm in diameter, in the Lower Cambrian Manykay Formation at the Bol'shaya Kuonamka River in northern Sakha (Yakutia) are interpreted as cnidarian embryos of late developmental stages. One of the poles has a double cross-like structure, consisting of two sets of four bands each. The bands of the upper set radiate at 90° from each other; those of the lower set also radiate at about right angles from each other, but the set is rotated 45° in respect to the upper set. Although there is a resemblance to the cross-like arrangements of cells in pregastrulation spiralian eggs, in particular those of annelids, the combined evidence favors an interpretation of the bands as incipient tentacles of a cnidarian actinula larva. The embryos occur with one of the first assemblages of shelly fossils in northern Siberia, that of the Angustiochrea lata zone. The co-occurring shelly fossils, anabaritids, probably also represent the phylum Cnidaria, but because their tubes have a consistent triradial symmetry, the connection with the tetraradially symmetrical embryos is problematic. The size of the embryos suggests that they are nonplanktotrophic, and the presence of actinula-like features suggests the lack of a free planula stage.

  20. Antimicrobials from Cnidarians. A New Perspective for Anti-Infective Therapy?

    PubMed

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Grice, Irwin Darren

    2016-03-01

    The ability of microbes to counter the scientific and therapeutic advancements achieved during the second half of the twentieth century to provide effective disease treatments is currently a significant challenge for researchers in biology and medicine. The discovery of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of synthetic antimicrobial compounds, altered our therapeutic approach towards infectious diseases, and improved the quality and length of life for humans and other organisms. The current alarming rise in cases of antibiotic-resistance has forced biomedical researchers to explore new ways to recognize and/or produce new antimicrobials or to find other approaches for existing therapeutics. Aquatic organisms are known to be a source of compounds having the potential to play a role in fighting the battle against pathogenic microbes. In this connection, cnidarians occupy a pre-eminent role. Over the past few decades several studies have explored the antimicrobial/antibiotic properties of cnidarian extracts with the aim of isolating compounds possessing useful therapeutic features. This paper aims to review the existing data on this subject, taking into account the possible utilization of identified compounds. PMID:27005633

  1. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  2. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Richard G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  3. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Richard G; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  4. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  5. Mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, S.

    2002-08-01

    After a brief review of the notion of a full set of mutually unbiased bases in an N-dimensional Hilbert space, we summarize the work of Wootters and Fields (W K Wootters and B C Fields, Ann. Phys. 191, 363 (1989)) which gives an explicit construction for such bases for the case N=pr, where p is a prime. Further, we show how, by exploiting certain freedom in the Wootters-Fields construction, the task of explicitly writing down such bases can be simplified for the case when p is an odd prime. In particular, we express the results entirely in terms of the character vectors of the cyclic group G of order p. We also analyse the connection between mutually unbiased bases and the representations of G.

  6. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  7. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators. PMID:24102740

  8. Nervous system immunohistochemistry of the parasitic cnidarian Polypodium hydriforme at its free-living stage.

    PubMed

    Raikova, Ekaterina V; Raikova, Olga I

    2016-04-01

    Polypodium hydriforme, the only species in Polypodiozoa, which is currently considered a class of Cnidaria, and likely a sister group to Medusozoa (together with Myxozoa), is a cnidarian adapted to intracellular parasitism inside sturgeon oocytes. Free-living P. hydriforme lives on river bottoms; it walks on supporting tentacles and uses sensory tentacles to capture food and bring it to the mouth. The nervous system of free-living P. hydriforme was studied by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies to FMRF-amide and α-tubulin combined with phalloidin-staining of F-actin fibres. A sensory FMRF-amide immunoreactive (IR) nerve net and an α-tubulin IR nerve net have been identified. The FMRF-amide IR nerve net underlies the epidermis along the tentacles and around the mouth; it consists of neurites emanating from epidermal sensory cells and basiepidermal ganglion cells, and it connects with cnidocytes. A deeper-lying α-tubulin IR nerve net occurs only in tentacles and looks like chains of different-sized beads crossing the mesoglea and entwining muscles. Anti-α-tubulin staining also reveals microtubules in muscle cells following the longitudinal muscle fibres or the thin circular F-actin fibres of the tentacles. Cnidocytes in the tentacles are embedded in a regular hexagonal non-neural network formed by the tubulin IR cytoskeleton of epidermal cells. Cnidocils of the cnidocytes around the mouth and in walking tentacles are identical, but those in sensory tentacles differ in length and width. The possible homology of the tubulin IR nerve net with motor nerve nets of cnidarians is discussed. The absence of a classic nerve ring around the mouth and the lack of specialised sense organs are considered to be plesiomorphic characters for Cnidaria. PMID:26897553

  9. Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, A. M.; Reitzel, A. M.; Kwok, C. K.; Jenny, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

  10. Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Polyketides in Marine Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Svendsen, Helene M.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2010-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided. PMID:20479965

  11. An analysis of dinoflagellate metabolism using EST data.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Erin R; Howe, Christopher J; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2013-03-01

    The dinoflagellates are an important group of eukaryotic, single celled algae. They are the sister group of the Apicomplexa, a group of intracellular parasites and photosynthetic algae including the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Many apicomplexan mitochondria have a number of unusual features, including the lack of a pyruvate dehydrogenase and the existence of a branched TCA cycle. Here, we analyse dinoflagellate EST (expressed sequence tag) data to determine whether these features are apicomplexan-specific, or if they are more widespread. We show that dinoflagellates have replaced a key subunit (E1) of pyruvate dehydrogenase with a subunit of bacterial origin and that transcripts encoding many of the proteins that are essential in a conventional ATP synthase/Complex V are absent, as is the case in Apicomplexa. There is a pathway for synthesis of starch or glycogen as a storage carbohydrate. Transcripts encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase are present, consistent with ultrastructural reports of a glyoxysome. Finally, evidence for a conventional haem biosynthesis pathway is found, in contrast to the Apicomplexa, Chromera and early branching dinoflagellates (Perkinsus, Oxyrrhis). PMID:23085481

  12. Evaluation of photo-reactive siderophore producing bacteria before, during and after a bloom of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    PubMed

    Yarimizu, Kyoko; Polido, Geraldine; Gärdes, Astrid; Carter, Melissa L; Hilbern, Mary; Carrano, Carl J

    2014-06-01

    Evidence is increasing for a mutualistic relationship between phytoplankton and heterotrophic marine bacteria. It has been proposed that bacteria producing photoactive iron binding compounds known as siderophores could play an important role in such mutualistic associations by producing bioavailable iron utilizable by phytoplankton and in exchange receive autotrophically derived DOM. In order to understand the potential role photoactive siderophores might be playing in bacterial-algal mutualism or marine biogeochemistry in general, it is important to be able to detect and quantify their presence in various environments. One approach to accomplish that end is to make use of high sensitivity genomics technology (qPCR) to search for siderophore biosynthesis genes related to the production of photoactive siderophores. In this way one can access their "biochemical potential" and utilize this information as a proxy for the presence of these siderophores in the marine environment. In this report we studied the correlation of the presence of bacteria producing one of the three photoactive siderophores relative to total bacterial and dinoflagellate numbers from surface water at the Scripps Pier before, during, and after fall bloom of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum. We believe that these findings will aid us in gauging the importance of photoactive siderophores in the marine environment and in harmful algal bloom dynamics in particular. PMID:24760287

  13. Gene Expression Variation Resolves Species and Individual Strains among Coral-Associated Dinoflagellates within the Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, John E.; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig T.; Baums, Iliana B.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A–I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ∼20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e., cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host–symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and interindividual variation in nonmodel organisms. PMID:26868597

  14. Gene Expression Variation Resolves Species and Individual Strains among Coral-Associated Dinoflagellates within the Genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John E; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig T; Baums, Iliana B; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-03-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages ("Clades A-I") and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades-the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups-making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ∼20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e., cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and interindividual variation in nonmodel organisms. PMID:26868597

  15. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists. PMID:27303711

  16. Cnidarians as a Source of New Marine Bioactive Compounds—An Overview of the Last Decade and Future Steps for Bioprospecting

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana; Peixe, Luisa; Gomes, Newton C.M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are rich sources of bioactive compounds and their biotechnological potential attracts scientific and economic interest worldwide. Although sponges are the foremost providers of marine bioactive compounds, cnidarians are also being studied with promising results. This diverse group of marine invertebrates includes over 11,000 species, 7500 of them belonging to the class Anthozoa. We present an overview of some of the most promising marine bioactive compounds from a therapeutic point of view isolated from cnidarians in the first decade of the 21st century. Anthozoan orders Alcyonacea and Gorgonacea exhibit by far the highest number of species yielding promising compounds. Antitumor activity has been the major area of interest in the screening of cnidarian compounds, the most promising ones being terpenoids (monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids). We also discuss the future of bioprospecting for new marine bioactive compounds produced by cnidarians. PMID:22073000

  17. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  18. Differential Responses to Wnt and PCP Disruption Predict Expression and Developmental Function of Conserved and Novel Genes in a Cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at “oral” and “aboral” poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously

  19. The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium sp.) of corals are parasites and mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, M. P.; Stat, M.; Gates, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary success and continued survival of reef-building corals under increasing environmental change will, in part, be determined by the composition of their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities ( Symbiodinium sp.). Recent research suggests that differences in the phylotype composition of Symbiodinium in the same host can lead to different outcomes for the host when exposed to similar environmental conditions. One explanation for these observations is that symbioses between corals and Symbiodinium represent a continuum of interaction states that encompass mutualisms and parasitisms consistent with current evolutionary theory developed for other symbiotic systems. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a parasitic to mutualistic continuum in Symbiodinium interactions and propose that a consideration of the evolutionary ecology of these associations will advance our understanding of how environmental change will influence the ecological outcomes in these important symbioses. We advocate that a robust taxonomic structure for Symbiodinium sp. and empirical studies on sexual reproduction in Symbiodinium, the stability of interaction states among Symbiodinium symbioses spatially and temporally and how interaction states change as the environment changes will generate data for models that accurately forecast how climate change will influence the persistence of corals and the reefs they structure.

  20. The Evolution of Interspecific Mutualisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebeli, Michael; Knowlton, Nancy

    1998-07-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are widespread, but how they evolve is not clear. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is the main theoretical tool to study cooperation, but this model ignores ecological differences between partners and assumes that amounts exchanged cannot themselves evolve. A more realistic model incorporating these features shows that strategies that succeed with fixed exchanges (e.g., Tit-for-Tat) cannot explain mutualism when exchanges vary because the amount exchanged evolves to 0. For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required. Under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease. This suggests that, contrary to the basic premise of past theoretical analyses, overcoming a potential host's initial defenses may be a bigger obstacle for mutualism than the subsequent recurrence and spread of noncooperative mutants.

  1. SxtA gene sequence analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshaha, Safida Anira; Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is typically known for the production of potent neurotoxins such as saxitoxin, affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). These phenomena is related to the harmful algal blooms (HABs) that is believed to be influenced by environmental and nutritional factors. Previous study has revealed that SxtA gene is a starting gene that involved in the saxitoxin production pathway. The aim of this study was to analyse the sequence of the sxtA gene in A. minutum. The dinoflagellates culture was cultured at temperature 26°C with 16:8-hour light:dark photocycle. After the samples were harvested, RNA was extracted, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesised and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were then purified and cloned before sequenced. The SxtA sequence obtained was then analyzed in order to identify the presence of SxtA gene in Alexandrium minutum.

  2. Unique carotenoid lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a large group of unicellular alge in marine and fresh water. Some are an endosymbiont of marine animals. Photosynthetic dinoflagellates have peridinin, a light-harvesting carotenoid. In addition, a unique carotenoid, P457, was found from Amphinidium. The presence of P457 in Symbiodinium derived from marine animals has not been reported. We reconfirmed the molecular structure of P457, a neoxanthin-like carotenoid with an aldehyde group and a lactoside, from Symbiodinium sp. NBRC 104787 isolated from a sea anemone. In addition, we investigated the distribution of P457 and peridinin in various Symbiodinium and scleractinian coral species, and possible biosynthetic pathways of these carotenoids are proposed. PMID:22428117

  3. Estimating mutual information.

    PubMed

    Kraskov, Alexander; Stögbauer, Harald; Grassberger, Peter

    2004-06-01

    We present two classes of improved estimators for mutual information M(X,Y), from samples of random points distributed according to some joint probability density mu(x,y). In contrast to conventional estimators based on binnings, they are based on entropy estimates from k -nearest neighbor distances. This means that they are data efficient (with k=1 we resolve structures down to the smallest possible scales), adaptive (the resolution is higher where data are more numerous), and have minimal bias. Indeed, the bias of the underlying entropy estimates is mainly due to nonuniformity of the density at the smallest resolved scale, giving typically systematic errors which scale as functions of k/N for N points. Numerically, we find that both families become exact for independent distributions, i.e. the estimator M(X,Y) vanishes (up to statistical fluctuations) if mu(x,y)=mu(x)mu(y). This holds for all tested marginal distributions and for all dimensions of x and y. In addition, we give estimators for redundancies between more than two random variables. We compare our algorithms in detail with existing algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our estimators for assessing the actual independence of components obtained from independent component analysis (ICA), for improving ICA, and for estimating the reliability of blind source separation. PMID:15244698

  4. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    PubMed

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market. PMID:22288336

  5. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  6. Dinoflagellates and ciliates at Helgoland Roads, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löder, Martin Günther Joachim; Kraberg, Alexandra Claudia; Aberle, Nicole; Peters, Silvia; Wiltshire, Karen Helen

    2012-03-01

    A monitoring programme for microzooplankton was started at the long-term sampling station "Kabeltonne" at Helgoland Roads (54°11.3'N; 7°54.0'E) in January 2007 in order to provide more detailed knowledge on microzooplankton occurrence, composition and seasonality patterns at this site and to complement the existing plankton data series. Ciliate and dinoflagellate cell concentration and carbon biomass were recorded on a weekly basis. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were considerably more important in terms of biomass than ciliates, especially during the summer months. However, in early spring, ciliates were the major group of microzooplankton grazers as they responded more quickly to phytoplankton food availability. Mixotrophic dinoflagellates played a secondary role in terms of biomass when compared to heterotrophic species; nevertheless, they made up an intense late summer bloom in 2007. The photosynthetic ciliate Myrionecta rubra bloomed at the end of the sampling period. Due to its high biomass when compared to crustacean plankton especially during the spring bloom, microzooplankton should be regarded as the more important phytoplankton grazer group at Helgoland Roads. Based on these results, analyses of biotic and abiotic factors driving microzooplankton composition and abundance are necessary for a full understanding of this important component of the plankton.

  7. The Hedgehog gene family of the cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, and implications for understanding metazoan Hedgehog pathway evolution

    PubMed Central

    Matus, David Q.; Magie, Craig; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q; Thomsen, Gerald H.

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is an important component of cell-cell communication during bilaterian development, and abnormal Hedgehog signaling contributes to disease and birth defects. Hedgehog genes are composed of a ligand (“hedge”) domain and an autocatalytic intein (“hog”) domain. Hedgehog (hh) ligands bind to a conserved set of receptors and activate downstream signal transduction pathways terminating with Gli/Ci transcription factors. We have identified five intein-containing genes in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, two of which (NvHh1 and NvHh2) contain definitive hedgehog ligand domains, suggesting that to date, cnidarians are the earliest branching metazoan phylum to possess definitive Hh orthologs. Expression analysis of NvHh1 and NvHh2, the receptor NvPatched and a downstream transcription factor NvGli (a Gli3/Ci ortholog) indicate that these genes may have conserved roles in planar and trans-epithelial signaling during gut and germline development, while the three remaining intein-containing genes (NvHint1,2,3) are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in putative neural precursors. Metazoan intein-containing genes that lack a ligand domain have previously only been identified within nematodes. However, phylogenetic analyses suggest that these nematode inteins may be derived from an ancestral nematode true hedgehog gene, and that the non-bilaterian intein-containing genes identified here may represent an ancestral state prior to the domain swapping events that resulted in the formation of true hedgehog genes in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Genomic surveys of N. vectensis suggest that most of the components of both protostome and deuterostome Hh signaling pathways are present in anthozoans and that some appear to have been lost in ecdysozoan lineages. Cnidarians possess many bilaterian cell-cell signaling pathways (Wnt, TGFß, FGF and Hh) that appear to act in concert to pattern tissues along the oral-aboral axis of the polyp

  8. A Non-sulfated Chondroitin Stabilizes Membrane Tubulation in Cnidarian Organelles*

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Patrizia; Zenkert, Claudia; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Yamada, Shuhei; Murakoshi, Saori; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Hwang, Jung Shan; Gojobori, Takashi; Holstein, Thomas W.; Özbek, Suat

    2010-01-01

    Membrane tubulation is generally associated with rearrangements of the cytoskeleton and other cytoplasmic factors. Little is known about the contribution of extracellular matrix components to this process. Here, we demonstrate an essential role of proteoglycans in the tubulation of the cnidarian nematocyst vesicle. The morphogenesis of this extrusive organelle takes place inside a giant post-Golgi vesicle, which topologically represents extracellular space. This process includes the formation of a complex collagenous capsule structure that elongates into a long tubule, which invaginates after its completion. We show that a non-sulfated chondroitin appears as a scaffold in early morphogenesis of all nematocyst types in Hydra and Nematostella. It accompanies the tubulation of the vesicle membrane forming a provisional tubule structure, which after invagination matures by collagen incorporation. Inhibition of chondroitin synthesis by β-xylosides arrests nematocyst morphogenesis at different stages of tubule outgrowth resulting in retention of tubule material and a depletion of mature capsules in the tentacles of hydra. Our data suggest a conserved role of proteoglycans in the stabilization of a membrane protrusion as an essential step in organelle morphogenesis. PMID:20538610

  9. A cnidarian homologue of an insect gustatory receptor functions in developmental body patterning

    PubMed Central

    Saina, Michael; Busengdal, Henriette; Sinigaglia, Chiara; Petrone, Libero; Oliveri, Paola; Rentzsch, Fabian; Benton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Insect Gustatory and Odorant Receptors (GRs and ORs) form a superfamily of novel transmembrane proteins, which are expressed in chemosensory neurons that detect environmental stimuli. Here we identify homologues of GRs (Gustatory receptor-like (Grl) genes) in genomes across Protostomia, Deuterostomia and non-Bilateria. Surprisingly, two Grls in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, NvecGrl1 and NvecGrl2, are expressed early in development, in the blastula and gastrula, but not at later stages when a putative chemosensory organ forms. NvecGrl1 transcripts are detected around the arboral pole, considered the equivalent to the head-forming region of Bilateria. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of NvecGrl1 causes developmental patterning defects of this region, leading to animals lacking the apical sensory organ. A deuterostome Grl from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus displays similar patterns of developmental expression. These results reveal an early evolutionary origin of the insect chemosensory receptor family, and raise the possibility that their ancestral role was in embryonic development. PMID:25692633

  10. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma C.; Layden, Michael J.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps. PMID:26555239

  11. The nerve ring in cnidarians: its presence and structure in hydrozoan medusae.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Osamu; Hamada, Shun; Minobe, Sumiko; Hamaguchi-Hamada, Kayoko; Kurumata-Shigeto, Mami; Nakamura, Masaru; Namikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In our previous studies of the Hydra nerve ring, we proposed the following hypothesis: "The nerve ring in the hypostome of Hydra is a central nervous system (CNS)-like neuronal structure." Related to this hypothesis, we have started to survey the nerve ring immunocytochemically using antibodies against neuropeptides throughout the whole phylum of cnidarians. In the present study, we describe nerve rings in hydrozoan medusae. We examined the medusae of five hydrozoan species belonging to three orders: Eirene sp. (order Leptomedusae), Craspedacusta sowerbyi (order Limnomedusae), Sarsia tubulosa, Turritopsis nutricula, and Cladonema radiatum (order Anthomedusae). We observed a well-developed nerve ring in all species. The nerve ring runs circumferentially around the margin of the bell. In all cases, the nerve ring was visualized by plural antibodies, suggesting that it contains different neural subpopulations. In C. radiatum, antibodies against four different neuropeptides labeled the nerve ring. We established clear (without undesirable cross-reactions) double-staining procedures with two rabbit primary antibodies. Using the double-staining method, three neural subsets visualized by three antibodies revealed completely separate neural populations. The results show that the nerve ring is a common feature in hydrozoan medusae and has a complex heterogeneous structure composed of different neural subsets. PMID:25498132

  12. New roles for Nanos in neural cell fate determination revealed by studies in a cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Kanska, Justyna; Frank, Uri

    2013-07-15

    Nanos is a pan-metazoan germline marker, important for germ cell development and maintenance. In flies, Nanos also acts in posterior and neural development, but these functions have not been demonstrated experimentally in other animals. Using the cnidarian Hydractinia we have uncovered novel roles for Nanos in neural cell fate determination. Ectopic expression of Nanos2 increased the numbers of embryonic stinging cell progenitors, but decreased the numbers of neurons. Downregulation of Nanos2 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, Nanos2 blocked maturation of committed, post-mitotic nematoblasts. Hence, Nanos2 acts as a switch between two differentiation pathways, increasing the numbers of nematoblasts at the expense of neuroblasts, but preventing nematocyte maturation. Nanos2 ectopic expression also caused patterning defects, but these were not associated with deregulation of Wnt signaling, showing that the basic anterior-posterior polarity remained intact, and suggesting that numerical imbalance between nematocytes and neurons might have caused these defects, affecting axial patterning only indirectly. We propose that the functions of Nanos in germ cells and in neural development are evolutionarily conserved, but its role in posterior patterning is an insect or arthropod innovation. PMID:23659997

  13. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma C; Layden, Michael J; van Rossum, Damian B; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps. PMID:26555239

  14. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  15. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  16. Distinct mechanisms underlie oral vs aboral regeneration in the cnidarian Hydractinia echinata

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Brian; Thompson, Kerry; Frank, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians possess remarkable powers of regeneration, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. Studying the hydrozoan Hydractinia echinata we show that a burst of stem cell proliferation occurs following decapitation, forming a blastema at the oral pole within 24 hr. This process is necessary for head regeneration. Knocking down Piwi1, Vasa, Pl10 or Ncol1 expressed by blastema cells inhibited regeneration but not blastema formation. EdU pulse-chase experiments and in vivo tracking of individual transgenic Piwi1+ stem cells showed that the cellular source for blastema formation is migration of stem cells from a remote area. Surprisingly, no blastema developed at the aboral pole after stolon removal. Instead, polyps transformed into stolons and then budded polyps. Hence, distinct mechanisms act to regenerate different body parts in Hydractinia. This model, where stem cell behavior can be monitored in vivo at single cell resolution, offers new insights for regenerative biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05506.001 PMID:25884246

  17. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roberto; Liu, Li; Lopez, Jose; An, Tianying; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS) genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum. PMID:18728765

  18. Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered. PMID:25278758

  19. Proof that dinoflagellate spliced leader (DinoSL) is a useful hook for fishing dinoflagellate transcripts from mixed microbial samples: Symbiodinium kawagutii as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Gill, John; Lin, Senjie

    2013-07-01

    The ability to analyze dinoflagellate lineage-specific transcriptomes in the natural environment would be powerful for gaining understanding on how these organisms thrive in diverse environments and how they form harmful algal blooms and produce biotoxins. This can be made possible by lineage-specific mRNA markers such as the dinoflagellate-specific trans-spliced leader (DinoSL). By constructing and sequencing a 5'-cap selective full-length cDNA library for a monoculture of the coral reef endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii and a DinoSL-based cDNA library for a mixture of S. kawagutii and other phytoplankton, we found DinoSL in essentially all full-length cDNAs in the 5'-cap selective library. We also discovered that the DinoSL-based library contained functionally diverse transcripts all belonging to dinoflagellates with no evidence of biases toward certain groups of functional genes. The results verified that DinoSL is specific to dinoflagellate mRNAs and is ubiquitous in the dinoflagellate transcriptomes. Annotation of the unigene dataset generated from the two libraries combined indicated high functional diversity of the transcriptome and revealed some biochemical pathways previously undocumented in Symbiodinium such as an mRNA splicing machinery potentially serving both cis- and trans-splicing. The protocol will be useful for transcriptomic studies of Symbiodinium in hospite and other dinoflagellates in natural environments. PMID:23773861

  20. The Mitochondrial Genome and Transcriptome of the Basal Dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp.: Character Evolution within the Highly Derived Mitochondrial Genomes of Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Gornik, S. G.; Waller, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    The sister phyla dinoflagellates and apicomplexans inherited a drastically reduced mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) containing only three protein-coding (cob, cox1, and cox3) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In apicomplexans, single copies of these genes are encoded on the smallest known mtDNA chromosome (6 kb). In dinoflagellates, however, the genome has undergone further substantial modifications, including massive genome amplification and recombination resulting in multiple copies of each gene and gene fragments linked in numerous combinations. Furthermore, protein-encoding genes have lost standard stop codons, trans-splicing of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is required to generate complete cox3 transcripts, and extensive RNA editing recodes most genes. From taxa investigated to date, it is unclear when many of these unusual dinoflagellate mtDNA characters evolved. To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial genome and transcriptome character states of the deep branching dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Genomic data show that like later-branching dinoflagellates Hematodinium sp. also contains an inflated, heavily recombined genome of multicopy genes and gene fragments. Although stop codons are also lacking for cox1 and cob, cox3 still encodes a conventional stop codon. Extensive editing of mRNAs also occurs in Hematodinium sp. The mtDNA of basal dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. indicates that much of the mtDNA modification in dinoflagellates occurred early in this lineage, including genome amplification and recombination, and decreased use of standard stop codons. Trans-splicing, on the other hand, occurred after Hematodinium sp. diverged. Only RNA editing presents a nonlinear pattern of evolution in dinoflagellates as this process occurs in Hematodinium sp. but is absent in some later-branching taxa indicating that this process was either lost in some lineages or developed more than once during the evolution of the highly unusual

  1. EFFECT OF FLUID SHEAR AND IRRADIANCE ON POPULATION GROWTH AND CELLULAR TOXIN CONTENT OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for in situ turbulence to inhibit dinoflagellate population growth has been demonstrated by experimentally exposing dinoflagellate cultures to quantified shear flow. However, despite interest in understanding environmental factors that affect the growth of toxic din...

  2. STRATEGIES OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE SURVIVAL AND SOME RULES OF ASSEMBLY. (R829368)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed t...

  3. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or...-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual... insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on an...

  5. New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Leggat, William; Kaniewska, Paulina; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78–99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15–21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6–7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in an increased Hb-1 gene expression of 31% after 72 h only, whereas transcript abundance of the Hb-2 gene was enhanced by up to 59% by both 1-day and 3-day thermal stress conditions. Nutrient stress also increased gene expression of Hb-2 gene by 70%. Our findings describe the differential expression patterns of two novel Hb genes from symbiotic dinoflagellates and their polymorphic nature. Furthermore, the inducible nature of Hb-2 gene by both thermal and nutrient stressors indicates a prospective role of this form of hemoglobin in the initial coral–algal responses to changes in environmental conditions. This novel hemoglobin has potential use as a stress biomarker. PMID:23610627

  6. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species-specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions. PMID:25603395

  7. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrea M; Pospelova, Vera; Coffin, Michael R S; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2016-08-01

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has an important influence on cyst assemblages. Due to greater seasonal variations in SSTs and SSSs in estuaries compared to the open ocean, cyst assemblages show distinct latitudinal trends. The estuarine context is important for understanding present-day species distribution, the factors controlling them, and to better predict how they may change in the future. PMID:27547344

  8. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W.; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and ‘self-restraint’ of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or ‘self-restraint’ of symbionts.

  9. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and 'self-restraint' of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or 'self-restraint' of symbionts. PMID:26434680

  10. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W.; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and ‘self-restraint’ of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or ‘self-restraint’ of symbionts. PMID:26434680

  11. Spliced leader–based metatranscriptomic analyses lead to recognition of hidden genomic features in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Tran, Bao; Gill, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) for a specific lineage of eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Dinoflagellata) would be instrumental for unraveling the genetic mechanisms by which these microbes respond to the natural environment, but it has not been exploited because of technical difficulties. Using the recently discovered dinoflagellate mRNA-specific spliced leader as a selective primer, we constructed cDNA libraries (e-cDNAs) from one marine and two freshwater plankton assemblages. Small-scale sequencing of the e-cDNAs revealed functionally diverse transcriptomes proven to be of dinoflagellate origin. A set of dinoflagellate common genes and transcripts of dominant dinoflagellate species were identified. Further analyses of the dataset prompted us to delve into the existing, largely unannotated dinoflagellate EST datasets (DinoEST). Consequently, all four nucleosome core histones, two histone modification proteins, and a nucleosome assembly protein were detected, clearly indicating the presence of nucleosome-like machinery long thought not to exist in dinoflagellates. The isolation of rhodopsin from taxonomically and ecotypically diverse dinoflagellates and its structural similarity and phylogenetic affinity to xanthorhodopsin suggest a common genetic potential in dinoflagellates to use solar energy nonphotosynthetically. Furthermore, we found 55 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RPs) from the e-cDNAs and 24 more from DinoEST, showing that the dinoflagellate phylum possesses all 79 eukaryotic RPs. Our results suggest that a sophisticated eukaryotic molecular machine operates in dinoflagellates that likely encodes many more unsuspected physiological capabilities and, meanwhile, demonstrate that unique spliced leaders are useful for profiling lineage-specific microbial transcriptomes in situ. PMID:21041634

  12. Hierarchical clustering using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraskov, A.; Stögbauer, H.; Andrzejak, R. G.; Grassberger, P.

    2005-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple method for hierarchical clustering of data called mutual information clustering (MIC) algorithm. It uses mutual information (MI) as a similarity measure and exploits its grouping property: The MI between three objects X, Y, and Z is equal to the sum of the MI between X and Y, plus the MI between Z and the combined object (XY). We use this both in the Shannon (probabilistic) version of information theory and in the Kolmogorov (algorithmic) version. We apply our method to the construction of phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial DNA sequences and to the output of independent components analysis (ICA) as illustrated with the ECG of a pregnant woman.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria. PMID:18222615

  14. First Description of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacterial Symbiosis in a Cnidarian (Medusozoa) Living in Sulphidic Shallow-Water Environments

    PubMed Central

    Abouna, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Grimonprez, Adrien; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of thioautotrophic bacterial symbiosis in the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, there has been great impetus to investigate such partnerships in other invertebrates. In this study, we present the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a metazoan belonging to the phylum Cnidaria in which this event has never been described previously. Methodology/Principal Findings Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXs) analysis, were employed to unveil the presence of prokaryotes population bearing elemental sulphur granules, growing on the body surface of the metazoan. Phylogenetic assessments were also undertaken to identify this invertebrate and microorganisms in thiotrophic symbiosis. Our results showed the occurrence of a thiotrophic symbiosis in a cnidarian identified as Cladonema sp. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report describing the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a cnidarian. Furthermore, of the two adult morphologies, the polyp and medusa, this mutualistic association was found restricted to the polyp form of Cladonema sp. PMID:26011278

  15. Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with pre-Triassic ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldowan, J. Michael; Dahl, Jeremy; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Fago, Frederick J.; Shetty, Rupa; Watt, David S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1996-02-01

    New data from numerous detailed mass-spectrometric studies have detected triaromatic dinosteroids in Precambrian to Cenozoic rock samples. Triaromatic dinosteroids are organic geochemicals derived from dinosterols, compounds known in modern organisms to be the nearly exclusive widely occurring products of dinoflagellates. We observed the ubiquitous occurrence of these dinosteroids in 49 Late Triassic through Cretaceous marine source rocks and the absence of them in 13 Permian-Carboniferous source rocks synergistic with the dinoflagellate cyst record. However, finding dinosteroids in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian strata presents challenging results for molecular paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, palynologists, and especially for those concerned with the food web at various times of biological crisis. Other than the few species known as parasites and symbionts, many other dinoflagellate species are important as primary producers. The presence of Precambrian to Devonian triaromatic dinosteroids gives chemostratigraphic evidence of dinoflagellates (or other organisms with similar chemosynthetic capabilities) in rocks significantly older than the oldest undisputed dinoflagellate fossils (dinoflagellate cysts from the Middle Triassic, ˜ 240 Ma), and older than the putative Silurian ˜ 420 Ma) dinocyst,Arpylorus antiquus (Calandra) Sargent, from Tunisia. This systematic chemostratigraphic approach can shed light not only on lineages of dinoflagellates and their precursors, but potentially on many other lineages, especially bacteria, algae, plants, and possibly some metazoans.

  16. NanoSIMS study of trophic interactions in the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Mathieu, Pernice; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Spangenberg, Jorge; Alexander, Duncan; Hignette, Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Meibom, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Tropical and subtropical reef-building corals generally form a stable endosymbiotic association with autotrophic single-celled dinoflagellate algae, commonly known as "zooxanthellae", which is crucial for the development of coral reef ecosystems. In the present work, the spatial and temporal dynamics of trophic interactions between corals and their dinoflagellates was investigated in situ and at a subcellular level in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of tissue ultra-thin sections (70 nm) were combined to precisely track the assimilation and the fate of 15N-labeled compounds (ammonium, nitrate and aspartic acid) within each symbiotic partner of the coral-dinoflagellate association. Among our main results, we found that (i) both dinoflagellate algae and coral tissue rapidly assimilate ammonium and aspartic acid from the environment, (ii) however only the dinoflagellates assimilate nitrate, (ii) nitrogen is rapidly and temporary stored within the dinoflagellate cells into uric acid crystals, and (iii) the dinoflagellate endosymbionts translocate nitrogenous compounds to their coral host. This study paves the way for exploring in details the wide range of metabolic interactions between partners of any symbiosis in the biosphere.

  17. Cob gene pyrosequencing enables characterization of benthic dinoflagellate diversity and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; Neilan, Brett A; Brown, Mark V; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna A

    2014-02-01

    Dinoflagellates in marine benthic habitats living epiphytically on macroalgae are an important but highly understudied group of protists. Many produce toxins that can have severe economic impacts on marine-based economies, and improved monitoring tools are required to enhance the management of toxin-related hazards. We analysed the distribution and diversity of epibenthic dinoflagellates inhabiting eight sites in Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Broome and Exmouth, Western Australia. We used pyrosequencing approaches based on two DNA barcoding marker genes - 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) - and compared these to an approach based on clone libraries (197 sequences) using the cob gene. Dinoflagellate sequences accounted for 133 [64 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU)] out of 10 529 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from all samples. However, using the dinoflagellate specific assay targeting the cob gene marker, we obtained 9748 (1217 unique OTU) dinoflagellate sequences from the same environmental samples, providing the largest, to date, set of dinoflagellate cob gene sequences and reliable estimates of total dinoflagellate richness within the samples and biogeographic comparisons between samples. This study also reports the presence of potentially toxic species of the genera Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, Coolia, Prorocentrum and Amphidinium from the above-mentioned geographical regions. PMID:24147781

  18. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  19. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny. PMID:16677346

  20. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  1. Mutual Respect and Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

  2. Discovery of Nuclear-Encoded Genes for the Neurotoxin Saxitoxin in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Kellmann, Ralf; Murray, Shauna A.; Neilan, Brett A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2011-01-01

    Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced >1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused on sxtA, the unique starting gene of saxitoxin synthesis, and show that the dinoflagellate transcripts of sxtA have the same domain structure as the cyanobacterial sxtA genes. But, in contrast to the bacterial homologs, the dinoflagellate transcripts are monocistronic, have a higher GC content, occur in multiple copies, contain typical dinoflagellate spliced-leader sequences and eukaryotic polyA-tails. Further, we investigated 28 saxitoxin-producing and non-producing dinoflagellate strains from six different genera for the presence of genomic sxtA homologs. Our results show very good agreement between the presence of sxtA and saxitoxin-synthesis, except in three strains of A. tamarense, for which we amplified sxtA, but did not detect the toxin. Our work opens for possibilities to develop molecular tools to detect saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in the environment. PMID:21625593

  3. Evolution of thioester-containing proteins revealed by cloning and characterization of their genes from a cnidarian sea anemone, Haliplanella lineate.

    PubMed

    Fujito, Naoko T; Sugimoto, Sanae; Nonaka, Masaru

    2010-07-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary origin of genes encoding thioester-containing proteins (TEPs), TEP genes were isolated from a cnidarian, a sea anemone, Haliplanella lineate. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the four identified cnidarian TEP genes and various TEP genes of many metazoa, indicated that they could be classified into two subfamilies: the alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) subfamily encodining A2M, CD109 and insect TEPs, and the C3 subfamily encoding complement C3, C4 and C5. Two of the four cnidarian TEP genes belonged to the A2M subfamily, showing a close similarity to human A2M and CD109, respectively and thus were termed HaliA2M and HaliCD109. The other two genes belonged to the C3 subfamily, and were termed HaliC3-1 and HaliC3-2. Cnidarian TEPs retained the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule, and their mRNA were detected at different parts of the sea anemone body. These results suggest that gene duplication and subsequent functional differentiation among C3, A2M and CD109 were very ancient events predating the divergence of the cnidaria and bilateria. PMID:20188753

  4. Mycosporine-like amino acids from coral dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Dove, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (<400-Da), colorless, water-soluble compounds made of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore that is bound to an amino acid residue or its imino alcohol. These secondary metabolites are natural biological sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing singlet oxygen-induced damage. It has been proposed that MAAs are synthesized during the first part of the shikimate pathway, and recently, it has been suggested that they are synthesized in the pentose phosphate pathway. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants and microbes, it connects the metabolism of carbohydrates to the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. However, both the complete enzymatic pathway of MAA synthesis and the extent of their regulation by environmental conditions are not known. This minireview discusses the current knowledge of MAA

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  6. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  7. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  8. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  9. Molecular Detection of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates in Surface Waters of the Patagonian Shelf during Early Austral Summer 2008

    PubMed Central

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C.; Allen, John T.; Balch, William M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using “universal” PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  10. Molecular detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Patagonian shelf during early austral summer 2008.

    PubMed

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C; Allen, John T; Balch, William M; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using "universal" PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  11. Seasonality in the distribution of dinoflagellates with special reference to harmful algal species in tropical coastal environment, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gouri; Mohanty, A K; Samantara, M K; Satpathy, K K

    2014-10-01

    A study was carried out in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, to find out the seasonal variation in dinoflagellate community structure. Samples were collected for a period of 4 years during 2006-2010. During the study 69 species of dinoflagellates were encountered among which Ceratium furca and Prorocentrum micans were most common during all the seasons. Genus Ceratium was found to be the most diverse one with 23 species which was followed by genus Protoperidinium with 16 species. Of 69 species, 27 species were considered as dominant based on their abundance during pre-monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post-monsoon (POM) periods. Relatively high density and diversity of dinoflagellates were encountered during the PRM period as compared to the MON and POM periods. Abundance pattern of dinoflagellates for three seasons showed the following trend: PRM > POM > MON. Salinity showed a positive correlation with dinoflagellate community showing its importance in dinoflagellate growth and sustenance. Ammonia and phosphate developed negative correlation with dinoflagellate density indicating the utilization of these nutrients by the dinoflagellate community. The presence of three dinoflagellate associations, broadly representing the three seasons experienced at this location, was evident from the cluster analysis. The study revealed presence of 19 relatively abundant toxic/red tide forming dinoflagellate species in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam. PMID:25012144

  12. Mutual impedance computation between printed dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, N. G.; Rana, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The mutual impedance between microstrip dipoles printed on a grounded substrate is computed. Results for the microstrip dipoles in broadside, collinear, and echelon arrangements are presented. The significance of surface wave to mutual coupling is discussed.

  13. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  14. MECHANISMS OF FLUID SHEAR-INDUCED INHIBITION OF POPULATION GROWTH IN A RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net population growth of some dinoflagellates is inhibited by fluid shear at shear stresses comparable with those generated during oceanic turbulence. Decreased net growth may occur through lowered cell division, increased mortality, or both. The dominant mechanism under various ...

  15. Simulation and analysis of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, M. J.; Antonelli, T.; Coyne, K. J.; Rossi, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system and uses simulations to validate theoretical and experimental studies. A simple model for predator-prey interactions is derived by drawing upon analogies from chemical kinetics. This model is then modified to account for inefficiencies in predation. Simulation results are shown to closely match the model predictions. Additional simulations are then run which are based on experimental observations of predatory dinoflagellate behavior, and this study specifically investigates how the predatory dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum uses toxins to immobilize its prey and increase its feeding rate. These simulations account for complex dynamics that were not included in the basic models, and the results from these computational simulations closely match the experimentally observed predatory behavior of K. veneficum and reinforce the notion that predatory dinoflagellates utilize toxins to increase their feeding rate.

  16. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  17. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  18. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  19. Parents Helping Parents: Mutual Parenting Network Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkinson, Charles H.; Redmond, Robert F.

    Guidelines for mutual parenting are provided in this handbook. "Mutual parenting" means that everyone in the community shares the responsibility for the safety and well-being of the community's youngsters. Several topics are discussed in the 15 brief chapters of the handbook. Chapters 1 through 3 focus on the formation of a mutual parenting…

  20. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  1. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested. PMID:25251681

  2. Characterization of Small HSPs from Anemonia viridis Reveals Insights into Molecular Evolution of Alpha Crystallin Genes among Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested. PMID:25251681

  3. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  4. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-01-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  5. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-08-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  6. Complex response of dinoflagellate distribution patterns to cooler early Oligocene global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Mark; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Williams, Mark; Riding, James; De Schepper, Stijn; Sabbe, Koen

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of dinoflagellate cysts using two new global ocean datasets for the Mid Eocene (Bartonian) and Early Oligocene (Rupelian) reveals unexpected changes in their global distribution. The impact of Rupelian cooling appears to be globally asymmetric; the dinoflagellate cyst cooling signal is clearer in the southern hemisphere, but much less evident in the northern hemisphere. Additionally, a significant number of species with low and mid-latitude northern hemisphere occurrences in the Bartonian, unexpectedly extend their northward ranges in the Rupelian, including some 'warm water' forms. This may show that Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution is a response to changes in a range of environmental variables linked to climate-cooling, for example changes in nutrient fluxes triggered by glacially-induced base-level fall, or complex reorganisation of ocean current systems between the Bartonian and Rupelian. Apparent lack of a clear climate-cooling signal in Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution may in part reflect published evidence suggesting that summer SSTs in the early Rupelian northern hemisphere were only slightly reduced compared to the later part of the Eocene, despite much colder winters. The relatively broad temperature tolerance of many extant dinoflagellate species, and dormant cyst formation during short-lived environmental deterioration, may have contributed to allowing Rupelian dinoflagellates to thrive in more highly seasonal but otherwise hospitable, northern hemisphere oceans.

  7. Signal recognition particle RNA in dinoflagellates and the Perkinsid Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Rosenblad, Magnus A; Dungan, Christopher F; Lin, Senjie

    2013-09-01

    In dinoflagellates and perkinsids, the molecular structure of the protein translocating machinery is unclear. Here, we identified several types of full-length signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA genes from Karenia brevis (dinoflagellate) and Perkinsus marinus (perkinsid). We also identified the four SRP S-domain proteins, but not the two Alu domain proteins, from P. marinus and several dinoflagellates. We mapped both ends of SRP RNA transcripts from K. brevis and P. marinus, and obtained the 3' end from four other dinoflagellates. The lengths of SRP RNA are predicted to be ∼260-300 nt in dinoflagellates and 280-285 nt in P. marinus. Although these SRP RNA sequences are substantially variable, the predicted structures are similar. The genomic organization of the SRP RNA gene differs among species. In K. brevis, this gene is located downstream of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, either as SL RNA-SRP RNA-tRNA gene tandem repeats, or within a SL RNA-SRP RNA-tRNA-U6-5S rRNA gene cluster. In other dinoflagellates, SRP RNA does not cluster with SL RNA or 5S rRNA genes. The majority of P. marinus SRP RNA genes array as tandem repeats without the above-mentioned small RNA genes. Our results capture a snapshot of a potentially complex evolutionary history of SRP RNA in alveolates. PMID:23994724

  8. Identification of Genetic Modules Mediating the Jekyll and Hyde Interaction of Dinoroseobacter shibae with the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tomasch, Jürgen; Michael, Victoria; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Petersen, Jörn; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The co-cultivation of the alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is characterized by a mutualistic phase followed by a pathogenic phase in which the bacterium kills aging algae. Thus it resembles the "Jekyll-and-Hyde" interaction that has been proposed for other algae and Roseobacter. Here, we identified key genetic components of this interaction. Analysis of the transcriptome of D. shibae in co-culture with P. minimum revealed growth phase dependent changes in the expression of quorum sensing, the CtrA phosphorelay, and flagella biosynthesis genes. Deletion of the histidine kinase gene cckA which is part of the CtrA phosphorelay or the flagella genes fliC or flgK resulted in complete lack of growth stimulation of P. minimum in co-culture with the D. shibae mutants. By contrast, pathogenicity was entirely dependent on one of the extrachromosomal elements of D. shibae, the 191 kb plasmid. The data show that flagella and the CtrA phosphorelay are required for establishing mutualism and prove a cell density dependent killing effect of D. shibae on P. minimum which is mediated by an unknown factor encoded on the 191 kb plasmid. PMID:26617596

  9. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  10. Identification of Genetic Modules Mediating the Jekyll and Hyde Interaction of Dinoroseobacter shibae with the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Tomasch, Jürgen; Michael, Victoria; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Petersen, Jörn; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The co-cultivation of the alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is characterized by a mutualistic phase followed by a pathogenic phase in which the bacterium kills aging algae. Thus it resembles the “Jekyll-and-Hyde” interaction that has been proposed for other algae and Roseobacter. Here, we identified key genetic components of this interaction. Analysis of the transcriptome of D. shibae in co-culture with P. minimum revealed growth phase dependent changes in the expression of quorum sensing, the CtrA phosphorelay, and flagella biosynthesis genes. Deletion of the histidine kinase gene cckA which is part of the CtrA phosphorelay or the flagella genes fliC or flgK resulted in complete lack of growth stimulation of P. minimum in co-culture with the D. shibae mutants. By contrast, pathogenicity was entirely dependent on one of the extrachromosomal elements of D. shibae, the 191 kb plasmid. The data show that flagella and the CtrA phosphorelay are required for establishing mutualism and prove a cell density dependent killing effect of D. shibae on P. minimum which is mediated by an unknown factor encoded on the 191 kb plasmid. PMID:26617596

  11. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  12. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  13. A new approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms from space in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shaoling; Wu, Jingyu; Huang, Bangqin; Lin, Gong; Lee, Zhongping; Liu, James; Shang, Shaoping

    2014-07-01

    Dinoflagellate and diatom blooms often occur in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring and summer. Some of the dinoflagellate blooms are toxic, resulting in widespread economic damage. In order to mitigate the negative impacts, remote-sensing methods that can effectively and accurately discriminate between bloom types are demanded for early warning and continuous monitoring of bloom events at large scales. An in situ bio-optical data set collected from diatom and dinoflagellate blooming waters indicates that the two types of blooms exhibited distinctive differences in the shapes and magnitudes of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs). The ratio of in situ measured Rrs spectral slopes at two spectral ranges (443-488 and 531-555 nm, bands available with the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) sensor), abbreviated as BI (representing bloom index), was found effective in differentiating dinoflagellates from diatoms. Reflectance model simulations, which were carried out using in situ and algal culture data as input, provided consistent results. A classification approach for separating dinoflagellate from diatom blooms in the ECS was then developed: When fluorescence line height (FLH) is doubled over the background level and total absorption coefficient at 443 nm ≥ 0.5 m-1, if 0.0 < BI ≤ 0.3, it suggests a dinoflagellate bloom; if 0.3 < BI ≤ 1.0, it suggests a diatom bloom. Finally, the approach was applied to MODIS measurements over the ECS, and a series of diatom and dinoflagellate bloom events during April-June 2005 and 2011 were successfully identified, suggesting that the proposed approach is generally valid for the ECS.

  14. Ocean Acidification Reduces Growth and Calcification in a Marine Dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii. PMID:23776586

  15. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, J.; Hughen, K.; Cervino, J.; Hauff, B.; Eglinton, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response.

  16. Environmental forcings of Paleogene Southern Ocean dinoflagellate biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Pross, Jörg; Warnaar, Jeroen; Stickley, Catherine E.; Huber, Matthew; Guerstein, Raquel; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sluijs, Appy; Visscher, Henk; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2011-02-01

    Despite warm polar climates and low meridional temperature gradients, a number of different high-latitude plankton assemblages were, to varying extents, dominated by endemic species during most of the Paleogene. To better understand the evolution of Paleogene plankton endemism in the high southern latitudes, we investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of the fossil remains of dinoflagellates, i.e., organic-walled cysts (dinocysts), and their response to changes in regional sea surface temperature (SST). We show that Paleocene and early Eocene (˜65-50 Ma) Southern Ocean dinocyst assemblages were largely cosmopolitan in nature but that a distinct switch from cosmopolitan-dominated to endemic-dominated assemblages (the so-called “transantarctic flora”) occurred around the early-middle Eocene boundary (˜50 Ma). The spatial distribution and relative abundance patterns of this transantarctic flora correspond well with surface water circulation patterns as reconstructed through general circulation model experiments throughout the Eocene. We quantitatively compare dinocyst assemblages with previously published TEX86-based SST reconstructions through the early and middle Eocene from a key locality in the southwest Pacific Ocean, ODP Leg 189 Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. We conclude that the middle Eocene onset of the proliferation of the transantarctic flora is not linearly correlated with regional SST records and that only after the transantarctic flora became fully established later in the middle Eocene, possibly triggered by large-scale changes in surface-ocean nutrient availability, were abundances of endemic dinocysts modulated by regional SST variations.

  17. An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Rathbun, G.B.; Bonde, R.K.; Buergelt, C.D.; Odell, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-wk period in early 1982, 39 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were found dead in the lower Caloosahatchee River and nearby waters of southwestern Florida. Two were killed by boats. The remainder showed no evidence of trauma. Lesions indicative of infectious agents were not identified, and bacteriological and contaminant residue findings were unremarkable. Nonspecific lesions of congestion and hemorrhage were identified in brain tissue. Numerous reports were also received of manatee morbidity. Some distressed manatees showed no biochemical lesions in clinical analyses of blood samples and recovered quickly. Timing of manatee illnesses coincided with fish and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) mortality and morbidity. A widespread bloom of the dinoflagellate red tide organism (Gymnodinium breve) also coincided with these incidents. G. breve produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins). Circumstantial evidence links these events, and possible routes of exposure may include ingestion of filter-feeding ascidians. Ecological conditions that magnified the extent of the epizootic included an early dispersal of manatees into the area from a nearby winter aggregation site and unusually high salinities that facilitated the inshore spread of the red tide bloom. Management responses to future episodes of red tide in manatee areas are suggested.

  18. Functional Relationship between a Dinoflagellate Host and Its Diatom Endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Burki, Fabien; Kolisko, Martin; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    While we know much about the evolutionary patterns of endosymbiotic organelle origins, we know less about how the actual process unfolded within each system. This is partly due to the massive changes endosymbiosis appears to trigger, and partly because most organelles evolved in the distant past. The dinotoms are dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts, and they represent a relatively recent but nevertheless obligate endosymbiotic association. We have carried out deep sequencing of both the host and endosymbiont transcriptomes from two dinotoms, Durinskia baltica and Glenodinium foliaceum, to examine how the nucleocytosolic compartments have functionally integrated. This analysis showed little or no functional reduction in either the endosymbiont or host, and no evidence for genetic integration. Rather, host and endosymbiont seem to be bound to each other via metabolites, such as photosynthate exported from the endosymbiont to the host as indicated by the presence of plastidic phosphate translocators in the host transcriptome. The host is able to synthesize starch, using plant-specific starch synthases, as a way to store imported photosynthate. PMID:27297471

  19. Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins. PMID:20403159

  20. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  1. Sedimentary Records of Harmful Bloom-Producing Dinoflagellates from Alvarado Lagoon (Southwestern Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, A.; Mertens, K. N.; ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sánchez Cabeza, J. A.; de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were studied from a sediment core collected in Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate their use as tracers of toxic algal blooms. The sedimentary record spans the last ~560 years (CE) and shows high abundances of Polysphaeridium zoharyi, the cyst of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, which is known to cause toxic blooms. Cyst fluxes in the sediment of the Alvarado lagoon suggest frequent blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in the past hundreds of years. Moreover, the high concentrations of the cysts (~ 4000 cysts g-1) in the "modern" surface sediment reveal that the area is susceptible to be affected by future blooms, especially during seasons of heavy rain and wind, when cysts are resuspended in the water column. The dinoflagellate cyst bank in sediment deserves special attention as it may constitute a source for the export of cells in adjacent regions. The cyst of other harmful dinoflagellates have been recovered in the sediment. They notably include those of the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum, which is here reported for the first time.

  2. Mutual information in classical spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Johannes; Troyer, Matthias; Verstraete, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The total many-body correlations present in finite temperature classical spin systems are studied using the concept of mutual information. As opposed to zero-temperature quantum phase transitions, the total correlations are not maximal at the phase transition, but reach a maximum in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase. The Shannon mutual information and the Renyi mutual information in both Ising and Potts models in two dimensions are calculated numerically by combining matrix product state algorithms and Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  3. Mutual enhancement of diverse terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Casey, Anne; Coenen, Amy; Konicek, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to map the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) nursing diagnoses to the International Classification for Nursing Practice Version 1.0 (ICNP®) and to compare the resulting representations and relationships to those within SNOMED® Clinical Terms (CT). Independent reviewers reached agreement on 25 (i.e. 64%) of the 39 parent-child relationships identified via the mappings between NANDA entities. Other parent-child relationships were more questionable and are in need of further discussion. This work does not seek to promote one terminology over any other. Rather, this collaborative effort has the potential to mutually enhance all three terminologies involved in the study: ICNP®, SNOMED® CT and NANDA. In doing so it provides an example of the type of collaborative effort that is needed to facilitate the development of tools to support interoperability at a global level. PMID:17238355

  4. Entanglement in Mutually Unbiased Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesniak, Marcin; Paterek, Tomasz; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-03-01

    Higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces are still not fully explored. One issue concerns mutually unbiased bases (MUBs). For primes and their powers (e.g.), full sets of MUBs are known. The question of existence of all MUBs in composite dimensions is still open. We show that for all full sets of MUBs of a given dimension a certain entanglement measure of the bases is constant. This fact could be an argument either for or against the existence of full sets of MUBs in some dimensions and tells us that almost all MUBs are maximally entangled for high-dimensional composite systems, whereas this is not the case for prime dimensions. We present a new construction of MUBs in squared prime dimensions. We use only one entangling operation, which simplifies possible experiments. The construction gives only product states and maximally entangled states. Research supported by ERC Advanced Grant QIT4QAD and FWF SFB-grant F4007 of the Austrian Science Fund.

  5. Evolution of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria: Study of Hydra Hox repertoire reveals tailor-made Hox-code for Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Unni, Manu K; Gungi, Akhila; Agarwal, Pallavi; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes play decisive roles in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in Bilateria. Evolutionary origin of Hox genes and primary body axis predate the divergence of Bilateria and Cnidaria. However, function of Cnidarian Hox-like genes and their regulation in axis determination is obscure due to studies limited to a few representative model systems. Present investigation is conducted using Hydra, a Hydrozoan member of phylum Cnidaria, to gain insights into the roles of Cnidarian Hox-like genes in primary axis formation. Here, we report identification of six Hox-like genes from our in-house transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows bilaterian counterparts of Hox1, Gsx and Mox. Additionally, we report CnoxB_HVUL, CnoxC2_HVUL and CnoxC3_HVUL belonging to two Cnidarian specific groups. In situ hybridization analysis of Hydra homologues provided important clues about their possible roles in pattern formation of polyps and bud development. Specifically, Hox1_HVUL is regulated by Wnt signaling and plays critical role in head formation. Collating information about expression patterns of different Hox-like genes from previous reports and this study reveals no conformity within Cnidaria. Indicating that unlike in Bilateria, there is no consolidated Hox-code determining primary body axis in Cnidaria. PMID:26278345

  6. Histone-Like Proteins of the Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Have Homologies to Bacterial DNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J. T. Y.; New, D. C.; Wong, J. C. W.; Hung, V. K. L.

    2003-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have very large genomes encoded in permanently condensed and histoneless chromosomes. Sequence alignment identified significant similarity between the dinoflagellate chromosomal histone-like proteins of Crypthecodinium cohnii (HCCs) and the bacterial DNA-binding and the eukaryotic histone H1 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis also supports the origin of the HCCs from histone-like proteins of bacteria. PMID:12796310

  7. THE "HYSTRICHOSPHAERID" RESTING SPORE OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE PYRODINIUM BAHAMENSE, PLATF, 1906(2).

    PubMed

    Wall, D; Dale, B

    1969-06-01

    Germination experiments demonstrate that the "hystrichosphere" called Hemicystodinium zoharyi, which previously has been found only as a microfossil organism, is the resting spore stage in the life history of Pyrodinium bahamense, a modern bioluminescent, thecate dinoflagellate. The morphology of this spore, together with new details of the thecal structure and ontogeny of P. bahamense, is described, and it is concluded that Pyrodinium is closely related to Gonyaulax but worthy of retention as a discrete genus. The geological history of P. bahamense is traceable to the Eocene through fossil occurrences of its spore, and it is suggested that additional pyrodinioid dinoflagellates which now are extinct were represented in Lower Tertiary seas by another hystrichosphere genus, called Homotryblium. Selected aspects of the physiology and ecology of modern dinoflagellate resting spores are discussed briefly with special reference to Pyrodinium. PMID:27096245

  8. Distribution of planktonic cnidarians in response to South Atlantic Central Water intrusion in the South Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico P.; Codina, Juan C. U.

    2014-10-01

    Five oceanographic cruises were made between November 2005 and June 2006, sampling a cross-shelf transect off the South Brazilian Bight (SBB; 26°46‧S) to follow the seasonal development of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusion over the shelf and its influence on the assemblage of planktonic cnidarians. An onshore wind-driven bottom intrusion of the SACW was clearly perceptible, reaching the coast in January. From March onward, the SACW influence was gradually displaced seaward due to wind and tidal mixing. By late June the SACW influence was offshore and the inshore was dominated by low-salinity waters (<34.5). The abundance, distribution, and general taxonomic composition of both medusae and siphonophores were strongly influenced by the onshore intrusion of the SACW. An inshore-offshore gradient was clear. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that coastal species - dominated by Liriope tetraphylla, actinula larvae and Muggiaea kochi - were mostly related to food availability and a vertically mixed environment inshore, and their abundance and extent were reduced during intrusion periods. In contrast, species with offshore affinities tended to increase their abundance and distribution during intrusion periods, and were mostly related to the presence of thermal stratification and a deep chlorophyll maximum layer. Most of these offshore species, such as Aglaura hemistoma, Rhopalonema velatum and many calycophorans, are associated with the warm upper layer. However, high concentrations of large (>20 mm in diameter) Solmaris corona were observed exclusively in cold waters, suggesting this medusa is a SACW indicator.

  9. The variability in DMSP content and DMSP lyase activity in marine dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruana, Amandine M. N.; Malin, Gill

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Maureen Keller and co-workers published a study that identified dinoflagellates as an important marine phytoplankton group with respect to the production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Here, we present a synthesis and analysis of all the DMSP and DMSP lyase activity (DLA) measurements currently available for dinoflagellates. The data cover 110 species and strains and reveal over 6 orders of magnitude variability in intracellular DMSP concentrations and substantial variations in DLA in 23 strains. Inter-specific variability was explored with reference to a range of biological characteristics. The presence of a theca did not appear to be related to DMSP concentration but there was a potential relationship with toxicity (P = 0.06) and bioluminescent species produced significantly lower concentrations (P < 0.01) than non-bioluminescent ones. DMSP concentrations were related to plastid types (P < 0.05); dinoflagellates with haptophyte-like plastids contained lower amounts of DMSP than those with peridinin plastids (P < 0.01), whereas those containing cryptomonad-like plastids tended to have higher DMSP concentrations. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were also considered given their importance in the natural environment. They are the only heterotrophs known to synthesise DMSP and this ability may support the theory that they are of photosynthetic origin. However, the heterotrophic species investigated so far suggest wide variability in DMSP content and the species Oxyrrhis marina had no detectable DMSP. The oceanic province of origin significantly affected the DMSP concentrations (P < 0.05) with higher DMSP content observed in dinoflagellates from the Mediterranean province, the Kuroshio Current province and the East Coastal Australian province. Overall this study supports the concept that DMSP-containing dinoflagellates are an important potential source of DMS to the global atmosphere and highlights current gaps in knowledge.

  10. Evidence for the Retention of Two Evolutionary Distinct Plastids in Dinoflagellates with Diatom Endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Imanian, Behzad; Burki, Fabien; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harboring diatom endosymbionts (termed “dinotoms”) have undergone a process often referred to as “tertiary endosymbiosis”—the uptake of algae containing secondary plastids and integration of those plastids into the new host. In contrast to other tertiary plastids, and most secondary plastids, the endosymbiont of dinotoms is distinctly less reduced, retaining a number of cellular features, such as their nucleus and mitochondria and others, in addition to their plastid. This has resulted in redundancy between host and endosymbiont, at least between some mitochondrial and cytosolic metabolism, where this has been investigated. The question of plastidial redundancy is particularly interesting as the fate of the host dinoflagellate plastid is unclear. The host cytosol possesses an eyespot that has been postulated to be a remnant of the ancestral peridinin plastid, but this has not been tested, nor has its possible retention of plastid functions. To investigate this possibility, we searched for plastid-associated pathways and functions in transcriptomic data sets from three dinotom species. We show that the dinoflagellate host has indeed retained genes for plastid-associated pathways and that these genes encode targeting peptides similar to those of other dinoflagellate plastid-targeted proteins. Moreover, we also identified one gene encoding an essential component of the dinoflagellate plastid protein import machinery, altogether suggesting the presence of a functioning plastid import system in the host, and by extension a relict plastid. The presence of the same plastid-associated pathways in the endosymbiont also extends the known functional redundancy in dinotoms, further confirming the unusual state of plastid integration in this group of dinoflagellates. PMID:25172904

  11. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Yum, Lauren K; Desalvo, Michael K; Lindquist, Erika; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Voolstra, Christian R; Medina, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22529998

  12. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  13. Victimization within Mutually Antipathetic Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2007-01-01

    Children's victimization experiences within relationships characterized by mutual animosity were examined among 210 6th- and 7th-grade boys and girls. Participants reported that a greater proportion of mutual antipathies, relative to other peers, victimized them. Moreover, the receipt of victimization within antipathetic relationships was greater…

  14. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

  15. Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Porter, S. B.; Trujillo, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.

    2012-10-01

    We report the latest results from a program of high spatial resolution imaging to resolve the individual components of binary transneptunian objects. These observations use Hubble Space Telescope and also laser guide star adaptive optics systems on Keck and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. From relative astrometry over multiple epochs, we determine the mutual orbits of the components, and thus the total masses of the systems. Accurate masses anchor subsequent detailed investigations into the physical characteristics of these systems. For instance, dynamical masses enable computation of bulk densities for systems where the component sizes can be estimated from other measurements. Additionally, patterns in the ensemble characteristics of binary orbits offer clues to circumstances in the protoplanetary nebula when these systems formed, as well as carrying imprints of various subsequent dynamical evolution processes. The growing ensemble of known orbits shows intriguing patterns that can shed light on the evolution of this population of distant objects. This work has been supported by an NSF Planetary Astronomy grant and by several Hubble Space Telescope and NASA Keck data analysis grants. The research makes use of data from the Gemini Observatory obtained through NOAO survey program 11A-0017, from a large number of Hubble Space Telescope programs, and from several NASA Keck programs.

  16. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3... COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize to become a mutual holding company, or join in a mutual holding company reorganization as an...

  17. Host-symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral-dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    LaJeunesse, Todd C; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E

    2010-10-01

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally 'sensitive' symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1(Aiptasia), genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral-algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities. PMID

  18. Host–symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral–dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance

    PubMed Central

    LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T.; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L.; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally ‘sensitive’ symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1Aiptasia, genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral–algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities

  19. THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM, SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF MIXED NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alexandrium monilatum is a large, chain-forming, autotrophic dinoflagellate associated with red-tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast. When cultured inocula of A. monilatum were added to nutrient-amended seawater samples, growth rates and biomass yields of the na...

  20. Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Eric; Muguet, Alexia; Berteaux, Tom; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Roque D’OrbCastel, Emmanuelle; Masseret, Estelle; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m−2 s−1. V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d−1) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. PMID:27164144

  1. Identification of amoebae implicated in the life cycle of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peglar, M.T.; Nerad, T.A.; Anderson, O.R.; Gillevet, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether amoebae commonly found in mesohaline environments are in fact stages in the life cycles of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates. Primary isolations of amoebae and dinoflagellates were made from water and sediment samples from five tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Additional amoebae were also cloned from bioassay aquaria where fish mortality was attributed to Pfiesteria. Electron microscopy and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence analysis of these isolates clearly demonstrated that the commonly depicted amoeboid form of Pfiesteria is very likely a species of Korotnevella and is unrelated to Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates. We have determined that the Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates examined in this study undergo a typical homothallic life cycle without amoeboid stages. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that cloned amoebae sharing morphological characteristics described for stages in the life cycle of Pfiesteria do not transform into dinozoites. The strict clonal isolation and cultivation techniques used in this study substantially support the conclusion that the amoebae and some of the flagellates depicted in the life cycle of Pfiesteria are environmental contaminants of the Pfiesteria culture system and that the Ambush Predator Hypothesis needs to be rigorously reevaluated.

  2. GROWTH RATES AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM, A REDTIDE DINOFLAGELLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined effects of temperature and salinity on growth of Alexandrium monilatum were studied in laboratory cultures. This toxic, red-tide dinoflagellate grew faster with higher temperatures, up to a maximum of approximately 1 division d-1 at 31 C. Salinities above 15 psu had ...

  3. A single-cell view of ammonium assimilation in coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Mathieu; Meibom, Anders; Van Den Heuvel, Annamieke; Kopp, Christophe; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen from nutrient-poor tropical seas is an essential challenge for the endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates. Despite the clear evidence that reef-building corals can use ammonium as inorganic nitrogen source, the dynamics and precise roles of host and symbionts in this fundamental process remain unclear. Here, we combine high spatial resolution ion microprobe imaging (NanoSIMS) and pulse-chase isotopic labeling in order to track the dynamics of ammonium incorporation within the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Acropora aspera and its dinoflagellate symbionts. We demonstrate that both dinoflagellate and animal cells have the capacity to rapidly fix nitrogen from seawater enriched in ammonium (in less than one hour). Further, by establishing the relative strengths of the capability to assimilate nitrogen for each cell compartment, we infer that dinoflagellate symbionts can fix 14 to 23 times more nitrogen than their coral host cells in response to a sudden pulse of ammonium-enriched seawater. Given the importance of nitrogen in cell maintenance, growth and functioning, the capability to fix ammonium from seawater into the symbiotic system may be a key component of coral nutrition. Interestingly, this metabolic response appears to be triggered rapidly by episodic nitrogen availability. The methods and results presented in this study open up for the exploration of dynamics and spatial patterns associated with metabolic activities and nutritional interactions in a multitude of organisms that live in symbiotic relationships. PMID:22222466

  4. GROWTH RATES, PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alexandrium monilatum is a thecate, autotrophic, bioluminescent and chain-forming dinoflagellate. Although it has been known to be associated with red tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast for almost 50 years, little basic physiological information is available f...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Lipids in Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Freshwater Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Anesi, Andrea; Obertegger, Ulrike; Hansen, Gert; Sukenik, Assaf; Flaim, Giovanna; Guella, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the lipid profiles of ten dinoflagellate species originating from different freshwater habitats and grown at 4, 13, or 20°C akin to their natural occurrence. Lipids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes. Besides the well-studied monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) lipids, our study revealed the presence of intact molecular lipid species of trigalactosyldiacylglycerols, betaine diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine, sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. In multivariate ordination, the freshwater dinoflagellates studied could be distinguished into two groups based on their lipid profiles. Peridinium aciculiferum, Borghiella dodgei, B. tenuissima and Tovellia coronata belonged to group 1 while Ceratium cornutum, Gymnodinium palustre, Jadwigia applanata, P. cinctum, P. willei, and P. gatunense belonged to group 2. Indicator species analysis evidenced that group 1 was characterized by 36:9 MGDG and 36:9 DGDG and group 2 by 38:9 and 38:10 MGDG, 38:9 and 38:10 DGDG and 34:1 SQDG. We suggest that the grouping of dinoflagellates indicated their range of temperature tolerance. Furthermore, non-thylakoid lipids were linked to dinoflagellate phylogeny based on the large ribosomal sub-unit (28S LSU) rather than their temperature tolerance. Thus certain lipids better reflected habitat adaptation while other lipids better reflected genetic diversity. PMID:27148341

  6. Systematics of a Kleptoplastidal Dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae), and Its Cryptomonad Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shuang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Cheng, Yingyin; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed. PMID:23308288

  7. STEROLS OF THE HETEROTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE, PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA (DINOPHYCEAE): IS THERE A LIPID BIOMARKER?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within United States waters, blooms of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, have been recorded on an almost regular basis in the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding mid-Atlantic regions for the last two decades. Despite the apparent significance of such blooms to the environment ...

  8. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORD AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA AND NARRAGANSETT BAY ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay over the last 350 yr provides to determine if cysts are sensitive to environmental change caused by human activity in the watershed. Changes in the total number, and absolute and...

  9. A single-cell view of ammonium assimilation in coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Meibom, Anders; Van Den Heuvel, Annamieke; Kopp, Christophe; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen from nutrient-poor tropical seas is an essential challenge for the endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates. Despite the clear evidence that reef-building corals can use ammonium as inorganic nitrogen source, the dynamics and precise roles of host and symbionts in this fundamental process remain unclear. Here, we combine high spatial resolution ion microprobe imaging (NanoSIMS) and pulse-chase isotopic labeling in order to track the dynamics of ammonium incorporation within the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Acropora aspera and its dinoflagellate symbionts. We demonstrate that both dinoflagellate and animal cells have the capacity to rapidly fix nitrogen from seawater enriched in ammonium (in less than one hour). Further, by establishing the relative strengths of the capability to assimilate nitrogen for each cell compartment, we infer that dinoflagellate symbionts can fix 14 to 23 times more nitrogen than their coral host cells in response to a sudden pulse of ammonium-enriched seawater. Given the importance of nitrogen in cell maintenance, growth and functioning, the capability to fix ammonium from seawater into the symbiotic system may be a key component of coral nutrition. Interestingly, this metabolic response appears to be triggered rapidly by episodic nitrogen availability. The methods and results presented in this study open up for the exploration of dynamics and spatial patterns associated with metabolic activities and nutritional interactions in a multitude of organisms that live in symbiotic relationships. PMID:22222466

  10. Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Eric; Muguet, Alexia; Berteaux, Tom; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Roque D'OrbCastel, Emmanuelle; Masseret, Estelle; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1). V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d(-1)) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. PMID:27164144

  11. Applying Clustering and Phylogeny Analysis to Study Dinoflagellates based on Sterol Composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterol compositions of dinoflagellates have been studied for several decades as a means of assessing whether certain species possess unique chemical biomarkers. However, no attempt has been made to compile the results from numerous studies to examine how sterol compositions may relate to the phylog...

  12. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  13. Significance of Plankton Community Structure and Nutrient Availability for the Control of Dinoflagellate Blooms by Parasites: A Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Pecqueur, David; Le Floc’h, Emilie; Mas, Sébastien; Roques, Cécile; Mostajir, Behzad; Vidussi, Franscesca; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Sourisseau, Marc; Fouilland, Eric; Guillou, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms are frequently observed under temporary eutrophication of coastal waters after heavy rains. Growth of these opportunistic microalgae is believed to be promoted by sudden input of nutrients and the absence or inefficiency of their natural enemies, such as grazers and parasites. Here, numerical simulations indicate that increasing nutrient availability not only promotes the formation of dinoflagellate blooms but can also stimulate their control by protozoan parasites. Moreover, high abundance of phytoplankton other than dinoflagellate hosts might have a significant dilution effect on the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites, either by resource competition with dinoflagellates (thus limiting the number of hosts available for infection) or by affecting numerical-functional responses of grazers that consume free-living parasite stages. These outcomes indicate that although both dinoflagellates and their protozoan parasites are directly affected by nutrient availability, the efficacy of the parasitic control of dinoflagellate blooms under temporary eutrophication depends strongly on the structure of the plankton community as a whole. PMID:26030411

  14. Bioluminescent response of individual dinoflagellate cells to hydrodynamic stress measured with millisecond resolution in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Latz, Michael I; Bovard, Michelle; VanDelinder, Virginia; Segre, Enrico; Rohr, Jim; Groisman, Alex

    2008-09-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence serves as a model system for examining mechanosensing by suspended motile unicellular organisms. The response latency, i.e. the delay time between the mechanical stimulus and luminescent response, provides information about the mechanotransduction and signaling process, and must be accurately known for dinoflagellate bioluminescence to be used as a flow visualization tool. This study used a novel microfluidic device to measure the response latency of a large number of individual dinoflagellates with a resolution of a few milliseconds. Suspended cells of several dinoflagellate species approximately 35 microm in diameter were directed through a 200 microm deep channel to a barrier with a 15 microm clearance impassable to the cells. Bioluminescence was stimulated when cells encountered the barrier and experienced an abrupt increase in hydrodynamic drag, and was imaged using high numerical aperture optics and a high-speed low-light video system. The average response latency for Lingulodinium polyedrum strain HJ was 15 ms (N>300 cells) at the three highest flow rates tested, with a minimum latency of 12 ms. Cells produced multiple flashes with an interval as short as 5 ms between individual flashes, suggesting that repeat stimulation involved a subset of the entire intracellular signaling pathway. The mean response latency for the dinoflagellates Pyrodinium bahamense, Alexandrium monilatum and older and newer isolates of L. polyedrum ranged from 15 to 22 ms, similar to the latencies previously determined for larger dinoflagellates with different morphologies, possibly reflecting optimization of dinoflagellate bioluminescence as a rapid anti-predation behavior. PMID:18723546

  15. Correlation and paleoenvironments of middle Paleogene marine beds based on dinoflagellate cysts in southwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerstein, G. Raquel; González Estebenet, M. Sol; Alperín, Marta I.; Casadío, Silvio A.; Archangelsky, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    An understanding of paleonvironmental and paleoceanographic evolution of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean during the Palaeogene is prevented by the lack of precise tools to date and correlate the sedimentary units. Palynological samples collected in the upper portion of the Man Aike Formation, which crops out southern Lago Argentino area, in the southwest of the Austral Basin (50°21‧45″S-72°14‧30″W), contain well preserved marine organic dinoflagellate cysts, which are potentially important biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental indicators. Herein we describe the composition of the Man Aike Formation's dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and compare them to similar assemblages collected in the same basin in the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation using Compositional Statistical Analysis. The dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the upper part of the Man Aike Formation are highly correlated to the assemblages from the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation from outcropping sections (51°31‧13″S-72°15‧11″W) and with the lower part of sediment cores drilled by Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales in the Río Turbio Formation area. These dinoflagellate cyst assemblages show a very low correlation with the assemblages from the upper part of the Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales's cores. The comparison of our results with the high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinoflagellate cyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene allow us to date some of the dinoflagellate events recorded in formations of southwestern Patagonia. The assemblages from the Man Aike Formation and the lower part of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation relate to the zones SPDZ11 and SPDZ12 and are assigned to the mid-middle Eocene (late Lutetian to early Bartonian). The biostratigraphy proposed herein constrains the age of the Man Aike Formation and equivalent units based on calcareous microfossil data, mollusks affinities and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic values to an

  16. 76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC or Committee) formerly administered by the Office of... of and challenges facing mutual savings associations. The OCC is seeking nominations of...

  17. Description of two species of early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone-hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina-like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  18. Description of Two Species of Early Branching Dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone–hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina–like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  19. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    PubMed Central

    Bloh, Anmar Hameed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity). Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates. PMID:27051199

  20. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  1. A framework for the establishment of a cnidarian gene regulatory network for "endomesoderm" specification: the inputs of ß-catenin/TCF signaling.

    PubMed

    Röttinger, Eric; Dahlin, Paul; Martindale, Mark Q

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functional relationship between intracellular factors and extracellular signals is required for reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRN) involved in complex biological processes. One of the best-studied bilaterian GRNs describes endomesoderm specification and predicts that both mesoderm and endoderm arose from a common GRN early in animal evolution. Compelling molecular, genomic, developmental, and evolutionary evidence supports the hypothesis that the bifunctional gastrodermis of the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor is derived from the same evolutionary precursor of both endodermal and mesodermal germ layers in all other triploblastic bilaterian animals. We have begun to establish the framework of a provisional cnidarian "endomesodermal" gene regulatory network in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, by using a genome-wide microarray analysis on embryos in which the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway was ectopically targeted for activation by two distinct pharmaceutical agents (lithium chloride and 1-azakenpaullone) to identify potential targets of endomesoderm specification. We characterized 51 endomesodermally expressed transcription factors and signaling molecule genes (including 18 newly identified) with fine-scale temporal (qPCR) and spatial (in situ) analysis to define distinct co-expression domains within the animal plate of the embryo and clustered genes based on their earliest zygotic expression. Finally, we determined the input of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway into the cnidarian endomesodermal GRN using morpholino and mRNA overexpression experiments to show that NvTcf/canonical Wnt signaling is required to pattern both the future endomesodermal and ectodermal domains prior to gastrulation, and that both BMP and FGF (but not Notch) pathways play important roles in germ layer specification in this animal. We show both evolutionary conserved as well as profound differences in endomesodermal GRN structure compared to bilaterians

  2. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  3. Certainty relations, mutual entanglement, and nondisplaceable manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Chabuda, Krzysztof; Paraniak, Mikołaj; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    We derive explicit bounds for the average entropy characterizing measurements of a pure quantum state of size N in L orthogonal bases. Lower bounds lead to novel entropic uncertainty relations, while upper bounds allow us to formulate universal certainty relations. For L =2 the maximal average entropy saturates at logN because there exists a mutually coherent state, but certainty relations are shown to be nontrivial for L ≥3 measurements. In the case of a prime power dimension, N =pk , and the number of measurements L =N +1 , the upper bound for the average entropy becomes minimal for a collection of mutually unbiased bases. An analogous approach is used to study entanglement with respect to L different splittings of a composite system linked by bipartite quantum gates. We show that, for any two-qubit unitary gate U ∈U(4 ) there exist states being mutually separable or mutually entangled with respect to both splittings (related by U ) of the composite system. The latter statement follows from the fact that the real projective space R P3⊂C P3 is nondisplaceable by a unitary transformation. For L =3 splittings the maximal sum of L entanglement entropies is conjectured to achieve its minimum for a collection of three mutually entangled bases, formed by two mutually entangling gates.

  4. 13C fractionation of dinoflagellates - a new proxy for past CO2 levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, M.; Van de Waal, D. B.; Eberlein, T.; Reichart, G.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels prior to ~1 million years ago are required to quantify climate sensitivity as well as ocean acidification in response to past carbon cycle perturbations. Despite recent progress, however, uncertainties in reconstructed values especially from the Paleogene and older, are still very large. We aim to develop a new proxy for CO2 concentrations based on the carbon isotopic fractionation of autotrophic marine dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates feature RubisCO (type II) with the lowest CO2 affinity of all eukaryote phytoplankton, which makes this group inherently sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry. Along with growth and carbon production also the 13C versus 12C incorporation, i.e., the 13C fractionation (ɛp), will likely be affected. Hence, the carbon isotopic composition of dinoflagellates may ultimately reflect the prevailing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Crucially, microfossils of dinoflagellates, i.e. organic dinoflagellate cysts, have been recovered from ocean sediments as old as the Triassic (i.e. ~215 Ma BP). We performed dilute batch experiments with four dinoflagellate species: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at various CO2 concentrations representing the Last Glacial Maximum (180 ppm), present day (380 ppm), and future projections (and estimates for distant past levels; 950 ppm and 1400 ppm). Consistent with expectations, ɛp increased with CO2 concentration in all four species (with a slope of up to 0.19 ‰ μM-1), while growth and carbon production (μc) had little effect. ɛp in relation to CO2 varied between species and strains, but the relation of ɛp to μc/CO2 was more consistent. First results of underlying processes affecting ɛp, including carbon acquisition and leakage, will be discussed. Considering that the cysts of P. reticulatum (Operculodinium centrocarpum) and G. spinifera (Spiniferites sp.) are

  5. High Sequence Variability, Diverse Subcellular Localizations, and Ecological Implications of Alkaline Phosphatase in Dinoflagellates and Other Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the “red-type” eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort

  6. Comparative sensitivity of the cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and a standard toxicity test suite: testing whole effluents intended for ocean disposal.

    PubMed

    Howe, P L; Reichelt-Brushett, A J; Krassoi, R; Micevska, T

    2015-09-01

    , being a cnidarian, may represent important tropical marine environments including coral reefs. PMID:25940467

  7. Evolution of an ancient venom: recognition of a novel family of cnidarian toxins and the common evolutionary origin of sodium and potassium neurotoxins in sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Sunagar, Kartik; Federman Gross, Aya; Scheib, Holger; Alewood, Paul F; Moran, Yehu; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    Despite Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) being the oldest venomous animal lineage, structure-function relationships, phyletic distributions, and the molecular evolutionary regimes of toxins encoded by these intriguing animals are poorly understood. Hence, we have comprehensively elucidated the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary histories of pharmacologically characterized cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs). We show that despite long evolutionary histories, most cnidarian toxins remain conserved under the strong influence of negative selection-a finding that is in striking contrast to the rapid evolution of toxin families in evolutionarily younger lineages, such as cone snails and advanced snakes. In contrast to the previous suggestions that implicated SCRiPs in the biomineralization process in corals, we demonstrate that they are potent neurotoxins that are likely involved in the envenoming function, and thus represent the first family of neurotoxins from corals. We also demonstrate the common evolutionary origin of type III KTxs and NaTxs in sea anemones. We show that type III KTxs have evolved from NaTxs under the regime of positive selection, and likely represent a unique evolutionary innovation of the Actinioidea lineage. We report a correlation between the accumulation of episodically adaptive sites and the emergence of novel pharmacological activities in this rapidly evolving neurotoxic clade. PMID:25757852

  8. 78 FR 64600 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC will be held... mutual savings associations and other issues of concern to the existing mutual savings...

  9. 75 FR 77048 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the... Thrift Supervision has determined that the renewal of the ] Charter of the OTS Mutual Savings Association... facing mutual savings associations. DATES: The Charter of the OTS Mutual Savings Association...

  10. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  11. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  12. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  13. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  14. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  15. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  16. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  17. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544.5 Section 544.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual...

  18. Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Toby Kiers, E; Palmer, Todd M; Ives, Anthony R; Bruno, John F; Bronstein, Judith L

    2010-12-01

    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 1459-1474 ABSTRACT: There is growing concern that rapid environmental degradation threatens mutualistic interactions. Because mutualisms can bind species to a common fate, mutualism breakdown has the potential to expand and accelerate effects of global change on biodiversity loss and ecosystem disruption. The current focus on the ecological dynamics of mutualism under global change has skirted fundamental evolutionary issues. Here, we develop an evolutionary perspective on mutualism breakdown to complement the ecological perspective, by focusing on three processes: (1) shifts from mutualism to antagonism, (2) switches to novel partners and (3) mutualism abandonment. We then identify the evolutionary factors that may make particular classes of mutualisms especially susceptible or resistant to breakdown and discuss how communities harbouring mutualisms may be affected by these evolutionary responses. We propose a template for evolutionary research on mutualism resilience and identify conservation approaches that may help conserve targeted mutualisms in the face of environmental change. PMID:20955506

  19. Modelling dinoflagellates as an approach to the seasonal forecasting of bioluminescence in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinko, Charlotte L. J.; Martin, Adrian P.; Allen, John T.

    2014-11-01

    Bioluminescence within ocean surface waters is of significant interest because it can enhance the study of subsurface movement and organisms. Little is known about how bioluminescence potential (BPOT) varies spatially and temporally in the open ocean. However, light emitted from dinoflagellates often dominates the stimulated bioluminescence field. As a first step towards forecasting surface ocean bioluminescence in the open ocean, a simple ecological model is developed which simulates seasonal changes in dinoflagellate abundance. How forecasting seasonal changes in BPOT may be achieved through combining such a model with relationships derived from observations is discussed and an example is given. The study illustrates a potential new approach to forecasting BPOT through explicitly modelling the population dynamics of a prolific bioluminescent phylum. The model developed here offers a promising platform for the future operational forecasting of the broad temporal changes in bioluminescence within the North Atlantic. Such forecasting of seasonal patterns could provide valuable information for the targeting of scientific field campaigns.

  20. MODIS and MERIS detection of dinoflagellates blooms using the RBD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, R.; Gilerson, A.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) can lead to severe economical and ecological impacts particularly in the coastal areas and can threaten human and marine health. About three-quarter of these toxic blooms are caused by dinoflagellates species which are well known to migrate vertically. During the day, they migrate up to the surface for photosynthesis, and consequently, their dense aggregations produce strong bio-optical signals that are detectable by space borne optical satellite sensors. In this study we use our recently developed low backscattering bloom detection technique, the Red Band Difference (RBD), to detect various dinoflagellates blooms using both MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data and present the results which confirm the potentials of the RBD technique. Here we present examples of bloom detection in waters off Gulf of Mexico, Monterey Bay, South Africa, and East China Sea.

  1. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g., at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly nontrivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the two-Rényi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasiadiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum X Y model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.

  2. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  3. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    71 I. 71 II. 72 III. 73 IV. 74 V. 74 74 References 74 SUMMARY: Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle. PMID:26414800

  4. Mutual inductance between piecewise-linear loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristina Barroso, Ana; Silva, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    We consider a current-carrying wire loop made out of linear segments of arbitrary sizes and directions in three-dimensional space. We develop expressions to calculate its vector potential and magnetic field at all points in space. We then calculate the mutual inductance between two such (non-intersecting) piecewise-linear loops. As simple applications, we consider in detail the mutual inductance between two square wires of equal length that either lie in the same plane or lie in parallel horizontal planes with their centers on the same vertical axis. Our expressions can also be used to obtain approximations to the mutual inductance between wires of arbitrary three-dimensional shapes.

  5. Distribution of Mutual Information in Multipartite States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Using the relative entropy of total correlation, we derive an expression relating the mutual information of n-partite pure states to the sum of the mutual informations and entropies of its marginals and analyze some of its implications. Besides, by utilizing the extended strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy, we obtain generalized monogamy relations for the total correlation in three-partite mixed states. These inequalities lead to a tight lower bound for this correlation in terms of the sum of the bipartite mutual informations. We use this bound to propose a measure for residual three-partite total correlation and discuss the non-applicability of this kind of quantifier to measure genuine multiparty correlations.

  6. Modelling the Stoichiometric Regulation of C-Rich Toxins in Marine Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciavatta, Stefano; Polimene, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Toxin production in marine microalgae was previously shown to be tightly coupled with cellular stoichiometry. The highest values of cellular toxin are in fact mainly associated with a high carbon to nutrient cellular ratio. In particular, the cellular accumulation of C-rich toxins (i.e., with C:N > 6.6) can be stimulated by both N and P deficiency. Dinoflagellates are the main producers of C-rich toxins and may represent a serious threat for human health and the marine ecosystem. As such, the development of a numerical model able to predict how toxin production is stimulated by nutrient supply/deficiency is of primary utility for both scientific and management purposes. In this work we have developed a mechanistic model describing the stoichiometric regulation of C-rich toxins in marine dinoflagellates. To this purpose, a new formulation describing toxin production and fate was embedded in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), here simplified to describe a monospecific batch culture. Toxin production was assumed to be composed by two distinct additive terms; the first is a constant fraction of algal production and is assumed to take place at any physiological conditions. The second term is assumed to be dependent on algal biomass and to be stimulated by internal nutrient deficiency. By using these assumptions, the model reproduced the concentrations and temporal evolution of toxins observed in cultures of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a benthic/epiphytic dinoflagellate producing C-rich toxins named ovatoxins. The analysis of simulations and their comparison with experimental data provided a conceptual model linking toxin production and nutritional status in this species. The model was also qualitatively validated by using independent literature data, and the results indicate that our formulation can be also used to simulate toxin dynamics in other dinoflagellates. Our model represents an important step towards the simulation and prediction of marine algal

  7. A New Polyether Ladder Compound Produced by the Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis

    PubMed Central

    Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Jacocks, Henry M.; Wright, Jeffrey L. C.; Bigwarfe, Paul M.; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    A new ladder-frame polyether compound containing five fused ether rings was isolated from laboratory cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This compound, named brevenal, and its dimethyl acetal derivative both competitively displace brevetoxin from its binding site in rat brain synaptosomes. Significantly, these compounds are also nontoxic to fish and antagonize the toxic effects of brevetoxins in fish. The structure and biological activity of brevenal, as well as the dimethyl acetal derivative, are described in this paper. PMID:15679307

  8. Subcellular localization of dinoflagellate polyketide synthases and fatty acid synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Van Dolah, Frances M; Zippay, Mackenzie L; Pezzolesi, Laura; Rein, Kathleen S; Johnson, Jillian G; Morey, Jeanine S; Wang, Zhihong; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-12-01

    Dinoflagellates are prolific producers of polyketide secondary metabolites. Dinoflagellate polyketide synthases (PKSs) have sequence similarity to Type I PKSs, megasynthases that encode all catalytic domains on a single polypeptide. However, in dinoflagellate PKSs identified to date, each catalytic domain resides on a separate transcript, suggesting multiprotein complexes similar to Type II PKSs. Here, we provide evidence through coimmunoprecipitation that single-domain ketosynthase and ketoreductase proteins interact, suggesting a predicted multiprotein complex. In Karenia brevis (C.C. Davis) Gert Hansen & Ø. Moestrup, previously observed chloroplast localization of PKSs suggested that brevetoxin biosynthesis may take place in the chloroplast. Here, we report that PKSs are present in both cytosol and chloroplast. Furthermore, brevetoxin is not present in isolated chloroplasts, raising the question of what chloroplast-localized PKS enzymes might be doing. Antibodies to K. brevis PKSs recognize cytosolic and chloroplast proteins in Ostreopsis cf. ovata Fukuyo, and Coolia monotis Meunier, which produce different suites of polyketide toxins, suggesting that these PKSs may share common pathways. Since PKSs are closely related to fatty acid synthases (FAS), we sought to determine if fatty acid biosynthesis colocalizes with either chloroplast or cytosolic PKSs. [(3) H]acetate labeling showed fatty acids are synthesized in the cytosol, with little incorporation in chloroplasts, consistent with a Type I FAS system. However, although 29 sequences in a K. brevis expressed sequence tag database have similarity (BLASTx e-value <10(-10) ) to PKSs, no transcripts for either Type I (cytosolic) or Type II (chloroplast) FAS are present. Further characterization of the FAS complexes may help to elucidate the functions of the PKS enzymes identified in dinoflagellates. PMID:27007632

  9. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial. PMID:27441285

  10. The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum retain functionally overlapping mitochondria from two evolutionarily distinct lineages

    PubMed Central

    Imanian, Behzad; Keeling, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    Background The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum are distinguished by the presence of a tertiary plastid derived from a diatom endosymbiont. The diatom is fully integrated with the host cell cycle and is so altered in structure as to be difficult to recognize it as a diatom, and yet it retains a number of features normally lost in tertiary and secondary endosymbionts, most notably mitochondria. The dinoflagellate host is also reported to retain mitochondrion-like structures, making these cells unique in retaining two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. This redundancy raises the question of whether the organelles share any functions in common or have distributed functions between them. Results We show that both host and endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes encode genes for electron transport proteins. We have characterized cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2), cytochrome oxidase 3 (cox3), cytochrome b (cob), and large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSUrRNA) of endosymbiont mitochondrial ancestry, and cox1 and cob of host mitochondrial ancestry. We show that all genes are transcribed and that those ascribed to the host mitochondrial genome are extensively edited at the RNA level, as expected for a dinoflagellate mitochondrion-encoded gene. We also found evidence for extensive recombination in the host mitochondrial genes and that recombination products are also transcribed, as expected for a dinoflagellate. Conclusion Durinskia baltica and K. foliaceum retain two mitochondria from evolutionarily distinct lineages, and the functions of these organelles are at least partially overlapping, since both express genes for proteins in electron transport. PMID:17892581

  11. Evaluating the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) as a Candidate Dinoflagellate Barcode Marker

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Andersen, Robert A.; Jameson, Ian; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Vaulot, Daniel; Le Gall, Florence; Véron, Benoît; Brand, Jerry J.; Skelton, Hayley; Kasai, Fumai; Lilly, Emily L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding offers an efficient way to determine species identification and to measure biodiversity. For dinoflagellates, an ancient alveolate group of about 2000 described extant species, DNA barcoding studies have revealed large amounts of unrecognized species diversity, most of which is not represented in culture collections. To date, two mitochondrial gene markers, Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome b oxidase (COB), have been used to assess DNA barcoding in dinoflagellates, and both failed to amplify all taxa and suffered from low resolution. Nevertheless, both genes yielded many examples of morphospecies showing cryptic speciation and morphologically distinct named species being genetically similar, highlighting the need for a common marker. For example, a large number of cultured Symbiodinium strains have neither taxonomic identification, nor a common measure of diversity that can be used to compare this genus to other dinoflagellates. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Internal Transcribed Spacer units 1 and 2 (ITS) of the rDNA operon, as a high resolution marker for distinguishing species dinoflagellates in culture. In our study, from 78 different species, the ITS barcode clearly differentiated species from genera and could identify 96% of strains to a known species or sub-genus grouping. 8.3% showed evidence of being cryptic species. A quarter of strains identified had no previous species identification. The greatest levels of hidden biodiversity came from Scrippsiella and the Pfiesteriaceae family, whilst Heterocapsa strains showed a high level of mismatch to their given species name. Conclusions/Significance The ITS marker was successful in confirming species, revealing hidden diversity in culture collections. This marker, however, may have limited use for environmental barcoding due to paralogues, the potential for unidentifiable chimaeras and priming across taxa. In these cases ITS would

  12. Characterization of a new chytrid species parasitic on the dinoflagellate, Peridinium gatunense.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Tamar; Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Sukenik, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Only a few chytrid fungi have been reported as parasites of dinoflagellates. Among these reports, chytrids are periodically observed growing on the dinoflagellate, Peridinium gatunense, in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. Because of the distinctive roles of parasitic chytrid fungi in decreasing phytoplankton populations and in transforming inedible algae into chytrid biomass which zooplankton grazers can eat, characterizing dinoflagellate parasites contributes to our understanding of the sustainability of this important water resource. An undescribed chytrid parasite of P. gatunense from Lake Kinneret has recently been brought into pure culture (KLL_TL-060613), facilitating exploration of its infection process. To evaluate the ability of this chytrid to affect host populations, we determined the effect of: (1) temperature and light (or dark) on prevalence of infection and (2) host growth phase and parasite:host ratio on percentage of infection. The greatest amplification in host infection occurred in cultures grown in the dark at 25 C. The percentage of host cells infected increased as the availability of host cells compared to parasite cells increased. These results demonstrate that environmental factors influence the chytrid's potential to affect Peridinium gatunense populations. Because this chytrid had not been described taxonomically, we characterized its thallus morphology, development, zoospore ultrastructure and phylogenetic relationships. Zoospore ultrastructure was compatible with the Group II type zoospore characteristic of the family Chytridiaceae in the Chytridiales. Consistent with this observation, phylogenetic analyses of nuc 28S rDNA D1-D3 domains (28S) placed the chytrid in a clade among described taxa in the Chytridiaceae. Because thallus morphology was distinct from these other taxa, as well as other described parasites of dinoflagellates, this chytrid is described as a new genus and species, Dinochytrium kinnereticum. PMID:27582565

  13. Detection of dinoflagellates by the light scattering properties of the chiral structure of their chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianping; Kattawar, George W.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most prominent properties of dinoflagellates is their large sized and highly chromosome-laden nucleus, which contains dozens of cylindrically shaped chromosomes. With such high chromatic concentration, these chromosomes condense into ordered helical structures and were claimed to be responsible for the large circular polarization effects observed in the light scattering from dinoflagellates. In previous research, a thin helix model of a chromosome was used to compare the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) and the analytical Born approximation calculations. However, for such a simplified model only modest qualitative agreements with experimental measurements were achieved. Moreover, only one chromosome in one nucleus was simulated, overlooking the effects of interactions between chromosomes. In this work, we adopt the helical plywood liquid crystal model with a capsule shape, in which parallel fibrils lie in plains perpendicular to the helix axis and the orientations of these fibrils twist at a constant angle between two neighboring layers. The ADDA code is applied to calculate the 16 Mueller matrix elements of light scattering from a single chromosome and from the nucleus, which is composed of a collection of randomly positioned and randomly orientated chromosomes. Special attention is paid to the S14 Mueller matrix element, which describes the ability of differentiating left and right circularly polarized light. Our results show that large S14 back scattering signals from the dinoflagellate nucleus results from the underlying helical structures of its chromosomes. These signals are sensitive to the light wavelength and pitch of the chromatic helix, the latter of which is species specific. Therefore, detecting back scattering S14 signal could be a promising method to monitor dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis, the causal agent of the Florida red tide.

  14. Comparison of three protein extraction procedures from toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates for proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Wen; Wang, Jing; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Three methods for extraction and preparation of high-quality proteins from both toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates for proteomics analysis, including Trizol method, Lysis method and Tris method, were compared with the subsequent protein separation profiles using 2-D differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), Coomassie Blue and silver staining. These methods showed suitability for proteins with different pIs and molecular weights. Tris method was better for low molecular weight and low pI protein isolation; whereas both Lysis and Trizol method were better for high-molecular weight and high pI protein purification. Trizol method showed good results with Alexandrium species and Gynodinium species, and the background in gel was much clearer than the other two methods. At the same time, only Lysis method caused breaking down of the target proteins. On the other hand, Trizol method obtained higher concentration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase proteins by Western-blotting, while Tris method was the best for peridinin-chlorophyll-protein complexes protein and T1 protein preparation. DIGE was better than Coomassie Blue and silver staining, except for some limitations, such as the high cost of the dyes, relatively short shelf life and the requirements for extensive and special image capturing equipment. Some proteins related to PSTs synthesis in dinoflagellates are hydrophobic with high molecular weight or binding on membranes and Trizol method performed better than Tris method for these proteins. The Trizol method and 2-D DIGE were effective combination for proteomics investigations of dinoflagellates. This procedure allows reliable and high recovery efficiency of proteins from dinoflagellates for better understanding on their occurrence and toxin-production for physiological and biochemical information. PMID:26197730

  15. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clones was highly variable. The number of associated bacterial genera and their frequency of occurrence were quite variable among clones of both dinoflagellate genera. Bacterial isolates represented six genera (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella) in addition to coryneform bacteria. Extracts of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria grown in pure culture were not toxic. Gambierdiscus clones were characterized by the frequent presence of Pseudomonas spp. (four of five clones) and the absence of coryneforms. In O. lenticularis, only one of five clones showed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella sp. was absent altogether. Detailed analyses of toxicity and associated microflora in a selected Ostreopsis clone, repeatedly cultivated (four times) over a period of 160 days, showed that peak cell toxicities developed in the late static and early negative culture growth phases. Peak Ostreopsis cell toxicities in the stationary phase of culture growth were correlated with significant increases in the percent total bacteria directly associated with these cells. Changes in the quantity of bacteria directly associated with microalgal cell surfaces and extracellular matrices during culture growth may be related to variability and degree of toxicity in these laboratory-cultured benthic dinoflagellates. PMID:2705766

  16. Genome Fragmentation Is Not Confined to the Peridinin Plastid in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Espelund, Mari; Minge, Marianne A.; Gabrielsen, Tove M.; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    When plastids are transferred between eukaryote lineages through series of endosymbiosis, their environment changes dramatically. Comparison of dinoflagellate plastids that originated from different algal groups has revealed convergent evolution, suggesting that the host environment mainly influences the evolution of the newly acquired organelle. Recently the genome from the anomalously pigmented dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum plastid was uncovered as a conventional chromosome. To determine if this haptophyte-derived plastid contains additional chromosomal fragments that resemble the mini-circles of the peridin-containing plastids, we have investigated its genome by in-depth sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology, PCR and clone library analysis. Sequence analyses show several genes with significantly higher copy numbers than present in the chromosome. These genes are most likely extrachromosomal fragments, and the ones with highest copy numbers include genes encoding the chaperone DnaK(Hsp70), the rubisco large subunit (rbcL), and two tRNAs (trnE and trnM). In addition, some photosystem genes such as psaB, psaA, psbB and psbD are overrepresented. Most of the dnaK and rbcL sequences are found as shortened or fragmented gene sequences, typically missing the 3′-terminal portion. Both dnaK and rbcL are associated with a common sequence element consisting of about 120 bp of highly conserved AT-rich sequence followed by a trnE gene, possibly serving as a control region. Decatenation assays and Southern blot analysis indicate that the extrachromosomal plastid sequences do not have the same organization or lengths as the minicircles of the peridinin dinoflagellates. The fragmentation of the haptophyte-derived plastid genome K. veneficum suggests that it is likely a sign of a host-driven process shaping the plastid genomes of dinoflagellates. PMID:22719952

  17. Genome fragmentation is not confined to the peridinin plastid in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Espelund, Mari; Minge, Marianne A; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2012-01-01

    When plastids are transferred between eukaryote lineages through series of endosymbiosis, their environment changes dramatically. Comparison of dinoflagellate plastids that originated from different algal groups has revealed convergent evolution, suggesting that the host environment mainly influences the evolution of the newly acquired organelle. Recently the genome from the anomalously pigmented dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum plastid was uncovered as a conventional chromosome. To determine if this haptophyte-derived plastid contains additional chromosomal fragments that resemble the mini-circles of the peridin-containing plastids, we have investigated its genome by in-depth sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology, PCR and clone library analysis. Sequence analyses show several genes with significantly higher copy numbers than present in the chromosome. These genes are most likely extrachromosomal fragments, and the ones with highest copy numbers include genes encoding the chaperone DnaK(Hsp70), the rubisco large subunit (rbcL), and two tRNAs (trnE and trnM). In addition, some photosystem genes such as psaB, psaA, psbB and psbD are overrepresented. Most of the dnaK and rbcL sequences are found as shortened or fragmented gene sequences, typically missing the 3'-terminal portion. Both dnaK and rbcL are associated with a common sequence element consisting of about 120 bp of highly conserved AT-rich sequence followed by a trnE gene, possibly serving as a control region. Decatenation assays and Southern blot analysis indicate that the extrachromosomal plastid sequences do not have the same organization or lengths as the minicircles of the peridinin dinoflagellates. The fragmentation of the haptophyte-derived plastid genome K. veneficum suggests that it is likely a sign of a host-driven process shaping the plastid genomes of dinoflagellates. PMID:22719952

  18. Damage to photosystem II in symbiotic dinoflagellates: A determinant of coral bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Mark E.; Fitt, William K.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    1999-01-01

    Coral bleaching has been defined as a general phenomenon, whereby reef corals turn visibly pale because of the loss of their symbiotic dinoflagellates and/or algal pigments during periods of exposure to elevated seawater temperatures. During the summer of 1997, seawater temperatures in the Florida Keys remained at or above 30°C for more than 6 weeks, and extensive coral bleaching was observed. Bleached colonies of the dominant Caribbean reef-building species, Montastrea faveolata and Montastrea franksi, were sampled over a depth gradient from 1 to 17 m during this period of elevated temperature and contained lower densities of symbiotic dinoflagellates in deeper corals than seen in previous “nonbleaching” years. Fluorescence analysis by pulse-amplitude modulation fluorometry revealed severe damage to photosystem II (PSII) in remaining symbionts within the corals, with greater damage indicated at deeper depths. Dinoflagellates with the greatest loss in PSII activity also showed a significant decline in the D1 reaction center protein of PSII, as measured by immunoblot analysis. Laboratory experiments on the temperature-sensitive species Montastrea annularis, as well as temperature-sensitive and temperature-tolerant cultured symbiotic dinoflagellates, confirmed the temperature-dependent loss of PSII activity and concomitant decrease in D1 reaction center protein seen in symbionts collected from corals naturally bleached on the reef. In addition, variation in PSII repair was detected, indicating that perturbation of PSII protein turnover rates during photoinhibition at elevated temperatures underlies the physiological collapse of symbionts in corals susceptible to heat-induced bleaching. PMID:10393938

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  20. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  1. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  2. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  3. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or...

  4. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences. PMID:26792458

  5. Localization of polyketide synthase encoding genes to the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Richard V.; Guerrero, Maria A.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Winshell, Jamie; Perez, Roberto; Lopez, Jose V.; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Karenia brevis is a toxic marine dinoflagellate endemic to the Gulf of Mexico. Blooms of this harmful alga cause fish kills, marine mammal mortalities and neurotoxic shellfish poisonings. These harmful effects are attributed to a suite of polyketide secondary metabolites known as the brevetoxins. The carbon framework of all polyketides is assembled by a polyketide synthase (PKS). Previously, PKS encoding genes were amplified from K. brevis culture and their similarity to a PKS gene from the closely related protist, Cryptosporidium parvum, suggested that these genes originate from the dinoflagellate. However, K. brevis has not been grown axenically. The associated bacteria might be the source of the toxins or the PKS genes. Herein we report the localization of PKS encoding genes by a combination of flow cytometry/PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two genes localized exclusively to K. brevis cells while a third localized to both K. brevis and associated bacteria. While these genes have not yet been linked to toxin production, the work describes the first definitive evidence of resident PKS genes in any dinoflagellate. PMID:16051286

  6. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid.

    PubMed

    Waller, Ross F; Gornik, Sebastian G; Koreny, Ludek; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: "chromista" phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids-the "chromalveolates." This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales. PMID:27066182

  7. Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Knowles, N.; Grover, Labiosa R.; Dugdale, R.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a large dinoflagellate bloom, unprecedented in nearly three decades of observation, that developed in San Francisco Bay (SFB) during September 2004. SFB is highly enriched in nutrients but has low summer-autumn algal biomass because wind stress and tidally induced bottom stress produce a well mixed and light-limited pelagic habitat. The bloom coincided with calm winds and record high air temperatures that stratified the water column and suppressed mixing long enough for motile dinoflagellates to grow and accumulate in surface waters. This event-scale climate pattern, produced by an upper-atmosphere high-pressure anomaly off the U.S. west coast, followed a summer of weak coastal upwelling and high dinoflagellate biomass in coastal waters that apparently seeded the SFB bloom. This event suggests that some red tides are responses to changes in local physical dynamics that are driven by large-scale atmospheric processes and operate over both the event scale of biomass growth and the antecedent seasonal scale that shapes the bloom community. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Phosphorus Deficiency Inhibits Cell Division But Not Growth in the Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae.

    PubMed

    Li, Meizhen; Shi, Xinguo; Guo, Chentao; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient element for the growth of phytoplankton. How P deficiency affects population growth and the cell division cycle in dinoflagellates has only been studied in some species, and how it affects photosynthesis and cell growth remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of P deficiency on the cell division cycle, the abundance of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, and other cellular characteristics in the Gymnodiniales peridinin-plastid species Amphidinium carterae. We found that under P-replete condition, the cell cycle actively progressed in the culture in a 24-h diel cycle with daily growth rates markedly higher than the P-deficient cultures, in which cells were arrested in the G1 phase and cell size significantly enlarged. The results suggest that, as in previously studied dinoflagellates, P deficiency likely disenables A. carterae to complete DNA duplication or check-point protein phosphorylation. We further found that under P-deficient condition, overall photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm ratio) and Rubisco abundance decreased but not significantly, while cellular contents of carbon, nitrogen, and proteins increased significantly. These observations indicated that under P-deficiency, this dinoflagellate was able to continue photosynthesis and carbon fixation, such that proteins and photosynthetically fixed carbon could accumulate resulting in continued cell growth in the absence of division. This is likely an adaptive strategy thereby P-limited cells can be ready to resume the cell division cycle upon resupply of phosphorus. PMID:27313570

  9. Dinoflagellate Gene Structure and Intron Splice Sites in a Genomic Tandem Array.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Gregory S; Delwiche, Charles F; Apt, Kirk E; Lippmeier, J Casey

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are one of the last major lineages of eukaryotes for which little is known about genome structure and organization. We report here the sequence and gene structure of a clone isolated from a cosmid library which, to our knowledge, represents the largest contiguously sequenced, dinoflagellate genomic, tandem gene array. These data, combined with information from a large transcriptomic library, allowed a high level of confidence of every base pair call. This degree of confidence is not possible with PCR-based contigs. The sequence contains an intron-rich set of five highly expressed gene repeats arranged in tandem. One of the tandem repeat gene members contains an intron 26,372 bp long. This study characterizes a splice site consensus sequence for dinoflagellate introns. Two to nine base pairs around the 3' splice site are repeated by an identical two to nine base pairs around the 5' splice site. The 5' and 3' splice sites are in the same locations within each repeat so that the repeat is found only once in the mature mRNA. This identically repeated intron boundary sequence might be useful in gene modeling and annotation of genomes. PMID:25963315

  10. The synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by cultured, symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    T Banaszak1 A; LaJeunesse; Trench

    2000-06-28

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a relation between phylotypes (phylogenetic types, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and partial sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA)) and the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by symbiotic dinoflagellates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B/A) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We exposed 27 isolates of symbiotic dinoflagellates simultaneously to UV-B/A and PAR, and subsequently determined the MAAs present in cell extracts and in the media. The algae used included 24 isolates of Symbiodinium spp. originating from jellyfishes, sea anemones, zoanthids, scleractinians, octocorals, and bivalves, and three others in the genera Gymnodinium, Gloeodinium and Amphidinium from a jellyfish, an hydrocoral and a flatworm, respectively. In this study, all of the phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. synthesized up to three identified MAAs. None of the 11 cultured phylotypes B and C Symbiodinium spp. synthesized MAAs. The three non-Symbiodinium symbionts also synthesized up to three MAAs. The results support a conclusion that phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. have a high predilection for the synthesis of MAAs, while phylotypes B and C do not. Synthesis of MAAs by symbiotic dinoflagellates in culture does not appear to relate directly to depths or to the UV exposure regimes from which the consortia were collected. PMID:10841936

  11. Phosphorus Deficiency Inhibits Cell Division But Not Growth in the Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meizhen; Shi, Xinguo; Guo, Chentao; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient element for the growth of phytoplankton. How P deficiency affects population growth and the cell division cycle in dinoflagellates has only been studied in some species, and how it affects photosynthesis and cell growth remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of P deficiency on the cell division cycle, the abundance of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, and other cellular characteristics in the Gymnodiniales peridinin-plastid species Amphidinium carterae. We found that under P-replete condition, the cell cycle actively progressed in the culture in a 24-h diel cycle with daily growth rates markedly higher than the P-deficient cultures, in which cells were arrested in the G1 phase and cell size significantly enlarged. The results suggest that, as in previously studied dinoflagellates, P deficiency likely disenables A. carterae to complete DNA duplication or check-point protein phosphorylation. We further found that under P-deficient condition, overall photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm ratio) and Rubisco abundance decreased but not significantly, while cellular contents of carbon, nitrogen, and proteins increased significantly. These observations indicated that under P-deficiency, this dinoflagellate was able to continue photosynthesis and carbon fixation, such that proteins and photosynthetically fixed carbon could accumulate resulting in continued cell growth in the absence of division. This is likely an adaptive strategy thereby P-limited cells can be ready to resume the cell division cycle upon resupply of phosphorus. PMID:27313570

  12. Morphology and behaviour of dinoflagellate chromosomes during the cell cycle and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Bhaud, Y; Guillebault, D; Lennon, J; Defacque, H; Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Moreau, H

    2000-04-01

    The morphology and behaviour of the chromosomes of dinoflagellates during the cell cycle appear to be unique among eukaryotes. We used synchronized and aphidicolin-blocked cultures of the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii to describe the successive morphological changes that chromosomes undergo during the cell cycle. The chromosomes in early G(1) phase appeared to be loosely condensed with numerous structures protruding toward the nucleoplasm. They condensed in late G(1), before unwinding in S phase. The chromosomes in cells in G(2) phase were tightly condensed and had a double number of arches, as visualised by electron microscopy. During prophase, chromosomes elongated and split longitudinally, into characteristic V or Y shapes. We also used confocal microscopy to show a metaphase-like alignment of the chromosomes, which has never been described in dinoflagellates. The metaphase-like nucleus appeared flattened and enlarged, and continued to do so into anaphase. Chromosome segregation occurred via binding to the nuclear envelope surrounding the cytoplasmic channels and microtubule bundles. Our findings are summarized in a model of chromosome behaviour during the cell cycle. PMID:10704374

  13. First Report of Parasitism on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard-Le Denn, E.; Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J.; Probert, I.

    2000-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic red tide phytoplankton Alexandrium minutum Halim (Dinophyceae) have frequently occurred during recent years in the estuaries of northern Brittany, France. Some months after a bloom in the Penzé River in 1997, many Alexandrium cells in samples maintained in the dark at 14 °C were observed to be infected by the sporocysts of an unknown parasite, which, upon exposure to increased light intensity and temperature, ejected many small biflagellate zoospores. The parasite was found to infect laboratory cultures of several other dinoflagellate species, and estimates of parasite-induced mortality indicate that this parasite is capable of removing a significant fraction of dinoflagellate biomass in a short time, raising the possibility of its use as a biological control agent of toxic dinoflagellate blooms. The effect of this parasite on natural A. minutum populations remains, however, to be estimated. This paper presents video images used in a preliminary identification and life cycle elucidation of the parasite, which may be affiliated with the Apicomplexan complex.

  14. Culturable and nonculturable bacterial symbionts in the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Mayra; Rosado, William; Govind, Nadathur S; Tosteson, Thomas R

    2003-09-15

    The toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis hosts a variety of symbiont bacterial flora. Laboratory cultured Ostreopsis clones require the presence of symbiotic Pseudomonas/Alteromonas bacterial strains for growth and toxicity development. Three culturable bacterial strains associated with Ostreopsis were identified as Pseudomonas/Alteromonas strain 1, Pseudomonas/Alteromonas strain 2 and Acinetobacter. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of extracted Ostreopsis associated bacterial DNAs indicated that there were three culturable and four non-culturable associated bacterial strains. The results presented here are the first report of the presence of unculturable bacterial symbionts in a toxic benthic dinoflagellate. Ostreopsis lost toxicity when exposed to elevated temperatures in the field and laboratory culture and subsequently recovered toxicity at reduced temperatures. Ostreopsis associated culturable Pseudomonas/Alteromonas bacterial strains were significantly reduced in dinoflagellate cultures exposed to elevated temperatures. The decreased toxicity of O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures and their subsequent recovery of toxicity in periods of reduced thermal stress may have resulted from the effects of elevated temperature on the spectrum of culturable and unculturable bacterial species interacting with their Ostreopsis host. PMID:14505943

  15. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Ross F.; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Koreny, Ludek; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales. PMID:27066182

  16. In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

    2014-05-01

    Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II

  17. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552, by fax to (202) 906-6518, or by e-mail to...'s Office, Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552....

  18. Mutual diffusion in a binary isotopic mixture.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Tankeshwar, K

    2010-11-17

    The mass dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient, in a binary equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones fluids, is studied within Mori's memory function formalism. A phenomenological form of the memory function is used to study the time evolution of the self- and relative velocity correlation functions. The diffusion coefficients are calculated from the relevant velocity correlation functions using the Green-Kubo integral formula. Like the self-diffusion coefficient, the mutual diffusion coefficient is also found to be weakly dependent on the mass ratio. The present study shows that the minimum value that the mutual diffusion coefficient in an equimolar mixture of isotopic fluids can have is √(1/2) times the self-diffusion coefficient of any of the species when in isolation. Further, the contribution of the dynamic/distinct cross correlations to the mutual diffusion coefficient is found to be small and positive for the whole range of the mass ratio which is consistent with earlier molecular dynamics results. PMID:21339621

  19. Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829

  20. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  1. Evolutionary Acquisition and Loss of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates: the Second “Core” Gene, sxtG

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.

    2013-01-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species. PMID:23335767

  2. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L(-1)), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-C(dino)(-1) d(-1), which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills. PMID:25523528

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates. PMID:25421324

  4. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1–86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L−1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino−1 d−1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills. PMID:25523528

  5. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-12-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L-1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino-1 d-1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  6. Marine dinoflagellates show induced life-history shifts to escape parasite infection in response to water-borne signals.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Norén, Fredrik; Selander, Erik; Pavia, Henrik

    2004-04-01

    Many dinoflagellate species form dormant resting cysts as a part of their life cycle, and in some freshwater species, hatching of these cysts can be delayed by the presence of water-borne signals from grazing zooplankton. Some marine dinoflagellates can form temporary cysts, which may function to resist unfavourable short-term environmental conditions. We investigated whether the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is able to induce an increased resistance to the parasitic flagellate Parvilucifera infectans by forming temporary cysts. We performed several laboratory experiments where dinoflagellates were exposed either to direct contact with parasites or to filtered water from cultures of parasite-infected conspecifics (parasite-derived signals). Infection by P. infectans is lethal to motile A. ostenfeldii cells, but temporary cysts were more resistant to parasite infection. Furthermore, A. ostenfeldii induced a shift in life-history stage (from motile cells to temporary cysts) when exposed to parasite-derived water-borne signals. The response was relaxed within a couple of hours, indicating that A. ostenfeldii may use this behaviour as a short-term escape mechanism to avoid parasite infection. The results suggest that intraspecies chemical communication evoked by biotic interactions can be an important mechanism controlling life-history shifts in marine dinoflagellates, which may have implications for the development of toxic algal blooms. PMID:15209107

  7. Characteristics of phytoplankton community structure during and after a bloom of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea by HPLC pigment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wong, Chong-Kim

    2009-06-01

    A bloom of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea was detected for the first time in inner Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong in 2 000. Water samples were collected at eight stations along a transect passing through a red tide patch for microscopic analysis of phytoplankton composition and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of phytoplankton pigments. During the bloom, the density of dinoflagellates was 1.1×106 cells L-1 within the patch and 8.6×105 cells L-1 outside the patch where the phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms. After the bloom the S. trochoidea began to decrease in density and was replaced by diatoms as the dominating bloom-causing organisms at all stations, and the density of dinoflagellates at most stations was less than 1.0 × 106 cells L-1. The status of S. trochoidea as the causative species of the bloom was indicated by the presence of peridinin, the marker pigment for dinoflagellates. The shift from dinoflagellates to diatoms was marked by the decline of peridinin and the prevalence of fucoxanthin. Phytoplankton pigment markers also revealed the presence of other minor phytoplankton assemblages such as cryptomonads and blue-green algal.

  8. Homology-Driven Proteomics of Dinoflagellates with Unsequenced Genomes Using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Automated De Novo Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Li, Cheng; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dong, Hong-Po; Lin, Lin; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This study developed a multilayered, gel-based, and underivatized strategy for de novo protein sequence analysis of unsequenced dinoflagellates using a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer with the assistance of DeNovo Explorer software. MASCOT was applied as the first layer screen to identify either known or unknown proteins sharing identical peptides presented in a database. Once the confident identifications were removed after searching against the NCBInr database, the remainder was searched against the dinoflagellate expressed sequence tag database. In the last layer, those borderline and nonconfident hits were further subjected to de novo interpretation using DeNovo Explorer software. The de novo sequences passing a reliability filter were subsequently submitted to nonredundant MS-BLAST search. Using this layer identification method, 216 protein spots representing 158 unique proteins out of 220 selected protein spots from Alexandrium tamarense, a dinoflagellate with unsequenced genome, were confidently or tentatively identified by database searching. These proteins were involved in various intracellular physiological activities. This study is the first effort to develop a completely automated approach to identify proteins from unsequenced dinoflagellate databases and establishes a preliminary protein database for various physiological studies of dinoflagellates in the future. PMID:21977052

  9. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  10. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Adam G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  11. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Adam G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  12. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  13. Automotive radar - investigation of mutual interference mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goppelt, M.; Blöcher, H.-L.; Menzel, W.

    2010-09-01

    In the past mutual interference between automotive radar sensors has not been regarded as a major problem. With an increasing number of such systems, however, this topic is receiving more and more attention. The investigation of mutual interference and countermeasures is therefore one topic of the joint project "Radar on Chip for Cars" (RoCC) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). RoCC's goal is to pave the way for the development of high-performance, low-cost 79 GHz radar sensors based on Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs). This paper will present some generic interference scenarios and report on the current status of the analysis of interference mechanisms.

  14. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  15. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  16. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  17. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  18. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  19. Mutual synchronization of weakly coupled gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rozental, R. M.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.

    2015-09-15

    The processes of synchronization of two weakly coupled gyrotrons are studied within the framework of non-stationary equations with non-fixed longitudinal field structure. With the allowance for a small difference of the free oscillation frequencies of the gyrotrons, we found a certain range of parameters where mutual synchronization is possible while a high electronic efficiency is remained. It is also shown that synchronization regimes can be realized even under random fluctuations of the parameters of the electron beams.

  20. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  1. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  2. Mutual information analysis of JPEG2000 contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Karam, Lina J.

    2003-05-01

    Context-based arithmetic coding has been widely adopted in image and video compression and is a key component of the new JPEG2000 image compression standard. In this paper, the contexts used in JPEG2000 are analyzed using the mutual information, which has a direct link with the compression performance. We first show that, when combining the contexts, the mutual information between the contexts and the encoded data will decrease unless the conditional probability distributions of the combined contexts are the same. Given I, the initial number of contexts, and F, the final desired number of contexts, there are S(I, F) possible context classification schemes where S(I, F) is called the Stirling number of the second kind. The optimal classification scheme is the one that gives the maximum mutual information. Instead of exhaustive search, the optimal classification scheme can be obtained through a modified Generalized Lloyd algorithm with the relative entropy as the distortion metric. For binary arithmetic coding, the search complexity can be reduced by using the dynamic programming. Our experimental results show that the JPEG2000 contexts capture very well the correlations among the wavelet coefficients. At the same time, the number of contexts used as part of the standard can be reduced without loss in the coding performance.

  3. Amoebophrya spp. from the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides: parasites not nested in the "Amoebophrya ceratii complex".

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunju; Park, Myung Gil

    2014-01-01

    Members of Amoebophrya ceratii complex are known to infect a number of free-living dinoflagellates including harmful algal bloom species. In August and October 2012, Amoebophrya infections during two bloom events of the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides were observed along southern coastal waters of Korea. Microscopic observations and molecular data revealed that two different Amoebophrya parasites infected the same host species. In addition, while one developed in the host's nucleus, the other in the host's cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the two parasites were not nested in the previously recognized "Amoebophrya ceratii complex clade", which contained sequences of parasites infecting numerous dinoflagellate species. Instead, they branched as sister taxa to the isolate (possibly Amoebophrya) from radiolarians Hexacontium gigantheum. Our result indicates that the two Amoebophrya parasites infecting C. polykrikoides may be different species from those inside the "complex." PMID:24612333

  4. Draft genome sequence of Mameliella alba strain UMTAT08 isolated from clonal culture of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii.

    PubMed

    Danish-Daniel, Muhd; Han Ming, Gan; Noor, Mohd Ezhar Mohd; Yeong, Yik Sung; Usup, Gires

    2016-12-01

    Mameliella alba strain UMTAT08 was isolated from clonal culture of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamiyavanichii. Genome of the strain UMTAT08 was sequenced in order to gain insights into the dinoflagellate-bacteria interactions. The draft genome sequence of strain UMTAT08 contains 5.84Mbp with an estimated G + C content of 65%, 5717 open reading frames, 5 rRNAs and 49 tRNAs. It contains genes related to nutrients uptake, quorum sensing and environmental tolerance related genes. Gene clusters for the biosynthesis of type 1 polyketide synthase, bacteriocin, microcin, terpene and ectoine were also identified. This is suggesting that the bacterium possesses diverse adaptation strategy to survive within the dinoflagellate phycosphere. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JSUQ00000000. PMID:27625991

  5. RNA Sequencing Revealed Numerous Polyketide Synthase Genes in the Harmful Dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kei; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakayama, Kei; Shikata, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Skamoto, Setsuko; Yamaguchi, Mineo; Tomaru, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi forms blooms in the coastal waters of temperate regions and occasionally causes massive fish and invertebrate mortality. This study aimed to elucidate the toxic effect of K. mikimotoi on marine organisms by using the genomics approach; RNA-sequence libraries were constructed, and data were analyzed to identify toxin-related genes. Next-generation sequencing produced 153,406 transcript contigs from the axenic culture of K. mikimotoi. BLASTX analysis against all assembled contigs revealed that 208 contigs were polyketide synthase (PKS) sequences. Thus, K. mikimotoi was thought to have several genes encoding PKS metabolites and to likely produce toxin-like polyketide molecules. Of all the sequences, approximately 30 encoded eight PKS genes, which were remarkably similar to those of Karenia brevis. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that these genes belonged to a new group of PKS type-I genes. Phylogenetic and active domain analyses showed that the amino acid sequence of four among eight Karenia PKS genes was not similar to any of the reported PKS genes. These PKS genes might possibly be associated with the synthesis of polyketide toxins produced by Karenia species. Further, a homology search revealed 10 contigs that were similar to a toxin gene responsible for the synthesis of saxitoxin (sxtA) in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. These contigs encoded A1–A3 domains of sxtA genes. Thus, this study identified some transcripts in K. mikimotoi that might be associated with several putative toxin-related genes. The findings of this study might help understand the mechanism of toxicity of K. mikimotoi and other dinoflagellates. PMID:26561394

  6. Effects of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense on the energy budgets and growth of two marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Li, Siu-Chung; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2002-03-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) may impose a serious threat to aquatic lives and human health. We determined the effects of a toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (clone ATCIO1, isolated from Hong Kong coastal waters) on the energy budget, quantified as scope for growth (SFG), and the growth rate of the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. To quantify the SFG, clams and mussels were dosed with different amounts of toxic A. tamarense for 6 days, resulting in different toxin burdens in the tissues. Clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and respiration rate were subsequently measured in these toxin containing bivalves. Clearance rate significantly declined at the highest toxin burden in the clams only, while there was no significant difference in the clearance rate among different treatments for the mussels. The respiration rate of either bivalve was not significantly affected by toxin accumulation in the tissues. In contrast, the absorption efficiency of both clams and mussels decreased, in a concentration-dependent manner for mussels but not for clams, when the tissue accumulated the toxins. With an increase in paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin burden, SFG in both clams and mussels was significantly reduced, primarily because of the decrease of absorption efficiency. The growth rate of juvenile clam R. philippinarum, measured as an increment in tissue dry weight over a 15 d exposure period, was significantly lower during their feeding on toxic dinoflagellate than the growth rate of clams feeding on the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The juvenile mussel P. viridis, however, exhibited similar growth rates after feeding on the toxic dinoflagellates and the nontoxic diatom. This study showed that SFG can provide a sensitive and integrated measure of the effect of HAB on the physiology of bivalves. Clam R. philippinarum may be more sensitive, in terms of their energy budget, to PSP toxin accumulation than the mussel P

  7. Unarmoured dinoflagellates with a small hyposome: Torodinium and Lebouridinium gen. nov. for Katodinium glaucum (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Fernando; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the morphology and evolutionary relationships of Torodinium spp. and Katodinium glaucum, unarmoured dinoflagellates characterized by a small hyposome. An emended generic description of Torodinium was proposed based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Torodinium exhibited a unique combination of morphological features including a minute hyposome, a long episome with longitudinal ribs and a canal of unknown function on the dextro-lateral side. Unlike any known dinoflagellate both cingulum and sulcus extended in the episome. The apex surface showed ribs that converged in a bill-like projection. The shape of the apical groove was a circular spiral that extended around the apex running in 2.5 turns in an anticlockwise direction. The type species T. teredo was usually longer than T. robustum. The longitudinal outline of T. teredo was linear, with almost parallel margins, a circular transversal section, a relatively large hyposome and a conspicuous bill-like projection. The longitudinal outline of T. robustum was oblong, widened in the middle, with an ellipsoidal transversal section, a small hyposome and a less prominent bill-like projection. Several morphological features of Katodinium glaucum (=Gyrodinium glaucum) resembled Gyrodinium, such as the cingular displacement, longitudinal ribs, trichocysts, rod-shaped and refractile bodies and a capsule that surrounded the spherical nucleus. Distinctive features of K. glaucum were the horseshoeshaped apical groove under a tongue-shaped notch pointed towards the dorsal side, and a bifurcated proximal end of the cingulum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Torodinium spp. and K. glaucum formed two independent lineages with no close relationships with other known dinoflagellates. The morphology of K. glaucum was distant from the type species of Katodinium. We propose the new genus and combination Lebouridinium glaucum gen. nov., comb. nov. for the species Katodinium glaucum. PMID:27284214

  8. A dual-species co-cultivation system to study the interactions between Roseobacters and dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Tomasch, Jürgen; Jarek, Michael; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Some microalgae in nature live in symbiosis with microorganisms that can enhance or inhibit growth, thus influencing the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. In spite of the great ecological importance of these interactions, very few defined laboratory systems are available to study them in detail. Here we present a co-cultivation system consisting of the toxic phototrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the photoheterotrophic alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae. In a mineral medium lacking a carbon source, vitamins for the bacterium and the essential vitamin B12 for the dinoflagellate, growth dynamics reproducibly went from a mutualistic phase, where both algae and bacteria grow, to a pathogenic phase, where the algae are killed by the bacteria. The data show a “Jekyll and Hyde” lifestyle that had been proposed but not previously demonstrated. We used RNAseq and microarray analysis to determine which genes of D. shibae are transcribed and differentially expressed in a light dependent way at an early time-point of the co-culture when the bacterium grows very slowly. Enrichment of bacterial mRNA for transcriptome analysis was optimized, but none of the available methods proved capable of removing dinoflagellate ribosomal RNA completely. RNAseq showed that a phasin encoding gene (phaP1) which is part of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) metabolism operon represented approximately 10% of all transcripts. Five genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis were down-regulated in the light, indicating that the photosynthesis apparatus was functional. A betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter (BCCT) that may be used for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) uptake was the highest up-regulated gene in the light. The data suggest that at this early mutualistic phase of the symbiosis, PHA degradation might be the main carbon and energy source of D. shibae, supplemented in the light by degradation of DMSP and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:25009539

  9. A dual-species co-cultivation system to study the interactions between Roseobacters and dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tomasch, Jürgen; Jarek, Michael; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Some microalgae in nature live in symbiosis with microorganisms that can enhance or inhibit growth, thus influencing the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. In spite of the great ecological importance of these interactions, very few defined laboratory systems are available to study them in detail. Here we present a co-cultivation system consisting of the toxic phototrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the photoheterotrophic alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae. In a mineral medium lacking a carbon source, vitamins for the bacterium and the essential vitamin B12 for the dinoflagellate, growth dynamics reproducibly went from a mutualistic phase, where both algae and bacteria grow, to a pathogenic phase, where the algae are killed by the bacteria. The data show a "Jekyll and Hyde" lifestyle that had been proposed but not previously demonstrated. We used RNAseq and microarray analysis to determine which genes of D. shibae are transcribed and differentially expressed in a light dependent way at an early time-point of the co-culture when the bacterium grows very slowly. Enrichment of bacterial mRNA for transcriptome analysis was optimized, but none of the available methods proved capable of removing dinoflagellate ribosomal RNA completely. RNAseq showed that a phasin encoding gene (phaP1 ) which is part of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) metabolism operon represented approximately 10% of all transcripts. Five genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis were down-regulated in the light, indicating that the photosynthesis apparatus was functional. A betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter (BCCT) that may be used for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) uptake was the highest up-regulated gene in the light. The data suggest that at this early mutualistic phase of the symbiosis, PHA degradation might be the main carbon and energy source of D. shibae, supplemented in the light by degradation of DMSP and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:25009539

  10. Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Mahoney, Kevin; Moline, Mark; Oliver, Matthew; Lohrenz, Steven; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2006-06-01

    Vertical migration behavior is found in many harmful algal blooms; however, the corresponding impact on ocean optical properties has not been quantified. A near-monospecific population of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis was encountered off the west coast of Florida. The community was tracked for 24 hours by following a Lagrangian drifter deployed at the beginning of the experiment. A suite of inherent optical and cellular measurements was made. Over the 24 hour period, the K. brevis population increased during the day with concentrations peaking in the late afternoon (1600 local daylight time) in the upper 2 m of the water column. The increase in K. brevis in surface waters resulted in enhanced reflectance at the sea surface with distinct spectral changes. There was a 22% decrease in the relative amount of the green reflectance due to increased pigment absorption. There was enhanced red (35%) and infrared (75%) light reflectance due to the increased particle backscatter and chlorophyll a fluorescence; however, the relative impact of the fluorescence was relatively small despite high cell numbers due to the significant fluorescence quenching present in K. brevis. The relative change in the blue light reflectance was not as large as the change in green light reflectance, which is surprising given the pigment absorption in the blue wavelengths of light. The increased blue light pigment absorption was offset by a significant decrease in nonalgal particle absorption. The inverse relationship between K. brevis and nonalgal particles was robust. This relationship may reflect low grazing on K. brevis populations due to the neurotoxins associated with this dinoflagellate. The low-grazing pressure may provide the mechanism by which this slow-growing dinoflagellate can achieve high cell numbers in the ocean.

  11. 78 FR 26424 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC will be held... savings associations, and other issues of concern to the existing mutual savings associations. On the...

  12. 77 FR 74052 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC or Committee). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC... 8:30 a.m. EST. Agenda items include a discussion of the status of the mutual savings...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in section 593(a)....

  18. Gambierone, a Ladder-Shaped Polyether from the Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Inés; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Alfonso, Carmen; Calabro, Kevin; Alonso, Eva; Sánchez, Jon A; Alfonso, Amparo; Thomas, Olivier P; Botana, Luis M

    2015-05-15

    A new natural product named gambierone (1) was isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus. The structure of this compound features an unprecedented polyether skeleton and an unusual right-hand side chain. Its relative configuration was fully determined by interpretation of ROESY experiment and comparison between experimental and theoretical NMR data. Although the succession of cycles has no chemical similarity with ciguatoxins, 1 has a molecular formula and biological activity similar to those of CTX-3C, although much lower in intensity. PMID:25950201

  19. Eutrophication signals in the sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Barrie

    2009-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the current status of eutrophication signals from the sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters, particularly of NW Europe. There is a dearth of the multi-decadal time series data from plankton needed to document eutrophication, and the cysts may provide an alternative source of information. Two different eutrophication signals have been described so far from cyst records: 1) from the Oslofjord, comprising a marked increase in total cyst concentrations (interpreted as probably reflecting increased phytoplankton productivity), with Lingulodinium polyedrum cysts accounting for most of the increase (interpreted as a species particularly benefiting from added nutrients from cultural eutrophication in late summer when nutrients otherwise may be limiting); and 2) the heterotroph signal, from several other Norwegian fjords and Tokyo Bay, Japan, involving both cases of increased cyst concentrations and others with no particular increase, but with a marked proportional increase in cysts of heterotrophic species (interpreted as reflecting increased diatoms and possibly other prey for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates and/or more unfavourable conditions for autotrophs, e.g. from shading). These signals should be used critically, and there is a particular need to distinguish between eutrophication signals and climate signals that may be co-occurring at a given time. Work by various authors has generally supported the concept of these cyst-based signals since they were first published, including both further records from cored sediments from other parts of the world and studies relating cyst distributions in surface sediments to gradients of pollution and nutrients from sewage discharge. Recent, unpublished work by Dale and Sætre, linked cyst signals in cored sediments to the timing of collapse of local fisheries at different times within the past fifty years in four fjord systems along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast

  20. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  1. A phylogenetic mosaic plastid proteome and unusual plastid-targeting signals in the green-colored dinoflagellate Lepidodinium chlorophorum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plastid replacements through secondary endosymbioses include massive transfer of genes from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and require a new targeting system to enable transport of the plastid-targeted proteins across 3-4 plastid membranes. The dinoflagellates are the only eukaryotic lineage that has been shown to have undergone several plastid replacement events, and this group is thus highly relevant for studying the processes involved in plastid evolution. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic origin and N-terminal extensions of plastid-targeted proteins from Lepidodinium chlorophorum, a member of the only dinoflagellate genus that harbors a green secondary plastid rather than the red algal-derived, peridinin-containing plastid usually found in photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Results We sequenced 4,746 randomly picked clones from a L. chlorophorum cDNA library. 22 of the assembled genes were identified as genes encoding proteins functioning in plastids. Some of these were of green algal origin. This confirms that genes have been transferred from the plastid to the host nucleus of L. chlorophorum and indicates that the plastid is fully integrated as an organelle in the host. Other nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted protein genes, however, are clearly not of green algal origin, but have been derived from a number of different algal groups, including dinoflagellates, streptophytes, heterokonts, and red algae. The characteristics of N-terminal plastid-targeting peptides of all of these genes are substantially different from those found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and green algae. Conclusions L. chlorophorum expresses plastid-targeted proteins with a range of different origins, which probably arose through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The N-terminal extension of the genes is different from the extensions found in green alga and other dinoflagellates (peridinin- and haptophyte plastids). These

  2. Osmotic stress does not trigger brevetoxin production in the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sunda, William G.; Burleson, Cheska; Hardison, D. Ransom; Morey, Jeanine S.; Wang, Zhihong; Wolny, Jennifer; Corcoran, Alina A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Van Dolah, Frances M.

    2013-01-01

    With the global proliferation of toxic harmful algal bloom species, there is a need to identify the environmental and biological factors that regulate toxin production. One such species, Karenia brevis, forms nearly annual blooms that threaten coastal regions throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This dinoflagellate produces brevetoxins, which are potent neurotoxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory illness in humans, as well as massive fish kills. A recent publication reported that a rapid decrease in salinity increased cellular toxin quotas in K. brevis and hypothesized that brevetoxins serve a role in osmoregulation. This finding implied that salinity shifts could significantly alter the toxic effects of blooms. We repeated the original experiments separately in three different laboratories and found no evidence for increased brevetoxin production in response to low-salinity stress in any of the eight K. brevis strains we tested, including three used in the original study. Thus, we find no support for an osmoregulatory function of brevetoxins. The original publication also stated that there was no known cellular function for brevetoxins. However, there is increasing evidence that brevetoxins promote survival of the dinoflagellates by deterring grazing by zooplankton. Whether they have other as-yet-unidentified cellular functions is currently unknown. PMID:23754363

  3. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito; Mudie, Petra J.; Marret, Fabienne; Aksu, Ali E.; Hiscott, Richard N.; Verleye, Thomas J.; Mousing, Erik A.; Smyrnova, Ludmila L.; Bagheri, Siamak; Mansor, Mashhor; Pospelova, Vera; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2012-04-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ˜14 ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ˜12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ˜17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ˜9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other researchers. The dinoflagellate cyst salinity-proxy does not record large Holocene salinity fluctuations, and after early Holocene freshening, it shows correspondence to the regional sea-level curve of Brückner et al. (2010) derived from Balabanov (2007).

  4. Dinomyces arenysensis gen. et sp. nov. (Rhizophydiales, Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.), a chytrid infecting marine dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Frédéric; Karpov, Sergey A; Alacid, Elisabet; Le Panse, Sophie; Bigeard, Estelle; Garcés, Esther; Jeanthon, Christian; Guillou, Laure

    2014-03-01

    Environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys of microbial eukaryotes have recently revealed the diversity of major parasitic agents in pelagic freshwater systems, consisting primarily of chytrid fungi. To date, only a few studies have reported the presence of chydrids in the marine environment and a limited number of marine chytrids have been properly identified and characterized. Here, we report the isolation and cultivation of a marine chytrid from samples taken during a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Arenys de Mar harbour (Mediterranean Sea, Spain). Cross-infections using cultures and natural phytoplankton communities revealed that this chytrid is only able to infect certain species of dinoflagellates, with a rather wide host range but with a relative preference for Alexandrium species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that it belongs to the order Rhizophydiales, but cannot be included in any of the existing families within this order. Several ultrastructural characters confirmed the placement of this taxon within the Rhizophydiales as well its novelty notably in terms of zoospore structure. This marine chytridial parasitoid is described as a new genus and species, Dinomyces arenysensis, within the Dinomycetaceae fam. nov. PMID:24709472

  5. Long-term dinoflagellate culture performance in a commercial photobioreactor: Amphidinium carterae case.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Bayliss, C; Fonlut, F; Chapuli, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the culture performance of a dinoflagellate in a commercial photobioreactor. The results obtained during this long-term experiment allow to confirm that Amphidinium carterae is a promising dinoflagellate that can be exploited successfully in closed systems, in semi-continuous mode in indoor and outdoor environments. The average results in an indoor 5cm light-path 320L photobioreactor were, in terms of specific growth rate (0.29d(-1)), duplication time (3.1d(-1)) and dry biomass productivity (78mgL(-1)d(-1)). Specific compounds production was found including ω3 and ω6 fatty acids and, pigments (Peridinin, β-carotene). These promising results, besides unique characteristics found during the exploitation period such as resistance to mechanical stress, self-control of contaminant organisms, and quick cells aggregation when the culture is not in turbulence conditions, makes A. carterae one of the new target species suitable for commercially exploitation on an industrial scale. PMID:27395001

  6. Multi-gene analysis of Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: a perspective on rarity, symbiosis, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Hollie M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiodinium, a large group of dinoflagellates, live in symbiosis with marine protists, invertebrate metazoans, and free-living in the environment. Symbiodinium are functionally variable and play critical energetic roles in symbiosis. Our knowledge of Symbiodinium has been historically constrained by the limited number of molecular markers available to study evolution in the genus. Here we compare six functional genes, representing three cellular compartments, in the nine known Symbiodinium lineages. Despite striking similarities among the single gene phylogenies from distinct organelles, none were evolutionarily identical. A fully concatenated reconstruction, however, yielded a well-resolved topology identical to the current benchmark nr28S gene. Evolutionary rates differed among cellular compartments and clades, a pattern largely driven by higher rates of evolution in the chloroplast genes of Symbiodinium clades D2 and I. The rapid rates of evolution observed amongst these relatively uncommon Symbiodinium lineages in the functionally critical chloroplast may translate into potential innovation for the symbiosis. The multi-gene analysis highlights the potential power of assessing genome-wide evolutionary patterns using recent advances in sequencing technology and emphasizes the importance of integrating ecological data with more comprehensive sampling of free-living and symbiotic Symbiodinium in assessing the evolutionary adaptation of this enigmatic dinoflagellate. PMID:24883254

  7. A giant cell surface protein in Synechococcus WH8102 inhibits feeding by a dinoflagellate predator.

    PubMed

    Strom, Suzanne L; Brahamsha, Bianca; Fredrickson, Kerri A; Apple, Jude K; Rodríguez, Andres Gutiérrez

    2012-03-01

    Diverse strains of the marine planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. show consistent differences in their susceptibility to predation. We used mutants of Sargasso Sea strain WH8102 (clade III) to test the hypothesis that cell surface proteins play a role in defence against predation by protists. Predation rates by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on mutants lacking the giant SwmB protein were always higher (by 1.6 to 3.9×) than those on wild-type WH8102 cells, and equalled predation rates on a clade I strain (CC9311). In contrast, absence of the SwmA protein, which comprises the S-layer (surface layer of the cell envelope that is external to the outer membrane), had no effect on predation by O. marina. Reductions in predation rate were not due to dissolved substances in Synechococcus cultures, and could not be accounted for by variations in cell hydrophobicity. We hypothesize that SwmB defends Synechococcus WH8102 by interfering with attachment of dinoflagellate prey capture organelles or cell surface receptors. Giant proteins are predicted in the genomes of multiple Synechococcus isolates, suggesting that this defence strategy may be more general. Strategies for resisting predation will contribute to the differential competitive success of different Synechococcus groups, and to the diversity of natural picophytoplankton assemblages. PMID:22103339

  8. Spatial distribution of the phytoplankton in the White Sea during atypical domination of dinoflagellates (July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyash, L. V.; Zhitina, L. S.; Belevich, T. A.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Pantyulin, A. N.; Tolstikov, A. V.; Chultsova, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The species composition and biomass of phytoplankton, concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and nutrients, and accompanying hydrophysical conditions have been studied in the White Sea on July 6-11, 2009. The temperature of the surface water layer was lower than the multiyear average in July. Dinoflagellates dominated in the entire studied area; this was not the typical event for July. We suggest that domination of dinoflagellates was caused by low water temperature, when the nutrient regeneration rate was insufficient to support diatom growth. The abundance of microalgae and the structure of the phytoplankton community depended on the water structure. Variations in the phytoplankton community structure were caused not by substitution of specific species but rather by variability of the abundance of a single species, Heterocapsa triquetra. The highest phytoplankton biomass has been recorded in weakly stratified waters, where tidal mixing supplied the income of inorganic nutrients. The income of nutrients to the photic layer was limited in the stratified waters of Dvina Bay during the summer low-water period, so the phytoplankton abundance was low. We suggest that the lens of surface desalinated water presumably originated from the outlet of the Dvina River was registered in the central part of the White Sea.

  9. Intraspecific facilitation by allelochemical mediated grazing protection within a toxigenic dinoflagellate population

    PubMed Central

    John, Uwe; Tillmann, Urban; Hülskötter, Jennifer; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Wohlrab, Sylke; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs), with consequences for coastal marine ecosystem functioning and services. Alexandrium fundyense (previously Alexandrium tamarense) is one of the most abundant and widespread toxigenic species in the temperate Northern and Southern Hemisphere and produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins as well as lytic allelochemical substances. These bioactive compounds may support the success of A. fundyense and its ability to form blooms. Here we investigate the impact of grazing on monoclonal and mixed set-ups of highly (Alex2) and moderately (Alex4) allelochemically active A. fundyense strains and a non-allelochemically active conspecific (Alex5) by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Polykrikos kofoidii. While Alex4 and particularly Alex5 were strongly grazed by P. kofoidii when offered alone, both strains grew well in the mixed assemblages (Alex4 + Alex5 and Alex2 + Alex5). Hence, the allelochemical active strains facilitated growth of the non-active strain by protecting the population as a whole against grazing. Based on our results, we argue that facilitation among clonal lineages within a species may partly explain the high genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Alexandrium populations. Populations of Alexandrium may comprise multiple cooperative traits that act in concert with intraspecific facilitation, and hence promote the success of this notorious HAB species. PMID:25411447

  10. Dinoflagellate diversity among nudibranchs and sponges from French Polynesia: insights into associations and transfer.

    PubMed

    Wecker, Patricia; Fournier, Alice; Bosserelle, Pauline; Debitus, Cécile; Lecellier, Gaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2015-04-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium are widespread among marine invertebrates and protists, especially in nutritionally demanding habitats, such as tropical coral reefs, where they play a major role in ecosystem survival. Moreover, apart from corals and sea anemones, many of the Symbiodinium species and clades involved in these partnerships remain to be characterized. This study provides new insights into nudibranch and sponge associations with Symbiodinium by sequencing regions of the Symbiodinium 28S rDNA and the host mitochondrial COI oxidase. Specimens were sampled between 2011 and 2013 from locations around the islands of Moorea and Tahiti, French Polynesia. Our results revealed that some of the sponges and nudibranchs harbored typical Symbiodinium from clade B or C while others harbored new, undescribed Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates. A detailed analysis of the different life stages of the nudibranch Phestilla lugubris and of its specific coral prey, Porites rus, suggests a prey-predator horizontal transfer of the symbiont and its vertical inheritance from the parent to the eggs. PMID:25747266

  11. Cellulose Synthesis Is Coupled to Cell Cycle Progression at G1 in the Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Alvin C.M.; Wong, Joseph T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Cellulosic deposition in alveolar vesicles forms the “internal cell wall” in thecated dinoflagellates. The availability of synchronized single cells, the lack of secondary deposition, and the absence of cellulosic cell plates at division facilitate investigation of the possible roles of cellulose synthesis (CS) in the entire cell cycle. Flow cytograms of cellulosic contents revealed a stepwise process of CS in the dinoflagellate cell cycle, with the highest rate occurring at G1. A cell cycle delay in G1, but not G2/M, was observed after inhibition of CS. A cell cycle inhibitor of G1/S, but not G2/M, was able to delay cell cycle progression with a corresponding reduction of CS. The increase of cellulose content in the cell cycle corresponded well to the expected increase of surface area. No differences were observed in the cellulose to surface area ratio between normal and fast-growing G1 cells, implicating the significance of surface area in linking CS to the coupling of cell growth with cell cycle progression. The coupling of CS to G1 implicates a novel link between CS and cell cycle control, and we postulate that the coupling mechanism might integrate cell wall integrity to the cell size checkpoint. PMID:12692327

  12. Potential distribution of the invasive freshwater dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyta) in South America.

    PubMed

    Meichtry de Zaburlín, Norma; Vogler, Roberto E; Molina, María J; Llano, Víctor M

    2016-04-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are predominantly found in marine environments, with a few species in inland waters. Over the last decades, the freshwater species Ceratium hirundinella and Ceratium furcoides have colonized and invaded several South American basins. The purpose of this study was to create a distribution model for the invasive dinoflagellate C. furcoides in South America in order to further investigate the basins at potential risk, as well as the environmental conditions that influence its expansion. This species is known to develop blooms due to its mobility, resistance to sedimentation, and optimized use of resources. Although nontoxic, blooms of the species cause many problems to both the natural ecosystems and water users. Potential distribution was predicted by using a maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). Model was run with 101 occurrences obtained from the scientific literature, and climatic, hydrological and topographic variables. The developed model had a very good performance for the study area. The most susceptible areas identified were mainly concentrated in the basins between southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Besides already affected regions, new potentially suitable areas were identified in temperate regions of South America. The information generated here will be useful for authorities responsible for water and watershed management to monitor the spread of this species and address problems related to its establishment in new environments. PMID:27037585

  13. [Harmful blooms of cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriaceae) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Recently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both magnitude and frequency of harmful algae blooms (HAB). The lack of data regarding the dynamics of these events in the area, and the species of microalgae that produce them, are themes of great interest. The blooms have produced negative impacts on fishery resources and on human health in Costa Rica. In May 2002 a HAB left a large number of dead fish along the central Pacific coast. Water samples were collected using a phytoplankton net and fixed for subsequent processing by electron microscopy. In addition, a one liter sample of surface water was taken for later cell count. In the observed HAB, the dominating organisms found were the cyanobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum surrounded by high concentrations of Gram-bacteria and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, is one of the most important N2 fixing cyanobacteria in marine waters that has been associated with HAB events in diverse parts of the world as well as with symptoms that produce contact dermatitis and other discomforts. C. cf. polykrikoides is a dinoflagellete associated with fish kills; although the type of associated toxins are unknown. In a national newspaper 17 cases of intoxication in humans were reported during this same period, which presented respiratory disorders and burning of the eyes. This is the first report in Costa Rica where a cyanobacteria and a dinoflagellate were observed together producing HAB. PMID:17465125

  14. Evidence for an Inorganic Carbon-Concentrating Mechanism in the Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp.1

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, William; Badger, Murray R.; Yellowlees, David

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a carbon-concentrating mechanism in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was investigated. Its existence was postulated to explain how these algae fix inorganic carbon (Ci) efficiently despite the presence of a form II Rubisco. When the dinoflagellates were isolated from their host, the giant clam (Tridacna gigas), CO2 uptake was found to support the majority of net photosynthesis (45%–80%) at pH 8.0; however, 2 d after isolation this decreased to 5% to 65%, with HCO3− uptake supporting 35% to 95% of net photosynthesis. Measurements of intracellular Ci concentrations showed that levels inside the cell were between two and seven times what would be expected from passive diffusion of Ci into the cell. Symbiodinium also exhibits a distinct light-activated intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity. This, coupled with elevated intracellular Ci and the ability to utilize both CO2 and HCO3− from the medium, suggests that Symbiodinium sp. does possess a carbon-concentrating mechanism. However, intracellular Ci levels are not as large as might be expected of an alga utilizing a form II Rubisco with a poor affinity for CO2. PMID:10594111

  15. A nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry study of dinoflagellate functional diversity in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R; Tonk, Linda; Dove, Sophie; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoppe, Peter; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Meibom, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional interactions between corals and symbiotic dinoflagellate algae lie at the heart of the structural foundation of coral reefs. Whilst the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium has attracted particular interest because of its contribution to the sensitivity of corals to environmental changes and bleaching (i.e. disruption of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis), very little is known about the in hospite metabolic capabilities of different Symbiodinium types. Using a combination of stable isotopic labelling and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated the ability of the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, and Symbiodinium C or D types, to assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (via photosynthesis) and nitrogen (as ammonium). Our results indicate that Symbiodinium types from two clades naturally associated with I. palifera possess different metabolic capabilities. The Symbiodinium C type fixed and passed significantly more carbon and nitrogen to its coral host than the D type. This study provides further insights into the metabolic plasticity among different Symbiodinium types in hospite and strengthens the evidence that the more temperature-tolerant Symbiodinium D type may be less metabolically beneficial for its coral host under non-stressful conditions. PMID:24902979

  16. Concentration-dependent organization of DNA by the dinoflagellate histone-like protein HCc3

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuk-Hang; Wong, Joseph T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The liquid crystalline chromosomes of dinoflagellates are the alternative to the nucleosome-based organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotes. These nucleosome-less chromosomes have to devise novel ways to maintain active parts of the genome. The dinoflagellate histone-like protein HCc3 has significant sequence identity with the bacterial DNA-binding protein HU. HCc3 also has a secondary structure resembling HU in silico. We have examined HCc3 in its recombinant form. Experiments on DNA-cellulose revealed its DNA-binding activity is on the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain is responsible for intermolecular oligomerization as demonstrated by cross-linking studies. However, HCc3 could not complement Escherichia coli HU-deficient mutants, suggesting functional differences. In ligation assays, HCc3-induced DNA concatenation but not ring closure as the DNA-bending HU does. The basic HCc3 was an efficient DNA condensing agent, but it did not behave like an ordinary polycationic compound. HCc3 also induced specific structures with DNA in a concentration-dependent manner, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At moderate concentration of HCc3, DNA bridging and bundling were observed; at high concentrations, the complexes were even more condensed. These results are consistent with a biophysical role for HCc3 in maintaining extended DNA loops at the periphery of liquid crystalline chromosomes. PMID:17412706

  17. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-03-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

  18. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  19. Production of a reference transcriptome and transcriptomic database (EdwardsiellaBase) for the lined sea anemone, Edwardsiella lineata, a parasitic cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is an informative model system for evolutionary-developmental studies of parasitism. In this species, it is possible to compare alternate developmental pathways leading from a larva to either a free-living polyp or a vermiform parasite that inhabits the mesoglea of a ctenophore host. Additionally, E. lineata is confamilial with the model cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic, molecular and organismal studies. Description We generated a reference transcriptome for E. lineata via high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated from five developmental stages (parasite; parasite-to-larva transition; larva; larva-to-adult transition; adult). The transcriptome comprises 90,440 contigs assembled from >15 billion nucleotides of DNA sequence. Using a molecular clock approach, we estimated the divergence between E. lineata and N. vectensis at 215–364 million years ago. Based on gene ontology and metabolic pathway analyses and gene family surveys (bHLH-PAS, deiodinases, Fox genes, LIM homeodomains, minicollagens, nuclear receptors, Sox genes, and Wnts), the transcriptome of E. lineata is comparable in depth and completeness to N. vectensis. Analyses of protein motifs and revealed extensive conservation between the proteins of these two edwardsiid anemones, although we show the NF-κB protein of E. lineata reflects the ancestral structure, while the NF-κB protein of N. vectensis has undergone a split that separates the DNA-binding domain from the inhibitory domain. All contigs have been deposited in a public database (EdwardsiellaBase), where they may be searched according to contig ID, gene ontology, protein family motif (Pfam), enzyme commission number, and BLAST. The alignment of the raw reads to the contigs can also be visualized via JBrowse. Conclusions The transcriptomic data and database described here provide a platform for studying the evolutionary developmental genomics

  20. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ℓ and L -ℓ , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/π sin(π/ℓ L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  1. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORDS AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN TWO NEIGHBORING ESTUARIES, NEW BEDFORD HARBOR AND APPONAGANSETT BAY, MASSACHUSETTS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay demonstrate sensitivity to environmental change caused by human activity in the watersheds over the last 500 years. Changes in the species richness, as well as absolute and relative abundan...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYST ASSEMBLAGES IN SHALLOW LAGOONS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples from 24 sites within eleven back-barrier lagoons of Rhode Island and Massachusetts (USA) contain abundant (200-6000 cysts cm-3) and diverse (up to 40 taxa) dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The lowest cyst concentrations and diversity are observed in lagoo...

  3. Ribosomal DNA organization patterns within the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium as revealed by FISH: life cycle and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Cuadrado, Angeles; Stüken, Anke; Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Dinoflagellates are a group of protists whose genome differs from that of other eukaryotes in terms of size (contains up to 250pg per haploid cell), base composition, chromosomal organization, and gene expression. But rDNA gene mapping of the active nucleolus in this unusual eukaryotic genome has not been carried out thus far. Here we used FISH in dinoflagellate species belonging to the genus Alexandrium (genome sizes ranging from 21 to 170 pg of DNA per haploid genome) to localize the sequences encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Each dinoflagellate cell contains only one active nucleolus, with no hybridization signals outside it. However, the rDNA organization varies among species, from repetitive clusters forming discrete nuclear organizer regions (NORs) in some to specialized "ribosomal chromosomes" in other species. The latter chromosomes, never reported before in other eukaryotes, are mainly formed by rDNA genes and appeared in the species with the highest DNA content. 2) Dinoflagellate chromosomes are first characterized by several eukaryotic features, such as structural differentiation (centromere-like constrictions), size differences (dot chromosomes), and SAT (satellite) chromosomes. 3) NOR patterns prove to be useful in discriminating between cryptic species and life cycle stages in protists. PMID:24846057

  4. Characterization of Satellite DNA from Three Marine Dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae): Glenodinium sp. and Two Members of the Toxic Genus, Protogonyaulax 1

    PubMed Central

    Boczar, Barbara A.; Liston, John; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    1991-01-01

    Using CsCl-Hoechst dye or CsCl-ethidium bromide gradients, satellite and nuclear DNAs were separated and characterized in three marine dinoflagellates: Glenodinium sp., and two toxic dinoflagellates, Protogonyaulax tamarensis and Protogonyaulax catenella. In all three dinoflagellates, the lowest density fraction, satellite DNA1, hybridized to chloroplast genes derived from terrestrial plants and/or other algae. Dinoflagellate chloroplast DNAs exhibited molecular sizes of 114 to 125 kilobase pairs, which is consistent with plastid sizes determined for other chromophytic algae (120-150 kilobase pairs). Mitochondrial DNA was not resolved from nuclear DNA in this system. Two additional satellite DNAs, satellite DNA2 and satellite DNA3, recovered from P. tamarensis and P. catenella were similar to one another, both within and between species, when characterized by restriction enzyme analysis. These satellites were 85 to 95 kilobase pairs in size, and exhibited restriction fragments that hybridized to yeast nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Restriction enzyme analyses and DNA hybridization studies of cpDNA document that the two Protogonyaulax isolates are not evolutionarily identical. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668443

  5. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE RED TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GENERA GYMNODINIUM AND GYRODINIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phylogenetic relationships between the red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and other members of the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium have not been studied at the molecular level. G. breve is most noted for its production of brevetoxin, which has been linked to extensive f...

  6. BIO-OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE AND THE DIATOM THALASSIOSIRA WEISSFLOGII IN OUTDOOR TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bio-optical signatures of harmful algal blooms can be used to define ocean color satellite algorithms. We characterized the bio-optical properties of nutrient-replete cultures of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We cultur...

  7. A novel cyclophilin gene from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and its possible role in the environmental stress response.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, Thangaraj; Guo, Ruoyu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophilins (CYPs) are a family of proteins that bind to cyclosporine and are thought to be involved in the stress response. In dinoflagellate algae, CYPs may function as a survival strategy in cells exposed to environmental stressors. Here, we identified a novel cyclophilin gene (referred to as PmCYP, comprising a 516-bp open reading frame, encoding a 171-aa protein with a molecular mass of 17.5kDa) from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, and evaluated the role of dinoflagellate CYP in cells exposed to environmental pollutants copper and polychlorinated biphenyl. In addition, we assessed the cytoprotective role of nitric oxide in relation to the expression of PmCYP. These stressors strongly affected the physiology of the cells, as judged by cell counting, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging, and photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm and PIABS). PmCYP expression was significantly (P<0.05) induced upon exposure of the cells to all the test pollutants used in this study. These clearly indicate that PmCYP plays a vital role in the oxidative stress response in dinoflagellate survival, although the gene was initially known only for its housekeeping function. PMID:26150195

  8. Rapidly diverging evolution of an atypical alkaline phosphatase (PhoAaty) in marine phytoplankton: insights from dinoflagellate alkaline phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Lu; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme that enables marine phytoplankton to scavenge phosphorus (P) from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when inorganic phosphate is scarce in the ocean. Yet how the AP gene has evolved in phytoplankton, particularly dinoflagellates, is poorly understood. We sequenced full-length AP genes and corresponding complementary DNA (cDNA) from 15 strains (10 species), representing four classes of the core dinoflagellate lineage, Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales, Suessiales, and Gonyaulacales. Dinoflagellate AP gene sequences exhibited high variability, containing variable introns, pseudogenes, single nucleotide polymorphisms and consequent variations in amino acid sequence, indicative of gene duplication events and consistent with the “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution. Further sequence comparison showed that dinoflagellate APs likely belong to an atypical type AP (PhoAaty), which shares conserved motifs with counterparts in marine bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, haptophytes, and stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PhoAaty probably originated from an ancestral gene in bacteria and evolved divergently in marine phytoplankton. Because variations in AP amino acid sequences may lead to differential subcellular localization and potentially different metal ion requirements, the multiple types of APs in algae may have resulted from selection for diversifying strategies to utilize DOP in the P variable marine environment. PMID:26379645

  9. Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

  10. CHEMOSENSORY ATTRACTION OF ZOOSPORES OF THE ESTUARINE DINOFLAGELLATES, PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA AND P. SHUMWAYAE, TO FINFISH MUCUS AND EXCRETA. (R825551)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic strains of the estuarine dinoflagellates, Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae, can cause fish death and disease, whereas other estuarine `lookalike' species such as cryptoperidiniopsoids have not been ichthyotoxic under ecologically rel...

  11. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160).

    The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  12. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  13. Heat-Stress and Light-Stress Induce Different Cellular Pathologies in the Symbiotic Dinoflagellate during Coral Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Downs, C. A.; McDougall, Kathleen E.; Woodley, Cheryl M.; Fauth, John E.; Richmond, Robert H.; Kushmaro, Ariel; Gibb, Stuart W.; Loya, Yossi; Ostrander, Gary K.; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching is a significant contributor to the worldwide degradation of coral reefs and is indicative of the termination of symbiosis between the coral host and its symbiotic algae (dinoflagellate; Symbiodinium sp. complex), usually by expulsion or xenophagy (symbiophagy) of its dinoflagellates. Herein, we provide evidence that during the earliest stages of environmentally induced bleaching, heat stress and light stress generate distinctly different pathomorphological changes in the chloroplasts, while a combined heat- and light-stress exposure induces both pathomorphologies; suggesting that these stressors act on the dinoflagellate by different mechanisms. Within the first 48 hours of a heat stress (32°C) under low-light conditions, heat stress induced decomposition of thylakoid structures before observation of extensive oxidative damage; thus it is the disorganization of the thylakoids that creates the conditions allowing photo-oxidative-stress. Conversely, during the first 48 hours of a light stress (2007 µmoles m−2 s−1 PAR) at 25°C, condensation or fusion of multiple thylakoid lamellae occurred coincidently with levels of oxidative damage products, implying that photo-oxidative stress causes the structural membrane damage within the chloroplasts. Exposure to combined heat- and light-stresses induced both pathomorphologies, confirming that these stressors acted on the dinoflagellate via different mechanisms. Within 72 hours of exposure to heat and/or light stresses, homeostatic processes (e.g., heat-shock protein and anti-oxidant enzyme response) were evident in the remaining intact dinoflagellates, regardless of the initiating stressor. Understanding the sequence of events during bleaching when triggered by different environmental stressors is important for predicting both severity and consequences of coral bleaching. PMID:24324575

  14. Transcriptomic response of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and addition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of coastal nutrient sources in the persistence of Karenia brevis red tides in coastal waters of Florida is a contentious issue that warrants investigation into the regulation of nutrient responses in this dinoflagellate. In other phytoplankton studied, nutrient status is reflected by the expression levels of N- and P-responsive gene transcripts. In dinoflagellates, however, many processes are regulated post-transcriptionally. All nuclear encoded gene transcripts studied to date possess a 5' trans-spliced leader (SL) sequence suggestive, based on the trypanosome model, of post-transcriptional regulation. The current study therefore sought to determine if the transcriptome of K. brevis is responsive to nitrogen and phosphorus and is informative of nutrient status. Results Microarray analysis of N-depleted K. brevis cultures revealed an increase in the expression of transcripts involved in N-assimilation (nitrate and ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetases) relative to nutrient replete cells. In contrast, a transcriptional signal of P-starvation was not apparent despite evidence of P-starvation based on their rapid growth response to P-addition. To study transcriptome responses to nutrient addition, the limiting nutrient was added to depleted cells and changes in global gene expression were assessed over the first 48 hours following nutrient addition. Both N- and P-addition resulted in significant changes in approximately 4% of genes on the microarray, using a significance cutoff of 1.7-fold and p ≤ 10-4. By far, the earliest responding genes were dominated in both nutrient treatments by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, which increased in expression up to 3-fold by 1 h following nutrient addition. PPR proteins are nuclear encoded proteins involved in chloroplast and mitochondria RNA processing. Correspondingly, other functions enriched in response to both nutrients were photosystem and ribosomal genes. Conclusions Microarray analysis

  15. Assessing strength and dynamics of the Oligocene Antarctic Circumpolar Current using organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, P.; Houben, A. J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Oligocene Epoch (33.9-23 Ma) is the time interval in the Cenozoic that saw the establishment of a continental-scale Antarctic ice-sheet. Numerical modelling studies suggest that alongside continental ice, first sea-ice conditions may have started along the East Antarctic Margin, but this conclusion lacks support from field evidence. Other numerical models predict that hysteresis effects within the ice sheet will make a continental-size Antarctic ice sheet rather insensitive to warming. In contrast, deep-water benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope records across the Oligocene suggest dramatic waxing and waning of Antarctic ice sheets. The role of opening of Southern Ocean Gateways on the process of building and sustaining Antarctic continental ice has been questioned in the past. Particularly uncertain is the timing of the installation of a strong Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), and the dynamics of its strength in the earlier phases of Gateway throughflow. Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from the early phase of Antarctic glaciation. With this record, we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of the numerical models and the oceanographic changes with field data. Sediments recovered from Site U1356 yields a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Oligocene succession both of which are chrono-stratigraphically well-calibrated with use of nannoplankton- dinocyst- and magnetostratigraphy. Notably, this record yields well-preserved dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocysts are the fossilizable remains of dinoflagellates, some of which are today specifically linked to the high (seasonal) productivity of the ecosystems associated with sea-ice and oceanic fronts. In the earliest Oligocene, just after the onset of Antarctic glaciation, we document the installation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages that bear remarkable similarity with those of the present

  16. Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world's nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change. PMID:26549314

  17. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SINKOVICS, JOSEPH G.

    2015-01-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the Dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it. PMID:26239915

  18. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it. PMID:26239915

  19. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  20. Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

  1. Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, David O.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure. PMID:22478568

  2. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  3. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  4. Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

  5. Detecting Generalized Synchrony Through Mutual Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Steven J.; So, Paul

    1996-03-01

    Detection of synchrony in the nervous system has traditionally relied on linear methods such as cross correlation and coherence. Neurons are floridly nonlinear, however, and neuronal interactions may be inadequately described if it is assumed that ensemble behavior is a linear combination of neuronal activities. We develop an approach to detecting generalized synchrony using mutual nonlinear prediction. Multivariate surrogate data will be employed to establish statistical confidence that synchrony is nonlinear. These results will be applied to an experimental preparation - the motoneuron pool from the spinal cord stretch reflex. The interrelationships between individual neurons, between single neurons and the population of neurons, and between intracellular synaptic currents and single neurons will be examined, and the case for the existence of generalized synchrony made.

  6. Transcriptomic responses of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus to the saxitoxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2016-01-01

    In the Gulf of Maine, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with the neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense. The copepod is resistant to this toxic alga, but little is known about other effects. Gene expression profiles were used to investigate the physiological response of females feeding for two and five days on a control diet or a diet containing either a low or a high dose of A. fundyense. The physiological responses to the two experimental diets were similar, but changed between the time points. At 5-days the response was characterized by down-regulated genes involved in energy metabolism. Detoxification was not a major component of the response. Instead, genes involved in digestion were consistently regulated, suggesting that food assimilation may have been affected. Thus, predicted increases in the frequency of blooms of A. fundyense could affect C. finmarchicus populations by changing the individuals’ energy budget and reducing their ability to build lipid reserves. PMID:27181871

  7. Lagrangian particle tracking of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom within the Tampa Bay estuary.

    PubMed

    Havens, Heather; Luther, Mark E; Meyers, Steven D; Heil, Cynthia A

    2010-12-01

    A coastal risk assessment system simulates the basic physical mechanisms underlying contaminant transport in Tampa Bay. This risk assessment system, comprised of a three-dimensional numerical circulation model coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking model, simulates the transport and dispersion of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom. Instantaneous velocity output from the circulation model drives the movement of particles, each representing a fraction of a K. brevis bloom, within the model grid cells. Hindcast simulations of the spatial distribution of the K. brevis bloom are presented and compared with water sample concentrations collected during the peak of the bloom. Probability calculations, herein called transport quotients, allow for rapid analysis of bay-wide K. brevis transport showing locations most likely to be impacted by the contaminant. Maps constructed from the transport quotients provide managers with a bay-wide snapshot of areas in Tampa Bay most at risk during a hazardous bloom event. PMID:20825953

  8. A dinoflagellate Cochlodinium geminatum bloom in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary in autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Zhixin; Huang, Liangmin; Tan, Yehui; Song, Xingyu

    2012-05-01

    A severe Cochlodinium geminatum red tide (>300 km2) was observed in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary, South China Sea in autumn 2009. We evaluated the environmental conditions and phytoplankton community structure during the outbreak. The red tide water mass had significantly higher dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP), ammonia, and temperature, but significantly lower nitrite, nitrate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and DIN/DIP relative to the non-red-tide zones. The phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by dinoflagellates and diatoms during the red tide. C. geminatum was the most abundant species, with a peak density of 4.13×107 cell/L, accounting for >65% of the total phytoplankton density. The DIN/DIP ratio was the most important predictor of species, accounting for 12.45% of the total variation in the phytoplankton community. Heavy phosphorus loading, low precipitation, and severe saline intrusion were likely responsible for the bloom of C. geminatum.

  9. Proteomic profile in Perna viridis after exposed to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Zou, Ying; Weng, Hui-wen; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we compared protein profiles in gills of Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrumlima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins, and identified the differential abundances of protein spots using 2D-electrophoresis. After exposure to P. lima, the level of okadaic acid (a main component of DSP toxins) in gills of P. viridis significantly increased at 6 h, but mussels were all apparently healthy without death. Among the 28 identified protein spots by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS, 12 proteins were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the P. lima-exposed mussels. These identified proteins were involved in various biological activities, such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, response to oxidative stress and detoxification. Taken together, our results indicated that the presence of P. lima caused DSP toxins accumulation in mussel gill, and might consequently induce cytoskeletonal disorganization,oxidative stress, a dysfunction in metabolism and ubiquitination/proteasome activity. PMID:25463732

  10. Massive Gene Transfer and Extensive RNA Editing of a Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Plastid Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mungpakdee, Sutada; Shinzato, Chuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Goto, Hiroki; Fujie, Manabu; Lin, Senjie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8–3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly. PMID:24881086

  11. Effects of Biocide Chlorine on Biochemical Responses of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Vinitha; Suh, Young Sang; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2015-11-01

    Effects of the biocide sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum were assessed. Growth rate, pigment concentrations, and chlorophyll autofluorescence were monitored up to 72 hours after NaOCl exposure, and these parameters showed dose- and time-dependent decrease. The 72-hour EC₅₀ was 0.983 mg/L. Additionally, enzymatic activities of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione were significantly altered with increasing NaOCl and exposure time. Thus, NaOCl at doses of 0.5 mg/L induces physiological and biochemical changes in P. minimum, suggesting that chlorine concentrations observed in power plant discharges and in drinking water systems are potentially detrimental to microalgae. PMID:26564583

  12. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-01

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals. PMID:12480549

  13. Transcriptomic responses of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus to the saxitoxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Lenz, Petra H

    2016-01-01

    In the Gulf of Maine, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with the neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense. The copepod is resistant to this toxic alga, but little is known about other effects. Gene expression profiles were used to investigate the physiological response of females feeding for two and five days on a control diet or a diet containing either a low or a high dose of A. fundyense. The physiological responses to the two experimental diets were similar, but changed between the time points. At 5-days the response was characterized by down-regulated genes involved in energy metabolism. Detoxification was not a major component of the response. Instead, genes involved in digestion were consistently regulated, suggesting that food assimilation may have been affected. Thus, predicted increases in the frequency of blooms of A. fundyense could affect C. finmarchicus populations by changing the individuals' energy budget and reducing their ability to build lipid reserves. PMID:27181871

  14. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  15. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Lin, Xin; Li, Wujiao; Li, Ling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Zhiliang; Cai, Meichun; Zhuang, Yunyun; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Lingxiao; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhaobao; Liu, Xin; Yu, Sheng; Zeng, Peng; Hao, Han; Zou, Quan; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chunyan; Meng, Shanshan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2015-11-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis. PMID:26542574

  16. Differential effects of ocean acidification on carbon acquisition in two bloom-forming dinoflagellate species.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Rost, Björn

    2014-08-01

    Dinoflagellates represent a cosmopolitan group of phytoplankton with the ability to form harmful algal blooms. Featuring a Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) with very low CO2 affinities, photosynthesis of this group may be particularly prone to carbon limitation and thus benefit from rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) under ocean acidification (OA). Here, we investigated the consequences of OA on two bloom-forming dinoflagellate species, the calcareous Scrippsiella trochoidea and the toxic Alexandrium tamarense. Using dilute batch incubations, we assessed growth characteristics over a range of pCO2 (i.e. 180-1200 µatm). To understand the underlying physiology, several aspects of inorganic carbon acquisition were investigated by membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. Our results show that both species kept growth rates constant over the tested pCO2 range, but we observed a number of species-specific responses. For instance, biomass production and cell size decreased in S. trochoidea, while A. tamarense was not responsive to OA in these measures. In terms of oxygen fluxes, rates of photosynthesis and respiration remained unaltered in S. trochoidea whereas respiration increased in A. tamarense under OA. Both species featured efficient carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) with a CO2-dependent contribution of HCO3(-) uptake. In S. trochoidea, the CCM was further facilitated by exceptionally high and CO2-independent carbonic anhydrase activity. Comparing both species, a general trade-off between maximum rates of photosynthesis and respective affinities is indicated. In conclusion, our results demonstrate effective CCMs in both species, yet very different strategies to adjust their carbon acquisition. This regulation in CCMs enables both species to maintain growth over a wide range of ecologically relevant pCO2 . PMID:24320746

  17. Ozonation of the marine dinoflagellate alga Amphidinium sp.--implications for ballast water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Oemcke, D J; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2005-12-01

    Ozone has been investigated for its potential to remove marine dinoflagellate algae from ships' ballast water. Dinoflagellate algae, Amphidinium sp. isolated from the Great Barrier Reef, Townsville, Australia were used as indicators since these produce a type of cyst that is difficult to inactivate, but are relatively easy to culture. The ozonation experiments have demonstrated a high ozone demand for inactivation of the algal cultures, which increases as the culture ages. The main ozone demand in seawater is due to its reaction with bromide to form bromine compounds. The non-bromide ozone demand has been estimated by measuring the residuals produced after various doses of ozone. The Amphidinium sp. show an unexpected response to both ozonation and bromination, with an instantaneous inactivation of the organisms for all doses that produced an oxidant residual in the seawater, followed by an effect of the disinfection residual. The standard design procedure of comparing Ct will not be effective for predicting the response of the organism to varying dose, C, and contact time, t, and a plot of ozone produced oxidant residual against organism inactivation for various contact times is proposed for design purposes. High doses of ozone (5-11 mg/L) and up to 6h of residual contact were required for a 4-log inactivation of the Amphidinium sp. Ozonation is likely to be a difficult technology to implement for organisms with this ozone requirement in combination with characteristics of ballast tanks, which contain areas of sediments high in detritus and areas of corrosion. PMID:16289281

  18. Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    PubMed

    Barros, M P; Hollnagel, H C; Glavina, A B; Soares, C O; Ganini, D; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S; Morse, D; Colepicolo, P

    2013-10-15

    Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25 mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200 μM) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5 mM, 9.6 mM and 25 mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels. PMID:24036534

  19. Glutathione S-Transferase Regulation in Calanus finmarchicus Feeding on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Jungbluth, Michelle J.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense, on relative expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) transcripts was examined in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Adult females were fed for 5-days on one of three experimental diets: control (100% Rhodomonas spp.), low dose of A. fundyense (25% by volume, 75% Rhodomonas spp.), and high dose (100% A. fundyense). Relative expression of three GST genes was measured using RT-qPCR on days 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 in two independent experiments. Differential regulation was found for the Delta and the Sigma GSTs between 0.5 to 2 days, but not on day 5 in both experiments. The third GST, a microsomal, was not differentially expressed in either treatment or day. RT-qPCR results from the two experiments were similar, even though experimental females were collected from the Gulf of Maine on different dates and their reproductive output differed. In the second experiment, expression of 39 GSTs was determined on days 2 and 5 using RNA-Seq. Global gene expression analyses agreed with the RT-qPCR results. Furthermore, the RNA-Seq measurements indicated that only four GSTs were differentially expressed under the experimental conditions, and the response was small in amplitude. In summary, the A. fundyense diet led to a rapid and transient response in C. finmarchicus in three cytosolic GSTs, while a fourth GST (Omega I) was significantly up-regulated on day 5. Although there was some regulation of GSTs in response the toxic dinoflagellate, the tolerance to A. fundyense by C. finmarchicus is not dependent on the long-term up-regulation of specific GSTs. PMID:27427938

  20. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  1. Feeding by the newly described, nematocyst-bearing heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Kyung Ha; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Kitack

    2011-01-01

    We explored the feeding ecology of the newly described, nematocyst-bearing heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense (GenBank accession number=FR720082). Using several different types of microscopes and high-resolution video-microscopy, we investigated feeding behavior and types of prey species that G. shiwhaense feeds upon. Additionally, we measured its growth and ingestion rates on its optimal algal prey, the cryptophyte Teleaulax sp. and the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, as a function of prey concentration. These rates were measured for other edible prey at single prey concentrations at which the growth and ingestion rates of G. shiwhaense were saturated. After anchoring the prey with a tow filament, G. shiwhaense fed using a peduncle, ingesting small algal species with equivalent spherical diameters (ESDs) of <13 μm. However, it did not feed on larger algal species that had ESDs≥13 μm or the small diatom Skeletonema costatum. The specific growth rates for G. shiwhaense feeding upon Teleaulax sp. and A. carterae increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration before saturating at concentrations of ca. 180-430 ng C/ml. The maximum specific growth rate of G. shiwhaense on Teleaulax sp. and A. carterae were 1.05 and 0.82/d, respectively. However, Heterosigma akashiwo did not support positive growth of G. shiwhaense. The maximum ingestion rates of G. shiwhaense on Teleaulax sp. and A. carterae were 0.35 and 0.54 ng C/grazer/d, respectively. The calculated grazing coefficients attributable to G. shiwhaense on co-occurring cryptophytes and Amphidinium spp. were 0.01-1.87/d and 0.08-2.60/d, respectively. Our results suggest that G. shiwhaense can have a considerable grazing impact on algal populations. PMID:21895842

  2. Gymnoxanthella radiolariae gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate symbiont from solitary polycystine radiolarians.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Tomoko; Horiguchi, Takeo; Mayama, Shigeki; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellate Gymnoxanthella radiolariae T. Yuasa et T. Horiguchi gen. et sp. nov. isolated from polycystine radiolarians is described herein based on light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Motile cells of G. radiolariae were obtained in culture, and appeared to be unarmored. The cells were 9.1-11.4 μm long and 5.7-9.4 μm wide, and oval to elongate oval in the ventral view. They possessed an counterclockwise horseshoe-shaped apical groove, a nuclear envelope with vesicular chambers, cingulum displacement with one cingulum width, and the nuclear fibrous connective; all of these are characteristics of Gymnodinium sensu stricto (Gymnodinium s.s.). Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicated that G. radiolariae belongs to the clade of Gymnodinium s.s. However, in our molecular phylogenetic trees, G. radiolariae was distantly related to Gymnodinium fuscum, the type species of Gymnodinium. Based on the consistent morphological, genetic, and ecological divergence of our species with the other genera and species of Gymnodinium s.s., we considered it justified to erect a new, separate genus and species G. radiolariae gen. et sp. nov. As for the peridinioid symbiont of radiolarians, Brandtodinium has been erected as a new genus instead of Zooxanthella, but the name Zooxanthella is still valid. Brandtodinium is a junior synonym of Zooxanthella. Our results suggest that at least two dinoflagellate symbiont species, peridinioid Zooxanthella nutricula and gymnodinioid G. radiolariae, exist in radiolarians, and that they may have been mixed and reported as "Z. nutricula" since the 19th century. PMID:26987091

  3. Identifying and Characterizing Alternative Molecular Markers for the Symbiotic and Free-Living Dinoflagellate Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M.; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A–I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available. PMID:22238660

  4. 76 FR 35084 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number... of all information furnished in the application in order to determine the safety and soundness of...

  5. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  6. 77 FR 73115 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... has determined that the renewal of the charter of the OCC Mutual Savings Association Advisory... savings associations, the regulatory changes or other steps the OCC may be able to take to ensure...

  7. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  8. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Affine constellations without mutually unbiased counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigert, Stefan; Durt, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

  9. Social Climate Comparison of Mutual Help and Psychotherapy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian

    In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…

  10. Use of the Mutual Exclusivity Assumption by Young Word Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been…

  11. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563.74 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS... having a preference or priority over an outstanding class or classes of mutual capital certificates;...

  12. Higher Education and Foster Grandparent Programs: Exploring Mutual Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, James R.; O'Quin, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which programs within institutions of higher education and Foster Grandparent Programs can interact to their mutual benefit. Given federal and state initiatives to develop linkages between institutions of higher education and community service sites, mutual benefits exist at the program level for…

  13. [Human cerebral image registration using generalized mutual information].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingzhou; Li, Ting; Zhang, Jia

    2008-12-01

    Medical image registration is a highlight of actual research on medical image processing. Based onsimilarity measure of Shannon entropy, a new generalized distance measurement based on Rényi entropy applied to image rigid registration is introduced and is called here generalized mutual information (GMI). It is used in three dimensional cerebral image registration experiments. The simulation results show that generalized distance measurement and Shannon entropy measurement apply to different areas; that the registration measure based o n generalized distance is a natural extension of mutual information of Shannon entropy. The results prove that generalized mutual information uses less time than simple mutual information does, and the new similarity measure manifests higher degree of consistency between the two cerebral registration images. Also, the registration results provide the clinical diagnoses with more important references. In conclusion, generalized mutual information has satisfied the demands of clinical application to a wide extent. PMID:19166197

  14. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  15. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  16. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    PubMed

    Cecchi, P; Garrido, M; Collos, Y; Pasqualini, V

    2016-07-15

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations. PMID:27126183

  17. Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

  18. Molecular characterization and morphology of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum caponii from two solar saltons in western Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Kang, Nam Seon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Kyung Ha; Yoon, Eun Young; Potvin, Éric; Hwang, Yeong Jong; Kim, Jong Im; Seong, Kyeong Ah

    2012-03-01

    Species belonging to the genus Bysmatrum are peridinoid, thecate, photosynthetic dinoflagellates. The plate formula of Bysmatrum spp., arranged in a Kofoidian series, is almost identical to that of Scrippsiella spp. Bysmatrum spp., which were originally classified as Scrippsiella spp., but were transferred to the genus Bysmatrum spp. because of separation of the intercalary plates 2a and 3a by plate 3'. Whether this transfer from Scrippsiella spp. to Bysmatrum spp. is reasonable should be genetically confirmed. Dinoflagellates were isolated from 2 solar saltons located in western Korea in 2009-2010 and 3 clonal cultures from Sooseong solar saltons and 2 clonal cultures from Garolim solar saltons were successfully established. All of these dinoflagellates were identified as Bysmatrum caponii based on morphology analysis by light and electron microscopy. The plates of all Korean strains of B. caponii were arranged in a Kofoidian series of Po, X, 4', 3a, 7″, 6c, 4s, 5‴, 0 (p), and 24'. When properly aligned, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of the 3 Sooseong strains of B. caponii were identical, as were those of the 2 Garolim strains. Furthermore, the sequences of the 3 Sooseong strains were 0.01% different from those of the Garolim strains. However, the sequences of SSU rDNA of these Korean B. caponii strains were 9% different from that of Bysmatrum subsalsum and > 10% from that of any other dinoflagellate thus far reported. In the phylogenetic trees generated using SSU and LSU rDNA sequences, these Korean B. caponii strains formed a clade with B. subsalsum which was clearly divergent from the Scrippsiella clade. However, this Bysmatrum clade was phylogenetically close to the Protoperidinium and/or Peridinium clades. The results of the present study suggest that Bysmatrum spp. are markedly different genetically from Scrippsiella spp..

  19. The chemical mimicking of the mechanical stimulation, photoinhibition, and recovery from photoinhibition of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra

    SciTech Connect

    Hamman, J.P.; Seliger, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Mechanically stimulable bioluminescence and photoinhibition of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra can be mimicked by a number of cations, proportional to the logarithm of their external concentrations. The data are consistent with mechanical stimulability as a membrane depolarization resulting in an increase in H/sup +/ ions at bioluminescence sites and with photoinhibition as a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

  20. The chemical mimicking of the mechanical stimulation, photoinhibition, and recovery from photoinhibition of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra

    SciTech Connect

    Hamman, J.P.; Seliger, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanically stimulable bioluminescence and photoinhibition of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra can be mimicked by a number of cations, proportional to the logarithm of their external concentrations. The data are consistent with mechanical stimulability as a membrane depolarization resulting in an increase in H/sup +/ ions at bioluminescence sites and with photoinhibition as a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

  1. Dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece: Effects of resuspension events on vertical cyst distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakourou, A.; Orlova, T. Y.; Assimakopoulou, G.; Pagou, K.

    2005-12-01

    A qualitative and semi-quantitative study of recent dinoflagellate cysts has been undertaken in the NW part of Aegean Sea, Thermaikos Gulf (Eastern Mediteranean), before (September 2001), during (October 2001) and after 120 days (February 2002) of intensive trawling activities. This is the first survey of recent dinoflagellate cysts from Greek marine coastal environments. Sediment samples were collected with a corer and the vertical distribution of the cysts was studied at five different layers, from 0 to 10 cm. Dinoflagellate cysts were both abundant and diverse. Cysts were found over the whole sampling area and periods, with concentrations ranging between 247-3202 cysts cm -3. Thirty-six cyst types were encountered, of which 32 were identified to species level, representing 12 genera. It seems that significant local resuspension, related to the onset of the trawling period and stirring up of the sediment, contributed to mixing of the upper layers, resulting to more homogenous cyst profiles in the sediment. Viable cysts constituted 16-60% of the total cyst abundance. The abundance peaks of viable cysts within the subsurface sediment layers, observed during the undisturbed period, disappeared during October. In February, the reduction of cyst concentration was associated to a loss of viable cysts, whilst the ratio of viable/empty cysts ranged between 0.30 and 0.67. The abundance of the different dinoflagellate species, in their active form, was monitored in order to detect any relationship between the concentration of cysts in the top 10 cm of sediment and blooms of algae in the water column. Cysts of potentially toxic species, causing Paralitic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), such as Alexandrium cf. tamarense, A. cf. affine, A. cf. minutum, as well as Gymnodinium catenatum, were detected in the cyst survey.

  2. Relationship of proteomic variation and toxin synthesis in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense CI01 under phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Wen; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yue; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are originated from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, including Alexandrium tamarense, the common dinoflagellate species. In this study, a toxic dinoflagellate strain of A. tamarense CI01 was selected for studying the PSTs' concentration and the related protein variation during the whole cell cycle under different nutrient conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography, 2-D DIGE and Western blotting were used collectively for protein profiling and identification. Results showed that the toxin content was suppressed under nitrogen limiting condition, but enhanced in phosphorous limiting medium. Based on the results of proteomics analysis, 7 proteins were discovered to be related to the PSTs biosynthesis of A. tamarense CI01, including S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, ornithine cyclodeaminase, argininosuccinate synthase, methyluridine methyltransferase cystine ABC transporter, phosphoserine phosphatase, argininosuccinate synthase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which corresponds to the metabolism of the methionine, cysteine, ornithine, arginine and proline. Moreover, some photosynthesis relating proteins also increased their expression during PST synthesis period in A. tamarense CI01, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase, peridinin-chlorophyll α-binding protein, Mg(2+) transporter protein and chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase. The above findings are in support of our hypothesis that these proteins are involved in toxin biosynthesis of A. tamarense CI01, but cause-and-effect mechanisms need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:26239440

  3. Acute toxicity assessment of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on the oxygen flux of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Eloy; Vélez, Sylvia M; Mayo, Marietta; Sastre, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in aquatic systems, assessments evaluating the toxicity of DEET on phytoplankton species are summed to a single study on a unicellular green alga. In particular, the toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates are unknown. In this study, we employed the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum as a study system to evaluate acute effects of DEET on the oxygen flux of laboratory cultures. This study reports an inhibitory reaction model of DEET described by the equation y = 4.99x(0.54), where y represents the percent inhibition of oxygen flux and x represents DEET concentration in mg L(−1) (r(2) = 0.98). Based on this model, the effective concentration of DEET needed to reduce O2 flux by 50% (EC50) for this species was found to be at 72.9 mg L(−1). The reported EC50 is more than five times lower than the EC50 reported previously for the unicellular green algae Chlorella protothecoides. This study raises the question of the potential toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates, in particular those populations inhabiting systems characterized by low water circulation such as enclosed bays and lagoons. PMID:26467804

  4. Immunological and physiological responses of the periwinkle Littorina littorea during and after exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Figueiredo, Gisela M; Valentin, Jean Louis; da Silva Scardua, Patricia Mirella; Hégaret, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produce phycotoxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Blooms of Alexandrium minutum reach very high concentrations of vegetative cells in the water column; and when these blooms occur, large numbers of toxic cysts can be produced and deposited on sediments becoming available to benthic species. The present study investigated the potential effect of exposure to toxic cysts of A. minutum on the periwinkle Littorinalittorea. Snails were exposed for nine days to pellicle cysts of toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and Heterocapsa triquetra, respectively, followed by six days of depuration while they were fed only H. triquetra. Toxin accumulation, condition index, immune and histopathological responses were analyzed. Histological alterations were also monitored in snails exposed to a harmful A. minutum bloom, which naturally occurred in the Bay of Brest. Snails exposed to toxic cysts showed abnormal behavior that seems to be toxin-induced and possibly related to muscle paralysis. Periwinkles accumulated toxins by preying on toxic cysts and accumulation appeared dependent on the time of exposure, increasing during intoxication period but tending to stabilize during depuration period. Toxic exposure also seemed to negatively affect hemocyte viability and functions, as ROS production and phagocytosis. Histological analyses revealed that toxic exposure induced damages on digestive organs of snails, both in laboratory and natural systems. This study demonstrates that an exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum leads to sublethal effects on L. littorea, which may alter individual fitness and increase the susceptibility of snails to pathogens and diseases. PMID:25621399

  5. Differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in a cyclonic eddy confined in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monter, Erik; Monreal-Gómez, María. Adela; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Aldeco-Ramírez, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín.

    2014-09-01

    The differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, was analyzed in summer of 2009, when a cyclonic eddy confined in the bay dominated the circulation. An uplift of the nutricline in the eddy drove high concentrations of nutrients to the euphotic layer. A differential phytoplankton distribution was observed to be associated with the eddy: there was an abundance of dinoflagellates close to the center of the cyclonic eddy, whereas diatoms were more abundant at the periphery. A significant inverse correlation (R = -0.62, p < 0.002) was found between the temperature at 25 m depth and the dinoflagellates abundance. Based on the temporal evolution of chlorophyll measured by MODIS satellite images, and a conceptual model proposed for the lifecycle of eddies, the cyclonic eddy may have been an old decaying structure. The effect of the cyclonic eddy on the phytoplankton distribution in this small semienclosed region was apparently similar to that found in larger eddies in the open ocean, but this is the first time such a differential distribution has been found associated to a confined eddy.

  6. Brandtodinium gen. nov. and B. nutricula comb. Nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate commonly found in symbiosis with polycystine radiolarians.

    PubMed

    Probert, Ian; Siano, Raffaele; Poirier, Camille; Decelle, Johan; Biard, Tristan; Tuji, Akihiro; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Not, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic interactions between pelagic hosts and microalgae have received little attention, although they are widespread in the photic layer of the world ocean, where they play a fundamental role in the ecology of the planktonic ecosystem. Polycystine radiolarians (including the orders Spumellaria, Collodaria and Nassellaria) are planktonic heterotrophic protists that are widely distributed and often abundant in the ocean. Many polycystines host symbiotic microalgae within their cytoplasm, mostly thought to be the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella nutricula, a species originally described by Karl Brandt in the late nineteenth century as Zooxanthella nutricula. The free-living stage of this dinoflagellate has never been characterized in terms of morphology and thecal plate tabulation. We examined morphological characters and sequenced conservative ribosomal markers of clonal cultures of the free-living stage of symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from radiolarian hosts from the three polycystine orders. In addition, we sequenced symbiont genes directly from several polycystine-symbiont holobiont specimens from different oceanic regions. Thecal plate arrangement of the free-living stage does not match that of Scrippsiella or related genera, and LSU and SSU rDNA-based molecular phylogenies place these symbionts in a distinct clade within the Peridiniales. Both phylogenetic analyses and the comparison of morphological features of culture strains with those reported for other closely related species support the erection of a new genus that we name Brandtodinium gen. nov. and the recombination of S. nutricula as B. nutricula comb. nov. PMID:26988195

  7. New Host Range for Hematodinium in Southern Australia and Novel Tools for Sensitive Detection of Parasitic Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Gornik, Sebastian G.; Cranenburgh, Andrea; Waller, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate and emerging pathogen of crustaceans. It preferably manifests in haemolymph of marine decapod crustaceans, killing a large variety of genera with significant impacts on fisheries worldwide. There is, however, evidence that some crustacean stocks harbor high prevalence, low intensity infections that may not result in widespread host mortality and are therefore hard to detect. The most widely used methods for detection of Hematodinium are conventional blood smears and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against ribosomal RNAs. Blood smears demand a trained investigator, are labor intensive and not readily scalable for high-throughput sampling. PCRs only detect parasite DNA and can also suffer from false negatives and positives. In order to develop alternative detection tools for Hematodinium cells in decapod crustaceans we employed an immunological approach against a newly identified, abundant dinoflagellate-specific nuclear protein—Dinoflagellate/Viral NucleoProtein (DVNP). Both immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot methods against DVNP showed high sensitivity of detection. The Western blot detects Hematodinium parasites to levels of 25 parasites per milliliter of crustacean haemolymph, with the potential for sample pooling and screening of large samples. Using both PCR and these new tools, we have identified Hematodinium cells present in three new host crab taxa, at high prevalence but with no sign of pathogenesis. This extends the known range of Hematodinium to southern Australia. PMID:24324829

  8. Glacier Surface Monitoring by Maximizing Mutual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, E.; Rossi, C.; Hajnsek, I.

    2012-07-01

    The contribution of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images compared with the single-channel SAR in terms of temporal scene characterization has been found and described to add valuable information in the literature. However, despite a number of recent studies focusing on single polarized glacier monitoring, the potential of polarimetry to estimate the surface velocity of glaciers has not been explored due to the complex mechanism of polarization through glacier/snow. In this paper, a new approach to the problem of monitoring glacier surface velocity is proposed by means of temporal PolSAR images, using a basic concept from information theory: Mutual Information (MI). The proposed polarimetric tracking method applies the MI to measure the statistical dependence between temporal polarimetric images, which is assumed to be maximal if the images are geometrically aligned. Since the proposed polarimetric tracking method is very powerful and general, it can be implemented into any kind of multivariate remote sensing data such as multi-spectral optical and single-channel SAR images. The proposed polarimetric tracking is then used to retrieve surface velocity of Aletsch glacier located in Switzerland and of Inyltshik glacier in Kyrgyzstan with two different SAR sensors; Envisat C-band (single polarized) and DLR airborne L-band (fully polarimetric) systems, respectively. The effect of number of channel (polarimetry) into tracking investigations demonstrated that the presence of snow, as expected, effects the location of the phase center in different polarization, such as glacier tracking with temporal HH compared to temporal VV channels. Shortly, a change in polarimetric signature of the scatterer can change the phase center, causing a question of how much of what I am observing is motion then penetration. In this paper, it is shown that considering the multi-channel SAR statistics, it is possible to optimize the separate these contributions.

  9. Mutual information between SSH and SST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le goff, Clément; Chapron, Bertrand; Fablet, Ronan; Tandeo, Pierre; Autret, Emmanuelle; Ailliot, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Mutual information between SST and SSH Investigations to relate satellite SST and SSH measurements in the Agulhas return current region are presented. In this study, we focus on the use of SSH and SST maps obtained during the year 2004, corresponding to a particularly well-sampled period for altimetry. The SST and SSH anomalies are then obtained as high-pass filtered fields, to analyze scales smaller than approximately 300km. As revealed, we clearly distinguish different regimes. During the winter months, a marked strong correlation between fields of SSH and SST anomalies is clearly revealed. During the summer months, a much lower correlation is found. Further conditioning the analysis to separate the areas of positive and negative SSH anomalies, it is then obtained, for both summer and winter periods, that aeras of negative SSH anomalies always correspond with areas of negative SST anomalies. This high correspondance also applies in winter but only for areas of positive SSH anomalies, which indeed well match with areas of positive SST anomalies. In summer, this high correspondance is lost, and areas with positive SSH anomalies do not necessarily correspond to positive SST anomalies. Accordingly, such an effect affects and weakens the overall SST/SSH correlation during the summer months. Yet, the areas of positive SSH anomalies are not fully disconnected from the areas of positive SST anomalies. For these cases, observations and results demonstrate a systematic spatial shift between them. This suggests the influence of the mixed layer depth and wind speed to control the spatial correspondance between SST and SSH anomalies, especially below regions of positive SSH anomalies. In such cases, the upper layer SST anomalies are certainly advected by the interior flow to also provide means to relate surface observations and interior dynamics.

  10. Oligotrophication and emergence of picocyanobacteria and a toxic dinoflagellate in Thau lagoon, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collos, Yves; Bec, Béatrice; Jauzein, Cécile; Abadie, Eric; Laugier, Thierry; Lautier, Jacques; Pastoureaud, Annie; Souchu, Philippe; Vaquer, André

    2009-01-01

    Time series data have been examined in Thau lagoon (Southern France) from 1972 to 2006 for water temperature, salinity, nutrients and from 1987 to 2006 for phytoplankton. A first main trend identified is an increase in mean annual water temperature (1.5 °C over 33 years or 0.045 °C/year) that was not evenly distributed among seasons. The highest rate of increase was in the spring (+ 3.0 °C over 33 years), followed by summer (+ 2.0 °C) and fall (+ 1.7 °C). In winter, no significant increase over the 33 year period could be found. A second clear trend is a large decrease in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration over the same 33 year period (summer values decreased from 10 µM to 1 µM, while winter values decreased from 3 µM to undetectable at present). Nitrate concentrations depended mainly on rainfall events and watershed runoff. Ammonium data were too fragmentary to be useful. N/P ratios expressed the traditional way of DIN/SRP cannot be used for phytoplankton that are not strict autotrophs. The recent and almost simultaneous appearance of both picocyanobacteria (mostly Synechococcus) and the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in Thau seem to be related to reduced nutrient loading and the increase in water temperature. A. catenella blooms occur either in the spring or the fall when water temperature is near 20 °C and remains so for several weeks with winds speeds below 2-3 m s - 1 . Picocyanobacterial growth is stimulated by increased summer temperatures, and lowered SRP levels provide picocyanobacteria an ecological advantage over other phytoplankton classes, in particular diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum whose cell densities have decreased over the last 8 years in summer and fall, but not in winter. An hypothesis is presented according to which A. catenella is not stimulated by increased temperatures, but is able to use picocyanobacteria for growth, and this provides this organism an additional resource over other strictly

  11. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  12. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  13. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2015-07-31

    We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely, we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularized relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution. PMID:26274402

  14. Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

  15. Macroalgal-Associated Dinoflagellates Belonging to the Genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C.; Sánchez, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  16. Macroalgal-associated dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C; Sánchez, Juan A

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  17. Photosynthetic response to elevated temperature in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Prieto, R; Matta, J L; Robins, W A; Trench, R K

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature (28-34 degrees C) has been hypothesized as the primary cause of the loss of algal endosymbionts in coral reef-associated invertebrates, a phenomenon observed on a world-wide scale over the last decade. In past studies of this "bleaching" phenomenon, there has been an underlying assumption that temperature adversely affects the animal hosts, the algae thereby being relegated to a more passive role. Because photosynthesis is a sensitive indicator of thermal stress in plants and has a central role in the nutrition of symbiotic invertebrates, we have tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature adversely affects photosynthesis in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum. The results, based on analyses of light-mediated O2 evolution and in vivo fluorescence, indicate that photosynthesis is impaired at temperatures above 30 degrees C and ceases completely at 34-36 degrees C. These observations are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms that may function in the disassociation of algal-invertebrate symbioses in response to elevated temperature. PMID:11607337

  18. Balechina and the New Genus Cucumeridinium Gen. Nov. (Dinophyceae), Unarmored Dinoflagellates with Thick Cell Coverings

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2016-01-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  19. Genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. ST3, a quorum sensing bacterium associated with marine dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Lao, Yong-Min; Ma, Zhi-Ping; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phycosphere environment is a typical marine niche, harbor diverse populations of microorganisms, which are thought to play a critical role in algae host and influence mutualistic and competitive interactions. Understanding quorum sensing-based acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) language may shed light on the interaction between algal-associated microbial communities in the native environment. In this work, we isolated an epidermal bacterium (was tentatively named Enterobacter sp. ST3, and deposited in SOA China, the number is MCCC1K02277-ST3) from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea, and found it has the ability to produce short-chain AHL signal. In order to better understand its communication information at molecular level, the genomic map was investigated. The genome size was determined to be 4.81 Mb with a G + C content of 55.59%, comprising 6 scaffolds of 75 contigs containing 4647 protein-coding genes. The functional proteins were predicted, and 3534 proteins were assigned to COG functional categories. An AHL-relating gene, LuxR, was found in upstream position at contig 1. This genome data may provide clues to increase understanding of the chemical characterization and ecological behavior of strain ST3 in the phycosphere microenvironment. PMID:26981407

  20. Influence of Starvation on Respiratory Metabolism and Pyridine Nucleotide Levels in the Marine Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    PubMed

    Osma, Natalia; Aristizabal, Manuela; Fernández-Urruzola, Igor; Packard, Theodore T; Gómez, May

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory oxygen consumption rate (RO2) and potential respiration (Φ) has been monitored during a food deprivation period in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Φ was determined by measuring the activity of the enzymes from the electron transport system (ETS), the major contributor to the oxygen consumption in the cells. Additionally, we have quantified for the first time the concentration of pyridine nucleotides in this organism, both in their oxidized (NAD(P)(+)) and reduced forms (NAD(P)H). These molecules are the main electron donors at the beginning of the ETS. We observed a dramatic decrease in RO2 within the first days, whereas Φ steadily, but more gradually declined during the entire experiment. This led to a decrease of the RO2 /Φ with time. The intracellular total pool of NAD and NADP concentration, in turn, dropped exponentially in a manner parallel to the RO2. This strong decrease was mainly driven by a reduction in the concentration of the oxidized forms. The present work constitutes a first step in clarifying the role of intracellular NAD and NADP concentrations and the redox status in the control of in vivo RO2 in marine organisms. PMID:26994731

  1. Isolation of bacteria from toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and their effects on algae toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y H; Chai, T J; Hwang, D F

    2000-11-01

    Attempts were made to isolate the bacteria from toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum T1 and to study the effect of these bacteria on the growth and toxicity of A. minutum T1. It was found that intracellular bacterial species including Pasteurella haemolytica, Pseudomonas vesicularis, and Sphingomonas sp., and extracellular bacterial species including Pasteurolla pneumotropica, Morganella wisconsensis, Flavobacterium oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, and Sphingomonas sp. All of them were cultured and determined to have non-PSP-producing ability. The maximum cell number of A. minutum cultured without isolated bacteria was higher than that cultured with isolated bacteria. The total toxicity of A. minutum cultured with bacteria was similar to that of A. minutum T1 cultured without bacteria from lag phase to stationary phase, but it was lower after stationary phase. The growth of A. minutum T1 cultured without antibiotics was also better than that cultured with antibiotics. The total toxicity of A. minutum cultured without antibiotics was higher than that of A. minutum cultured with antibiotics. However, the cell toxicity of A. minutum did not decrease even if the culture medium was added with antibiotics. PMID:11126517

  2. Peridinin-Chlorophyll a Proteins of the Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae (Plymouth 450) 1

    PubMed Central

    Haxo, Francis T.; Kycia, J. Helen; Somers, G. Fred; Bennett, Allen; Siegelman, Harold W.

    1976-01-01

    The marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae (Plymouth 450) releases several water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a proteins after freezethawing. These chromoproteins have a molecular weight of 39.2 × 103 and are comprised of noncovalently bound peridinin and chlorophyll a and a nonoligomeric protein. They have distinct isoelectric points and may be resolved into six components by either isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel or ion exchange chromatography. The predominant chromoprotein, which has a pI of 7.5, constitutes about 90% of the extractable peridinin-chlorophyll a protein. It consists of an alanine-rich apoprotein of molecular weight 31.8 × 103 stoichiometrically associated with 9 peridinin and 2 chlorophyll a molecules. Additionally, the peridinin-chlorophyll a proteins with pI values of 7.6 and 6.4 were purified and found to have amino acid and chromophore composition essentially identical with the pI 7.5 protein. Peridinin-chlorophyll a protein, pI 7.5, after treatment at alkaline pH was transformed into several more acid pI forms of the protein, strongly suggesting that the naturally occurring proteins are deamidation products of a single protein. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra demonstrate that light energy absorbed by peridinin induces chlorophyll a fluorescence presumably by intramolecular energy transfer. The peridinin-chlorophyll a proteins presumably function in vivo as photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments. PMID:16659470

  3. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  4. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  5. Biotransformation of mycosporine like amino acids (MAAs) in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Callone, Alan I; Carignan, Mario; Montoya, Nora G; Carreto, José I

    2006-09-01

    Changes in mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) induced by the increase of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were studied in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Cultures of A. tamarense were maintained at exponential growth under low (25 micromol quanta m(-2)s(-1)) PAR irradiance. The cultures were nutrient enriched and one day later exposed to higher irradiance (150 micromol quanta m(-2)s(-1)). The content of MAAs was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Eleven MAAs, including some partially characterized compounds, were identified. The MAAs synthesis induction can be described as a two-stage process. The first one involves the net synthesis of the MAAs bi-substituted by amino acids. In the second stage these compounds were transformed into other secondary MAAs. The two most prominent changes were observed in the concentration of porphyra-334 and palythene. The cellular concentration of porphyra-334 increased during the first 2h of exposure to higher irradiance and then decreased rapidly. In contrast, the cellular concentration of palythene showed a continuous accumulation since the beginning of the exposure. In A. tamarense the main route of MAAs transformation has porphyra-334 as a precursor of a sequential conversion resulting in the accumulation of palythene. PMID:16697653

  6. Arctic Dinoflagellate Migration Marks the Oligocene Glacial Maximum: Implications for the Rupelian-Chattian Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Simaeys, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Pross, J.; Williams, G. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Various geochemical and biotic climate proxies, and notably deep-sea benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records indicate that the Eocene 'greenhouse' state of the Earth gradually evolved towards an earliest Oligocene 'icehouse' state, eventually triggering the abrupt appearance of large continental ice-sheets on Antarctic at ˜33.3 Ma (Oi-1 event). This, however, was only the first of two major glacial events in the Oligocene. Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records show a second positive excursion in the mid Oligocene, consistent with a significant ice-sheet expansion and/or cooling at 27.1 Ma (Oi-2b) coincident with magnetosubchron C9n. Here, we report on a mid Oligocene, globally synchronous, Arctic dinoflagellate migration event, calibrated against the upper half of C9n. A sudden appearance, and abundance increases of the Arctic taxon Svalbardella at lower-middle latitudes coincides with the so-called Oi-2b benthic δ 18O event, dated at ˜27.1 Ma. This phenomenon is taken to indicate significant high-latitude surface water cooling, concomitant Antarctic ice-sheet growth, and sea level lowering. The duration of the Svalbardella migrations, and the episode of profound cooling is estimated as ˜500 ka, and is here termed the Oligocene Glacial Maximum (OGM). Our records suggest a close link between the OGM, sea-level fall, and the classic Rupelian-Chattian boundary, magnetostratigraphically dating this boundary as ˜27.1 Ma.

  7. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scripsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhishan; Jiang, Wenju; Zhang, Yi; Lim, T M

    2015-01-01

    Ship-borne ballast water contributes significantly to the transfer of non-indigenous species across aquatic environments. To reduce the risk of bio-invasion, ballast water should be treated before discharge. In this study, the efficiencies of several conventional and advanced oxidation processes were investigated for potential ballast water treatment, using a marine dinoflagellate species, Scripsiella trochoidea, as the indicator organism. A stable and consistent culture was obtained and treated by ultraviolet (UV) light, ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and their various combinations. UV apparently inactivated the cells after only 10 s of irradiation, but subsequently photo-reactivation of the cells was observed for all methods involving UV. O3 exhibited 100% inactivation efficiency after 5 min treatment, while H2O2 only achieved maximum 80% inactivation in the same duration. Combined methods, e.g. UV/O3 and UV/H2O2, were found to inhibit photo-reactivation and improve treatment efficiency to some degree, indicating the effectiveness of using combined treatment processes. The total residual oxidant (TRO) levels of the methods were determined, and the results indicated that UV and O3 generated the lowest and highest TRO, respectively. The synergic effect of combined processes on TRO generation was found to be insignificant, and thus UV/O3 was recommended as a potentially suitable treatment process for ballast water. PMID:25182606

  8. Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, H.R.; Eglinton, G. ); O'Hara, S.C.M.; Corner, E.D.S. )

    1987-11-01

    Stage V and adult females of the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus were fed in the laboratory on the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea at three concentrations calculated to represent pelagic ocean to bloom conditions. The identification and quantification of sterols, fatty acids and alcohols present in the algal diet, copepods and their faecal pellets were then carried out using computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (C-GC-MS). The results showed marked differences in the proportion of the three lipid classes removed, with highest values found for fatty acids and the lowest for sterols. Up to 97% of ingested algal fatty acids were removed by the copepod, with a preference towards the removal of polyunsaturated acids. Algal sterols were also removed by Calanus; the percentage composition and concentration of sterols in faecal pellets differing from the algal diet at all three food levels. Evidence that the removal of lipids from the diet represented assimilation by the copepods was provided by the further finding that during the feeding period (20 hr) all three lipid classes increased in animal tissues. Quantitative measurements of individual sterols revealed that significant amounts of 4-methyl and 4-desmethyl sterols having the 8(14) and 17(20) unsaturation were removed at all dietary levels. In contrast, ring-saturated stanols were not removed and appear to pass through the gut quantitatively.

  9. Heterotrophic feeding as a newly identified survival strategy of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Du Yoo, Yeong; Kang, Nam Seon; Lim, An Suk; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sung Yeon; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Shin, Woongghi; Nam, Seung Won; Yih, Wonho; Lee, Kitack

    2012-07-01

    Survival of free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in coral reefs is critical to the maintenance of a healthy coral community. Most coral reefs exist in oligotrophic waters, and their survival strategy in such nutrient-depleted waters remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that two strains of Symbiodinium spp. cultured from the environment and acquired from the tissues of the coral Alveopora japonica had the ability to feed heterotrophically. Symbiodinium spp. fed on heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.), and small microalgae in both nutrient-replete and nutrient-depleted conditions. Cultured free-living Symbiodinium spp. displayed no autotrophic growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, but grew when provided with prey. Our results indicate that Symbiodinium spp.'s mixotrophic activity greatly increases their chance of survival and their population growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, which tend to prevail in coral habitats. In particular, free-living Symbiodinium cells acquired considerable nitrogen from algal prey, comparable to or greater than the direct uptake of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, or urea. In addition, free-living Symbiodinium spp. can be a sink for planktonic cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and remove substantial portions of Synechococcus populations from coral reef waters. Our discovery of Symbiodinium's feeding alters our conventional views of the survival strategies of photosynthetic Symbiodinium and corals.

  10. Mortality in cultures of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae during culture senescence and darkness.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel J; Berges, John A

    2004-10-22

    The study of cell death in higher plants and animals has revealed the existence of an active ('programmed') process in most types of cell, and similarities in cell death between plants, animals, yeast and bacteria suggest an evolutionarily ancient origin of programmed cell death (PCD). Despite their global importance in primary production, information on algal cell death is limited. Algal cell death could have similarities with metazoan cell death. One morphotype of metazoan PCD, apoptosis, can be induced by light deprivation in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. The situation in other algal taxa is less clear. We used a model dinoflagellate (Amphidinium carterae) to test whether mortality during darkness and culture senescence showed apoptotic characteristics. Using transmission electron microscopy, fluorescent biomarkers, chlorophyll fluorescence and particulate carbon analysis we analysed the process of cell mortality and found that light deprivation caused mass mortality. By contrast, fewer dead cells (5-20% of the population) were found in late-phase cultures, while a similar degenerate cell morphology (shrunken, chlorotic) was observed. On morphological grounds, our observations suggest that the apoptotic cell death described in D. tertiolecta does not occur in A. carterae. Greater similarity was found with paraptosis, a recently proposed alternative morphotype of PCD. A paraptotic conclusion is supported by inconclusive DNA fragmentation results. We emphasize the care that must be taken in transferring fundamental paradigms between phylogenetically diverse cell types and we argue for a greater consistency in the burden of proof needed to assign causality to cell death processes. PMID:15475328

  11. Heterotrophic feeding as a newly identified survival strategy of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kang, Nam Seon; Lim, An Suk; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sung Yeon; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Shin, Woongghi; Nam, Seung Won; Yih, Wonho; Lee, Kitack

    2012-01-01

    Survival of free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in coral reefs is critical to the maintenance of a healthy coral community. Most coral reefs exist in oligotrophic waters, and their survival strategy in such nutrient-depleted waters remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that two strains of Symbiodinium spp. cultured from the environment and acquired from the tissues of the coral Alveopora japonica had the ability to feed heterotrophically. Symbiodinium spp. fed on heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.), and small microalgae in both nutrient-replete and nutrient-depleted conditions. Cultured free-living Symbiodinium spp. displayed no autotrophic growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, but grew when provided with prey. Our results indicate that Symbiodinium spp.’s mixotrophic activity greatly increases their chance of survival and their population growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, which tend to prevail in coral habitats. In particular, free-living Symbiodinium cells acquired considerable nitrogen from algal prey, comparable to or greater than the direct uptake of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, or urea. In addition, free-living Symbiodinium spp. can be a sink for planktonic cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and remove substantial portions of Synechococcus populations from coral reef waters. Our discovery of Symbiodinium’s feeding alters our conventional views of the survival strategies of photosynthetic Symbiodinium and corals. PMID:22814379

  12. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Mendez, Josefina; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1) comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates. PMID:27231936

  13. Diversity of transcripts and transcript processing forms in plastids of the dinoflagellate alga Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Richard G; Hinksman, George A; Howe, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Plastids produce a vast diversity of transcripts. These include mature transcripts containing coding sequences, and their processing precursors, as well as transcripts that lack direct coding functions, such as antisense transcripts. Although plastid transcriptomes have been characterised for many plant species, less is known about the transcripts produced in other plastid lineages. We characterised the transcripts produced in the fucoxanthin-containing plastids of the dinoflagellate alga Karenia mikimotoi. This plastid lineage, acquired through tertiary endosymbiosis, utilises transcript processing pathways that are very different from those found in plants and green algae, including 3' poly(U) tail addition, and extensive substitutional editing of transcript sequences. We have sequenced the plastid transcriptome of K. mikimotoi, and have detected evidence for divergent evolution of fucoxanthin plastid genomes. We have additionally characterised polycistronic and monocistronic transcripts from two plastid loci, psbD-tRNA (Met)-ycf4 and rpl36-rps13-rps11. We find evidence for a range of transcripts produced from each locus that differ in terms of editing state, 5' end cleavage position, and poly(U) tail addition. Finally, we identify antisense transcripts in K. mikimotoi, which appear to undergo different processing events from the corresponding sense transcripts. Overall, our study provides insights into the diversity of transcripts and processing intermediates found in plastid lineages across the eukaryotes. PMID:26768263

  14. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31 degrees C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of extractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26 degrees C. O lenticularis samples collected directly from the field following exposure to elevated temperatures for comparable periods of time also showed significant increases in extractable toxin. The increased toxicity of both field sampled and laboratory grown O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may result from the effects of elevated temperatures on their metabolism and/or the bacterial symbionts found associated with these microalgae. The number of bacteria associated with cultured O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures was significantly reduced. Increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may have resulted from the direct effect of temperature on toxin production and/or the reduction of Ostreopsis associated bacterial flora that consume toxin in the process of their growth. This reduction in the quantity of associated bacterial flora in temperature treated cultures may result in increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis due to a reduction in the consumption of toxin by these symbiont bacteria. PMID:15264548

  15. Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongxiu; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Tan, Zhijun; Ren, Hai; Zhao, Fazhen

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the inductive effect of Alexandrium tamarense, a toxic dinoflagellate producing paralytic shellfish poison, on oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The individuals of F. chinensis were exposed to 200 and 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense with their superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and caspase gene ( FcCasp) expression in hepatopancreas determined at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. In addition, apoptosis in hepatopancreas of F. chinensis at 96 h after exposure was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The hepatopancreatic SOD and GST activities of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense showed a bell-shaped response to exposure time. The hepatopancreatic MDA concentration of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense increased gradually from 48 to 96 h, and such a trend corresponded to the decrease of GST activity. The hepatopancreatic FcCasp transcript abundance of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense was positively and linearly correlated to MDA concentration. Results of TUNEL assay showed that exposure to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense induced apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of F. chinensis. Our study revealed that A. tamarense exposure influenced the antioxidative status of F. chinensis and caused lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of shrimp.

  16. Diversity and dynamics of a widespread bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense.

    PubMed

    Erdner, Deana L; Richlen, Mindy; McCauley, Linda A R; Anderson, Donald M

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cosmopolitan phytoplankton species were presumed to represent largely unstructured populations. However, the recent development of molecular tools to examine genetic diversity have revealed differences in phytoplankton taxa across geographic scales and provided insight into the physiology and ecology of blooms. Here we describe the genetic analysis of an extensive bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense that occurred in the Gulf of Maine in 2005. This bloom was notable for its intensity and duration, covering hundreds of kilometers and persisting for almost two months. Genotypic analyses based on microsatellite marker data indicate that the open waters of the northeastern U.S. harbor a single regional population of A. fundyense comprising two genetically distinct sub-populations. These subpopulations were characteristic of early- and late-bloom samples and were derived from the northern and southern areas of the bloom, respectively. The temporal changes observed during this study provide clear evidence of succession during a continuous bloom and show that selection can act on the timescale of weeks to significantly alter the representation of genotypes within a population. The effects of selection on population composition and turnover would be magnified if sexual reproduction were likewise influenced by environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the combined effects of differential growth and reproduction rates serves to reduce gene flow between the sub-populations, reinforcing population structure while maintaining the diversity of the overall regional population. PMID:21829565

  17. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Mendez, Josefina; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1) comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates. PMID:27231936

  18. Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Gornik, Sebastian G.; Febrimarsa; Cassin, Andrew M.; MacRae, James I.; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Rchiad, Zineb; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bacic, Antony; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Pain, Arnab; Waller, Ross F.

    2015-01-01

    Organelle gain through endosymbiosis has been integral to the origin and diversification of eukaryotes, and, once gained, plastids and mitochondria seem seldom lost. Indeed, discovery of nonphotosynthetic plastids in many eukaryotes—notably, the apicoplast in apicomplexan parasites such as the malaria pathogen Plasmodium—highlights the essential metabolic functions performed by plastids beyond photosynthesis. Once a cell becomes reliant on these ancillary functions, organelle dependence is apparently difficult to overcome. Previous examples of endosymbiotic organelle loss (either mitochondria or plastids), which have been invoked to explain the origin of eukaryotic diversity, have subsequently been recognized as organelle reduction to cryptic forms, such as mitosomes and apicoplasts. Integration of these ancient symbionts with their hosts has been too well developed to reverse. Here, we provide evidence that the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp., a marine parasite of crustaceans, represents a rare case of endosymbiotic organelle loss by the elimination of the plastid. Extensive RNA and genomic sequencing data provide no evidence for a plastid organelle, but, rather, reveal a metabolic decoupling from known plastid functions that typically impede organelle loss. This independence has been achieved through retention of ancestral anabolic pathways, enzyme relocation from the plastid to the cytosol, and metabolic scavenging from the parasite’s host. Hematodinium sp. thus represents a further dimension of endosymbiosis—life after the organelle. PMID:25902514

  19. The last glacial-interglacial transition and dinoflagellate cysts in the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouis-Zargouni, Imene; Turon, Jean-Louis; Londeix, Laurent; Kallel, Néjib; Essallami, Latifa

    2012-02-01

    Using the analysis of dinoflagellate cysts in three deep-sea sediments cores situated in the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Alboran Sea, we reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that took place during the last glacial-interglacial transition in the western Mediterranean Sea. The development of the warm microflora Impagidinium aculeatum and especially Spiniferites mirabilis appears to be an important proxy for recognizing warm periods as the Bölling/Alleröd and the Early Holocene. Bitectatodinium tepikiense, Spiniferites elongatus and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus mark the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas. This cold microfloral association confirms the drastic climate changes in the western Mediterranean Sea synchronous to the dry and cold climate which occurred in the South European margin. The dinocyst N. labyrinthus shows high percentages in all studied regions during the Younger Dryas. Its distribution reveals a significant increase from the South to the North of this basin during this cold brief event. Thus, we note that this species can be considered as a new eco-stratigraphical tracer of the Younger Dryas in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Cohesive molecular genetic data delineate species diversity in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Sampayo, E M; Dove, S; Lajeunesse, T C

    2009-02-01

    The diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in pocilloporid corals originating from various reef habitats surrounding Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, was examined by targeting ribosomal, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genes using six methods that analyse for sequence differences. The ability of each of 13 genetic analyses to characterize eight ecologically distinct Symbiodinium spp. was dependent on the level of conservation of the gene region targeted and the technique used. Other than differences in resolution, phylogenetic reconstructions using nuclear and organelle gene sequences were complementary and when combined produced a well-resolved phylogeny. Analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting in combination with sequencing of dominant bands provided a precise method for rapidly resolving and characterizing symbionts into ecologically and evolutionarily distinct units of diversity. Single-stranded conformation polymorphisms of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (D1/D2 domain) identified the same number of ecologically distinct Symbiodinium spp., but profiles were less distinctive. The repetitive sequencing of bacterially cloned ITS2 polymerase chain reaction amplifications generated numerous sequence variants that clustered together according to the symbiont under analysis. The phylogenetic relationships between these clusters show how intragenomic variation in the ribosomal array diverges among closely related eukaryotic genomes. The strong correlation between phylogenetically independent lineages with different ecological and physiological attributes establishes a clear basis for assigning species designations to members of the genus Symbiodinium. PMID:19161470

  1. Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Febrimarsa; Cassin, Andrew M; MacRae, James I; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Rchiad, Zineb; McConville, Malcolm J; Bacic, Antony; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Pain, Arnab; Waller, Ross F

    2015-05-01

    Organelle gain through endosymbiosis has been integral to the origin and diversification of eukaryotes, and, once gained, plastids and mitochondria seem seldom lost. Indeed, discovery of nonphotosynthetic plastids in many eukaryotes--notably, the apicoplast in apicomplexan parasites such as the malaria pathogen Plasmodium--highlights the essential metabolic functions performed by plastids beyond photosynthesis. Once a cell becomes reliant on these ancillary functions, organelle dependence is apparently difficult to overcome. Previous examples of endosymbiotic organelle loss (either mitochondria or plastids), which have been invoked to explain the origin of eukaryotic diversity, have subsequently been recognized as organelle reduction to cryptic forms, such as mitosomes and apicoplasts. Integration of these ancient symbionts with their hosts has been too well developed to reverse. Here, we provide evidence that the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp., a marine parasite of crustaceans, represents a rare case of endosymbiotic organelle loss by the elimination of the plastid. Extensive RNA and genomic sequencing data provide no evidence for a plastid organelle, but, rather, reveal a metabolic decoupling from known plastid functions that typically impede organelle loss. This independence has been achieved through retention of ancestral anabolic pathways, enzyme relocation from the plastid to the cytosol, and metabolic scavenging from the parasite's host. Hematodinium sp. thus represents a further dimension of endosymbiosis--life after the organelle. PMID:25902514

  2. Real time detecting of harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides using unmanned surface vehicle in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sung Mok; Chung, Wan Kyun; Cho, Eun Seob

    2014-05-01

    Since the first occurrence in 1982, red tides have been observed annually in Korean coastal waters in the form of harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms. The distinction in the proposed method for red tide monitoring is the focus on the narrow stripe red tide at an early stage to allow for advanced actions. The distance graph between Head of Narrow Red tide (HNR) and location of the robot have suggested in reference to unknown searching area. With mapping and path planning, then, it can quickly keep tracking out even if the magnitude and direction of current flow was changed. The one-hundred times simulations of different situations were attempted to comparison by box plot both algorithms of speed by reaching the right side of simulation window. Consequently, the red tide tracking algorithm is based on the red tide probability map and the tracking & recovering path planner. Inputs to the algorithm include the measured flow velocities and the detection or non-detection state at each robot location. Furthermore, a USV (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) model is added to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm. This approach for red tide monitoring may lead to a breakthrough in the field of environmental surveillance. PMID:24813014

  3. Characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Leeson, Cristian; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Rein, Kathleen S

    2016-02-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with molecular weight 44kDa. Kinetic parameters were evaluated using a variety of epoxide substrates to assess substrate selectivity and enantioselectivity, as well as its potential to catalyze the critical endo-tet cyclization of epoxy alcohols. Monitoring of EH activity in high and low toxin producing cultures of K. brevis over a three week period showed consistently higher activity in the high toxin producing culture implicating the involvement of one or more EH in brevetoxin biosynthesis. PMID:26626160

  4. Entanglement patterns in mutually unbiased basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Jay

    2011-08-15

    A few simply stated rules govern the entanglement patterns that can occur in mutually unbiased basis sets (MUBs) and constrain the combinations of such patterns that can coexist in full complements of MUBs. We consider Hilbert spaces of prime power dimensions (D=p{sup N}), as realized by systems of N prime-state particles, where full complements of D+1 MUBs are known to exist, and we assume only that MUBs are eigenbases of generalized Pauli operators, without using any particular construction. The general rules include the following: (1) In any MUB, a given particle appears either in a pure state or totally entangled and (2) in any full MUB complement, each particle is pure in (p+1) bases (not necessarily the same ones) and totally entangled in the remaining (p{sup N}-p). It follows that the maximum number of product bases is p+1 and, when this number is realized, all remaining (p{sup N}-p) bases in the complement are characterized by the total entanglement of every particle. This ''standard distribution'' is inescapable for two-particle systems (of any p), where only product and generalized Bell bases are admissible MUB types. This and the following results generalize previous results for qubits [Phys. Rev. A 65. 032320 (2002); Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)] and qutrits [Phys. Rev. A 70, 012302 (2004)], drawing particularly upon [Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)]. With three particles there are three MUB types, and these may be combined in (p+2) different ways to form full complements. With N=4, there are 6 MUB types for p=2, but new MUB types become possible with larger p, and these are essential to realizing full complements. With this example, we argue that new MUB types that show new entanglement patterns should enter with every step in N and, also, when N is a prime plus 1, at a critical p value, p=N-1. Such MUBs should play critical roles in filling complements.

  5. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  6. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  7. [Community financing for health care in Africa: mutual health insurance].

    PubMed

    Richard, V

    2005-01-01

    Health care in sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly financed by direct payments from the population. Mutual health insurance plans are developing to ensure better risk sharing. However mutual health insurance cannot fully resolve all equity issues. The low resources available for contribution and the limited availability of care services especially in the public sector cannot guarantee the quality of care necessary for the development of mutual health insurance. National governments must not forget their responsibility especially for defining and ensuring basic services that must be accessible to all. Will mutual health insurance plans be a stepping-stone to universal health care coverage and can these plans be successfully implemented in the context of an informal economy? PMID:15903084

  8. Nonlinear pattern analysis of ventricular premature beats by mutual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yokoshima, T.; Kishida, H.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) has been related to the risk of mortality. However, little is known about the temporal pattern of occurrence of VPBs and its relationship to autonomic activity. Hence, we applied a general correlation measure, mutual information, to quantify how VPBs are generated over time. We also used mutual information to determine the correlation between VPB production and heart rate in order to evaluate effects of autonomic activity on VPB production. We examined twenty subjects with more than 3000 VPBs/day and simulated random time series of VPB occurrence. We found that mutual information values could be used to characterize quantitatively the temporal patterns of VPB generation. Our data suggest that VPB production is not random and VPBs generated with a higher value of mutual information may be more greatly affected by autonomic activity.

  9. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  10. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  11. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  12. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  13. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  14. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  15. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  16. Parasponia: a novel system for studying mutualism stability.

    PubMed

    Behm, Jocelyn E; Geurts, Rene; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, we argue that a novel system--the Parasponia-rhizobia mutualism--will significantly advance research in mutualism stability. Parasponia is the only non-legume lineage to have evolved a rhizobial symbiosis, which provides an evolutionary replicate to test how rhizobial exploitation is controlled. Evidence also suggests that this symbiosis is young. This allows studies at an earlier evolutionary stage in mutualisms, so the origin of control mechanisms can be better understood. PMID:25239777

  17. Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric plasma mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S

    2004-09-07

    The authors present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric two-component plasma (TCP). They compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. for the case of viscosity they propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion they point out some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.

  18. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pérez, A.; Klimov, A. B.; Saavedra, C.

    2011-05-01

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  19. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1975-01-01

    The mutual impedance expressions for parallel dipoles in terms of sine-integrals and cosine-integrals have been published by King (1957). The investigation reported provides analogous expressions for nonparallel dipoles. The expressions presented are most useful when the monopoles are close together. The theory of moment methods shows an approach for employing the mutual impedance of filamentary sinusoidal dipoles to calculate the impedance and scattering properties of straight and bent wires with small but finite diameter.

  20. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles is presented as a summation of several exponential integrals with complex arguments. Mathematical models are developed to show the near-zone field of the sinusoidal dipole. The mutual impedance of coupled dipoles is expressed as the sum of four monopole-mobopole impedances to simplify the analysis procedure. The subroutines for solving the parameters of the dipoles are discussed.

  1. Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra), stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra), or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra). As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra). Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of both animals split from

  2. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2008-01-25

    Pharmaceuticals previously identified in the effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Montreal discharging into the St. Lawrence river, were tested for acute and chronic toxicity using the cnidarian Hydra attenuata. Acute toxicity was based on the established technique looking at morphological changes in the Hydra, while recently developed endpoints of feeding behaviour, attachment and growth (hydranth number) were used to measure chronic effects. The compounds under investigation (ibuprofen, naproxen, gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, oxytetracycline, novobiocin, trimethoprim and caffeine) were tested individually in controlled laboratory exposures with LC(50) and EC(50) results calculated. All compounds tested had relatively high LC(50) values with gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and naproxen having the lowest at 22.36 mg/L and EC(50) values based on morphology of 1.18 to 2.62 mg/L (all concentrations are nominal). The EC(50) values based on feeding were similar to those based on morphology but with increased sensitivity for carbamazepine, bezafibrate and novobiocin. A trend of a reduction in feeding with deterioration in morphology was observed in the Hydra, with the exception of novobiocin, where a lower than expected EC(50) of 13.53 mg/L was found with no negative effect on morphology. Significant reductions in attachment and hydranth number were seen at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/L for gemfibrozil and ibuprofen respectively. A toxicity threshold (TT) of 320 microg/L was calculated for ibuprofen, only a factor of 10(2) or 10 higher than the concentration found in the effluent in the present study (1.19 mug/L) and in other Canadian effluents studied (22 microg/L [Brun GL, Bernier M, Losier R, Doe K, Jackman P, Lee HB, Pharmaceutically active compounds in Atlantic Canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity

  3. Rethinking mutualism stability: cheaters and the evolution of sanctions.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2013-12-01

    How cooperation originates and persists in diverse species, from bacteria to multicellular organisms to human societies, is a major question in evolutionary biology. A large literature asks: what prevents selection for cheating within cooperative lineages? In mutualisms, or cooperative interactions between species, feedback between partners often aligns their fitness interests, such that cooperative symbionts receive more benefits from their hosts than uncooperative symbionts. But how do these feedbacks evolve? Cheaters might invade symbiont populations and select for hosts that preferentially reward or associate with cooperators (often termed sanctions or partner choice); hosts might adapt to variation in symbiont quality that does not amount to cheating (e.g., environmental variation); or conditional host responses might exist before cheaters do, making mutualisms stable from the outset. I review evidence from yucca-yucca moth, fig-fig wasp, and legume-rhizobium mutualisms, which are commonly cited as mutualisms stabilized by sanctions. Based on the empirical evidence, it is doubtful that cheaters select for host sanctions in these systems; cheaters are too uncommon. Recognizing that sanctions likely evolved for functions other than retaliation against cheaters offers many insights about mutualism coevolution, and about why mutualism evolves in only some lineages of potential hosts. PMID:24552098

  4. Spectral image analysis of mutual illumination between florescent objects.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Shoji; Kato, Keiji; Hirai, Keita; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a method for modeling and component estimation of the spectral images of the mutual illumination phenomenon between two fluorescent objects. First, we briefly describe the bispectral characteristics of a single fluorescent object, which are summarized as a Donaldson matrix. We suppose that two fluorescent objects with different bispectral characteristics are located close together under a uniform illumination. Second, we model the mutual illumination between two objects. It is shown that the spectral composition of the mutual illumination is summarized with four components: (1) diffuse reflection, (2) diffuse-diffuse interreflection, (3) fluorescent self-luminescence, and (4) interreflection by mutual fluorescent illumination. Third, we develop algorithms for estimating the spectral image components from the observed images influenced by the mutual illumination. When the exact Donaldson matrices caused by the mutual illumination influence are unknown, we have to solve a non-linear estimation problem to estimate both the spectral functions and the location weights. An iterative algorithm is then proposed to solve the problem based on the alternate estimation of the spectral functions and the location weights. In our experiments, the feasibility of the proposed method is shown in three cases: the known Donaldson matrices, weak interreflection, and strong interreflection. PMID:27505645

  5. Adding biotic complexity alters the metabolic benefits of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, William R; Betts, Alex; Shapiro, Jason W; Marx, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Mutualism is ubiquitous in nature and plays an integral role in most communities. To predict the eco-evolutionary dynamics of mutualism it is critical to extend classic pair-wise analysis to include additional species. We investigated the effect of adding a third species to a pair-wise mutualism in a spatially structured environment. We tested the hypotheses that selection for costly excretions in a focal population (i) decreases when an exploiter is added (ii) increases when a third mutualist is added relative to the pair-wise scenario. We assayed the selection acting on Salmonella enterica when it exchanges methionine for carbon in an obligate mutualism with an auxotrophic Escherichia coli. A third bacterium, Methylobacterium extorquens, was then added and acted either as an exploiter of the carbon or third obligate mutualist depending on the nitrogen source. In the tripartite mutualism M. extorquens provided nitrogen to the other species. Contrary to our expectations, adding an exploiter increased selection for methionine excretion in S. enterica. Conversely, selection for cooperation was lower in the tripartite mutualism relative to the pair-wise system. Genome-scale metabolic models helped identify the mechanisms underlying these changes in selection. Our results highlight the utility of connecting metabolic mechanisms and eco-evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27272242

  6. Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

  7. Heat Shock Protein 70 and 90 Genes in the Harmful Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides: Genomic Structures and Transcriptional Responses to Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruoyu; Youn, Seok Hyun; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2015-01-01

    The marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides is responsible for harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments and has spread into the world's oceans. As a microeukaryote, it seems to have distinct genomic characteristics, like gene structure and regulation. In the present study, we characterized heat shock protein (HSP) 70/90 of C. polykrikoides and evaluated their transcriptional responses to environmental stresses. Both HSPs contained the conserved motif patterns, showing the highest homology with those of other dinoflagellates. Genomic analysis showed that the CpHSP70 had no intron but was encoded by tandem arrangement manner with separation of intergenic spacers. However, CpHSP90 had one intron in the coding genomic regions, and no intergenic region was found. Phylogenetic analyses of separate HSPs showed that CpHSP70 was closely related with the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii and CpHSP90 with other Gymnodiniales in dinoflagellates. Gene expression analyses showed that both HSP genes were upregulated by the treatments of separate algicides CuSO4 and NaOCl; however, they displayed downregulation pattern with PCB treatment. The transcription of CpHSP90 and CpHSP70 showed similar expression patterns under the same toxicant treatment, suggesting that both genes might have cooperative functions for the toxicant induced gene regulation in the dinoflagellate. PMID:26064872

  8. Cytotoxicity, Fractionation and Dereplication of Extracts of the Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, a Producer of Pinnatoxin G

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Marie; Desanglois, Gwenaëlle; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Leprêtre, Thomas; Mondeguer, Florence; Guitton, Yann; Hervé, Fabienne; Séchet, Véronique; Grovel, Olivier; Pouchus, Yves-François; Hess, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) is a marine toxin belonging to the class of cyclic imines and produced by the dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. In spite of its strong toxicity to mice, leading to the classification of pinnatoxins into the class of “fast-acting toxins”, its hazard for human health has never been demonstrated. In this study, crude extracts of V. rugosum exhibited significant cytotoxicity against Neuro2A and KB cells. IC50 values of 0.38 µg mL−1 and 0.19 µg mL−1 were estimated on Neuro2A cells after only 24 h of incubation and on KB cells after 72 h of incubation, respectively. In the case of Caco-2 cells 48 h after exposure, the crude extract of V. rugosum induced cell cycle arrest accompanied by a dramatic increase in double strand DNA breaks, although only 40% cytotoxicity was observed at the highest concentration tested (5 µg mL−1). However, PnTX-G was not a potent cytotoxic compound as no reduction of the cell viability was observed on the different cell lines. Moreover, no effects on the cell cycle or DNA damage were observed following treatment of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells with PnTX-G. The crude extract of V. rugosum was thus partially purified using liquid-liquid partitioning and SPE clean-up. In vitro assays revealed strong activity of some fractions containing no PnTX-G. The crude extract and the most potent fraction were evaluated using full scan and tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The dereplication revealed the presence of a major compound that could be putatively annotated as nakijiquinone A, N-carboxy-methyl-smenospongine or stachybotrin A, using the MarinLit™ database. Further investigations will be necessary to confirm the identity of the compounds responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the extracts of V. rugosum. PMID:24002102

  9. The distribution of intra-genomically variable dinoflagellate symbionts at Lord Howe Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Pontasch, Stefanie; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2016-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals and other marine invertebrates ( Symbiodinium) are essential to the development of shallow-water coral reefs. This genus contains considerable genetic diversity and a corresponding range of physiological and ecological traits. Most genetic variation arises through the accumulation of somatic mutations that arise during asexual reproduction. Yet growing evidence suggests that occasional sexual reproductive events also occur within, and perhaps between, Symbiodinium lineages, further contributing to the pool of genetic variation available for evolutionary adaptation. Intra-genomic variation can therefore arise from both sexual and asexual reproductive processes, making it difficult to discern its underlying causes and consequences. We used quantitative PCR targeting the ITS2 locus to estimate proportions of genetically homogeneous symbionts and intra-genomically variable Symbiodinium (IGV Symbiodinium) in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Lord Howe Island, Australia. We then sampled colonies through time and at a variety of spatial scales to find out whether the distribution of these symbionts followed patterns consistent with niche partitioning. Estimated ratios of homogeneous to IGV Symbiodinium varied between colonies within sites (metres to tens of metres) and between sites separated by hundreds to thousands of metres, but remained stable within colonies through time. Symbiont ratios followed a temperature gradient, with the local thermal maximum emerging as a negative predictor for the estimated proportional abundance of IGV Symbiodinium. While this pattern may result from fine-scale spatial population structure, it is consistent with an increased susceptibility to thermal stress, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that generate IGV (such as inter-lineage recombination and the accumulation of somatic mutations at the ITS2 locus) may have important implications for the fitness of the symbiont and

  10. A magneto- and chemostratigraphically calibrated dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the early Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-09-01

    Investigation of the early Palaeogene palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evolution of the Polar Regions is hindered by the absence of calcite microfossils in sedimentary archives, which are conventionally the main dating tool. To overcome this problem, we have generated large datasets of organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages from Southern Ocean shelf sediments over the past decade, and we here calibrate these to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) using magnetostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. This now for the first time allows a high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinocyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene (58-36 million years ago; Ma). We compile published dinocyst chronologies from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1171D on the South Tasman Rise, Hole 1172A/D on the East Tasman Plateau and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A on the Wilkes Land margin. Correlation to dinocyst zonations from New Zealand lead to revisions of the magnetostratigraphic age model at Holes 1171D and 1172A/D. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records reveal the stratigraphic location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~ 56 Ma) and the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (~ 40 Ma), respectively. The resulting zonation consists of thirteen dinocyst zones, calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), which can likely be applied to the entire Southern Ocean. Finally, we apply the revised stratigraphy to all published TEX86 data, a biomarker-based proxy for sea surface temperature (SST), from ODP Site 1172 to assess long-term climate evolution. This shows that Southwest Pacific SST trends mimic the global compilation of benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes even better than previously appreciated.

  11. Interactive effects of climate change and eutrophication on the dinoflagellate-bearing benthic foraminifer Marginopora vertebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthicke, S.; Vogel, N.; Doyle, J.; Schmidt, C.; Humphrey, C.

    2012-06-01

    Elevated sea surface temperatures caused by global climate change and increased nutrient concentrations resulting from land runoff both are stressors for calcifying coral reef organisms. Here, we test the hypothesis that increased temperature leads to bleaching in dinoflagellate-bearing foraminifera similar to corals and that increased nutrients through runoff can exaggerate stress on the holobiont. In an experiment manipulating temperatures alone, we have shown that mortality of Marginopora vertebralis increased with temperatures. Most individuals died after 7 days at 34°C, ~5°C above current summer maxima. Survival at 37 days was >98% at 28°C. After 7 days of exposure to 31 or 32°C, photosynthesis of the endosymbionts was compromised, as indicated by several photophysiological parameters (effective quantum yield and apparent photosynthetic rate). In a flow-though experiment manipulating both temperature (three levels, 26, 29 and 31°C) and nitrate concentrations (3 levels, ~0.5, 1.0 and 1.4 μmol l-1 NO3 -), elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on most parameters measured. At 31°C, most photopigments (measured by UPLC) in the foraminifera were significantly reduced. The only pigment that increased was the photoprotective diatoxanthin. Several other parameters measured (maximum and effective quantum yield, O2 production in light, organic carbon contents) also significantly decreased with temperature. Optode-based respirometry demonstrated that the presence of symbionts at elevated temperatures represents a net carbon loss for the host. Growth rates of M. vertebralis and mortality at the end of the experiment were significantly affected by both temperature increase and nitrate addition. We conclude that these foraminifera bleach in a similar fashion to corals and that global sea surface temperature change and nitrate increases are stressors for these protists. Furthermore, this provides support for the hypothesis that management of local

  12. Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Eglinton, Geoffrey; O'Hara, Sean C. M.; Corner, Eric D. S.

    1987-11-01

    Stage V and adult females of the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus were fed in the laboratory on the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea at three concentrations calculated to represent pelagic ocean to 'bloom' conditions. The identification and quantification of sterols, fatty acids and alcohols present in the algal diet, copepods and their faecal pellets were then carried out using computerized gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (C-GC-MS). The grazing rates of animals were measured and the data then combined with those of lipid distributions in the diet and faecal pellets in order to determine quantitatively the fate of each lipid during its passage through the gut of Calanus. The results showed marked differences in the proportion of the three lipid classes removed, with highest values found for fatty acids and the lowest for sterols. Up to 97% of ingested algal fatty acids were removed by the copepod, with a preference towards the removal of polyunsaturated acids. Algal sterols were also removed by Calanus; the percentage composition and concentration of sterols in faecal pellets differing from the algal diet at all three food levels. Evidence that the removal of lipids from the diet represented assimilation by the copepods was provided by the further finding that during the feeding period (20 hr) all three lipid classes increased in animal tissues. Quantitative measurements of individual sterols revealed that significant amounts of 4-methyl and 4-desmethyl sterols having the 8(14) and 17(20) unsaturation were removed at all dietary levels. In contrast, ring-saturated stanols were not removed and appear to pass through the gut quantitatively.

  13. Growth and toxin production of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in laboratory cultures.

    PubMed

    Usup, G; Kulis, D M; Anderson, D M

    1994-01-01

    Toxin production of a Malaysian isolate of the toxic red tide dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was investigated at various stages of the batch culture growth cycle and under growth conditions affected by temperature, salinity, and light intensity variations. In all the experiments conducted, only 5 toxins were ever detected. Neosaxitoxin (NEO) and gonyautoxin V (GTX5) made up 80 mole percent or more of the cellular toxin content and saxitoxin (STX), GTX6 and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) made up the remainder. No gonyautoxins I-IV or C toxins were ever detected. In nutrient-replete batch cultures, toxin content rapidly peaked during early exponential phase and just as rapidly declined prior to the onset of plateau phase. Temperature had a marked effect on toxin content, which increased 3-fold as the temperature decreased from the optimum of 28 degrees C to 22 degrees C. Toxin content was constant at salinities of 24% or higher, but increased 3-fold at 20%. Toxin content decreased 2-fold and chlorophyll content increased 3-fold when light intensity was reduced from 90 to 15 microE m-2 s-1. This accompanied a 30% decrease in growth rate. Toxin composition (mole % individual toxin cell-1) remained constant throughout the course of the nutrient-replete culture and during growth at various salinities, but varied significantly with temperature and light intensity changes. At 22 degrees C, GTX5 was 25 mole % and NEO was 65 mole %, while at 34 degrees C, GTX5 increased to 55 mole % and NEO decreased proportionally to 40 mole %. When light intensity was reduced from 90 to 15 microE m-2 s-1, NEO decreased from 55 to 38 mole %, while GTX5 increased from 40 to 58 mole %. These data suggest that low light and high temperature both somehow enhance sulfo-transferase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7866660

  14. Molecular detection of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi from blue crabs Callinectes sapidus in Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Timothy J; Gelpi, Carey G; Neigel, Joseph E

    2016-06-15

    The dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi is a prolific pathogen of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America. High prevalence, sometimes approaching 100%, and outbreaks with high mortality are associated with higher salinities. H. perezi has not been reported previously in blue crabs from Louisiana, USA, where salinities in coastal habitats are generally below the parasite's favorable range. However, the possibility that H. perezi infects blue crabs in higher salinity habitats offshore has not been investigated. A PCR-based test for H. perezi was used to screen blue crabs collected from both high and low salinity areas. These included juvenile and adult crabs from inshore marshes where salinities are relatively low and from higher salinity offshore shoals that are spawning sites for females. H. perezi was detected in blue crabs from offshore shoals (prevalence = 5.6%) but not in juvenile or adult crabs from inshore habitats. Megalopae (post-larvae) were also collected from inshore locations. Although megalopae settle inshore where salinities are relatively low, the megalopal stage is preceded by a planktonic phase in higher salinity offshore waters. We detected H. perezi in 11.2% of settling megalopae tested. Although the prevalence of H. perezi was relatively low within our samples, if spawning females and megalopae are especially vulnerable, the impact on the population could be compounded. This is the first report of H. perezi from blue crabs in Louisiana and demonstrates the importance of examining all life stages in determining the prevalence of a harmful parasite. PMID:27304873

  15. Light-Promoted Rhodopsin Expression and Starvation Survival in the Marine Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of microbial rhodopsins in marine proteobacteria changed the dogma that photosynthesis is the only pathway to use the solar energy for biological utilization in the marine environment. Although homologs of these rhodopsins have been identified in dinoflagellates, the diversity of the encoding genes and their physiological roles remain unexplored. As an initial step toward addressing the gap, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on Oxyrrhis marina to retrieve rhodopsin transcripts, rapid amplification of cDNA ends to isolate full-length cDNAs of dominant representatives, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to investigate their expression under varying conditions. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that O. marina contained both the proton-pumping type (PR) and sensory type (SR) rhodopsins, and the transcriptome data showed that the PR type dominated over the SR type. We compared rhodopsin gene expression for cultures kept under light: dark cycle and continuous darkness in a time course of 24 days without feeding. Although both types of rhodopsin were expressed under the two conditions, the expression levels of PR were much higher than SR, consistent with the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, relative to cultures kept in the dark, rhodopsin expression levels and cell survival rate were both higher in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of light-dependent promotion of starvation survival and concomitant promotion of PR expression in a eukaryote. While direct evidence needs to come from functional test on rhodopsins in vitro or gene knockout/knockdown experiments, our results suggest that the proton-pumping rhodopsin might be responsible for the light-enhanced survival of O. marina, as previously demonstrated in bacteria. PMID:25506945

  16. Ratiometric imaging of gastrodermal lipid bodies in coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Peng, S.-E.; Tzen, J. T.-C.; Hsiao, Y.-Y.; Huang, H.-J.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2009-03-01

    Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis is the phenomenon of autotrophic symbionts living inside the gastrodermal cells of their animal hosts. The molecular mechanism that regulates this association remains unclear. Using quantitative microscopy, we now provide evidence that the dynamic lipid changes in gastrodermal “lipid bodies” (LBs) reflect the symbiotic status of the host cell and its symbiont in the hermatypic coral Euphyllia glabrescens. By dual-emission ratiometric imaging with a solvatochromic fluorescent probe, Nile red (9-diethylamino-5H-benzo[α]phenoxazine-5-one), we showed that the in situ distribution of polar versus neutral lipids in LBs in living gastrodermal cells and symbionts can be analyzed. The ratio of Nile red fluorescence at red (R) versus green (G) wavelength region (i.e., R/G ratio) correlated with the relative molar ratio of polar (P) versus neutral (NP) lipids (i.e., P/NP ratio). The R/G ratio in host LBs increased after bleaching, indicating a decrease in neutral lipid accumulation in gastrodermal cells. On the other hand, neutral lipid accumulation inside the symbiont LBs resulted in gradual decreases of the R/G ratio as a result of bleaching. In comparison with the bleaching event, there was no relative lipid concentration change in host LBs under continual light or dark treatments as shown by insignificant R/G ratio shift. Patterns of R/G ratio shift in symbiont LBs were also different between corals undergoing bleaching and continual light/dark treatment. In the latter, there was little lipid accumulation in symbionts, with no resulting R/G ratio decrease. These results, demonstrating that the symbiotic status positively correlated with morphological and compositional changes of lipid bodies, not only highlight the pivotal role of LBs, but also implicate an involvement of lipid trafficking in regulating the endosymbiosis.

  17. Balechina and the new genus Cucumeridinium gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), unarmored dinoflagellates with thick cell coverings.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2015-12-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachyderm-atum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  18. Ichthyotoxicity studies of milkfish Chanos chanos fingerlings exposed to a harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Chen, C -Y.; Chou, H -N.

    2001-07-30

    Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) fingerlings were treated with toxic, nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum cells or toxic algal extract in the water medium without any aeration. Mortality of fish increased with increasing concentrations of toxic, nontoxic algal cells and water-soluble toxic algae extract. Milkfish fingerlings, which were exposed to toxic algae (1.5x10(4)-3.0x10(4) cells/ml) or algal extract [5.13x10(3)-2.05x10(4) cells/ml, 0.195 MU/10(4) cells (toxin concentration)] for 24 h, revealed by light microscopic observations a noticeable edema, hyperplasia and necrosis of secondary gill lamellae. The same toxicological symptom was observed in fish exposed to pure saxitoxin (STX) (6.475x10(-2) &mgr;g/ml) in the water medium. A higher critical oxygen pressure and oxygen consumption rate were also found in the milkfish fingerlings exposed to toxic algae extract (5.13x10(3)-2.05x10(4) cells/ml) and STX (6.475x10(-2) &mgr;g/ml). The cells of nontoxic A. minutum did not cause the gill damage to milkfish, and the extract of nontoxic algae did not cause an increase in oxygen consumption rate or critical oxygen demand of milkfish. From these results, we infer that toxic cells and its extract cause nonspecific response in gill tissues of milkfish. An instant increase in oxygen consumption rate and oxygen demand may be one of the major causes of fish death. PMID:11445088

  19. On an extremely dense bloom of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in lagoons of the PO river delta: Impact on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1996-06-01

    An extremely dense bloom of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was observed in the lagoons of Cà Pisani (Veneto, Italy) in summer 1993. The lagoons were experiencing a significant eutrophication impact, receiving waste waters from intensive fish culture plants. During their bloom dinoflagellates in the lagoons reached densities of 2 to 4 × 10 6 cells·dm -3 and a biomass of over 100 g·m -3. The bloom produced drastic ecological changes in the lagoons. It caused nocturnal anoxia, mortality of macrophytes and the build-up of labile organic matter in the water column. Grazing by the tintinnid Favella sp. contributed to the termination of the bloom of the flagellates. The results show that coastal aqua culture probably stimulates dinoflagellate blooms in shallow brackish lagoons.

  20. Tertiary Endosymbiosis in Two Dinotoms Has Generated Little Change in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Their Dinoflagellate Hosts and Diatom Endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Imanian, Behzad; Pombert, Jean-François; Dorrell, Richard G.; Burki, Fabien; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria or mitochondrion-derived organelles are found in all eukaryotes with the exception of secondary or tertiary plastid endosymbionts. In these highly reduced systems, the mitochondrion has been lost in all cases except the diatom endosymbionts found in a small group of dinoflagellates, called ‘dinotoms’, the only cells with two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. To investigate the persistence of this redundancy and its consequences on the content and structure of the endosymbiont and host mitochondrial genomes, we report the sequences of these genomes from two dinotoms. Methodology/Principal Findings The endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes of Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum exhibit nearly identical gene content with other diatoms, and highly conserved gene order (nearly identical to that of the raphid pennate diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus). These two genomes are differentiated from other diatoms' by the fission of nad11 and by an insertion within nad2, in-frame and unspliced from the mRNA. Durinskia baltica is further distinguished from K. foliaceum by two gene fusions and its lack of introns. The host mitochondrial genome in D. baltica encodes cox1 and cob plus several fragments of LSU rRNA gene in a hugely expanded genome that includes numerous pseudogenes, and a trans-spliced cox3 gene, like in other dinoflagellates. Over 100 distinct contigs were identified through 454 sequencing, but intact full-length genes for cox1, cob and the 5′ exon of cox3 were present as a single contig each, suggesting most of the genome is pseudogenes. The host mitochondrial genome of K. foliaceum was difficult to identify, but fragments of all the three protein-coding genes, corresponding transcripts, and transcripts of several LSU rRNA fragments were all recovered. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the endosymbiont and host mitochondrial genomes in the two dinotoms have changed surprisingly little from those of free-living diatoms and