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  1. Field Effects in the CNS Play Functional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shennan A.; Faber, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    An endogenous electrical field effect, i.e., ephaptic transmission, occurs when an electric field associated with activity occurring in one neuron polarizes the membrane of another neuron. It is well established that field effects occur during pathological conditions, such as epilepsy, but less clear if they play a functional role in the healthy brain. Here, we describe the principles of field effect interactions, discuss identified field effects in diverse brain structures from the teleost Mauthner cell to the mammalian cortex, and speculate on the function of these interactions. Recent evidence supports that relatively weak endogenous and exogenous field effects in laminar structures reach significance because they are amplified by network interactions. Such interactions may be important in rhythmogenesis for the cortical slow wave and hippocampal sharp wave–ripple, and also during transcranial stimulation. PMID:20508749

  2. Ontogeny and functions of CNS macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Katsumoto, Atsuko; Lu, Haiyan; Miranda, Aline S.; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the only non-neuroepithelial cells found in the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS), originate during embryogenesis from the yolk sac and enter the CNS quite early (embryonic day 9.5-10 in mice). Thereafter, microglia are maintained independently of any input from the blood and in particular do not require hematopoietic stem cells as a source of replacement for senescent cells. Monocytes are hematopoietic cells, derived from bone marrow. The ontogeny of microglia and monocytes is important for understanding CNS pathologies. Microglial functions are distinct from those of blood-derived monocytes, which invade the CNS only under pathological conditions. Recent data reveal that microglia play an important role in managing neuronal cell death, neurogenesis and synaptic interactions. Here we discuss physiology of microglia and the functions of monocytes in CNS pathology. We address the roles of microglia and monocytes in neurodegenerative diseases as an example of CNS pathology. PMID:25193935

  3. CNS Myelination Requires Cytoplasmic Dynein Function

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Michele L.; Shin, Jimann; Kearns, Christina A.; Langworthy, Melissa M.; Snell, Heather; Walker, Macie B.; Appel, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytoplasmic dynein provides the main motor force for minus-end-directed transport of cargo on microtubules. Within the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), proliferation, neuronal migration and retrograde axon transport are among the cellular functions known to require dynein. Accordingly, mutations of DYNC1H1, which encodes the heavy chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, have been linked to developmental brain malformations and axonal pathologies. Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cell type of the CNS, migrate from their origins to their target axons and subsequently extend multiple long processes that ensheath axons with specialized insulating membrane. These processes are filled with microtubules, which facilitate molecular transport of myelin components. However, whether oligodendrocytes require cytoplasmic dynein to ensheath axons with myelin is not known. Results We identified a mutation of zebrafish dync1h1 in a forward genetic screen that caused a deficit of oligodendrocytes. Using in vivo imaging and gene expression analyses, we additionally found evidence that dync1h1 promotes axon ensheathment and myelin gene expression. Conclusions In addition to its well known roles in axon transport and neuronal migration, cytoplasmic dynein contributes to neural development by promoting myelination. PMID:25488883

  4. slc7a6os Gene Plays a Critical Role in Defined Areas of the Developing CNS in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Benini, Anna; Cignarella, Francesca; Calvarini, Laura; Mantovanelli, Silvia; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Zizioli, Daniela; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on the functional role of slc7a6os, a gene highly conserved in vertebrates. The Danio rerio slc7a6os gene encodes a protein of 326 amino acids with 46% identity to human SLC7A6OS and 14% to Saccharomyces cerevisiae polypeptide Iwr1. Yeast Iwr1 specifically binds RNA pol II, interacts with the basal transcription machinery and regulates the transcription of specific genes. In this study we investigated for the first time the biological role of SLC7A6OS in vertebrates. Zebrafish slc7a6os is a maternal gene that is expressed throughout development, with a prevalent localization in the developing central nervous system (CNS). The gene is also expressed, although at different levels, in various tissues of the adult fish. To determine the functional role of slc7a6os during zebrafish development, we knocked-down the gene by injecting a splice-blocking morpholino. At 24 hpf morphants show morphological defects in the CNS, particularly the interface between hindbrain and midbrain is not well-defined. At 28 hpf the morpholino injected embryos present an altered somite morphology and appear partially or completely immotile. At this stage the midbrain, hindbrain and cerebellum are compromised and not well defined compared with control embryos. The observed alterations persist at later developmental stages. Consistently, the expression pattern of two markers specifically expressed in the developing CNS, pax2a and neurod, is significantly altered in morphants. The co-injection of embryos with synthetic slc7a6os mRNA, rescues the morphant phenotype and restores the wild type expression pattern of pax2a and neurod. Our data suggest that slc7a6os might play a critical role in defined areas of the developing CNS in vertebrates, probably by regulating the expression of key genes. PMID:25803583

  5. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  6. Anaerobic function of CNS white matter declines with age.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Margaret A; Möller, Thomas; Ransom, Bruce R

    2011-04-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generally believed to be completely dependent on the presence of oxygen (O(2)) to maintain energy levels necessary for excitability. However, previous studies on CNS white matter (WM) have shown that a large subset of CNS-myelinated axons of mice aged 4 to 6 weeks remains excitable in the absence of O(2). We investigated whether this surprising WM tolerance to anoxia varied with age. Acutely isolated mouse optic nerve (MON), a purely myelinated WM tract, was studied electrophysiologically. Excitability in the MONs from 1-month-, 4-month-, and 8-month-old mice was assessed quantitatively as the area under the supramaximal compound action potential (CAP). Anoxia-resistant WM function declined with age. After 60  minutes of anoxia, ∼23% of the CAP remained in 1-month-old mice, 8% in 4-month-old mice, and ∼0 in the 8-month-old group. Our results indicated that although some CNS axons function anaerobically in young adult animals, they lose this ability in later adulthood. This finding may help explain the clinical impression that favorable outcome after stroke and other brain injuries declines with age. PMID:21179073

  7. Active mechanistic target of rapamycin plays an ancillary rather than essential role in zebrafish CNS axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, Heike; Kalbhen, Pascal; Fischer, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    The developmental decrease of the intrinsic regenerative ability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is associated with reduced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in mature neurons such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). While mTOR activity is further decreased upon axonal injury, maintenance of its pre-injury level, for instance by genetic deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), markedly promotes axon regeneration in mammals. The current study now addressed the question whether active mTOR might generally play a central role in axon regeneration by analyzing its requirement in regeneration-competent zebrafish. Remarkably, regulation of mTOR activity after optic nerve injury in zebrafish is fundamentally different compared to mammals. Hardly any activity was detected in naïve RGCs, whereas it was markedly increased upon axotomy in vivo as well as in dissociated cell cultures. After a short burst, mTOR activity was quickly attenuated, which is contrary to the requirements for axon regeneration in mammals. Surprisingly, mTOR activity was not essential for axonal growth per se, but correlated with cytokine- and PTEN inhibitor-induced neurite extension in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR using rapamycin significantly reduced axon regeneration in vivo and compromised functional recovery after optic nerve injury. Therefore, axotomy-induced mTOR activity is involved in CNS axon regeneration in zebrafish similar to mammals, although it plays an ancillary rather than essential role in this regeneration-competent species. PMID:26217179

  8. More Than Cholesterol Transporters: Lipoprotein Receptors in CNS Function and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney E.; Philips, Gary T.; Herz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family have a diverse set of biological functions that transcend lipid metabolism. Lipoprotein receptors have broad effects in both the developing and adult brain and participate in synapse development, cargo trafficking, and signal transduction. In addition, several family members play key roles in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role lipoprotein receptors play in CNS function and AD pathology, with a special emphasis on amyloid-independent roles in endocytosis and synaptic dysfunction. PMID:25144875

  9. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  10. Neurobiology of microglial action in CNS injuries: receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms and functional roles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoming; Liou, Anthony K.F.; Leak, Rehana K.; Xu, Mingyue; An, Chengrui; Suenaga, Jun; Shi, Yejie; Gao, Yanqin; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the first line of immune defense against central nervous system (CNS) injuries and disorders. These highly plastic cells play dualistic roles in neuronal injury and recovery and are known for their ability to assume diverse phenotypes. A broad range of surface receptors are expressed on microglia and mediate microglial ‘On’ or ‘Off’ responses to signals from other host cells as well as invading microorganisms. The integrated actions of these receptors result in tightly regulated biological functions, including cell mobility, phagocytosis, the induction of acquired immunity, and trophic factor/inflammatory mediator release. Over the last few years, significant advances have been made towards deciphering the signaling mechanisms related to these receptors and their specific cellular functions. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of the surface receptors involved in microglial activation, with an emphasis on their engagement of distinct functional programs and their roles in CNS injuries. It will become evident from this review that microglial homeostasis is carefully maintained by multiple counterbalanced strategies, including, but not limited to, ‘On’ and ‘Off’ receptor signaling. Specific regulation of theses microglial receptors may be a promising therapeutic strategy against CNS injuries. PMID:24923657

  11. Selective Actions of Novel Allosteric Modulators Reveal Functional Heteromers of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shen; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Johnson, Kari A.; Zamorano, Rocio; Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Gregory, Karen J.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors play important roles in regulating CNS function and are known to function as obligatory dimers. Although recent studies have suggested heterodimeric assembly of mGlu receptors in vitro, the demonstration that distinct mGlu receptor proteins can form heterodimers or hetero-complexes with other mGlu subunits in native tissues, such as neurons, has not been shown. Using biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate here that mGlu2 and mGlu4 form a hetero-complex in native rat and mouse tissues which exhibits a distinct pharmacological profile. These data greatly extend our current understanding of mGlu receptor interaction and function and provide compelling evidence that mGlu receptors can function as heteromers in intact brain circuits. PMID:24381270

  12. [MicroRNAs in microglia polarization and CNS diseases: mechanism and functions].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue; Tan, Wei-Xing; He, Cheng; Cao, Li

    2015-02-25

    Microglia are resident macrophages of central nervous system (CNS), and thus act as the crucial stuff of immune response and play very important roles in the progress of various CNS diseases. There are two different polarization statuses of activated microglia, M1 and M2 phenotypes. M1 polarized microglia are important for eradicating bacterial and promoting inflammation, whereas M2 cells are characterized by anti-inflammation and tissue remodeling. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that different polarized microglia showed diverse microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles. MiRNAs regulate microglia polarization, and thus affect the progress of CNS diseases. Fully exploring the polarization status of microglia during CNS diseases and the role of miRNAs in microglia polarization will be very helpful for a deep understanding of the roles of microglia in immunopathologic mechanism of different CNS diseases and offer the theoretical foundation of searching more effective therapies for these disorders. PMID:25672624

  13. Solitary Play: Some Functional Reconsiderations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nancy V.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Solitary play in six kindergarten children was observed and coded for frequency and type in order to resolve iscrepancies in a Sex Birth Order interaction. Several facts concerning solitary play as indicative of independence and maturity are noted. (Author/ED)

  14. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    were complex and suggested continuous remodeling of the brain for up to 6 months. Thus we demonstrated a suite of CNS structural and functional changes after proton and iron ion exposure in the low dose regime. Based on these findings we will now test whether oxidative stress mediates the reactions of CNS to radiation exposure and what role radiation quality and dose rate play in the responses. We will use cultured neural precursor cells (mouse human) to detect changes in oxidative status and differentiation as functions of charged particle charge and velocity. These results will inform the selection of particles for many in vivo measurements that will compare wild type mice to a transgenic strain that over-expresses a human catalase gene (which inactivates hydrogen peroxide) in the mitochondrial compartment. This will explicitly test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the mechanisms underlying the CNS endpoints that we will measure. We will extend the electrophysiological measurements on individual nerves in hippocampal slices to characterize both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Further, multi-electrode arrays will be used to follow correlated electrical activity in different hippocampal regions in order to understand network-level function as well as synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Controlled oxidative stress on irradiated samples will explore whether response mechanisms are shared. To link alterations in neurogenesis to performance we will explore behavioral changes mediated by the hippocampus simultaneously with measures of expression of the Arc gene in newly-born neurons. This will test whether decrements in performance correlate with loss of new cells and whether behavior properly stimulates functional integration of the new cells; the behavioral paradigm will be contextual fear conditioning. We will develop mathematical frameworks for CNS responses to radiation in order to inform risk estimates. Finally, we will couple a high

  15. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    were complex and suggested continuous remodeling of the brain for up to 6 months. Thus we demonstrated a suite of CNS structural and functional changes after proton and iron ion exposure in the low dose regime. Based on these findings we will now test whether oxidative stress mediates the reactions of CNS to radiation exposure and what role radiation quality and dose rate play in the responses. We will use cultured neural precursor cells (mouse human) to detect changes in oxidative status and differentiation as functions of charged particle charge and velocity. These results will inform the selection of particles for many in vivo measurements that will compare wild type mice to a transgenic strain that over-expresses a human catalase gene (which inactivates hydrogen peroxide) in the mitochondrial compartment. This will explicitly test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the mechanisms underlying the CNS endpoints that we will measure. We will extend the electrophysiological measurements on individual nerves in hippocampal slices to characterize both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Further, multi-electrode arrays will be used to follow correlated electrical activity in different hippocampal regions in order to understand network-level function as well as synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Controlled oxidative stress on irradiated samples will explore whether response mechanisms are shared. To link alterations in neurogenesis to performance we will explore behavioral changes mediated by the hippocampus simultaneously with measures of expression of the Arc gene in newly-born neurons. This will test whether decrements in performance correlate with loss of new cells and whether behavior properly stimulates functional integration of the new cells; the behavioral paradigm will be contextual fear conditioning. We will develop mathematical frameworks for CNS responses to radiation in order to inform risk estimates. Finally, we will couple a high

  16. TDP-43 in CNS development and function: clues to TDP-43-associated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sephton, Chantelle F.; Cenik, Basar; Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    From the earliest stages of embryogenesis and throughout life, transcriptional regulation is carefully orchestrated in order to generate, shape, and reshape the central nervous system (CNS). TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), is identified as a regulator of essential transcriptional events in the CNS. Evidence for its importance comes from the identification of TDP-43 protein aggregates and genetic mutations in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Efforts are being made to learn more about the biological function of TDP-43 and gain a better understanding of its role in neurodegeneration. TDP-43 RNA targets and protein interactions have now been identified and in vivo evidence shows that TDP-43 is essential in CNS development and function. This review will highlight aspects of these findings. PMID:22944662

  17. Executive Functions Development and Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Ana Lucia; de Souza, Maria Thereza C. Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss executive functions and playing games, considering Piaget's work (1967) and the neuropsychological framework (Barkley, 1997, 2000; Cypel, 2007). Two questions guide the discussion: What are the intersections between playing games and the development of executive functions? Can we stimulate children with learning…

  18. Can Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Improve Success Rates in CNS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The bar for developing new treatments for CNS disease is getting progressively higher and fewer novel mechanisms are being discovered, validated and developed. The high costs of drug discovery necessitate early decisions to ensure the best molecules and hypotheses are tested in expensive late stage clinical trials. The discovery of brain imaging biomarkers that can bridge preclinical to clinical CNS drug discovery and provide a ‘language of translation’ affords the opportunity to improve the objectivity of decision-making. Areas Covered This review discusses the benefits, challenges and potential issues of using a science based biomarker strategy to change the paradigm of CNS drug development and increase success rates in the discovery of new medicines. The authors have summarized PubMed and Google Scholar based publication searches to identify recent advances in functional, structural and chemical brain imaging and have discussed how these techniques may be useful in defining CNS disease state and drug effects during drug development. Expert opinion The use of novel brain imaging biomarkers holds the bold promise of making neuroscience drug discovery smarter by increasing the objectivity of decision making thereby improving the probability of success of identifying useful drugs to treat CNS diseases. Functional imaging holds the promise to: (1) define pharmacodynamic markers as an index of target engagement (2) improve translational medicine paradigms to predict efficacy; (3) evaluate CNS efficacy and safety based on brain activation; (4) determine brain activity drug dose-response relationships and (5) provide an objective evaluation of symptom response and disease modification. PMID:21765857

  19. The effects of gut microbiota on CNS function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tillisch, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in human brain development and function is an area of increasing interest and research. Preclinical models suggest a role for the microbiota in broad aspects of human health, including mood, cognition, and chronic pain. Early human studies suggest that altering the microbiota with beneficial bacteria, or probiotics, can lead to changes in brain function, as well as subjective reports of mood. As the mechanisms of bidirectional communication between the brain and microbiota are better understood, it is expected that these pathways will be harnessed to provide novel methods to enhance health and treat disease. PMID:24838095

  20. The effects of gut microbiota on CNS function in humans.

    PubMed

    Tillisch, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in human brain development and function is an area of increasing interest and research. Preclinical models suggest a role for the microbiota in broad aspects of human health, including mood, cognition, and chronic pain. Early human studies suggest that altering the microbiota with beneficial bacteria, or probiotics, can lead to changes in brain function, as well as subjective reports of mood. As the mechanisms of bidirectional communication between the brain and microbiota are better understood, it is expected that these pathways will be harnessed to provide novel methods to enhance health and treat disease. PMID:24838095

  1. Peripheral monocytes are functionally altered and invade the CNS in ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Zondler, Lisa; Müller, Kathrin; Khalaji, Samira; Bliederhäuser, Corinna; Ruf, Wolfgang P; Grozdanov, Veselin; Thiemann, Meinolf; Fundel-Clemes, Katrin; Freischmidt, Axel; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Strobel, Benjamin; Weydt, Patrick; Witting, Anke; Thal, Dietmar R; Helferich, Anika M; Hengerer, Bastian; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Hill, Oliver; Kluge, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Danzer, Karin M; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting primarily the upper and lower motor neurons. A common feature of all ALS cases is a well-characterized neuroinflammatory reaction within the central nervous system (CNS). However, much less is known about the role of the peripheral immune system and its interplay with CNS resident immune cells in motor neuron degeneration. Here, we characterized peripheral monocytes in both temporal and spatial dimensions of ALS pathogenesis. We found the circulating monocytes to be deregulated in ALS regarding subtype constitution, function and gene expression. Moreover, we show that CNS infiltration of peripheral monocytes correlates with improved motor neuron survival in a genetic ALS mouse model. Furthermore, application of human immunoglobulins or fusion proteins containing only the human Fc, but not the Fab antibody fragment, increased CNS invasion of peripheral monocytes and delayed the disease onset. Our results underline the importance of peripheral monocytes in ALS pathogenesis and are in agreement with a protective role of monocytes in the early phase of the disease. The possibility to boost this beneficial function of peripheral monocytes by application of human immunoglobulins should be evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26910103

  2. Use of functional imaging across clinical phases in CNS drug development

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, D; Becerra, L; Fava, M

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel brain biomarkers using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging holds potential of making central nervous system (CNS) drug development more efficient. By evaluating changes in brain function in the disease state or drug effects on brain function, the technology opens up the possibility of obtaining objective data on drug effects in the living awake brain. By providing objective data, imaging may improve the probability of success of identifying useful drugs to treat CNS diseases across all clinical phases (I–IV) of drug development. The evolution of functional imaging and the promise it holds to contribute to drug development will require the development of standards (including good imaging practice), but, if well integrated into drug development, functional imaging can define markers of CNS penetration, drug dosing and target engagement (even for drugs that are not amenable to positron emission tomography imaging) in phase I; differentiate objective measures of efficacy and side effects and responders vs non-responders in phase II, evaluate differences between placebo and drug in phase III trials and provide insights into disease modification in phase IV trials. PMID:23860483

  3. The role of the NG2 proteoglycan in OPC and CNS network function.

    PubMed

    Sakry, Dominik; Trotter, Jacqueline

    2016-05-01

    In the normal mammalian CNS, the NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) but not by any other neural cell-type. NG2 is a type-1 membrane protein, exerting multiple roles in the CNS including intracellular signaling within the OPC, with effects on migration, cytoskeleton interaction and target gene regulation. It has been recently shown that the extracellular region of NG2, in addition to an adhesive function, acts as a soluble ECM component with the capacity to alter defined neuronal network properties. This region of NG2 is thus endowed with neuromodulatory properties. In order to generate biologically active fragments yielding these properties, the sequential cleavage of the NG2 protein by α- and γ-secretases occurs. The basal level of constitutive cleavage is stimulated by neuronal network activity. This processing leads to 4 major NG2 fragments which all have been associated with distinct biological functions. Here we summarize these functions, focusing on recent discoveries and their implications for the CNS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:NG2-glia(Invited only). PMID:26100334

  4. Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Erny, Daniel; Hrabě de Angelis, Anna Lena; Jaitin, Diego; Wieghofer, Peter; Staszewski, Ori; David, Eyal; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Mahlakoiv, Tanel; Jakobshagen, Kristin; Buch, Thorsten; Schwierzeck, Vera; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Chun, Eunyoung; Garrett, Wendy S; McCoy, Kathy D; Diefenbach, Andreas; Staeheli, Peter; Stecher, Bärbel; Amit, Ido; Prinz, Marco

    2015-07-01

    As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with altered cell proportions and an immature phenotype, leading to impaired innate immune responses. Temporal eradication of host microbiota severely changed microglia properties. Limited microbiota complexity also resulted in defective microglia. In contrast, recolonization with a complex microbiota partially restored microglia features. We determined that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulated microglia homeostasis. Accordingly, mice deficient for the SCFA receptor FFAR2 mirrored microglia defects found under GF conditions. These findings suggest that host bacteria vitally regulate microglia maturation and function, whereas microglia impairment can be rectified to some extent by complex microbiota. PMID:26030851

  5. CNS Adverse Effects: From Functional Observation Battery/Irwin Tests to Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fonck, Carlos; Easter, Alison; Pietras, Mark R; Bialecki, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes various approaches for the preclinical assessment of drug-induced central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects. Traditionally, methods to evaluate CNS effects have consisted of observing and scoring behavioral responses of animals after drug is administered. Among several behavioral testing paradigms, the Irwin and the functional observational battery (FOB) are the most commonly used assays for the assessment of CNS effects. The Irwin and FOB are considered good first-tier assays to satisfy the ICH S7A guidance for the preclinical evaluation of new chemical entities (NCE) intended for humans. However, experts have expressed concern about the subjectivity and lack of quantitation that is derived from behavioral testing. More importantly, it is difficult to gain insight into potential mechanisms of toxicity by assessing behavioral outcomes. As a complement to behavioral testing, we propose using electrophysiology-based assays, both in vivo and in vitro, such as electroencephalograms and brain slice field-potential recordings. To better illustrate these approaches, we discuss the implementation of electrophysiology-based techniques in drug-induced assessment of seizure risk, sleep disruption, and cognitive impairment. PMID:26091637

  6. TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Melissa K; Tansey, Malú G

    2008-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as an immune mediator has long been appreciated but its function in the brain is still unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) is expressed in most cell types, and can be activated by binding of either soluble TNF (solTNF) or transmembrane TNF (tmTNF), with a preference for solTNF; whereas TNFR2 is expressed primarily by microglia and endothelial cells and is preferentially activated by tmTNF. Elevation of solTNF is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation as well as a number of neurodegenerative conditions including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of this potent inflammatory factor at sites of injury implicates it as a mediator of neuronal damage and disease pathogenesis, making TNF an attractive target for therapeutic development to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. However, new and old observations from animal models and clinical trials reviewed here suggest solTNF and tmTNF exert different functions under normal and pathological conditions in the CNS. A potential role for TNF in synaptic scaling and hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated by recent studies suggest additional in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted to delineate the distinct functions of the two TNF ligands in different parts of the brain prior to large-scale development of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. If inactivation of TNF-dependent inflammation in the brain is warranted by additional pre-clinical studies, selective targeting of TNFR1-mediated signaling while sparing TNFR2 activation may lessen adverse effects of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. PMID:18925972

  7. The regulation of exosome function in the CNS: implications for neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Properzi, Francesca; Ferroni, Elena; Poleggi, Anna; Vinci, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles, generally 50 to 90 nm in diameter, that correspond to the intraluminal vesicles of the endosomal multivesicular bodies and are secreted upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Their molecular content is highly selected and includes not only specific proteins and lipids, but also RNA species, such as messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which are delivered and active in target cells. As they are released in body fluids, exosomes can shuttle molecules for long distances. In the CNS they have been shown to regulate neuronal development and regeneration, and to modulate synaptic functions. In neurodegenerative diseases, they have an important role in propagating neurotoxic misfolded protein from one cell to another and, as recent data show, possibly other molecules contributing to neurotoxicity. Some exosomal lipids such as gangliosides GM1 and GM3 enhance the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, and RNA exosomal cargo is also altered during pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The aim of this review is to focus on the regulation of CNS exosomal function and highlight pathways that might have a role in the neurodegenerative process. The identification of the novel exosomal molecules involved in neurodegenerative diseases could provide important insights into the pathogenesis and contribute to the finding of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. PMID:26561744

  8. Functional conservation of atonal and Math1 in the CNS and PNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arie, N.; Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; Malicki, D. M.; Armstrong, D.; Matzuk, M.; Bellen, H. J.; Zoghbi, H. Y.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the extent to which atonal and its mouse homolog Math1 exhibit functional conservation, we inserted (beta)-galactosidase (lacZ) into the Math1 locus and analyzed its expression, evaluated consequences of loss of Math1 function, and expressed Math1 in atonal mutant flies. lacZ under the control of Math1 regulatory elements duplicated the previously known expression pattern of Math1 in the CNS (i.e., the neural tube, dorsal spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellar external granule neurons) but also revealed new sites of expression: PNS mechanoreceptors (inner ear hair cells and Merkel cells) and articular chondrocytes. Expressing Math1 induced ectopic chordotonal organs (CHOs) in wild-type flies and partially rescued CHO loss in atonal mutant embryos. These data demonstrate that both the mouse and fly homologs encode lineage identity information and, more interestingly, that some of the cells dependent on this information serve similar mechanoreceptor functions.

  9. Roles and functions of HIV-1 Tat protein in the CNS: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 50% of HIV-infected individuals suffer from some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HIV-1 Tat (a key HIV transactivator of transcription) protein is one of the first HIV proteins to be expressed after infection occurs and is absolutely required for the initiation of the HIV genome transcription. In addition to its canonical functions, various studies have shown the deleterious role of HIV-1 Tat in the development and progression of HAND. Within the CNS, only specific cell types can support productive viral replication (astrocytes and microglia), however Tat protein can be released form infected cells to affects HIV non-permissive cells such as neurons. Therefore, in this review, we will summarize the functions of HIV-1 Tat proteins in neural cells and its ability to promote HAND. PMID:24359561

  10. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  11. Microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages: functionally distinct populations that act in concert in CNS plasticity and repair

    PubMed Central

    London, Anat; Cohen, Merav; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Functional macrophage heterogeneity is recognized outside the central nervous system (CNS), where alternatively activated macrophages can perform immune-resolving functions. Such functional heterogeneity was largely ignored in the CNS, with respect to the resident microglia and the myeloid-derived cells recruited from the blood following injury or disease, previously defined as blood-derived microglia; both were indistinguishably perceived detrimental. Our studies have led us to view the myeloid-derived infiltrating cells as functionally distinct from the resident microglia, and accordingly, to name them monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-MΦ). Although microglia perform various maintenance and protective roles, under certain conditions when they can no longer provide protection, mo-MΦ are recruited to the damaged CNS; there, they act not as microglial replacements but rather assistant cells, providing activities that cannot be timely performed by the resident cells. Here, we focus on the functional heterogeneity of microglia/mo-MΦ, emphasizing that, as opposed to the mo-MΦ, microglia often fail to timely acquire the phenotype essential for CNS repair. PMID:23596391

  12. DNA methylation functions as a critical regulator of Kir4.1 expression during CNS development

    PubMed Central

    Nwaobi, Sinifunanya E; Lin, Erica; Peramsetty, Sasank R; Olsen, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Kir4.1, a glial-specific K+ channel, is critical for normal CNS development. Studies utilizing both global and glial-specific knockout of Kir4.1 reveal abnormal CNS development with the loss of the channel. Specifically, Kir4.1 knockout animals are characterized by ataxia, severe hypomyelination, and early postnatal death. Additionally, Kir4.1 has emerged as a key player in several CNS diseases. Notably, decreased Kir4.1 protein expression occurs in several human CNS pathologies including CNS ischemic injury, spinal cord injury, epilepsy, ALS, and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the emerging significance of Kir4.1 in normal and pathological conditions, its mechanisms of regulation are unknown. Here we report the first epigenetic regulation of a K+ channel in the CNS. Robust developmental upregulation of Kir4.1 expression in rats is coincident with reductions in DNA methylation of the Kir4.1 gene, KCNJ10. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals a dynamic interaction between KCNJ10 and DNA methyltransferase 1 during development. Finally, demethylation of the KCNJ10 promoter is necessary for transcription. These findings indicate DNA methylation is a key regulator of Kir4.1 transcription. Given the essential role of Kir4.1 in normal CNS development, understanding the regulation of this K+ channel is critical to understanding normal glial biology. PMID:24415225

  13. Immediate and Ultimate Functions of Physical Activity Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    Play has been difficult to define because it is an aspect of many activities rather than of just a specific kind of activity. Classic theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized representational play as play in its purist form, but both immediate and ultimate functions of play can be discerned in simple physical activity play. (Author)

  14. Forms and Functions of Intimate Play in Personal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Leslie A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates intimate play in college students' same-sex friendships and opposite-sex romantic relationships. Derives a typology of eight play forms, and finds playfulness a strong correlate of relationship closeness. Finds differences among the eight play forms on the functions of indexing intimacy, lessening interpersonal risk, distancing self…

  15. Preschoolers' Free Play--Connections with Emotional and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Guida; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Play has an important role in various aspects of children's development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children's social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is…

  16. Functionally distinct dopamine and octopamine transporters in the CNS of the cabbage looper moth.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Pamela; Malutan, Tabita; McLean, Heather; Verellen, LouAnn; Caveney, Stanley; Donly, Cam

    2003-02-01

    A cDNA was cloned from the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni based on similarity to other cloned dopamine transporters (DATs). The total nucleotide sequence is 3.8 kb in length and contains an open reading frame for a protein of 612 amino acids. The predicted moth DAT protein (TrnDAT) has greatest amino acid sequence identity with Drosophila melanogasterDAT (73%) and Caenorhabditis elegansDAT (51%). TrnDAT shares only 45% amino acid sequence identity with an octopamine transporter (TrnOAT) cloned recently from this moth. The functional properties of TrnDAT and TrnOAT were compared through transient heterologous expression in Sf9 cells. Both transporters have similar transport affinities for DA (Km 2.43 and 2.16 micro m, respectively). However, the competitive substrates octopamine and tyramine are more potent blockers of [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake by TrnOAT than by TrnDAT. D-Amphetamine is a strong inhibitor and l-norepinephrine a weak inhibitor of both transporters. TrnDAT-mediated DA uptake is approximately 100-fold more sensitive to selective blockers of vertebrate transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine, such as nisoxetine, nomifensine and dibenzazepine antidepressants, than TrnOAT-mediated DA uptake. TrnOAT is 10-fold less sensitive to cocaine than TrnDAT. None of the 15 monoamine uptake blockers tested was TrnOAT-selective. In situ hybridization shows that TrnDAT and TrnOAT transcripts are expressed by different sets of neurons in caterpillar brain and ventral nerve cord. These results show that the caterpillar CNS contains both a phenolamine transporter and a catecholamine transporter whereas in the three invertebrates whose genomes have been completely sequenced only a dopamine-selective transporter is found. PMID:12581206

  17. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  18. CNS development: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, R. S.; Hayes, N. L.

    1999-01-01

    The basic principles of the development of the central nervous system (CNS) are reviewed, and their implications for both normal and abnormal development of the brain are discussed. The goals of this review are (a) to provide a set of concepts to aid in understanding the variety of complex processes that occur during CNS development, (b) to illustrate how these concepts contribute to our knowledge of the normal anatomy of the adult brain, and (c) to provide a basis for understanding how modifications of normal developmental processes by traumatic injury, by environmental or experiential influences, or by genetic variations may lead to modifications in the resultant structure and function of the adult CNS.

  19. The Interplay between Synaptic Activity and Neuroligin Function in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoge; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic transmembrane cell-adhesion proteins that play a key role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that NLs contribute to synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Consistent with their localization, NL1 and NL3 selectively affect excitatory synapses, whereas NL2 specifically affects inhibitory synapses. Deletions or mutations in NL genes have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders or mental retardations, and mice harboring the reported NL deletions or mutations exhibit autism-related behaviors and synapse dysfunction. Conversely, synaptic activity can regulate the phosphorylation, expression, and cleavage of NLs, which, in turn, can influence synaptic activity. Thus, in clinical research, identifying the relationship between NLs and synapse function is critical. In this review, we primarily discuss how NLs and synaptic activity influence each other. PMID:25839034

  20. The brain renin-angiotensin system: a diversity of functions and implications for CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Wright, John W; Harding, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    The classic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially described as a hormone system designed to mediate cardiovascular and body water regulation, with angiotensin II as its major effector. The discovery of an independent local brain RAS composed of the necessary functional components (angiotensinogen, peptidases, angiotensins, and specific receptor proteins) significantly expanded the possible physiological and pharmacological functions of this system. This review first describes the enzymatic pathways resulting in active angiotensin ligands and their interaction with AT(1), AT(2), and AT(4) receptor subtypes. Next, we discuss the classic physiologies and behaviors controlled by the RAS including cardiovascular, thirst, and sodium appetite. A final section summarizes non-classic functions and clinical conditions mediated by the brain RAS with focus on memory and Alzheimer's disease. There is no doubt that the brain RAS is an important component in the development of dementia. It also appears to play a role in normal memory consolidation and retrieval. The presently available anti-dementia drugs are proving to be reasonably ineffective, thus alternative treatment approaches must be developed. At the same time, presently available drugs must be tested for their efficacy to treat newly identified syndromes and diseases connected with the RAS. The list of non-classic physiologies and behaviors is ever increasing in both number and scope, attesting to the multidimensional influences of the RAS. Such diversity in function presents a dilemma for both researchers and clinicians. Namely, the blunting of RAS subsystems in the hopes of combating one constellation of underlying causes and disease symptoms may be counter-balanced by unanticipated and unwanted consequences to another RAS subsystem. For example, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT(1) and/or AT(2) receptor blockers have shown great promise in the treatment of cardiovascular related

  1. Anti-inflammatory Therapy With Simvastatin Improves Neuroinflammation and CNS Function in a Mouse Model of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Axel; Stroobants, Stijn; Gieselmann, Volkmar; D'Hooge, Rudi; Matzner, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a functional deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. The prevailing late-infantile variant of MLD is characterized by widespread and progressive demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) causing death during childhood. In order to gain insight into the pathomechanism of the disease and to identify novel therapeutic targets, we analyzed neuroinflammation in two mouse models reproducing a mild, nondemyelinating, and a more severe, demyelinating, variant of MLD, respectively. Microgliosis and upregulation of cytokine/chemokine levels were clearly more pronounced in the demyelinating model. The analysis of the temporal cytokine/chemokine profiles revealed that the onset of demyelination is preceded by a sustained elevation of the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α followed by an upregulation of MIP-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and several interleukins. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α remains unchanged. Treatment of the demyelinating mouse model with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug simvastatin reduced neuroinflammation, improved the swimming performance and ataxic gait, and retarded demyelination of the spinal cord. Our data suggest that neuroinflammation is causative for demyelination in MLD mice and that anti-inflammatory treatment might be a novel therapeutic option to improve the CNS function of MLD patients. PMID:25896249

  2. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  3. Chronic low-level domoic acid exposure alters gene transcription and impairs mitochondrial function in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hiolski, Emma M; Kendrick, Preston S; Frame, Elizabeth R; Myers, Mark S; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Federico M; Wilkerson, Hui-wen; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J; Lefebvre, Kathi A

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid is an algal-derived seafood toxin that functions as a glutamate agonist and exerts excitotoxicity via overstimulation of glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA) in the central nervous system (CNS). At high (symptomatic) doses, domoic acid is well-known to cause seizures, brain lesions and memory loss; however, a significant knowledge gap exists regarding the health impacts of repeated low-level (asymptomatic) exposure. Here, we investigated the impacts of low-level repetitive domoic acid exposure on gene transcription and mitochondrial function in the vertebrate CNS using a zebrafish model in order to: 1) identify transcriptional biomarkers of exposure; and 2) examine potential pathophysiology that may occur in the absence of overt excitotoxic symptoms. We found that transcription of genes related to neurological function and development were significantly altered, and that asymptomatic exposure impaired mitochondrial function. Interestingly, the transcriptome response was highly-variable across the exposure duration (36 weeks), with little to no overlap of specific genes across the six exposure time points (2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 weeks). Moreover, there were no apparent similarities at any time point with the gene transcriptome profile exhibited by the glud1 mouse model of chronic moderate excess glutamate release. These results suggest that although the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity may be similar, gene transcriptome responses to domoic acid exposure do not extrapolate well between different exposure durations. However, the observed impairment of mitochondrial function based on respiration rates and mitochondrial protein content suggests that repetitive low-level exposure does have fundamental cellular level impacts that could contribute to chronic health consequences. PMID:25033243

  4. Scientific basis for learning transfer from movements to urinary bladder functions for bladder repair in human patients with CNS injury.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT) has been shown to be able to partly repair CNS injury. The repair is based on a movement-based re-learning theory which requires at least three levels of description: the movement or pattern (and anamnesis) level, the collective variable level, and the neuron level. Upon CDT not only the actually performed movement pattern itself is repaired, but the entire dynamics of CNS organization is improved, which is the theoretical basis for (re-) learning transfer. The transfer of learning for repair from jumping on springboard and exercising on a special CDT and recording device to urinary bladder functions is investigated at the neuron level. At the movement or pattern level, the improvement of central nervous system (CNS) functioning in human patients can be seen (or partly measured) by the improvement of the performance of the pattern. At the collective variable level, coordination tendencies can be measured by the so-called 'coordination dynamics' before, during and after treatment. At the neuron level, re-learning can additionally be assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) as alterations of single motor unit firings and motor programs. But to express the ongoing interaction between the numerous neural, muscular, and metabolic elements involved in perception and action, it is relevant to inquire how the individual afferent and efferent neurons adjust their phase and frequency coordination to other neurons to satisfy learning task requirements. With the single-nerve fibre action potential recording method it was possible to measure that distributed single neurons communicate by phase and frequency coordination. It is shown that this timed firing of neurons is getting impaired upon injury and has to be improved by learning The stability of phase and frequency coordination among afferent and efferent neuron firings can be related to pattern stability. The stability of phase and frequency coordination at the neuron level can

  5. Analysis of neurocognitive function and CNS endpoints in the PROTEA trial: darunavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amanda; Johanssen, Veronika; Gerstoft, Jan; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ripamonti, Diego; Murungi, Andrew; Bicer, Ceyhun; Blanca Hadacek, Maria; Moecklinghoff, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During treatment with protease inhibitor monotherapy, the number of antiretrovirals with therapeutic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is lower, compared to standard triple therapy. However, the clinical consequences are unclear. Methods A total of 273 patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL for over 24 weeks on current antiretrovirals randomized to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 mg once-daily, either as monotherapy (n=137) or with 2NRTIs (n=136). Neurocognitive function was evaluated in all patients by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests, the Colour Trail Tests and the Grooved Pegboard Test at screening, baseline and at Week 48. A global neurocognitive score (NPZ-5) was derived by averaging the standardized results of the five domains. In a central nervous system (CNS) sub-study (n=70), HIV RNA levels in the CNS were evaluated at baseline and Week 48. Clinical adverse events related to the CNS were collected at each visit. Results Patients were 83% male and 88% White, with median age 43 years. There were more patients with nadir CD4 count below 200 cells/µL in the DRV/r monotherapy arm (41/137, 30%) than the triple therapy arm (30/136, 22%). At Week 48, there was no difference between the treatment arms for the five combined domains of the neurocognitive score. At Week 48, the percentage of patients with an abnormal neurocognitive score among the five domains was 12.2% for DRV/r monotherapy and 14.9% for triple therapy. However, one patient on DRV/r monotherapy with a CD4 nadir of 17 cells/µL was hospitalized with HIV encephalomyelitis at Week 24, with HIV RNA 2500 copies/mL in the CSF and 125 copies/mL in the plasma. Symptoms resolved after intensification with high dose zidovudine. A second patient on DRV/r monotherapy with CD4 nadir of 166 cells/µL had a rise in HIV RNA in CSF from <40 copies/mL at baseline to 654 copies/mL at Week 48, with concurrent plasma HIV RNA of 77 copies/mL. Conclusions In this study for patients with HIV

  6. Study of Functional Status of CNS in Human-Operator in Conditions of Imitation Deep Spase Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Skedina; Michael, Potapov; Anna, Kovaleva

    Functional status (FS) of CNS may influence human’s behavior and his professional activity. The purpose of study - analysis of FS CNS of human-operator in conditions of long-term isolation. The studies were conducted within the framework of the project «Mars-500» which simulates of interplanetary flight isolation conditions of different durations. We examined nine people aged from 26 to 40 years. Synchronous registration of classical bioelectric activity of brain (EEG) and a cerebral power exchange (a level of constant brain potential (LCP)) was carried out for study of functional status of CNS using the hardware-software complex «Neuro-KM - Omega-Neyroanalizator» (Ltd. «Statokin», Russia). The synchronical registration was performed in seven unipolar leads on a «10-20» (Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4, O1, O2, Cz) combined with the placement of reference electrode on the earlobe and «biological zero» electrode - on the wrist. During 105-days isolation with 3 volunteers on day 52 the following was observed: simultaneous displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 10% with a decrease in the index and disorganization of α-activity, emergence of asymmetry. Appearance of LCP asymmetry for more than 5 mV (in one case - with a strong dominance of the left hemisphere) was registered with the overall reduction of the amplitude, indicating a stress reaction in isolation. Before 520-days isolation (6 volunteers) 3 from them had signs of stress reaction in accordance to EEG with: displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 1-2 Hz and increase level LCP. During isolation before «exit on a surface of Mars» individual fluctuations of EEG and LCP were observed depending on the specifics of the crew activities. Directly «exit on a surface of Mars» for 2 volunteers of «crew of Mars» the increase in power of α-rhythm was observed. Other members of crew showed decrease power of α-rhythm. At various stages of experiment in 35

  7. Toll-Like Receptors and Dectin-1, a C-Type Lectin Receptor, Trigger Divergent Functions in CNS Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Guan, Zhen; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Braun, Kaitlyn J.; Wei, Ping; McTigue, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) activates macrophages, endowing them with both reparative and pathological functions. The mechanisms responsible for these divergent functions are unknown but are likely controlled through stochastic activation of different macrophage receptor subtypes. Various danger-associated molecular patterns released from dying cells in the injured spinal cord likely activate distinct subtypes of macrophage pattern recognition receptors, including bacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and fungal C-type lectin receptors (e.g., dectin-1). To determine the in vivo consequences of activating these receptors, ligands specific for TLR2 or dectin-1 were microinjected, alone or in combination, into intact spinal cord. Both ligands elicit a florid macrophage reaction; however, only dectin-1 activation causes macrophage-mediated demyelination and axonal injury. Coactivating TLR2 reduced the injurious effects of dectin-1 activation. When injected into traumatically injured spinal cord, TLR2 agonists enhance the endogenous macrophage reaction while conferring neuroprotection. Indeed, dieback of axons was reduced, leading to smaller lesion volumes at the peak of the macrophage response. Moreover, the density of NG2+ cells expressing vimentin increased in and near lesions that were enriched with TLR2-activated macrophages. In dectin-1-null mutant (knock-out) mice, dieback of corticospinal tract axons also is reduced after SCI. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that the ability of macrophages to create an axon growth-permissive microenvironment or cause neurotoxicity is receptor dependent and it may be possible to exploit this functional dichotomy to enhance CNS repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is a growing appreciation that macrophages exert diverse functions in the injured and diseased CNS. Indeed, both macrophage-mediated repair and macrophage-mediated injury occur, and often these effector functions are elicited simultaneously. Understanding the

  8. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function. PMID:25408634

  9. Interleukin 35-Producing B Cells (i35-Breg): A New Mediator of Regulatory B-Cell Functions in CNS Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Egwuagu, Charles E; Yu, Cheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation contributes to neuronal deficits in neurodegenerative CNS (central nervous system) autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and uveitis. The major goal of most treatment modalities for CNS autoimmune diseases is to limit inflammatory responses in the CNS; immune-suppressive drugs are the therapy of choice. However, lifelong immunosuppression increases the occurrence of infections, nephrotoxicity, malignancies, cataractogenesis, and glaucoma, which can greatly impair quality of life for the patient. Biologics that target pathogenic T cells is an alternative approach that is gaining wide acceptance as indicated by the popularity of a variety of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anti-inflammatory compounds and humanized antibodies such as Zenapax, Etanercept, Remicade, anti-ICAM, rapamycin, or tacrolimus. B cells are also potential therapeutic targets because they provide costimulatory signals that activate pathogenic T cells and secrete cytokines that promote autoimmune pathology. B cells also produce autoreactive antibodies implicated in several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases including lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. On the other hand, recent studies have led to the discovery of several regulatory B-cell (Breg) populations that suppress immune responses and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we present a brief overview of Breg phenotypes and in particular, the newly discovered IL35-producing regulatory B cell (i35-Breg). We discuss the critical roles played by i35-Bregs in regulating autoimmune diseases and the potential use of adoptive Breg therapy in CNS autoimmune diseases. PMID:25746047

  10. The mTORC1 effectors S6K1 and 4E-BP play different roles in CNS axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Miao, Linqing; Liang, Feisi; Huang, Haoliang; Teng, Xiuyin; Li, Shaohua; Nuriddinov, Jaloliddin; Selzer, Michael E; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Using mouse optic nerve (ON) crush as a CNS injury model, we and others have found that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mature retinal ganglion cells by deletion of the negative regulators, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and tuberous sclerosis 1 promotes ON regeneration. mTORC1 activation inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and activates ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), both of which stimulate translation. We reasoned that mTORC1's regeneration-promoting effects might be separable from its deleterious effects by differential manipulation of its downstream effectors. Here we show that S6K1 activation, but not 4E-BP inhibition, is sufficient to promote axon regeneration. However, inhibition of 4E-BP is required for PTEN deletion-induced axon regeneration. Both activation and inhibition of S6K1 decrease the effect of PTEN deletion on axon regeneration, implicating a dual role of S6K1 in regulating axon growth. PMID:25382660

  11. GLT-1-Dependent Disruption of CNS Glutamate Homeostasis and Neuronal Function by the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    David, Clément N; Frias, Elma S; Szu, Jenny I; Vieira, Philip A; Hubbard, Jacqueline A; Lovelace, Jonathan; Michael, Marena; Worth, Danielle; McGovern, Kathryn E; Ethell, Iryna M; Stanley, B Glenn; Korzus, Edward; Fiacco, Todd A; Binder, Devin K; Wilson, Emma H

    2016-06-01

    The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate is observed. Consistent with glutamate dysregulation, analysis of neurons reveal changes in morphology including a reduction in dendritic spines, VGlut1 and NeuN immunoreactivity. Furthermore, behavioral testing and EEG recordings point to significant changes in neuronal output. Finally, these changes in neuronal connectivity are dependent on infection-induced downregulation of GLT-1 as treatment with the ß-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone, rescues extracellular glutamate concentrations, neuronal pathology and function. Altogether, these data demonstrate that following an infection with T. gondii, the delicate regulation of glutamate by astrocytes is disrupted and accounts for a range of deficits observed in chronic infection. PMID:27281462

  12. GLT-1-Dependent Disruption of CNS Glutamate Homeostasis and Neuronal Function by the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    David, Clément N.; Frias, Elma S.; Szu, Jenny I.; Vieira, Philip A.; Hubbard, Jacqueline A.; Lovelace, Jonathan; Michael, Marena; Worth, Danielle; McGovern, Kathryn E.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Stanley, B. Glenn; Korzus, Edward; Fiacco, Todd A.; Binder, Devin K.; Wilson, Emma H.

    2016-01-01

    The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate is observed. Consistent with glutamate dysregulation, analysis of neurons reveal changes in morphology including a reduction in dendritic spines, VGlut1 and NeuN immunoreactivity. Furthermore, behavioral testing and EEG recordings point to significant changes in neuronal output. Finally, these changes in neuronal connectivity are dependent on infection-induced downregulation of GLT-1 as treatment with the ß-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone, rescues extracellular glutamate concentrations, neuronal pathology and function. Altogether, these data demonstrate that following an infection with T. gondii, the delicate regulation of glutamate by astrocytes is disrupted and accounts for a range of deficits observed in chronic infection. PMID:27281462

  13. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  14. Epigenetic Modulators of Monocytic Function: Implication for Steady State and Disease in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Chung, Young Cheul; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Hajdarovic, Kaitlyn H.; Cole, Dan C.; Bulloch, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are necessary for the establishment of functional and phenotypic diversity in the populations of immune cells of the monocytic lineage. The epigenetic status of individual genes at different time points defines their transcriptional responses throughout development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetic states are defined at the level of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications, as well as at the level of RNA base changes through RNA editing. Drawing from lessons regarding the epigenome and epitranscriptome of cells of the monocytic lineage in the periphery, and from recently published RNAseq data deriving from brain-resident monocytes, we discuss the impact of modulation of these epigenetic states and how they affect processes important for the development of a healthy brain, as well as mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and aging. An understanding of the varied brain responses and pathologies in light of these novel gene regulatory systems in monocytes will lead to important new insights in the understanding of the aging process and the treatment and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26834738

  15. Aquaporin-4: orthogonal array assembly, CNS functions, and role in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S; Ratelade, Julien; Rossi, Andrea; Zhang, Hua; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water-selective transporter expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system, as well as in kidney, lung, stomach and skeletal muscle. The two AQP4 isoforms produced by alternative spicing, M1 and M23 AQP4, form heterotetramers that assemble in cell plasma membranes in supramolecular structures called orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs). Phenotype analysis of AQP4-null mice indicates the involvement of AQP4 in brain and spinal cord water balance, astrocyte migration, neural signal transduction and neuroinflammation. AQP4-null mice manifest reduced brain swelling in cytotoxic cerebral edema, but increased brain swelling in vasogenic edema and hydrocephalus. AQP4 deficiency also increases seizure duration, impairs glial scarring, and reduces the severity of autoimmune neuroinflammation. Each of these phenotypes is likely explicable on the basis of reduced astrocyte water permeability in AQP4 deficiency. AQP4 is also involved in the neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease neuromyelitis optica (NMO), where autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) targeting AQP4 produce astrocyte damage and inflammation. Mice administered NMO-IgG and human complement by intracerebral injection develop characteristic NMO lesions with neuroinflammation, demyelination, perivascular complement deposition and loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein and AQP4 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest the potential utility of AQP4-based therapeutics, including small-molecule modulators of AQP4 water transport function for therapy of brain swelling, injury and epilepsy, as well as small-molecule or monoclonal antibody blockers of NMO-IgG binding to AQP4 for therapy of NMO. PMID:21552296

  16. The Meaning and Function of Early Childhood Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Gillian Dowley

    This paper discusses the meaning and formation of children's play in order to (1) deepen understanding and respect for what play is, (2) demonstrate how young children cannot thrive or survive without play, and (3) give a common framework for interpreting and deriving meaning from the play behavior that occurs in the daily lives of young children.…

  17. CNS: sex steroids and SERMs.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, F; Pluchino, N; Stomati, M; Pieri, M; Genazzani, A R

    2003-11-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the main target tissues for sex steroid hormones, which act both through genomic mechanisms, modulating synthesis, release, and metabolism of many neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and through nongenomic mechanisms, influencing electrical excitability, synaptic function, and morphological features. The identification of the brain as a de novo source of neurosteroids modulating cerebral function, suggests that the modifications in mood and cognitive performances occurring in postmenopausal women could also be related to a modification in the levels of neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone and DHEA, GABA-A agonist, and antagonist, respectively. The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds that activate the estrogen receptors with different estrogenic and antiestrogenic tissue-specific effects. In addition to the effects of the classic steroid hormones on the CNS, the study of selective estrogen receptor modulators impact on the neuroendocrine system has recently provided encouraging results, indicating that raloxifene analog LY 117018 and the new generation SERM EM-652 have an estrogen-like action on beta-endorphin and on allopregnanolone in ovariectomized rats, while they exert an anti-estrogenic effect in fertile rats and in ovariectomized rats treated with estrogens. In addition, raloxifene administration in postmenopausal women plays an estrogen-like effect on circulating beta-EP and allopregnanolone levels, and it restores the response of beta-EP and allopregnanolone to neuroendocrine tests. In conclusion, the positive effects of HRT on mood and cognition in postmenopausal women occur via the modulation of neuroendocrine pathways and probably also of neurosteroidogenesis. The effects of raloxifene on mood and cognition encourage the efforts in the research of an ideal estrogen replacement therapy, showing all the positive effects of estrogens and fewer side effects. PMID:14644845

  18. Change as a Function of Play: Toot! Toot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jay K.

    Following the work of Vygotsky, this paper explores three dimensions of change in play therapy: linear, additive, and emergent pivotal structures. In therapeutic play, the child expresses actions and initiates movements, sounds, and gestures. Then, seemingly "out of the blue," the child shifts such gestures to an episode containing unrelated…

  19. Histamine and Immune Biomarkers in CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Torrellas, Clara; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; López-Muñoz, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56) which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury. Histamine (HA) is a pleiotropic monoamine involved in several neurophysiological functions, neuroimmune regulation, and CNS pathogenesis. Changes in brain HA show an age- and sex-related pattern, and alterations in brain HA levels are present in different CNS regions of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain HA in neuronal and nonneuronal compartments plays a dual role (neurotrophic versus neurotoxic) in a tissue-specific manner. Pathogenic mechanisms associated with neuroimmune dysregulation in AD involve HA, interleukin-1β, and TNF-α, whose aberrant expression contributes to neuroinflammation as an aggravating factor for neurodegeneration and premature neuronal death. PMID:27190492

  20. Investigating the function of play bows in adult pet dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Smuts, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Play bows are a common, highly stereotyped canine behavior widely considered to be a 'play signal,' but only one study has researched their function. Bekoff (1995) found that play bows function as behavioral modifiers to help clarify playful intent before or after easily misinterpretable behaviors, such as bite-shakes. To further examine the function of play bows, the current study analyzed five types of behaviors displayed by the bower and the partner immediately before and after a play bow during dyadic play. We found that play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play. Synchronous behaviors by the bower and the partner, or vulnerable/escape behaviors by the bower (such as running away) and complementary offensive behaviors by the partner (such as chasing) occurred most often after the play bow. These results indicate that during adult dog dyadic play, play bows function to reinitiate play after a pause rather than to mediate offensive or ambiguous actions. PMID:26923096

  1. B4GALT6 regulates astrocyte activation during CNS inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Lior; Trauger, Sunia A.; Blain, Manon; Nadeau, Meghan; Patel, Bonny; Alvarez, Jorge I.; Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Yeste, Ada; Kivisäkk, Pia; Kallas, Keith; Ellezam, Benjamin; Bakshi, Rohit; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes play complex roles in the response to trauma, infection or inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, it is important to characterize the mechanisms regulating astrocyte function, as well as potential targets for the therapeutic modulation of astrocyte activity. Here we report that lactosylceramide (LacCer) levels are up-regulated in the CNS during chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that LacCer synthesized by β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (B4GALT6) in astrocytes acts in an autocrine manner to trigger transcriptional programs that promote the recruitment and activation of CNS-infiltrating monocytes and microglia, and neurodegeneration. We also detected increased B4GALT6 expression and LacCer levels in CNS MS lesions. Finally, the inhibition of LacCer synthesis suppressed local CNS innate immunity and neurodegeneration in EAE, and interfered with the activation of human astrocytes in vitro. Thus, B4GALT6 is a potential therapeutic target for MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:25216636

  2. Indian hedgehog B function is required for the specification of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish CNS.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ah-Young; Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Eunmi; Kim, Dohyun; Jeong, Inyoung; Cha, Young Ryun; Bae, Young-ki; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jehee; Park, Hae-Chul

    2013-01-23

    A subset of ventral spinal cord precursors, known as pMN precursor cells, initially generate motor neurons and then oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which migrate and differentiate as myelinating oligodendrocytes in the developing neural tube. The switch between motor neuron and oligodendrocyte production by the pMN neural precursors is an important step in building a functional nervous system. However, the precise mechanism that orchestrates the sequential generation of motor neurons and oligodendrocytes within the common population of pMN precursors is still unclear. The current study demonstrates that Indian Hedgehog b (Ihhb), previously known as Echidna Hedgehog, begins to be expressed in the floor plate cells of the ventral spinal cord at the time of OPC specification in zebrafish embryos. Ihhb loss-of-function analysis revealed that Ihhb function is required for OPC specification from pMN precursors by negatively regulating the proliferation of neural precursors. Finally, results showed that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) could not replace Ihhb function in OPC specification, suggesting that Ihhb and Shh play separate roles in OPC specification. Altogether, data from the present study suggested a novel mechanism, mediated by Ihhb, for the sequential generation of motor neurons and oligodendrocytes from pMN precursors in the ventral spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. PMID:23345245

  3. The role of the blood-CNS barrier in CNS disorders and their treatment.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    The physical barrier between blood and the CNS (the blood-brain barrier, the blood-spinal cord barrier and the blood-CSF barrier) protects the CNS from both toxic and pathogenic agents in the blood. It is now clear that disruption of the blood-CNS barrier plays a key role in a number of CNS disorders, particularly those associated with neurodegeneration. Such disruption is inevitably accompanied by inflammatory change, as immune cells and immune mediators gain access to the brain or spinal cord. The blood-CNS barrier also presents a major obstacle for potential CNS medicines. Robust methods to assess CNS permeation are therefore essential for CNS drug discovery, particularly when brain pharmacokinetics are taken into account and especially when such measures are linked to neurochemical, physiological, behavioural or neuroimaging readouts of drug action. Drug candidates can be successfully designed to cross the blood-CNS barrier, but for those that can't there is the possibility of entry with a delivery system that facilitates the movement of drug candidate across the blood-CNS barrier. PMID:19664711

  4. TOPP in the CNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, R. L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Jahreiss, H.; Bucciarelli, B.; Massone, G.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction: We present the Torino Observatory Parallax Program (TOPP) results for 22 candidates for the Catalog of Nearby Stars (CNS). Methods: Observations were made with the Torino OTAP 1.05m telescope over the period 1996-2001. Results: For the 22 objects examined 12 are within the CNS limit. Discussion: We discuss at length the objects out side the CNS limits which are either misclassified or objects with incorrect trigonometric parallaxes.

  5. Revisiting the Mechanisms of CNS Immune Privilege.

    PubMed

    Louveau, Antoine; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Whereas the study of the interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) has often focused on pathological conditions, the importance of neuroimmune communication in CNS homeostasis and function has become clear over that last two decades. Here we discuss the progression of our understanding of the interaction between the peripheral immune system and the CNS. We examine the notion of immune privilege of the CNS in light of both earlier findings and recent studies revealing a functional meningeal lymphatic system that drains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the deep cervical lymph nodes, and consider the implications of a revised perspective on the immune privilege of the CNS on the etiology and pathology of different neurological disorders. PMID:26431936

  6. Thalamus plays a central role in ongoing cortical functioning.

    PubMed

    Sherman, S Murray

    2016-04-01

    Several challenges to current views of thalamocortical processing are offered here. Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver and modulator. We suggest that driver inputs are the main conduits of information and that modulator inputs modify how driver inputs are processed. Different driver sources reveal two types of thalamic relays: first order relays receive subcortical driver input (for example, retinal input to the lateral geniculate nucleus), whereas higher order relays (for example, pulvinar) receive driver input from layer 5 of cortex and participate in cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic) circuits. These transthalamic circuits represent an unappreciated aspect of cortical functioning, which I discuss here. Direct corticocortical connections are often paralleled by transthalamic ones. Furthermore, driver inputs to thalamus, both first and higher order, typically arrive via branching axons, and the transthalamic branch often innervates subcortical motor centers, leading to the suggestion that these inputs to thalamus serve as efference copies. PMID:27021938

  7. Characterization and immune function of two intracellular sensors, HmTLR1 and HmNLR, in the injured CNS of an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2011-02-01

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions. Our group recently demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response, which promotes the regenerative processes. This defense mechanism is microorganism-specific, suggesting that the leech CNS is able to discriminate among microbial components. We report here the characterization of two receptors potentially implicated in this detection: HmTLR1 and HmNLR. Interestingly, HmTLR1 presents an endosomal distribution in neurons and appears as a chimera combining the mammalian intraendosomal domain of TLR3 and the cytoplasmic section of TLR13, while HmNLR is cytosolic and has the highest homology to NLRC3 receptors. Both receptors show patterns of induction upon stimulation that suggest their involvement in the leech neuroimmune response. This work constitutes the first demonstration in an invertebrate of (i) an intracellular TLR and (ii) a cytosolic PRR related to the NLR family. PMID:20920526

  8. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  9. Review of Interventions to Increase Functional and Symbolic Play in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rispoli, Mandy; Shogren, Karrie; Regester, April

    2009-01-01

    Play is widely acknowledged to be an integral part of human development and children with autism often experience substantial delays in the development of play behaviors. This review updates older reviews by covering the last 10 years of research targeting functional and symbolic play in children with autism. The review differs from other reviews…

  10. Evolutionary Functions of Social Play: Life Histories, Sex Differences, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many research findings about animal play apply to children's play, revealing structural and functional similarities with mammals in general and primates in particular. After an introduction to life-history theory, and before turning to humans, the author reviews research about the two mammals in which play has been studied the most extensively:…

  11. Neurotrauma and Inflammation: CNS and PNS Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mietto, Bruno Siqueira; Mostacada, Klauss; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) or the peripheral nervous system (PNS) triggers a cascade of events which culminate in a robust inflammatory reaction. The role played by inflammation in the course of degeneration and regeneration is not completely elucidated. While, in peripheral nerves, the inflammatory response is assumed to be essential for normal progression of Wallerian degeneration and regeneration, CNS trauma inflammation is often associated with poor recovery. In this review, we discuss key mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory reaction after nervous system trauma, emphasizing how inflammations in both CNS and PNS differ from each other, in terms of magnitude, cell types involved, and effector molecules. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms that elicit and maintain inflammation after CNS and PNS tissue trauma and their effect on axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for the identification of possible pharmacological drugs that can positively affect the tissue regenerative capacity. PMID:25918475

  12. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors & CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are complex disease states that represent a major challenge for modern medicine. Although etiology is often unknown, it is established that multiple factors such as defects in genetics and/or epigenetics, the environment as well as imbalance in neurotransmitter receptor systems are all at play in determining an individual’s susceptibility to disease. Gene therapy is currently not available and therefore, most conditions are treated with pharmacological agents that modify neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Here, I provide a review of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the roles they fulfill in numerous CNS disorders. Specifically, I argue that our understanding of iGluRs has reached a critical turning point to permit, for the first time, a comprehensive re-evaluation of their role in the cause of disease. I illustrate this by highlighting how defects in AMPA receptor trafficking are important to Fragile X mental retardation and ectopic expression of kainate (KA) receptor synapses contributes to the pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. Finally, I discuss how parallel advances in studies of other neurotransmitter systems may allow pharmacologists to work towards a cure for many CNS disorders rather than developing drugs to treat their symptoms. PMID:18537642

  13. Staging Primary CNS Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... large vein near the heart. Having a weakened immune system may increase the risk of developing primary CNS ... immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant . For ...

  14. The Role of High Level Play as a Predictor Social Functioning in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Margaret M.; Wainwright, Laurel D.

    2010-01-01

    Play and social abilities of a group of children diagnosed with high functioning autism were compared to a second group diagnosed with a variety of developmental language disorders (DLD). The children with autism engaged in fewer acts of high level play. The children with autism also had significantly lower social functioning than the DLD group…

  15. Brief Functional Analysis and Intervention Evaluation for Treatment of Saliva-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Schmidt, Sarah; Tarr, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a brief (8 days) functional analysis to identify sources of control over persistent saliva-play displayed by a 6-year old child with autism in a school setting. The functional analysis suggested that saliva-play was maintained by automatic reinforcement, leading to an intervention evaluation (3 days) that compared two methods of…

  16. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans for CNS homeostasis-implications for material design.

    PubMed

    Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Saxena, Tarun; Betancur, Martha; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are complex biomolecules that are known to facilitate patterning of axonal direction and cell migration during the early growth and development phase of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In adults, they continue to control neuronal plasticity as major constituents of the "peri-neuronal nets" (PNNs) that surround adult CNS neurons. CSPGs are also barrier-forming molecules that are selectively upregulated by invading reactive astroglia after injury to the CNS, and are responsible for the active repulsion of regenerating neurons post-injury. Recent evidence however suggests that the diverse sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains attached to CSPGs are key components that play paradoxical roles in influencing nerve regeneration post-injury to the CNS. Sulfated GAG repeats attached to the CSPG core protein help mediate cell migration, neuritogenesis, axonal pathfinding, and axonal repulsion by directly trapping and presenting a whole host of growth factors to cells locally, or by binding to specific membrane bound proteins on the cell surface to influence cellular function. In this review, we will present the current gamut of interventional strategies used to bridge CNS deficits, and discuss the potential advantages of using sulfated GAG based biomaterials to facilitate the repair and regeneration of the injured CNS. PMID:25139544

  17. Dynamics and mechanisms of CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Bercury, Kathryn K; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-02-23

    Vertebrate myelination is an evolutionary advancement essential for motor, sensory, and higher-order cognitive function. CNS myelin, a multilamellar differentiation of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane, ensheaths axons to facilitate electrical conduction. Myelination is one of the most pivotal cell-cell interactions for normal brain development, involving extensive information exchange between differentiating oligodendrocytes and axons. The molecular mechanisms of myelination are discussed, along with new perspectives on oligodendrocyte plasticity and myelin remodeling of the developing and adult CNS. PMID:25710531

  18. Cell-Autonomous and Non-cell-autonomous Function of Hox Genes Specify Segmental Neuroblast Identity in the Gnathal Region of the Embryonic CNS in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Henrike; Renner, Simone; Technau, Gerhard M.; Berger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During central nervous system (CNS) development neural stem cells (Neuroblasts, NBs) have to acquire an identity appropriate to their location. In thoracic and abdominal segments of Drosophila, the expression pattern of Bithorax-Complex Hox genes is known to specify the segmental identity of NBs prior to their delamination from the neuroectoderm. Compared to the thoracic, ground state segmental units in the head region are derived to different degrees, and the precise mechanism of segmental specification of NBs in this region is still unclear. We identified and characterized a set of serially homologous NB-lineages in the gnathal segments and used one of them (NB6-4 lineage) as a model to investigate the mechanism conferring segment-specific identities to gnathal NBs. We show that NB6-4 is primarily determined by the cell-autonomous function of the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd). Interestingly, however, it also requires a non-cell-autonomous function of labial and Antennapedia that are expressed in adjacent anterior or posterior compartments. We identify the secreted molecule Amalgam (Ama) as a downstream target of the Antennapedia-Complex Hox genes labial, Dfd, Sex combs reduced and Antennapedia. In conjunction with its receptor Neurotactin (Nrt) and the effector kinase Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), Ama is necessary in parallel to the cell-autonomous Dfd pathway for the correct specification of the maxillary identity of NB6-4. Both pathways repress CyclinE (CycE) and loss of function of either of these pathways leads to a partial transformation (40%), whereas simultaneous mutation of both pathways leads to a complete transformation (100%) of NB6-4 segmental identity. Finally, we provide genetic evidences, that the Ama-Nrt-Abl-pathway regulates CycE expression by altering the function of the Hippo effector Yorkie in embryonic NBs. The disclosure of a non-cell-autonomous influence of Hox genes on neural stem cells provides new insight into the process of segmental

  19. Cell-Autonomous and Non-cell-autonomous Function of Hox Genes Specify Segmental Neuroblast Identity in the Gnathal Region of the Embryonic CNS in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Becker, Henrike; Renner, Simone; Technau, Gerhard M; Berger, Christian

    2016-03-01

    During central nervous system (CNS) development neural stem cells (Neuroblasts, NBs) have to acquire an identity appropriate to their location. In thoracic and abdominal segments of Drosophila, the expression pattern of Bithorax-Complex Hox genes is known to specify the segmental identity of NBs prior to their delamination from the neuroectoderm. Compared to the thoracic, ground state segmental units in the head region are derived to different degrees, and the precise mechanism of segmental specification of NBs in this region is still unclear. We identified and characterized a set of serially homologous NB-lineages in the gnathal segments and used one of them (NB6-4 lineage) as a model to investigate the mechanism conferring segment-specific identities to gnathal NBs. We show that NB6-4 is primarily determined by the cell-autonomous function of the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd). Interestingly, however, it also requires a non-cell-autonomous function of labial and Antennapedia that are expressed in adjacent anterior or posterior compartments. We identify the secreted molecule Amalgam (Ama) as a downstream target of the Antennapedia-Complex Hox genes labial, Dfd, Sex combs reduced and Antennapedia. In conjunction with its receptor Neurotactin (Nrt) and the effector kinase Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), Ama is necessary in parallel to the cell-autonomous Dfd pathway for the correct specification of the maxillary identity of NB6-4. Both pathways repress CyclinE (CycE) and loss of function of either of these pathways leads to a partial transformation (40%), whereas simultaneous mutation of both pathways leads to a complete transformation (100%) of NB6-4 segmental identity. Finally, we provide genetic evidences, that the Ama-Nrt-Abl-pathway regulates CycE expression by altering the function of the Hippo effector Yorkie in embryonic NBs. The disclosure of a non-cell-autonomous influence of Hox genes on neural stem cells provides new insight into the process of segmental

  20. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  1. Fact or fiction? A longitudinal study of play and the development of reflective functioning.

    PubMed

    Tessier, V P; Normandin, L; Ensink, K; Fonagy, P

    2016-01-01

    In Fonagy and Target's (1996, 2000) developmental model of mentalization, play is theorized as a precursor of later mentalization and reflective function (RF); however, the relationship between play and later mentalization and RF has yet to be empirically tested. These processes are particularly important in the context of trauma, but an empirical model of the relationships among mentalization, play, and trauma is currently lacking. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's capacity to engage in pretend play, to symbolize, and to make play narratives was associated with later RF in those children. Thirty-nine sexually abused children and 21 nonabused children (aged 3 to 8) participated in the study. The Children's Play Therapy Instrument was used to assess children's free play. Three years after the play assessment, children's RF was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview, coded with the Child and Adolescent Reflective Functioning Scale. Pretend play completion was associated with later other-understanding. Play was also found to mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and children's later mentalization regarding others. These findings are consistent with Fonagy and Target's emphasis on the role of pretend play in the development of a nuanced sense of the qualities of the mind and reality. In sum, the findings lend support to Fonagy and Target's account of playing with reality, and the development of mentalization suggests that it may be more than "fiction." Furthermore, these results suggest that children's ability to create meaningful and coherent play sequences after sexual abuse is associated with the development of a better understanding of their relationships with others. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27028339

  2. A Functional, Holistic Approach to Developmental Assessment through Play: The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni; Linas, Keri

    2009-01-01

    Early intervention and early childhood special education professionals espouse the need for authentic assessment and meaningful family involvement, as well as relationship-based and routines-based intervention. This article explores a play-based approach to assessment that reflects these values by using the Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment,…

  3. Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function in the CNS of Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease - High Resolution Respirometry Applied to Acute Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Dias, Candida; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, Joao; Ledo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. These hallmark alterations are preceded by synaptic deterioration, changes in neuromolecular plasticity phenomena, mitochondrial dysfunction, increase in oxidative damage to cellular constituents and decreased energy metabolism. The hippocampus is a structure of the temporal medial lobe implicated in specific forms of memory processes. It is also one of the first and most affected regions of the CNS in AD. Here we present a novel approach to the study if mitochondrial function/disfunction in 2 rodent models of AD: an acute rat model obtained by intracerebroventricular injection of the toxin streptozotocin (STZ) and a progressive triple transgenic mouse model (3TgAD) harboring PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP301L transgenes. Mitochondrial dysfunction has classically been assessed in such models by isolating mitochondria, synaptossoms or working with cell cultures. Anyone of these approaches destroys the intricate intercellular connectivity and cytoarchitecture of neuronal tissue. We used acute hippocampal slices obtained from the 2 models of AD and evaluated changes in mitochondrial function as a function of disease and/or age. Mitochondrial stress test were performed on the high resolution respirometry (Oroboros 2K Oxymeter). Upon analysis of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) we observed significant decreases in basal OCR, maximal respiratory capacity, ATP turnover and a tendency for decrease in sparing capacity in the STZ rat model compared to shame injected animals. Regarding the 3TgAD model we observed an age-dependent decrease in all parameters evaluated in the mitochondrial stress test, in both 3TgAD and NTg animals. However, although a tendency towards decreased OCR was observed when comparing 3TgAD and age-matched NTg animals, no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:26461355

  4. CNS myelin induces regulatory functions of DC-SIGN-expressing, antigen-presenting cells via cognate interaction with MOG.

    PubMed

    García-Vallejo, J J; Ilarregui, J M; Kalay, H; Chamorro, S; Koning, N; Unger, W W; Ambrosini, M; Montserrat, V; Fernandes, R J; Bruijns, S C M; van Weering, J R T; Paauw, N J; O'Toole, T; van Horssen, J; van der Valk, P; Nazmi, K; Bolscher, J G M; Bajramovic, J; Dijkstra, C D; 't Hart, B A; van Kooyk, Y

    2014-06-30

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a constituent of central nervous system myelin, is an important autoantigen in the neuroinflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its function remains unknown. Here, we show that, in healthy human myelin, MOG is decorated with fucosylated N-glycans that support recognition by the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) on microglia and DCs. The interaction of MOG with DC-SIGN in the context of simultaneous TLR4 activation resulted in enhanced IL-10 secretion and decreased T cell proliferation in a DC-SIGN-, glycosylation-, and Raf1-dependent manner. Exposure of oligodendrocytes to proinflammatory factors resulted in the down-regulation of fucosyltransferase expression, reflected by altered glycosylation at the MS lesion site. Indeed, removal of fucose on myelin reduced DC-SIGN-dependent homeostatic control, and resulted in inflammasome activation, increased T cell proliferation, and differentiation toward a Th17-prone phenotype. These data demonstrate a new role for myelin glycosylation in the control of immune homeostasis in the healthy human brain through the MOG-DC-SIGN homeostatic regulatory axis, which is comprised by inflammatory insults that affect glycosylation. This phenomenon should be considered as a basis to restore immune tolerance in MS. PMID:24935259

  5. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells engineered to secrete IL-10 inhibit APC function and limit CNS autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Payne, Natalie L; Sun, Guizhi; McDonald, Courtney; Moussa, Leon; Emerson-Webber, Ashley; Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Medin, Jeffrey A; Siatskas, Christopher; Bernard, Claude C A

    2013-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine shown to impact inflammatory processes as manifested in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Several lines of evidence indicate that the effectiveness of IL-10-based therapies may be dependent on the timing and mode of delivery. In the present study we engineered the expression of IL-10 in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Adi-IL-10-MSCs) and transplanted these cells early in the disease course to mice with EAE. Adi-IL-10-MSCs transplanted via the intraperitoneal route prevented or delayed the development of EAE. This protective effect was associated with several anti-inflammatory response mechanisms, including a reduction in peripheral T-cell proliferative responses, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as well as a preferential inhibition of Th17-mediated neuroinflammation. In vitro analyses revealed that Adi-IL-10-MSCs inhibited the phenotypic maturation, cytokine production and antigen presenting capacity of bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells, suggesting that the mechanism of action may involve an indirect effect on pathogenic T-cells via the modulation of antigen presenting cell function. Collectively, these results suggest that early intervention with gene modified Adi-MSCs may be beneficial for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS. PMID:23369732

  6. Relationships between electronic game play, obesity, and psychosocial functioning in young men.

    PubMed

    Wack, Elizabeth; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2009-04-01

    Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping. PMID:19006465

  7. The effects of fantastical pretend-play on the development of executive functions: An intervention study.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Rachel B; Gilpin, Ansley T; Brown, Melissa M; Meyer, Brooke A

    2016-05-01

    Although recent correlational studies have found a relationship between fantasy orientation (FO; i.e., a child's propensity to play in a fantastical realm) and higher order cognitive skills called executive functions (EFs), no work has addressed the causality and directionality of this relationship. The current study experimentally examined the directionality of the observed relationship between FO and EF development in preschool-aged children through an innovative play intervention employing a randomized controlled design. A sample of 110 children between the ages of 3 and 5years were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: fantastical pretend-play intervention, non-imaginative play intervention, or business-as-usual control. Results revealed that children who participated in a 5-week fantastical pretend-play intervention showed improvements in EFs, whereas children in the other two conditions did not. Within the fantastical pretend-play condition, children who were highly engaged in the play and those who were highly fantastical demonstrated the greatest gains in EFs. These data provide evidence for the equifinal relationship between fantasy-oriented play and EF development, such that engaging in fantasy-oriented play may be one of many ways to directly enhance EF development. PMID:26835841

  8. Dual function of Ccr5 during Langat virus encephalitis - Reduction of neutrophil-mediated CNS inflammation and increase in T cell-mediated viral clearance

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Bardina, Susana V.; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Pletnev, Alexander G.; Lim, Jean K.

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a vector-transmitted flavivirus that causes potentially fatal neurological infection. There are thousands of cases reported annually, and despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the incidence of TBEV is increasing worldwide. Importantly, up to thirty percent of affected individuals will develop long-term neurologic sequelae. We investigated the role of chemokine receptor Ccr5 in a mouse model of TBEV infection using the naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus, Langat virus (LGTV). Ccr5-deficient mice presented with an increase in viral replication within the CNS and decreased survival during LGTV encephalitis when compared to wild type (WT) controls. This enhanced susceptibility was due to the temporal lag in lymphocyte migration into the CNS. Adoptive transfer of WT T cells, but not Ccr5-deficient T cells, was able to significantly improve survival outcome in LGTV-infected Ccr5-deficient mice. Concomitantly, a significant increase in neutrophil migration into the CNS in LGTV-infected Ccr5−/− mice was documented at the late stage of infection. Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils in Ccr5−/− mice resulted in a significant improvement in mortality, a decrease in viral load, and a decrease in overall tissue damage in the CNS when compared to isotype control-treated mice. Ccr5 is crucial in not only directing T cells towards the LGTV-infected brain, but also in suppressing neutrophil-mediated inflammation within the CNS. PMID:27183602

  9. Enhanced functional connectivity and increased gray matter volume of insula related to action video game playing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Liu, Dongbo; Ma, Weiyi; Dong, Li; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that distinct insular subregions are associated with particular neural networks (e.g., attentional and sensorimotor networks). Based on the evidence that playing action video games (AVGs) facilitates attentional and sensorimotor functions, this study examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of insular subregions and the functional networks therein that are related to attentional and sensorimotor functions. By comparing AVG experts and amateurs, we found that AVG experts had enhanced functional connectivity and grey matter volume in insular subregions. Furthermore, AVG experts exhibited increased functional connectivity between the attentional and sensorimotor networks, and the experience-related enhancement was predominantly evident in the left insula, an understudied brain area. Thus, AVG playing may enhance functional integration of insular subregions and the pertinent networks therein. PMID:25880157

  10. Functional integrity of the habenula is necessary for social play behaviour in rats

    PubMed Central

    van Kerkhof, Linda W. M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana; Voorn, Pieter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    During post-weaning development, a marked increase in peer–peer interactions is observed in all mammals, including humans, which is signified by the abundance of social play behaviour. Social play is highly rewarding, and known to be modulated through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Recently, the habenula has received widespread attention because of its role in the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission as well as in a variety of emotional and cognitive functions. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the involvement of the habenula in social play behaviour. Using the neuronal activity maker c-fos, we showed that the habenula was activated after 24 h of social isolation in adolescent rats, and that a subsequent social play interaction reduced c-fos activity in the medial part of the lateral habenula. This suggested that habenula activity modulated the aversive properties of social isolation, which was alleviated by the positive effects of social play. Furthermore, after functional inactivation of the habenula, using a mixture of the GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, social play behaviour was markedly reduced, whereby responsiveness to play solicitation was more sensitive to habenula inactivation than play solicitation itself. Together, our data indicated an important role for the habenula in the processing of positive (i.e. social play behaviour) and negative (i.e. social isolation) social information in adolescent rats. Altered habenula function might therefore be related to the social impairments in childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and early-onset schizophrenia. PMID:24103016

  11. A case of functional urinary retention: the use of family play therapy.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, F R; Wilberger, M S; Olafson, E

    1993-09-01

    This case presents a technique for doing family therapy in families with young children. In family play therapy, the entire family plays together, allowing full participation of even the youngest children in the therapeutic process. Standard family therapy interventions in the latter part of each session make use of family interaction patterns and unconscious processes revealed during the earlier play. In the case presented here, the technique was successfully applied to a family with a 3-year-old son who had functional urinary retention. This case also provided an opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the separate Child and Family Services at a major teaching hospital. PMID:8243618

  12. Eos is redundant for T regulatory cell function, but plays an important role in IL-2 and Th17 production by CD4+ T conventional cells

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Metidji, Amina; Glass, Deborah Dacek; Thornton, Angela M.; Ikeda, Tohru; Morgan, Bruce A.; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Eos is a transcription factor that belongs to the Ikaros family of transcription factors. Eos has been reported to be a T regulatory cell (Treg) signature gene, to play a critical role in Treg suppressor functions, and to maintain Treg stability. We have utilized mice with a global deficiency of Eos to re-examine the role of Eos expression in both Treg and T conventional (Tconv) cells. Treg from Eos deficient (Eos−/−) mice developed normally, displayed a normal Treg phenotype, and exhibited normal suppressor function in vitro. Eos−/− Treg were as effective as Treg from wild type (WT) mice in suppression of inflammation in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. Bone marrow (BM) from Eos−/− mice was as effective as BM from WT mice in controlling T cell activation when used to reconstitute immunodeficient mice in the presence of Scurfy fetal liver cells. Surprisingly, Eos was expressed in activated Tconv cells and was required for IL-2 production, CD25 expression and proliferation in vitro by CD4+ Tconv cells. Eos−/− mice developed more severe Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis than WT mice, displayed increased numbers of effector T cells in the periphery and CNS, and amplified IL-17 production. In conclusion, our studies are not consistent with a role for Eos in Treg development and function, but demonstrate that Eos plays an important role in the activation and differentiation of Tconv cells. PMID:26062998

  13. Arginase-1 is expressed exclusively by infiltrating myeloid cells in CNS injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Andrew D; Passos Dos Santos, Rosmarini; Zarruk, Juan Guillermo; Salmon, Christopher K; Kroner, Antje; David, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Resident microglia and infiltrating myeloid cells play important roles in the onset, propagation, and resolution of inflammation in central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Identifying cell type-specific mechanisms will help to appropriately target interventions for tissue repair. Arginase-1 (Arg-1) is a well characterised modulator of tissue repair and its expression correlates with recovery after CNS injury. Here we assessed the cellular localisation of Arg-1 in two models of CNS damage. Using microglia specific antibodies, P2ry12 and Fc receptor-like S (FCRLS), we show the LysM-EGFP reporter mouse is an excellent model to distinguish infiltrating myeloid cells from resident microglia. We show that Arg-1 is expressed exclusively in infiltrating myeloid cells but not microglia in models of spinal cord injury (SCI) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our in vitro studies suggest that factors in the CNS environment prevent expression of Arg-1 in microglia in vivo. This work suggests different functional roles for these cells in CNS injury and repair and shows that such repair pathways can be switched on in infiltrating myeloid cells in pro-inflammatory environments. PMID:27126514

  14. Solitary-Functional Play and Solitary-Pretend Play: Another Look at the Construct of Solitary-Active Behavior Using Playground Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Hart, Craig H.; Evans, Cortney A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the construct of solitary-active behavior calls for the aggregation of solitary-functional play and solitary-pretend play, there is little empirical support for combining them into one construct. Furthermore, little work has been done in early childhood to examine these behaviors on the playground. The purpose of this study was to observe…

  15. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  16. CNS Diseases and Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Pia; Rissotto, Roberto; Herbort, Carl P.; Murialdo, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases which may affect the eye. This article may serve as a guide for the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. It should be noted that these conditions have been viewed from a neurologist’s perspective thereby neurologic involvement is stressed. PMID:22454751

  17. CNS diseases and uveitis.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Pia; Rissotto, Roberto; Herbort, Carl P; Murialdo, Ugo

    2011-10-01

    A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases which may affect the eye. This article may serve as a guide for the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. It should be noted that these conditions have been viewed from a neurologist's perspective thereby neurologic involvement is stressed. PMID:22454751

  18. STARs in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Ingrid; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J

    2016-08-15

    STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) proteins regulate splicing of target genes that have roles in neural connectivity, survival and myelination in the vertebrate nervous system. These regulated splicing targets include mRNAs such as the Neurexins (Nrxn), SMN2 (survival of motor neuron) and MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein). Recent work has made it possible to identify and validate STAR protein splicing targets in vivo by using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we will discuss the importance of STAR protein splicing targets in the CNS (central nervous system). PMID:27528753

  19. [The influence of playing the clarinet on the dentomaxillofacial morphology and function].

    PubMed

    Ogino, H

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the influence of playing the clarinet on the dentomaxillofacial morphology and function. The 12 subjects, selected at random (all adults, 4 men and 8 women) had played the clarinet for more than 10 years. The subjects had anamnesis, oral photo pictures, facial photo pictures, cast model, lateral cephalograms (lateral cephalo) and frontal cephalograms (frontal cephalo) taken when they were in centric occlusion and playing the clarinet. The results were as follows: 1. The facial profile and occlusal relation depend on the subjects. (2 mandibular retrognathism. 4 prognathism and 6 crowding.) 2. No characteristic skeletal pattern was found compared with controls in angle measurement but subjects had a tendency to have large facial height in linear measurement of lateral cephalo. And in denture pattern the lower incisors were linguoclination. 3. Concerning the lateral cephalo, we noticed that the angle of the clarinet in relation to the body axis increased in accordance with the prognathism and decreased with the retrognathism. 4. The subjects don't have identical midline, comparing lower midline to dentofacial midline, when playing, the angle of clarinet to the body was eccentric according to maxillary incisors in frontal cephalo. 5. Anterial and posterial length was short in mandibular arch, analyzing the cast model. 6. The pressure on mouthpiece increased in accordance with the prognathism and decreased with retrognathism. 7. The results of the EMG analysis indicated that the muscle activity of oral sphincter was described as 1). upper lip, 2). lower lip, 3). commisure of lips and differences were found depending on the parts being studied and the sound played on the clarinet. In conclusion, the skeletal and denture problem influence the holding position of the clarinet, embouchure and the way of playing it. In case of mandibular prognathism, when playing, the subjects pressed on their teeth with the clarinet. So B

  20. CNS Multiparameter Optimization Approach: Is it in Accordance with Occam's Razor Principle?

    PubMed

    Raevsky, Oleg A

    2016-04-01

    A detailed analysis of the possibility of using the Multiparameter Optimization approach (MPO) for CNS/non-CNS classification of drugs was carried out. This work has shown that MPO descriptors are able to describe only part of chemical transport in the CNS connected with transmembrane diffusion. Hence the "intuitive" CNS MPO approach with arbitrary selection of descriptors and calculations of score functions, search of thresholds of classification, and absence of any chemometric procedures, leads to rather modest accuracy of CNS/non-CNS classification models. PMID:27491918

  1. Microbial Induction of Vascular Pathology in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Silvia S.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a finely tuned organ that participates in nearly every aspect of our day-to-day function. Neurons lie at the core of this functional unit and maintain an active dialogue with one another as well as their fellow CNS residents (e.g. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia). Because of this complex dialogue, it is essential that the CNS milieu be tightly regulated in order to permit uninterrupted and efficient neural chemistry. This is accomplished in part by anatomical barriers that segregate vascular components from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma. These barriers impede entry of noxious materials and enable the CNS to maintain requisite protein and ionic balances for constant electrochemical signaling. Under homeostatic conditions, the CNS is protected by the presence of specialized endothelium/epithelium, the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the blood-CSF barrier. However, following CNS infection these protective barriers can be comprised, sometimes resulting in severe neurological complications triggered by an imbalance or blockage of neural chemistry. In some instances, these disruptions are severe enough to be fatal. This review focuses on a selection of microbes (both viruses and parasites) that compromise vascular barriers and induce neurological complications upon gaining access to the CNS. Emphasis is placed on CNS diseases that result from a pathogenic interplay between host immune defenses and the invading microbe. PMID:20401700

  2. The role of dendritic cells in CNS autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zozulya, Alla L.; Clarkson, Benjamin D.; Ortler, Sonja; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated, central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. Clinical and histopathological features suggest an inflammatory etiology involving resident CNS innate cells as well as invading adaptive immune cells. Encephalitogenic myelin-reactive T cells have been implicated in the initiation of an inflammatory cascade, eventually resulting in demyelination and axonal damage (the histological hallmarks of MS). Dendritic cells (DC) have recently emerged as key modulators of this immunopathological cascade, as supported by studies in humans and experimental disease models. In one such model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), CNS microvessel-associated DC have been shown to be essential for local antigen recognition by myelin-reactive T cells. Moreover, the functional state and compartmental distribution of DC derived from CNS and associated lymphatics seem to be limiting factors in both the induction and effector phases of EAE. Moreover, DC modulate and balance the recruitment of encephalitogenic and regulatory T cells into CNS tissue. This capacity is critically influenced by DC surface expression of co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory molecules. The fact that DC accumulate in the CNS before T cells and can direct T-cell responses suggests that they are key determinants of CNS autoimmune outcomes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in our understanding of CNS-derived DC and their relevance to neuroinflammation. PMID:20217033

  3. The Efficacy of Exergames Played Proximally and over the Internet on Cognitive Functioning for Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames (active video games that require kinesthetic movement) played in proximity to other players or against a gaming machine have been linked to positive increases in cognitive functioning. This study tested to see if remote exergame play over the Internet had an impact similar to exergames that are played in proximity. The study shows that…

  4. The Function of Play in the Development of the Social Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellis, Sergio M.; Pellis, Vivien C.; Bell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Rough-and-tumble play, or play fighting, is common in the young of many mammals. Research on play fighting among rats shows that there are many levels of neural control over this behavior: subcortical mechanisms mediate the motivation and behavior of such play, and the cortex provides mechanisms by which the play changes with age and context. The…

  5. Immunopathophysiology of pediatric CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, Amit; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Dale, Russell C; Rostasy, Kevin; Brück, Wolfgang; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-08-30

    Elucidating pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the spectrum of pediatric-onset CNS demyelinating diseases, particularly those that may distinguish multiple sclerosis (MS) from other entities, promises to both improve diagnostics and guide more-informed therapeutic decisions. Observations that pediatric- and adult-onset MS share the same genetic and environmental risk factors support the view that these conditions represent essentially the same illness manifesting at different ages. Nonetheless, special consideration must be given when CNS inflammation manifests in early life, at a time when multiple organs (including immune and nervous systems) are actively maturing. CSF analysis in pediatric-onset MS points to chronic CNS inflammation, supported by observations from limited pathologic material available for study. Emerging results implicate abnormalities in both effector and regulatory T cell subsets, and potentially immune senescence, in children with MS. Although CNS-directed antibodies (including antibodies recognizing myelin antigens; Kir4.1) can be documented in pediatric-onset MS, their pathophysiologic significance (as in adults) remains unclear. This is in contrast to the presence of serum and/or CSF antibodies recognizing aquaporin-4, which, when measured using validated cell-based assays, supports the diagnosis of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, distinct from MS. Presence of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies documented with similar cell-based assays may also be associated with pathophysiologically distinct disease phenotypes in children. The substantial impact of pediatric-onset MS on normal brain development and function underscores the importance of elucidating both the immunobiology and neurobiology of disease. Ongoing efforts are aimed at developing and validating biological measures that define pathophysiologically distinct monophasic and chronic forms of pediatric CNS demyelination. PMID:27572856

  6. Domain II plays a crucial role in the function of ribosome recycling factor

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    RRF (ribosome recycling factor) consists of two domains, and in concert with EF-G (elongation factor-G), triggers dissociation of the post-termination ribosomal complex. However, the function of the individual domains of RRF remains unclear. To clarify this, two RRF chimaeras, EcoDI/TteDII and TteDI/EcoDII, were created by domain swaps between the proteins from Escherichia coli and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis. The ribosome recycling activity of the RRF chimaeras was compared with their wild-type RRFs by using in vivo and in vitro activity assays. Like wild-type TteRRF (T. tengcongensis RRF), the EcoDI/TteDII chimaera is non-functional in E. coli, but both wild-type TteRRF, and EcoDI/TteDII can be activated by coexpression of T. tengcongensis EF-G in E. coli. By contrast, like wild-type E. coli RRF (EcoRRF), TteDI/EcoDII is fully functional in E. coli. These findings suggest that domain II of RRF plays a crucial role in the concerted action of RRF and EF-G for the post-termination complex disassembly, and the specific interaction between RRF and EF-G on ribosomes mainly depends on the interaction between domain II of RRF and EF-G. This study provides direct genetic and biochemical evidence for the function of the individual domains of RRF. PMID:16262604

  7. Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

  8. Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

  9. CD44 Plays a Functional Role in Helicobacter pylori-induced Epithelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Feng, Rui; Schumacher, Michael A.; Li, Jing; Mahe, Maxime M.; Engevik, Amy C.; Javier, Jose E.; Peek Jr, Richard M.; Ottemann, Karen; Orian-Rousseau, Veronique; Boivin, Gregory P.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Zavros, Yana

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxin-associated gene (Cag) pathogenicity island is a strain-specific constituent of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that augments cancer risk. CagA translocates into the cytoplasm where it stimulates cell signaling through the interaction with tyrosine kinase c-Met receptor, leading cellular proliferation. Identified as a potential gastric stem cell marker, cluster-of-differentiation (CD) CD44 also acts as a co-receptor for c-Met, but whether it plays a functional role in H. pylori-induced epithelial proliferation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that CD44 plays a functional role in H. pylori-induced epithelial cell proliferation. To assay changes in gastric epithelial cell proliferation in relation to the direct interaction with H. pylori, human- and mouse-derived gastric organoids were infected with the G27 H. pylori strain or a mutant G27 strain bearing cagA deletion (∆CagA::cat). Epithelial proliferation was quantified by EdU immunostaining. Phosphorylation of c-Met was analyzed by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis for expression of CD44 and CagA. H. pylori infection of both mouse- and human-derived gastric organoids induced epithelial proliferation that correlated with c-Met phosphorylation. CagA and CD44 co-immunoprecipitated with phosphorylated c-Met. The formation of this complex did not occur in organoids infected with ∆CagA::cat. Epithelial proliferation in response to H. pylori infection was lost in infected organoids derived from CD44-deficient mouse stomachs. Human-derived fundic gastric organoids exhibited an induction in proliferation when infected with H. pylorithat was not seen in organoids pre-treated with a peptide inhibitor specific to CD44. In the well-established Mongolian gerbil model of gastric cancer, animals treated with CD44 peptide inhibitor Pep1, resulted in the inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation and associated atrophic gastritis. The current study reports a unique approach to study H

  10. The Processing of Airspace Concept Evaluations Using FASTE-CNS as a Pre- or Post-Simulation CNS Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainger, Steve

    2004-01-01

    As NASA speculates on and explores the future of aviation, the technological and physical aspects of our environment increasing become hurdles that must be overcome for success. Research into methods for overcoming some of these selected hurdles have been purposed by several NASA research partners as concepts. The task of establishing a common evaluation environment was placed on NASA's Virtual Airspace Simulation Technologies (VAST) project (sub-project of VAMS), and they responded with the development of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). As one examines the ACES environment from a communication, navigation or surveillance (CNS) perspective, the simulation parameters are built with assumed perfection in the transactions associated with CNS. To truly evaluate these concepts in a realistic sense, the contributions/effects of CNS must be part of the ACES. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has supported the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project through the continued development of CNS models and analysis capabilities which supports the ACES environment. NASA GRC initiated the development a communications traffic loading analysis tool, called the Future Aeronautical Sub-network Traffic Emulator for Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (FASTE-CNS), as part of this support. This tool allows for forecasting of communications load with the understanding that, there is no single, common source for loading models used to evaluate the existing and planned communications channels; and that, consensus and accuracy in the traffic load models is a very important input to the decisions being made on the acceptability of communication techniques used to fulfill the aeronautical requirements. Leveraging off the existing capabilities of the FASTE-CNS tool, GRC has called for FASTE-CNS to have the functionality to pre- and post-process the simulation runs of ACES to report on instances when traffic density, frequency congestion or aircraft spacing

  11. Preverbal Functional Communication and the Role of Object Play in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Pinder, Gay Lloyd

    1995-01-01

    Object play and communication development were studied with four infants with cerebral palsy, involving time spent with objects, types of object play, and object selection. As coordinated looking between object and adult emerged, children demonstrated increased interest in objects and sophistication in their play behaviors. (SW)

  12. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  13. Pushing Forward: Remyelination as the New Frontier in CNS Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kremer, David; Göttle, Peter; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary acquisition of myelin sheaths around large caliber axons in the central nervous system (CNS) represented a milestone in the development of vertebrate higher brain function. Myelin ensheathment of axons enabled saltatory conduction and thus accelerated information processing. However, a number of CNS diseases harm or destroy myelin and oligodendrocytes (myelin-producing cells), ultimately resulting in demyelination. In the adult CNS, new oligodendrocytes can be generated from a quiescent pool of precursor cells, which - upon differentiation - can replace lost myelin sheaths. The efficiency of this spontaneous regeneration is limited, which leads to incomplete remyelination and residual clinical symptoms. Here, we discuss CNS pathologies characterized by white matter degeneration and regeneration and highlight drugs that could potentially serve as remyelination therapies. PMID:26964504

  14. The T. brucei TRM5 methyltransferase plays an essential role in mitochondrial protein synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Zdeněk; Horáková, Eva; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Sample, Paul; Fleming, Ian M.C.; Armocida, Stephanie; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    All tRNAs undergo post-transcriptional chemical modifications as part of their natural maturation pathway. Some modifications, especially those in the anticodon loop, play important functions in translational efficiency and fidelity. Among these, 1-methylguanosine, at position 37 (m1G37) of the anticodon loop in several tRNAs, is evolutionarily conserved and participates in translational reading frame maintenance. In eukaryotes, the tRNA methyltransferase TRM5 is responsible for m1G formation in nucleus-encoded as well as mitochondria-encoded tRNAs, reflecting the universal importance of this modification for protein synthesis. However, it is not clear what role, if any, mitochondrial TRM5 serves in organisms that do not encode tRNAs in their mitochondrial genomes. These organisms may easily satisfy the m1G37 requirement through their robust mitochondrial tRNA import mechanisms. We have explored this possibility in the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei and show that down-regulation of TRM5 by RNAi leads to the expected disappearance of m1G37, but with surprisingly little effect on cytoplasmic translation. On the contrary, lack of TRM5 causes a marked growth phenotype and a significant decrease in mitochondrial functions, including protein synthesis. These results suggest mitochondrial TRM5 may be needed to mature unmethylated tRNAs that reach the mitochondria and that could pose a problem for translational fidelity. This study also reveals an unexpected lack of import specificity between some fully matured and potentially defective tRNA species. PMID:23520175

  15. Insights into the physiological role of CNS regeneration inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Katherine T.; Giger, Roman J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth inhibitory nature of injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) tissue constitutes a major barrier to robust axonal outgrowth and functional recovery following trauma or disease. Prototypic CNS regeneration inhibitors are broadly expressed in the healthy and injured brain and spinal cord and include myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), the reticulon family member NogoA, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These structurally diverse molecules strongly inhibit neurite outgrowth in vitro, and have been most extensively studied in the context of nervous system injury in vivo. The physiological role of CNS regeneration inhibitors in the naïve, or uninjured, CNS remains less well understood, but has received growing attention in recent years and is the focus of this review. CNS regeneration inhibitors regulate myelin development and axon stability, consolidate neuronal structure shaped by experience, and limit activity-dependent modification of synaptic strength. Altered function of CNS regeneration inhibitors is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting crucial roles in brain development and health. PMID:26113809

  16. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan; Tiollais, Pierre; Li, Tsaiping; Zhao, Mujun

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. {yields} Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. {yields} Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. {yields} Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the

  17. Breaking peripheral immune tolerance to CNS antigens in neurodegenerative diseases: boosting autoimmunity to fight-off chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

    2014-11-01

    Immune cell infiltration to the brain's territory was considered for decades to reflect a pathological process in which immune cells attack the central nervous system (CNS); such a process is observed in the inflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). As neuroinflammatory processes within the CNS parenchyma are also common to other CNS pathologies, regardless of their etiology, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), these pathologies have often been compared to MS, a disease that benefits from immunosuppressive therapy. Yet, over the last decade, it became clear that autoimmunity has a bright side, and that it plays a pivotal role in CNS repair following damage. Specifically, autoimmune T cells were found to facilitate CNS healing processes, such as in the case of sterile mechanical injuries to the brain or the spinal cord, mental stress, or biochemical insults. Even more intriguingly, autoimmune T cells were found to be involved in supporting fundamental processes of brain functional integrity, such as in the maintenance of life-long brain plasticity, including spatial learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Importantly, autoimmune T cells are part of a cellular network which, to operate efficiently and safely, requires tight regulation by other immune cell populations, such as regulatory T cells, which are indispensable for maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Here, we suggest that dysregulation of the balance between peripheral immune suppression, on one hand, and protective autoimmunity, on the other, is an underlying mechanism in the emergence and progression of the neuroinflammatory response associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging. Mitigating chronic neuroinflammation under these conditions necessitates activation, rather than suppression, of the peripheral immune response directed against self. Accordingly, we propose that

  18. Young Mothers' Play with Their Toddlers: Individual Variability as a Function of Psychosocial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Joan Riley; Easterbrooks, M. Ann

    2007-01-01

    There is no one style of parenting which characterizes young mothers as a group. In addition, life circumstances play an important role in shaping maternal behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of maternal play behaviour and contextual (social and personal) factors associated with these different patterns. In this study, 107…

  19. Student Musicians' Ear-Playing Ability as a Function of Vernacular Music Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.; Lehmann, Andreas C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the differences in ear-playing ability between formal "classical" musicians and those with vernacular music experience (N = 24). Participants heard melodies and performed them back, either by singing or playing on their instruments. The authors tracked the number of times through the listen-then-perform cycle that each…

  20. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family cytokines: Role in immune pathogenesis and treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; He, Chang; Nair, Lekha; Yeung, Justine; Egwuagu, Charles E

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play crucial roles in coordinating the activities of innate and adaptive immune systems. In response to pathogen recognition, innate immune cells secrete cytokines that inform the adaptive immune system about the nature of the pathogen and instruct naïve T cells to differentiate into the appropriate T cell subtypes required to clear the infection. These include Interleukins, Interferons and other immune-regulatory cytokines that exhibit remarkable functional redundancy and pleiotropic effects. The focus of this review, however, is on the enigmatic Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family of cytokines. This family of cytokines plays crucial roles in shaping immune responses during antigen presentation and influence cell-fate decisions of differentiating naïve T cells. They also play essential roles in regulating functions of a variety of effector cells, making IL-12 family cytokines important therapeutic targets or agents in a number of inflammatory diseases, such as the CNS autoimmune diseases, uveitis and multiple sclerosis. PMID:25796985

  1. ALDH3A1 Plays a Functional Role in Maintenance of Corneal Epithelial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Gaurav; Orlicky, David J.; Thompson, David C.; Jester, James V.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) and ALDH3A1 are corneal crystallins. They protect inner ocular tissues from ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced oxidative damage through catalytic and non-catalytic mechanisms. Additionally, ALDH3A1 has been postulated to play a regulatory role in the corneal epithelium based on several studies that report an inverse association between ALDH3A1 expression and corneal cell proliferation. The underlying molecular mechanisms and the physiological significance of such association remain poorly understood. In the current study, we established Tet-On human corneal epithelial cell (hTCEpi) lines, which express tetracycline-inducible wild-type (wt) or catalytically-inactive (mu) ALDH3A1. Utilizing this cellular model system, we confirmed that human ALDH3A1 decreases corneal cell proliferation; importantly, this effect appears to be partially mediated by its enzymatic activity. Mechanistically, wt-ALDH3A1, but not mu-ALDH3A1, promotes sequestering of tumor suppressor p53 in the nucleus. In the mouse cornea, however, augmented cell proliferation is noted only in Aldh1a1-/-/3a1-/- double knockout (DKO) mice, indicating in vivo the anti-proliferation effect of ALDH3A1 can be rescued by the presence of ALDH1A1. Interestingly, the hyper-proliferative epithelium of the DKO corneas display nearly complete loss of p53 expression, implying that p53 may be involved in ALDH3A1/1A1-mediated effect. In hTCEpi cells grown in high calcium concentration, mRNA levels of a panel of corneal differentiation markers were altered by ALDH3A1 expression and modulated by its enzyme activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that: (i) ALDH3A1 decreases corneal epithelial proliferation through both non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties; (ii) ALDH1A1 contributes to the regulation of corneal cellular proliferation in vivo; and (iii) ALDH3A1 modulates corneal epithelial differentiation. Collectively, our studies indicate a functional role of ALDH3A1 in the

  2. In vivo kinetic approach reveals slow SOD1 turnover in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Matthew J.; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reddy, Naveen C.; Chott, Robert; Self, Wade K.; Weihl, Conrad C.; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Varadhachary, Arun S.; Bucelli, Robert C.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Bateman, Randall J.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies that target disease-associated transcripts are being developed for a variety of neurodegenerative syndromes. Protein levels change as a function of their half-life, a property that critically influences the timing and application of therapeutics. In addition, both protein kinetics and concentration may play important roles in neurodegeneration; therefore, it is essential to understand in vivo protein kinetics, including half-life. Here, we applied a stable isotope-labeling technique in combination with mass spectrometric detection and determined the in vivo kinetics of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), mutation of which causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Application of this method to human SOD1-expressing rats demonstrated that SOD1 is a long-lived protein, with a similar half-life in both the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and the CNS. Additionally, in these animals, the half-life of SOD1 was longest in the CNS when compared with other tissues. Evaluation of this method in human subjects demonstrated successful incorporation of the isotope label in the CSF and confirmed that SOD1 is a long-lived protein in the CSF of healthy individuals. Together, the results of this study provide important insight into SOD1 kinetics and support application of this technique to the design and implementation of clinical trials that target long-lived CNS proteins. PMID:26075819

  3. Bovine-associated CNS species resist phagocytosis differently

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) cause usually subclinical or mild clinical bovine mastitis, which often remains persistent. Symptoms are usually mild, mostly only comprising slight changes in the appearance of milk and possibly slight swelling. However, clinical mastitis with severe signs has also been reported. The reasons for the differences in clinical expression are largely unknown. Macrophages play an important role in the innate immunity of the udder. This study examined phagocytosis and killing by mouse macrophage cells of three CNS species: Staphylococcus chromogenes (15 isolates), Staphylococcus agnetis (6 isolates) and Staphylococcus simulans (15 isolates). Staphylococcus aureus (7 isolates) was also included as a control. Results All the studied CNS species were phagocytosed by macrophages, but S. simulans resisted phagocytosis more effectively than the other CNS species. Only S. chromogenes was substantially killed by macrophages. Significant variations between isolates were seen in both phagocytosis and killing by macrophages and were more common in the killing assays. Significant differences between single CNS species and S. aureus were observed in both assays. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences in the phagocytosis and killing of mastitis-causing staphylococci by macrophages exist at both the species and isolate level. PMID:24207012

  4. Play Styles in Early Childhood: Continuity and Change as a Function of Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    The continuity of play styles of preschool children over a 1-year period was observed and related to teacher and peer reinforcement patterns influenced by sex stereotypes. Sixty-seven children, aged 18 months to 58 months, were observed in a natural setting using a behavior checklist consisting of 33 child behavior categories and 15 teacher- and…

  5. Histamine pharmacology and new CNS drug targets.

    PubMed

    Tiligada, Ekaterini; Kyriakidis, Konstantinos; Chazot, Paul L; Passani, M Beatrice

    2011-12-01

    During the last decade, the identification of a number of novel drug targets led to the development of promising new compounds which are currently under evaluation for their therapeutic prospective in CNS related disorders. Besides the established pleiotropic regulatory functions in the periphery, the interest in the potential homeostatic role of histamine in the brain was revived following the identification of H(3) and H(4) receptors some years ago. Complementing classical CNS pharmacology, the development of selective histamine receptor agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists provides the lead for the potential exploitation of the histaminergic system in the treatment of brain pathologies. Although no CNS disease entity has been associated directly to brain histamine dysfunction until now, the H(3) receptor is recognized as a drug target for neuropathic pain, sleep-wake disorders, including narcolepsy, and cognitive impairment associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's disease, while the first H(3) receptor ligands have already entered phase I-III clinical trials. Interestingly, the localization of the immunomodulatory H(4) receptor in the nervous system exposes attractive perspectives for the therapeutic exploitation of this new drug target in neuroimmunopharmacology. This review focuses on a concise presentation of the current "translational research" approach that exploits the latest advances in histamine pharmacology for the development of beneficial drug targets for the treatment of neuronal disorders, such as neuropathic pain, cognitive, and sleep-wake pathologies. Furthermore, the role of the brain histaminergic system(s) in neuroprotection and neuroimmunology/inflammation remains a challenging research area that is currently under consideration. PMID:22070192

  6. Engineering the CNS stem cell microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cicely A; Lavik, Erin B

    2010-01-01

    The loss of neural tissue underlies the symptomatology of several neurological insults of disparate etiology, including trauma, cerebrovascular insult and neurodegenerative disease. Restoration of damaged neural tissue through the use of exogenous or endogenous neural stem or progenitor cells is an enticing therapeutic option provided one can control their proliferation, migration and differentiation. Initial attempts at CNS tissue engineering relied on the intrinsic cellular properties of progenitor cells; however, it is now appreciated that the microenvironment surrounding the cells plays an indispensible role in regulating stem cell behavior. This article focuses on attempts to engineer the neural stem cell microenvironment by utilizing the major cellular components of the niche (endothelial cells, astrocytes and ependymal cells) and the extracellular matrix in which they are embedded. PMID:19903005

  7. CNS active O-linked glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Evan M.; Polt, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring glycopeptides and glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes. Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in vivo. Glycopeptides are involved in cell signaling and sorting, providing cell surface markers for recognition. From the drug design and synthesis perspective, modification of a peptide through glycosylation results in increased bioavailability and bioactivity of glycopeptides in living systems with negligible toxicity of degradation products. Glycopeptide synthesis can be accomplished through incorporation of a glycosylated amino acid in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) to form the desired peptide, or via incorporation of sugar-amino acid moieties. Additionally, research indicates that glycosylation increases penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by peptides, which may lead to novel therapeutics for neurological disorders. Recent applications of glycopeptides have focused on the in vivo central nervous system (CNS) effects after peripheral administration of centrally active peptides modified with various carbohydrates. PMID:26157795

  8. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described. PMID:17826922

  9. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  10. The Role of Make-Believe Play in the Development of Executive Function: Status of Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Laura E.; Meyers, Adena B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the association between make-believe play and the development of executive-function (EF) skills in young children. Some forty years ago, Lev S. Vygotsky first proposed that make-believe fosters the development of symbolic thought and self-regulation. Since then, a small body of research has produced evidence of an association…

  11. Mothers' Reports of Play Dates and Observation of School Playground Behavior of Children Having High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Frederick D.; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are generally included with typically developing peers at school. They have difficulties interacting with peers on the school playground. Previous literature suggests that having play dates in the home may be related to better peer acceptance at school. Methods: This study…

  12. Two is Better than One, but Mine is Better than Ours: Preschoolers' Executive Function during Co-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qu, Li

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how playing with another individual may influence 3- and 4-year-olds' executive function in the Less-Is-More (LIM) task, where children point to the tray with the smaller amount of treats so as to obtain the larger amount of treats in the other tray. In Experiment 1, 35 Singaporean children were tested with a self…

  13. Two is better than one, but mine is better than ours: preschoolers' executive function during co-play.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li

    2011-03-01

    The current study investigated how playing with another individual may influence 3- and 4-year-olds' executive function in the Less-Is-More (LIM) task, where children point to the tray with the smaller amount of treats so as to obtain the larger amount of treats in the other tray. In Experiment 1, 35 Singaporean children were tested with a self version and a co-player-split version of the LIM task. Results showed that children appeared to be less impulsive when playing with a co-player than when playing individually. Experiment 2 further investigated how the intention of the co-player, collective profit oriented versus individual profit oriented, may influence children's executive function. In total, 96 children were tested with a self version, a co-player-share version, and a co-player-opponent version. Results showed that the co-playing facilitation effect appeared in only the co-player-opponent version. Together, the results of the current study showed that when preschoolers play with an individual who shares a common goal with them, they may become more efficient in executive control. PMID:20875646

  14. Functional contributions of synaptically localized NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor to synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in the adult mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hideki; Fukaya, Masahiro; Watabe, Ayako M; Watanabe, Masahiko; Manabe, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The NMDA-type glutamate receptor is a heteromeric complex composed of the NR1 and at least one of the NR2 subunits. Switching from the NR2B to the NR2A subunit is thought to underlie functional alteration of the NMDA receptor during synaptic maturation, and it is generally believed that it results in preferential localization of NR2A subunits on the synaptic site and that of NR2B subunits on the extracellular site in the mature brain. It has also been proposed that activation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits results in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors may have distinct roles in synaptic plasticity as well as in gene expression associated with neuronal death. Here, we have investigated whether NR2B subunit-containing receptors are present and functional at mature synapses in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, comparing their properties between the two brain regions. We have found, in contrast to the above hypotheses, that the NR2B subunit significantly contributes to synaptic transmission as well as LTP induction. Furthermore, its contribution is greater in the LA than in the CA1 region, and biophysical properties of NMDA receptors and the NR2B/NR2A ratio are different between the two brain regions. These results indicate that NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors accumulate on the synaptic site and are responsible for the unique properties of synaptic function and plasticity in the amygdala. PMID:18372311

  15. Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Modeling CNS Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, David H.; Parada, Luis F.; Silva, Alcino J.; Ratner, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common monogenic disorder in which individuals manifest central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Affected individuals develop glial neoplasms (optic gliomas, malignant astrocytomas) and neuronal dysfunction (learning disabilities, attention deficits). Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse models have revealed the molecular and cellular underpinnings of gliomagenesis, attention deficit, and learning problems with relevance to basic neurobiology. Using NF1 as a model system, these studies have revealed critical roles for the NF1 gene in non-neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment, the importance of brain region heterogeneity, novel mechanisms of glial growth regulation, the neurochemical bases for attention deficit and learning abnormalities, and new insights into neural stem cell function. Here we review recent studies, presented at a symposium at the 2012 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, that highlight unexpected cell biology insights into RAS and cyclic AMP pathway effects on neural progenitor signaling, neuronal function, and oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. PMID:23055477

  16. Myelin-Associated Inhibitors in Axonal Growth After CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G.; Zheng, Binhai

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple barriers to axonal growth after CNS injury. Myelin-associated inhibitors represent one group of barriers extrinsic to the injured neurons. Nogo, MAG and OMgp are three prototypical myelin inhibitors that signal through multiple neuronal receptors to exert growth inhibition. Targeting myelin inhibition alone modulates the compensatory sprouting of uninjured axons but the effect on the regeneration of injured axons is limited. Meanwhile, modulating sprouting, a naturally occurring repair mechanism, may be a more attainable therapeutic goal for promoting functional repair after CNS injury in the near term. PMID:24608164

  17. The role of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors in CNS remyelination.

    PubMed

    Keirstead, H S; Blakemore, W F

    1999-01-01

    remyelination found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions, evidenced by a rim of thin myelin sheaths around the edges of a lesion, or, in a minority of acute foci, throughout the entire lesion (Prineas et al., 1989; Raine et al., 1981). It must be said, however, that although remyelination is clearly a prerequisite to sustained functional recovery, other factors such as the state of the inflammatory response and degree of axonal survival within the demyelinated region contribute to the extent of functional recovery that may be possible following therapeutic intervention aimed at halting disease progression. It is not yet clear whether the progression of functional deficits in MS is primarily the result of an increasing load of demyelination, or axon loss, or a combination of the two processes. However, given the increasing recognition that myelin sheaths play a role in protecting axons from degeneration, the success or failure of remyelination has functional consequences for the patient. To understand why remyelination should fail in demyelinating disease and develop strategies to enhance remyelination requires an understanding of the biology of successful remyelination. Firstly, what is the origin of the remyelinating cell population in the adult CNS? Secondly, what are the dynamics of the cellular response of this population during demyelination and remyelination? And thirdly, what are the consequences to the tissue of an episode of demyelination? This review will focus on studies that address these issues, and discuss the implications of the results of these experiments for our understanding of MS and the development of therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing remyelination. PMID:10635029

  18. Conditional Disruption of Calpain in the CNS Alters Dendrite Morphology, Impairs LTP, and Promotes Neuronal Survival following Injury

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Mandana; Ma, Chun-lei; Farazifard, Rasoul; Zhu, Guoqi; Zhang, Yi; Vanderluit, Jacqueline; Zoltewicz, Joanna Susie; Hage, Fadi; Savitt, Joseph M.; Lagace, Diane C.; Slack, Ruth S.; Beique, Jean-Claude; Baudry, Michel; Greer, Peter A.; Bergeron, Richard; Park, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous classical (typical) calpains, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are Ca+2-dependent cysteine proteases, which have been associated with numerous physiological and pathological cellular functions. However, a clear understanding of the role of calpains in the CNS has been hampered by the lack of appropriate deletion paradigms in the brain. In this study, we describe a unique model of conditional deletion of both calpain-1 and calpain-2 activities in mouse brain, which more definitively assesses the role of these ubiquitous proteases in brain development/function and pathology. Surprisingly, we show that these calpains are not critical for gross CNS development. However, calpain-1/calpain-2 loss leads to reduced dendritic branching complexity and spine density deficits associated with major deterioration in hippocampal long-term potentiation and spatial memory. Moreover, calpain-1/calpain-2-deficient neurons were significantly resistant to injury induced by excitotoxic stress or mitochondrial toxicity. Examination of downstream target showed that the conversion of the Cdk5 activator, p35, to pathogenic p25 form, occurred only in the presence of calpain and that it played a major role in calpain-mediated neuronal death. These findings unequivocally establish two central roles of calpain-1/calpain-2 in CNS function in plasticity and neuronal death. PMID:23536090

  19. Intermediate Filaments Play a Pivotal Role in Regulating Cell Architecture and Function.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jason; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2015-07-10

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are composed of one or more members of a large family of cytoskeletal proteins, whose expression is cell- and tissue type-specific. Their importance in regulating the physiological properties of cells is becoming widely recognized in functions ranging from cell motility to signal transduction. IF proteins assemble into nanoscale biopolymers with unique strain-hardening properties that are related to their roles in regulating the mechanical integrity of cells. Furthermore, mutations in the genes encoding IF proteins cause a wide range of human diseases. Due to the number of different types of IF proteins, we have limited this short review to cover structure and function topics mainly related to the simpler homopolymeric IF networks composed of vimentin, and specifically for diseases, the related muscle-specific desmin IF networks. PMID:25957409

  20. Intermediate Filaments Play a Pivotal Role in Regulating Cell Architecture and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jason; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are composed of one or more members of a large family of cytoskeletal proteins, whose expression is cell- and tissue type-specific. Their importance in regulating the physiological properties of cells is becoming widely recognized in functions ranging from cell motility to signal transduction. IF proteins assemble into nanoscale biopolymers with unique strain-hardening properties that are related to their roles in regulating the mechanical integrity of cells. Furthermore, mutations in the genes encoding IF proteins cause a wide range of human diseases. Due to the number of different types of IF proteins, we have limited this short review to cover structure and function topics mainly related to the simpler homopolymeric IF networks composed of vimentin, and specifically for diseases, the related muscle-specific desmin IF networks. PMID:25957409

  1. Dietary constituents are able to play a beneficial role in canine epidermal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrian L; Fray, Tim R; Bailey, Julie; Baker, Claire B; Beyer, Sally A; Markwell, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Epidermal barrier function is a critical attribute of mammalian skin. The barrier is responsible for preventing skin-associated pathologies through controlling egress of water and preventing ingress of environmental agents. Maintaining the quality and integrity of the epidermal barrier is therefore of considerable importance. Structurally, the barrier is composed of two main parts, the corneocytes and the intercellular lamellar lipid. The epidermal lamellar lipid comprises mainly ceramides, sterols and fatty acids. Twenty-seven nutritional components were screened for their ability to upregulate epidermal lipid synthesis. Seven of the 27 nutritional components (pantothenate, choline, nicotinamide, histidine, proline, pyridoxine and inositol) were subsequently retested using an in vitro transepidermal diffusion experimental model, providing a functional assessment of barrier properties. Ultimately, the best performing five nutrients were fed to dogs at supplemented concentrations in a 12-week feeding study. Barrier function was measured using transepidermal water loss (TEWL). It was found that a combination of pantothenate, choline, nicotinamide, histidine and inositol, when fed at supplemented concentrations, was able to significantly reduce TEWL in dogs after 9 weeks. PMID:16364034

  2. Neural control of playing a reversed piano: empirical evidence for an unusual cortical organization of musical functions.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Baumann, Simon; Koeneke, Susan; Meyer, Martin; Laeng, Bruno; Peters, Michael; Lutz, Kai

    2006-03-20

    Using functional magnetic imaging techniques and neuropsychological tests, we studied a young male musician (C.S.) who performs at a professional level both on a regular piano keyboard and on a reverse keyboard (reversed right to left). The participant was left-handed, had left dominance for language but, remarkably, right dominance for the control of piano playing on both keyboards. With respect to music perception, C.S. showed left-sided activation dominance within the left superior temporal sulcus, which is normally associated with higher order auditory processing and right-sided activations in the secondary sensory cortex extending into the supramarginal gyrus. We suggest that C.S.'s pattern of functional asymmetry, characterized by audio-motor control using a right-sided network, could be a factor in his exceptional piano-playing ability on both the standard and reversed keyboard. PMID:16514374

  3. Animal models of CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is intense interest in the development and application of animal models of CNS disorders to explore pathology and molecular mechanisms, identify potential biomarkers, and to assess the therapeutic utility, estimate safety margins and establish pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of new chemical entities (NCEs). This is a daunting undertaking, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of these disorders, the subjective and sometimes contradictory nature of the clinical endpoints and the paucity of information regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. Historically, these models have been invaluable in the discovery of therapeutics for a range of disorders including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Recently, however, they have been increasingly criticized in the wake of numerous clinical trial failures of NCEs with promising preclinical profiles. These failures have resulted from a number of factors including inherent limitations of the models, over-interpretation of preclinical results and the complex nature of clinical trials for CNS disorders. This review discusses the rationale, strengths, weaknesses and predictive validity of the most commonly used models for psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurological disorders as well as critical factors that affect the variability and reproducibility of these models. It also addresses how progress in molecular genetics and the development of transgenic animals has fundamentally changed the approach to neurodegenerative disorder research. To date, transgenic animal models\\have not been the panacea for drug discovery that many had hoped for. However continual refinement of these models is leading to steady progress with the promise of eventual therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:23811310

  4. Safety Evaluation of CNS Administered Biologics-Study Design, Data Interpretation, and Translation to the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708

  5. TLR4 plays a crucial role in MSC-induced inhibition of NK cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ying; Liu, Jin; Liu, Yang; Qin, Yaru; Luo, Qun; Wang, Quanli; Duan, Haifeng

    2015-08-21

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a kind of stromal cell within the tumor microenvironment. In our research, MSC derived from acute myeloid leukemia patients' bone marrow (AML-MSC) and lung cancer tissues (LC-MSC) as well as normal bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) cultured in conditioned medium of HeLa cells were found to have higher expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) mRNA compared with BM-MSC. The sorted TLR4-positive MSC (TLR4+ MSC) differed in cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) secretion from those of unsorted MSC. MSC was reported to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and function. In this research, we confirmed that TLR4+ MSC aggravate this suppression. Furthermore, when TLR4 in the sorted cells were stimulated by LPS or following blocked by antibody, the suppression on NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were more intensive or recovered respectively. Compared to unsorted MSC, NKG2D receptor expression on NK cells were also inhibited by TLR4+ MSC. These findings suggest that activation of TLR4 pathway is important for TLR4+ MSC and MSC to obstruct anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting NK cell function, which may provide a potential stroma-targeted tumor therapy. - Highlights: • TLR4+ MSC inhibit NK cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. • TLR4+ MSC inhibit NKG2D expression on NK cells and NK cell cytotoxicity. • The distinguished cytokine expression of TLR4+ MSC may contribute to the inhibition on NK cell function.

  6. Loss of murine TDP-43 disrupts motor function and plays an essential role in embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Theresa; Wheeler, Jeanna M.; Robinson, Linda C.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal TDP-43 aggregation is a prominent feature in the neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, cause some cases of ALS. The normal function of TDP-43 remains incompletely understood. To better understand TDP-43 biology, we generated mutant mice carrying a genetrap disruption of Tardbp. Mice homozygous for loss of TDP-43 are not viable. TDP-43 deficient embryos die about day 7.5 of embryonic development thereby demonstrating that TDP-43 protein is essential for normal prenatal development and survival. However, heterozygous Tardbp mutant mice exhibit signs of motor disturbance and muscle weakness. Compared with wild type control littermates, Tardbp+/− animals have significantly decreased forelimb grip strength and display deficits in a standard inverted grid test despite no evidence of pathologic changes in motor neurons. Thus, TDP-43 is essential for viability, and mild reduction in TDP-43 function is sufficient to cause motor deficits without degeneration of motor neurons. PMID:20198480

  7. Dissection of larval CNS in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Schedl, Paul

    2006-12-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is complex and poorly understood. One way to investigate the CNS is to use immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of various novel and marker proteins. Staining of whole larvae is impractical because the tough cuticle prevents antibodies from penetrating inside the body cavity. In order to stain these tissues it is necessary to dissect the animal prior to fixing and staining. In this article we demonstrate how to dissect Drosophila larvae without damaging the CNS. Begin by tearing the larva in half with a pair of fine forceps, and then turn the cuticle "inside-out" to expose the CNS. If the dissection is performed carefully the CNS will remain attached to the cuticle. We usually keep the CNS attached to the cuticle throughout the fixation and staining steps, and only completely remove the CNS from the cuticle just prior to mounting the samples on glass slides. We also show some representative images of a larval CNS stained with Eve, a transcription factor expressed in a subset of neurons in the CNS. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the practical uses of this technique and the potential difficulties that may arise. PMID:18704179

  8. AQP4-dependent water transport plays a functional role in exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations.

    PubMed

    Basco, Davide; Blaauw, Bert; Pisani, Francesco; Sparaneo, Angelo; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Mola, Maria Grazia; Reggiani, Carlo; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this study we assess the functional role of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the skeletal muscle by analyzing whether physical activity modulates AQP4 expression and whether the absence of AQP4 has an effect on osmotic behavior, muscle contractile properties, and physical activity. To this purpose, rats and mice were trained on the treadmill for 10 (D10) and 30 (D30) days and tested with exercise to exhaustion, and muscles were used for immunoblotting, RT-PCR, and fiber-type distribution analysis. Taking advantage of the AQP4 KO murine model, functional analysis of AQP4 was performed on dissected muscle fibers and sarcolemma vesicles. Moreover, WT and AQP4 KO mice were subjected to both voluntary and forced activity. Rat fast-twitch muscles showed a twofold increase in AQP4 protein in D10 and D30 rats compared to sedentary rats. Such increase positively correlated with the animal performance, since highest level of AQP4 protein was found in high runner rats. Interestingly, no shift in muscle fiber composition nor an increase in AQP4-positive fibers was found. Furthermore, no changes in AQP4 mRNA after exercise were detected, suggesting that post-translational events are likely to be responsible for AQP4 modulation. Experiments performed on AQP4 KO mice revealed a strong impairment in osmotic responses as well as in forced and voluntary activities compared to WT mice, even though force development amplitude and contractile properties were unvaried. Our findings definitively demonstrate the physiological role of AQP4 in supporting muscle contractile activity and metabolic changes that occur in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. PMID:23520529

  9. Individual metal ligands play distinct functional roles in the zinc sensor Staphylococcus aureus CzrA.

    PubMed

    Pennella, Mario A; Arunkumar, Alphonse I; Giedroc, David P

    2006-03-10

    Recent studies on metalloregulatory proteins suggest that coordination number/geometry and metal ion availability in a host cytosol are key determinants for biological specificity. Here, we investigate the contribution that individual metal ligands of the alpha5 sensing site of Staphylococcus aureus CzrA (Asp84, His86, His97', and His100') make to in vitro metal ion binding affinity, coordination geometry, and allosteric negative regulation of DNA operator/promoter region binding. All ligand substitution mutants exhibit significantly reduced metal ion binding affinity (K(Me)) by > or =10(3) M(-1). Substitutions of Asp84 and His97 give rise to non-native coordination geometries upon metal binding and are non-functional in allosteric coupling of metal and DNA binding (DeltaG(coupling) approximately 0 kcal mol(-1)). In contrast, His86 and His100 could be readily substituted with potentially liganding (Asp, Glu) and poorly liganding (Asn, Gln) residues with significant native-like tetrahedral metal coordination geometry retained in these mutants, leading to strong functional coupling (DeltaG(coupling) > or = +3.0 kcal mol(-1)). 1H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of wild-type and mutant CzrAs reveal that all H86 and H100 substitution mutants undergo 4 degrees structural switching on binding Zn(II), while D84N, H97N and H97D CzrAs do not. Thus, only those variant CzrAs that retain some tetrahedral coordination geometry characteristic of wild-type CzrA upon metal binding are capable of driving 4 degrees structural conformational changes linked to allosteric regulation of DNA binding in vitro, irrespective of the magnitude of K(Me). PMID:16406068

  10. Neuron-specific SALM5 limits inflammation in the CNS via its interaction with HVEM

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuwen; Yao, Sheng; Augustine, Mathew M.; Xu, Haiying; Wang, Jun; Sun, Jingwei; Broadwater, Megan; Ruff, William; Luo, Liqun; Zhu, Gefeng; Tamada, Koji; Chen, Lieping

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ with the capacity to prevent excessive inflammation. Aside from the blood-brain barrier, active immunosuppressive mechanisms remain largely unknown. We report that a neuron-specific molecule, synaptic adhesion-like molecule 5 (SALM5), is a crucial contributor to CNS immune privilege. We found that SALM5 suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in the CNS and that a SALM-specific monoclonal antibody promoted inflammation in the CNS, and thereby aggravated clinical symptoms of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, we identified herpes virus entry mediator as a functional receptor that mediates SALM5’s suppressive function. Our findings reveal a molecular link between the neuronal system and the immune system, and provide potential therapeutic targets for the control of CNS diseases. PMID:27152329

  11. Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies. PMID:25311587

  12. E2F3 plays an essential role in cardiac development and function

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer C.; Moskowitz, Ivan P. G.; Burgon, Patrick G.; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Stone, James R.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    The E2F transcription factors are key downstream targets of the retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor. They are known to regulate the expression of genes that control fundamental biological processes including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. However, considerable questions remain about the precise roles of the individual E2F family members. This study shows that E2F3 is essential for normal cardiac development. E2F3-loss impairs the proliferative capacity of the embryonic myocardium and most E2f3−/− mice die in utero or perinatally with hypoplastic ventricular walls and/or severe atrial and ventricular septal defects. A small fraction of the E2f3−/− neonates have hearts that appear grossly normal and they initially survive. However, these animals develop ultrastructural defects in the cardiac muscle and ultimately die as a result of congestive heart failure. These data demonstrate a clear link between E2F3’s role in the proliferative capacity of the myocardium and cardiac function during both development and adulthood. PMID:19029823

  13. Expression of the small heat shock protein family in the mouse CNS: differential anatomical and biochemical compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Quraishe, S; Asuni, A; Boelens, W C; O'Connor, V; Wyttenbach, A

    2008-05-01

    The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a family of molecular chaperones defined by an alpha-crystallin domain that is important for sHsps oligomerization and chaperone activity. sHsps perform many physiological functions including the maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton, the regulation of protein aggregation and modulate cell survival in a number of cell types including glial and neuronal cells. Many of these functions have been implicated in disease processes in the CNS and indeed sHsps are considered targets for disease therapy. Despite this, there is no study that systematically and comparatively characterized sHsps expression in the CNS. In the present study we have analyzed the expression of this gene family in the mouse brain by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization and Western blotting. Gene expression analysis of the 10 known members of mammalian sHsps confirms the presence of 5 sHsps in the CNS. A distinct white matter specific expression pattern for HspB5 and overlapping expression of HspB1 and HspB8 in the lateral and dorsal ventricles of the brain is observed. We confirm protein expression of HspB1, HspB5, HspB6 and HspB8 in the brain. Further subcellular fractionation of brain and synaptosomes details a distinct subcompartment-specific association and detergent solubility of sHsps. This biochemical signature is indicative of an association with synaptic and other neural specializations. This observation will help one understand the functional role played by sHsps during physiology and pathology in the CNS. PMID:18384969

  14. Histone Regulation in the CNS: Basic Principles of Epigenetic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Ian; Noh, Kyung-Min; Allis, C David

    2013-01-01

    Postmitotic neurons are subject to a vast array of environmental influences that require the nuclear integration of intracellular signaling events to promote a wide variety of neuroplastic states associated with synaptic function, circuit formation, and behavioral memory. Over the last decade, much attention has been paid to the roles of transcription and chromatin regulation in guiding fundamental aspects of neuronal function. A great deal of this work has centered on neurodevelopmental and adulthood plasticity, with increased focus in the areas of neuropharmacology and molecular psychiatry. Here, we attempt to provide a broad overview of chromatin regulation, as it relates to central nervous system (CNS) function, with specific emphasis on the modes of histone posttranslational modifications, chromatin remodeling, and histone variant exchange. Understanding the functions of chromatin in the context of the CNS will aid in the future development of pharmacological therapeutics aimed at alleviating devastating neurological disorders. PMID:22828751

  15. Myelin damage and repair in pathologic CNS: challenges and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Arsalan; Dyck, Scott M.; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) results in oligodendrocyte cell death and progressive demyelination. Demyelinated axons undergo considerable physiological changes and molecular reorganizations that collectively result in axonal dysfunction, degeneration and loss of sensory and motor functions. Endogenous adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neural stem/progenitor cells contribute to the replacement of oligodendrocytes, however, the extent and quality of endogenous remyelination is suboptimal. Emerging evidence indicates that optimal remyelination is restricted by multiple factors including (i) low levels of factors that promote oligodendrogenesis; (ii) cell death among newly generated oligodendrocytes, (iii) inhibitory factors in the post-injury milieu that impede remyelination, and (iv) deficient expression of key growth factors essential for proper re-construction of a highly organized myelin sheath. Considering these challenges, over the past several years, a number of cell-based strategies have been developed to optimize remyelination therapeutically. Outcomes of these basic and preclinical discoveries are promising and signify the importance of remyelination as a mechanism for improving functions in CNS injuries. In this review, we provide an overview on: (1) the precise organization of myelinated axons and the reciprocal axo-myelin interactions that warrant properly balanced physiological activities within the CNS; (2) underlying cause of demyelination and the structural and functional consequences of demyelination in axons following injury and disease; (3) the endogenous mechanisms of oligodendrocyte replacement; (4) the modulatory role of reactive astrocytes and inflammatory cells in remyelination; and (5) the current status of cell-based therapies for promoting remyelination. Careful elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of demyelination in the pathologic CNS is a key to better understanding the impact of remyelination for

  16. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V; Dash, Pramod K; Taylor, Brian A; Levin, Harvey S

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  17. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V.; Dash, Pramod K.; Taylor, Brian A.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  18. CNS myelination and PLP gene dosage.

    PubMed

    Woodward, K; Malcolm, S

    2001-08-01

    The phenomenon of gene dosage effects demonstrates that the mechanisms of some genetic diseases are best recognised at the genomic level. Classical gene mutation screening approaches utilising PCR are unsuccessful in unravelling the basis of disease because the gene sequence is unaltered and only the copy number is different. Techniques for detecting DNA dosage are required. Examples of haploinsufficiency and gene deletions are well documented, but increased gene dosage is also an important genetic mechanism in disorders involving myelin proteins in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we review the dosage effects and mutations of the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene that causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) and spastic paraplegia Type 2 (SPG2) disorders of CNS myelination. Similarities are drawn with the peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1 (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) that are also caused by dosage effects and mutations in a single myelin protein gene (peripheral myelin protein 22, PMP-22). We compare the different mutational mechanisms in man and analogous mouse models that suggest a function for PLP beyond its structural role in myelin. We focus on the increased dosage of the PLP gene that is the major cause of PMD and results from a submicroscopic duplication of Xq22. Other clinical phenotypes may arise from gene dosage imbalance with the potential effect of submicroscopic duplications and deletions of the genome being underestimated. Genome sequencing may identify intrinsic structural properties of the DNA with greater susceptibility to these rearrangements and thereby reflect structural changes in the genome. PMID:11535114

  19. Current approaches to enhance CNS delivery of drugs across the brain barriers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cui-Tao; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Wong, Ho Lun; Cai, Jun; Peng, Lei; Tian, Xin-Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Although many agents have therapeutic potentials for central nervous system (CNS) diseases, few of these agents have been clinically used because of the brain barriers. As the protective barrier of the CNS, the blood–brain barrier and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier maintain the brain microenvironment, neuronal activity, and proper functioning of the CNS. Different strategies for efficient CNS delivery have been studied. This article reviews the current approaches to open or facilitate penetration across these barriers for enhanced drug delivery to the CNS. These approaches are summarized into three broad categories: noninvasive, invasive, and miscellaneous techniques. The progresses made using these approaches are reviewed, and the associated mechanisms and problems are discussed. PMID:24872687

  20. Metformin Plays a Dual Role in MIN6 Pancreatic β Cell Function through AMPK-dependent Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yingling; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Xu, Zhipeng; He, Jieyu; Lin, Xiaohong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in insulin sensitive tissues such as liver, muscle and fat. However, the functional roles and the underlying mechanism of metformin action in pancreatic β cells remain elusive. Here we show that, under normal growth condition, metformin suppresses MIN6 β cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via an AMPK-dependent and autophagy-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, metformin protects MIN6 cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that metformin plays a dual role in β cell survival and overdose of this anti-diabetic drug itself may lead to potential β cell toxicity. PMID:24644425

  1. MHCII-independent CD4+ T cells protect injured CNS neurons via IL-4.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James T; Hendrix, Sven; Boato, Francesco; Smirnov, Igor; Zheng, Jingjing; Lukens, John R; Gadani, Sachin; Hechler, Daniel; Gölz, Greta; Rosenberger, Karen; Kammertöns, Thomas; Vogt, Johannes; Vogelaar, Christina; Siffrin, Volker; Radjavi, Ali; Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Gaultier, Alban; Gold, Ralf; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Nitsch, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    A body of experimental evidence suggests that T cells mediate neuroprotection following CNS injury; however, the antigen specificity of these T cells and how they mediate neuroprotection are unknown. Here, we have provided evidence that T cell-mediated neuroprotection after CNS injury can occur independently of major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) signaling to T cell receptors (TCRs). Using two murine models of CNS injury, we determined that damage-associated molecular mediators that originate from injured CNS tissue induce a population of neuroprotective, IL-4-producing T cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4-deficient animals had decreased functional recovery following CNS injury; however, transfer of CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not from IL-4-deficient mice, enhanced neuronal survival. Using a culture-based system, we determined that T cell-derived IL-4 protects and induces recovery of injured neurons by activation of neuronal IL-4 receptors, which potentiated neurotrophin signaling via the AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these findings demonstrate that damage-associated molecules from the injured CNS induce a neuroprotective T cell response that is independent of MHCII/TCR interactions and is MyD88 dependent. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-4 mediates neuroprotection and recovery of the injured CNS and suggest that strategies to enhance IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells have potential to attenuate axonal damage in the course of CNS injury in trauma, inflammation, or neurodegeneration. PMID:25607842

  2. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  3. CaMKIIβ regulates oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Waggener, Christopher T; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Elgersma, Ype; Fuss, Babette

    2013-06-19

    CNS myelination and the maturation of the myelinating cells of the CNS, namely oligodendrocytes, are thought to be regulated by molecular mechanisms controlling the actin cytoskeleton. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms is currently only poorly understood. Here we assessed the role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CaMKII), in particular CaMKIIβ, in oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. Using in vitro culture studies, our data demonstrate that CaMKIIβ is critical for the proper morphological maturation of differentiating oligodendrocytes, an aspect of oligodendrocyte maturation that is mediated to a large extent by changes in the cellular cytoskeleton. Furthermore, our data provide evidence for an actin-cytoskeleton-stabilizing role of CaMKIIβ in differentiating oligodendrocytes. Using Camk2b knock-out and Camk2b(A303R) mutant mice, our data revealed an in vivo functional role of CaMKIIβ in regulating myelin thickness that may be mediated by a non-kinase-catalytic activity. Our data point toward a critical role of CaMKIIβ in regulating oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination via an actin-cytoskeleton-regulatory mechanism. PMID:23785157

  4. Clitoria ternatea and the CNS.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeti N; Ohal, C C; Shroff, S K; Bhutada, R H; Somani, R S; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2003-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed at determining the spectrum of activity of the methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (CT) on the CNS. The CT was studied for its effect on cognitive behavior, anxiety, depression, stress and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and maximum electroshock (MES). To explain these effects, the effect of CT was also studied on behavior mediated by dopamine (DA), noradrenaline, serotonin and acetylcholine. The extract decreased time required to occupy the central platform (transfer latency, TL) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and increased discrimination index in the object recognition test, indicating nootropic activity. The extract was more active in the object recognition test than in the EPM. The extract increased occupancy in the open arm of EPM by 160% and in the lit box of the light/dark exploration test by 157%, indicating its anxiolytic activity. It decreased the duration of immobility in tail suspension test (suggesting its antidepressant activity), reduced stress-induced ulcers and reduced the convulsing action of PTZ and MES. The extract exhibited tendency to reduce the intensity of behavior mediated via serotonin and acetylcholine. The effect on DA- and noradrenaline-mediated behavior was not significant. In conclusion, the extract was found to possess nootropic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antistress activity. Further studies are necessary to isolate the active principle responsible for the activities and to understand its mode of action. PMID:12895670

  5. CNS development under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity. In furtherance of this goal, the present studies assessed the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum. Specifically, the expression of selected cerebellar proteins and corresponding genes was compared in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5G) from embryonic day (E) 11 to postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Cerebellar proteins were analyzed by quantitative western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Densitometric analysis of western blots suggested 21% to 31% reduction in neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 31% to 45% reduction in glial acidic protein (GFAP). RPA results suggested a small reduction (<10%) in NCAM mRNA and a moderate reduction (<25%) in GFAP mRNA. These data indicate that the expression of selected cerebellar proteins may be affected at both the transcriptional and translational/postranslational level. Furthermore, these results suggest that changes in expression of selected genes may underlie hypergravity's effect on the developing CNS. (Supported by NASA grant NCC2-1042 and BWH Psychiatry Fund).

  6. Astrocytic TIMP-1 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Enhances CNS Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Craig S.; Milner, Richard; Nishiyama, Akiko; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Serwanski, David R.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Miller, Robert H.; Crocker, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an extracellular protein and endogenous regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by astrocytes in response to CNS myelin injury. We have previously reported that adult TIMP-1KO mice exhibit poor myelin repair following demyelinating injury. This observation led us to hypothesize a role for TIMP-1 in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Herein, we demonstrate that compact myelin formation is significantly delayed in TIMP-1KO mice which coincided with dramatically reduced numbers of white matter astrocytes in the developing CNS. Analysis of differentiation in CNS progenitor cells (neurosphere) cultures from TIMP-1KO mice revealed a specific deficit of NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Application of rmTIMP-1 to TIMP-1KO neurosphere cultures evoked a dose-dependent increase in NG2+ cell numbers, while treatment with GM6001, a potent broad spectrum MMP inhibitor did not. Similarly, administration of recombinant murine TIMP-1 (rmTIMP-1) to A2B5+ immunopanned oligodendrocyte progenitors significantly increased the number of differentiated O1+ oligodendrocytes, while antisera to TIMP-1 reduced oligodendrocyte numbers. We also determined that A2B5+ oligodendrocyte progenitors grown in conditioned media derived from TIMP-1KO primary glial cultures resulted in reduced differentiation of mature O1+ oligodendrocytes. Finally, we report that addition of rmTIMP-1 to primary glial cultures resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative response of astrocytes. Together, these findings describe a previously uncharacterized role for TIMP-1 in the regulation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during development and provide a novel function for TIMP-1 on myelination in the developing CNS. PMID:21508247

  7. The Drosophila pumilio gene encodes two functional protein isoforms that play multiple roles in germline development, gonadogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, M; Lin, H

    1999-01-01

    The pumilio (pum) gene plays an essential role in embryonic patterning and germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance during oogenesis in Drosophila. Here we report on a phenotypic analysis using pum(ovarette) mutations, which reveals multiple functions of pum in primordial germ cell proliferation, larval ovary formation, GSC division, and subsequent oogenic processes, as well as in oviposition. Specifically, by inducing pum(-) GSC clones at the onset of oogenesis, we show that pum is directly involved in GSC division, a function that is distinct from its requirement in primordial germ cells. Furthermore, we show that pum encodes 156- and 130-kD proteins, both of which are functional isoforms. Among pum(ovarette) mutations, pum(1688) specifically eliminates the 156-kD isoform but not the 130-kD isoform, while pum(2003) and pum(4277) specifically affect the 130-kD isoform but not the 156-kD isoform. Normal doses of both isoforms are required for the zygotic function of pum, yet either isoform alone at a normal dose is sufficient for the maternal effect function of pum. A pum cDNA transgene that contains the known open reading frame encodes only the 156-kD isoform and rescues the phenotype of both pum(1688) and pum(2003) mutants. These observations suggest that the 156- and 130-kD isoforms can compensate for each other's function in a dosage-dependent manner. Finally, we present molecular evidence suggesting that the two PUM isoforms share some of their primary structures. PMID:10471709

  8. New Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lersten, Kenneth C.

    There have been many theories and hypotheses about play, one of which is the equation of play with "transcendence." Play may have the ingredients to allow us to transcend and, for a moment, remythologize life. There have been recent authors who have given play the status of theology, indicating that play contains elements also found in religion.…

  9. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  10. Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-03-03

    We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

  11. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  12. Adjacent proline residues in the inhibitory domain of the Oct-2 transcription factor play distinct functional roles.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y Z; Lee, I K; Locke, I; Dawson, S J; Latchman, D S

    1998-01-01

    A 40 amino acid region of Oct-2 from amino acids 142 to 181 functions as an active repressor domain capable of inhibiting both basal activity and activation of promoters containing a TATA box, but not of those that contain an initiator element. Based on our observation that the equivalent region of the closely related Oct-1 factor does not act as an inhibitory domain, we have mutated specific residues in the Oct-2 domain in an attempt to probe their importance in repressor domain function. Although mutations of several residues have no or minimal effect, mutation of proline 175 to arginine abolishes the ability to inhibit both basal and activated transcription. In contrast, mutation of proline 174 to arginine confers upon the domain the ability to repress activation of an initiator-containing promoter by acidic activation domains, and also suppresses the effect of the proline 175 mutation. Hence, adjacent proline residues play key roles in the functioning of the inhibitory domain and in limiting its specificity to TATA-box-containing promoters. PMID:9580701

  13. The influence of playing a non-reward game on motor ability and executive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Araújo Lima, Alisson Menezes; Cordeiro Hirata, Fabiana de Campos; Sales de Bruin, Gabriela; Salani Mota, Rosa Maria; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales de

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of playing games on executive function and motor ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Consecutive cases with PD were studied with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Stroop test, finger tapping and 14-meter walk test. After randomization, patients performed a game of dominoes and were tested before and after experiment being further categorized as control, winners or non-winners. Forty patients, 27 male (67.5%), aged 48 to 84 years (63.2 ± 8.5), Hoehn & Yahr I to III were included. Twenty-eight (70%) presented depressive symptoms (BDI > 10). Groups (Control N = 13; Winners = 14 and Non-winners = 13) were not different regarding age, disease duration, age at onset, BMI, MMSE scores, depressive symptoms, levodopa dose, and previous practice of games. Winners presented significantly better results on executive function (Stroop test, p = 0.002) and on motor activity (Finger tapping, p = 0.01). Non-winners showed a trend of better performance in the 14-meter-walk test. This study shows that the practice of a non-reward game acutely improved memory and motor skills in PD. Our results suggest a role for the reward system in the modulation of the dopaminergic function of the basal ganglia in these patients. PMID:22530266

  14. Clinical Applications Involving CNS Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; McCown, Thomas; Leone, Paola; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been the most difficult to treat by traditional pharmacological methods, due mostly to the blood–brain barrier and the difficulties associated with repeated drug administration targeting the CNS. Viral vector gene transfer represents a way to permanently provide a therapeutic protein within the nervous system after a single administration, whether this be a gene replacement strategy for an inherited disorder or a disease-modifying protein for a disease such as Parkinson's. Gene therapy approaches for CNS disorders has evolved considerably over the last two decades. Although a breakthrough treatment has remained elusive, current strategies are now considerably safer and potentially much more effective. This chapter will explore the past, current, and future status of CNS gene therapy, focusing on clinical trials utilizing adeno-associated virus and lentiviral vectors. PMID:25311921

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Primary CNS Lymphoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... large vein near the heart. Having a weakened immune system may increase the risk of developing primary CNS ... immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant . For ...

  16. Treatment Options for Primary CNS Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... large vein near the heart. Having a weakened immune system may increase the risk of developing primary CNS ... immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant . For ...

  17. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  18. CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rajoo; Radhan, Prabhu; Anand, Rajamani; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Santosham, Roy; Sai, Venakata

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious and life-threatening disease in humans with a high prevalence in immunocompromised persons. The disease has a wide spectrum, depending on the immune status of the person. A CNS manifestation of toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person is very rare and often undetected. Our case of CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person emphasizes the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by advanced microbiology technique. PMID:27141248

  19. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Arup K; Herbertz, Torsten; Hudkins, Robert L; Dorsey, Bruce D; Mallamo, John P

    2012-01-18

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å(2) (25-60 Å(2)), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740-970 Å(3), (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460-580 Å(2), and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The

  20. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å2 (25–60 Å2), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740–970 Å3, (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460–580 Å2, and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The

  1. Inhibition of CRMP2 phosphorylation repairs CNS by regulating neurotrophic and inhibitory responses.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Jun; Owada, Kazuki; Kitamura, Yoshiteru; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

    2016-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) regeneration is restricted by both the lack of neurotrophic responses and the presence of inhibitory factors. As of yet, a common mediator of these two pathways has not been identified. Microtubule dynamics is responsible for several key processes after CNS injuries: intracellular trafficking of receptors for neurotrophic factors, axonal retraction by inhibitory factors, and secondary tissue damages by inflammation and scarring. Kinases regulating microtubule organization, such as Cdk5 or GSK3β, may play pivotal roles during CNS recovery, but the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) stabilizes cytoskeletal polymerization, while CRMP2 phosphorylation by Cdk5 and GSK3β loses its affinity for cytoskeleton proteins, leading to the inhibition of axonal growth. Here, we characterized CRMP2 phosphorylation as the first crucial factor regulating neurotrophic and inhibitory responses after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that pharmacological inhibition of GSK3β enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced axonal growth response in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons from CRMP2 knock-in (Crmp2KI/KI) mice, where CRMP2 phosphorylation was eliminated, showed elevated sensitivity to BDNF as well. Additionally, cultured Crmp2KI/KI neurons exhibited suppressed axonal growth inhibition by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). These data suggest a couple of new molecular insights: the BDNF/GSK3β/CRMP2 and CSPG/GSK3β/CRMP2 pathways. Next, we tested the significance of CRMP2 phosphorylation after CNS injury in vivo. The phosphorylation level of CRMP2 was enhanced in the injured spinal cord. Crmp2KI/KI mice exhibited prominent recovery of locomotive and nociceptive functions after SCI, which correlated with the enhanced axonal growth of the motor and sensory neurons. Neuroprotective effects against SCI, such as microtubule stabilization, reduced inflammation

  2. A Philosophy for CNS Radiotracer Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Decades after its discovery, positron emission tomography (PET) remains the premier tool for imaging neurochemistry in living humans. Technological improvements in radiolabeling methods, camera design, and image analysis have kept PET in the forefront. In addition, the use of PET imaging has expanded because researchers have developed new radiotracers that visualize receptors, transporters, enzymes, and other molecular targets within the human brain. However, of the thousands of proteins in the central nervous system (CNS), researchers have successfully imaged fewer than 40 human proteins. To address the critical need for new radiotracers, this Account expounds on the decisions, strategies, and pitfalls of CNS radiotracer development based on our current experience in this area. We discuss the five key components of radiotracer development for human imaging: choosing a biomedical question, selection of a biological target, design of the radiotracer chemical structure, evaluation of candidate radiotracers, and analysis of preclinical imaging. It is particularly important to analyze the market of scientists or companies who might use a new radiotracer and carefully select a relevant biomedical question(s) for that audience. In the selection of a specific biological target, we emphasize how target localization and identity can constrain this process and discuss the optimal target density and affinity ratios needed for binding-based radiotracers. In addition, we discuss various PET test–retest variability requirements for monitoring changes in density, occupancy, or functionality for new radiotracers. In the synthesis of new radiotracer structures, high-throughput, modular syntheses have proved valuable, and these processes provide compounds with sites for late-stage radioisotope installation. As a result, researchers can manage the time constraints associated with the limited half-lives of isotopes. In order to evaluate brain uptake, a number of methods

  3. PKR, a p53 target gene, plays a crucial role in the tumor-suppressor function of p53

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Eun-Soo; Lim, Dae-Seog; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Type I IFN-induced expression of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) during viral infection is a well-established antiviral mechanism. However, little is known about the expression of PKR in the context of p53 and about PKR involvement in p53-mediated tumor suppression. Here, we report that PKR is a p53 target gene and plays an important role in the tumor-suppressor function of p53. Activation of p53 by genotoxic stress induces a significant level of PKR expression by acting on the newly identified cis-acting element (ISRE), which is separated from the IFN-stimulated responsive element on the PKR promoter, resulting in translational inhibition and cell apoptosis. The genotoxin-mediated inhibition of translation is associated with the p53/PKR/elF2a (eukaryotic initiation factor-2α) pathway. To some extent, p53 activation induced by DNA damage facilitates cell apoptosis by activating PKR. PKR-knockdown human colon cancer cells grew rapidly in nude mice and proved resistant to anti-cancer drugs. These data indicate that p53-mediated tumor suppression can be attributed at least in part to the biological functions of PKR induced by p53 in genotoxic conditions. PMID:19416861

  4. In Vivo Reprogramming for CNS Repair: Regenerating Neurons from Endogenous Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hedong; Chen, Gong

    2016-08-17

    Neuroregeneration in the CNS has proven to be difficult despite decades of research. The old dogma that CNS neurons cannot be regenerated in the adult mammalian brain has been overturned; however, endogenous adult neurogenesis appears to be insufficient for brain repair. Stem cell therapy once held promise for generating large quantities of neurons in the CNS, but immunorejection and long-term functional integration remain major hurdles. In this Perspective, we discuss the use of in vivo reprogramming as an emerging technology to regenerate functional neurons from endogenous glial cells inside the brain and spinal cord. Besides the CNS, in vivo reprogramming has been demonstrated successfully in the pancreas, heart, and liver and may be adopted in other organs. Although challenges remain for translating this technology into clinical therapies, we anticipate that in vivo reprogramming may revolutionize regenerative medicine by using a patient's own internal cells for tissue repair. PMID:27537482

  5. Clinical Potential of Neurosteroids for CNS Disorders.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Estes, William A

    2016-07-01

    Neurosteroids are key endogenous molecules in the brain that affect many neural functions. We describe here recent advances in US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored and other clinical studies of neurosteroids for CNS disorders. The neuronal GABA-A receptor chloride channel is one of the prime molecular targets of neurosteroids. Allopregnanolone-like neurosteroids are potent allosteric agonists as well as direct activators of both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. Hence, neurosteroids can maximally enhance synaptic phasic and extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. The resulting chloride current conductance generates a form of shunting inhibition that controls network excitability, seizures, and behavior. Such mechanisms of neurosteroids are providing innovative therapies for epilepsy, status epilepticus (SE), traumatic brain injury (TBI), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and chemical neurotoxicity. The neurosteroid field has entered a new era, and many compounds have reached advanced clinical trials. Synthetic analogs have several advantages over natural neurosteroids for clinical use because of their superior bioavailability and safety trends. PMID:27156439

  6. Autoradiographic visualization of CNS receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.M.; Moody, T.W.

    1986-03-01

    Receptors for VIP were characterized in the rat CNS. /sup 125/I-VIP bound with high affinity to rat brain slices. Binding was time dependent and specific. Pharmacology studies indicated that specific /sup 125/I-VIP binding was inhibited with high affinity by VIP and low affinity by secretin and PHI. Using in vitro autoradiographic techniques high grain densities were present in the dentate gyrus, pineal gland, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and the area postrema. Moderate grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, cerebral cortex, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subiculum and the medial geniculate nucleus. Grains were absent in the corpus callosum and controls treated with 1 microM unlabeled VIP. The discrete regional distribution of VIP receptors suggest that it may function as an important modulator of neural activity in the CNS.

  7. Differential Stability of PNS and CNS Nodal Complexes When Neuronal Neurofascin Is Lost

    PubMed Central

    Desmazieres, Anne; Zonta, Barbara; Zhang, Ao; Wu, Lai-Man N.; Sherman, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node. PMID:24719087

  8. Differential stability of PNS and CNS nodal complexes when neuronal neurofascin is lost.

    PubMed

    Desmazieres, Anne; Zonta, Barbara; Zhang, Ao; Wu, Lai-Man N; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node. PMID:24719087

  9. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25558415

  10. Nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenocorticomedullary functions in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel A; Sánchez, Gina; Liberona, Leonel; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Giussani, Dino A; Blanco, Carlos E; Hanson, Mark A; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that nitric oxide plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines under basal and hypoxaemic conditions in the llama fetus was tested. At 0.6-0.8 of gestation, 11 llama fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording under anaesthesia with vascular and amniotic catheters. Following recovery all fetuses underwent an experimental protocol based on 1 h of normoxaemia, 1 h of hypoxaemia and 1 h of recovery. In nine fetuses, the protocol occurred during fetal i.v. infusion with saline and in five fetuses during fetal i.v. treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME. Adrenal blood flow was determined by the radiolabelled microsphere method during each of the experimental periods during saline infusion and treatment with l-NAME. Treatment with l-NAME during normoxaemia led to a marked fall in adrenal blood flow and a pronounced increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations, but it did not affect plasma ACTH or cortisol levels. In saline-infused fetuses, acute hypoxaemia elicited an increase in adrenal blood flow and in plasma ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations. Treatment with l-NAME did not affect the increase in fetal plasma ACTH, but prevented the increments in adrenal blood flow and in plasma cortisol and adrenaline concentrations during hypoxaemia in the llama fetus. In contrast, l-NAME further enhanced the increase in fetal plasma noradrenaline. These data support the hypothesis that nitric oxide has important roles in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenal corticomedullary functions during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia functions in the late gestation llama fetus. PMID:12356897

  11. Hemp, an mbt domain-containing protein, plays essential roles in hematopoietic stem cell function and skeletal formation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Hiroaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Oda, Hideaki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Tazaki, Tatsuya; Yamasaki, Norimasa; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Moore, Kateri A.; Honda, Zen-ichiro; Suda, Toshio; Lemischka, Ihor R.

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular pathways governing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development, we screened a fetal liver (FL) HSC cDNA library and identified a unique gene, hematopoietic expressed mammalian polycomb (hemp), encoding a protein with a zinc-finger domain and four malignant brain tumor (mbt) repeats. To investigate its biological role, we generated mice lacking Hemp (hemp−/−). Hemp−/− mice exhibited a variety of skeletal malformations and died soon after birth. In the FL, hemp was preferentially expressed in the HSC and early progenitor cell fractions, and analyses of fetal hematopoiesis revealed that the number of FL mononuclear cells, including HSCs, was reduced markedly in hemp−/− embryos, especially during early development. In addition, colony-forming and competitive repopulation assays demonstrated that the proliferative and reconstitution abilities of hemp−/− FL HSCs were significantly impaired. Microarray analysis revealed alterations in the expression levels of several genes implicated in hematopoietic development and differentiation in hemp−/− FL HSCs. These results demonstrate that Hemp, an mbt-containing protein, plays essential roles in HSC function and skeletal formation. It is also hypothesized that Hemp might be involved in certain congenital diseases, such as Klippel-Feil anomaly. PMID:21252303

  12. Uterine autonomic nerve innervation plays a crucial role in regulating rat uterine mast cell functions during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xue-Jun; Huang, Li-Bo; Qiao, Hui-Li; Deng, Ze-Pei; Fa, Jing-Jing

    2009-12-01

    To explore the potential mechanism of how uterine innervations would affect the uterine mast cell (MC) population and functions during the periimplantation. We herein first examined the consequence of uterine neurectomy on embryo implantation events. We observed that amputation of autonomic nerves innervating the uterus led to on-time implantation failure in rats. Exploiting MC culture and ELISA approaches, we then further analyzed the effect of neurectomy on cellular histamine levels and its release from uterine MCs, to elucidate the relation of the autonomic nerves and local cellular immunity in the uterine during early pregnancy. We observed that disconnection of autonomic nerve innervation significantly increased the population of uterine MCs. Most interestingly, these increased number of uterine MCs in neuroectomized rats contained a much reduced cellular level of histamine. Our subsequent challenge experiments revealed that uterine MCs in nerve amputated rats exhibited enhanced histamine releasing rate in response to substance P and antiIgE, suggesting loss of nerve innervation in the uterus not only increases the population of uterine MCs, but also facilitates the release of histamine from MCs, thus subsequently interfere with the normal implantation process. Collectively, our findings provide a new line of evidence supporting the concept that immune-neuro-endocrine network plays important role during pregnancy establishment and maintenance. PMID:19765668

  13. Disturbance of oligodendrocyte function plays a key role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shingo; Hattori, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Shoko; Ito, Akira; Tohyama, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    The major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are thought to be multifactorial diseases related to both genetic and environmental factors. However, the genes responsible and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SZ and MDD remain unclear. We previously reported that abnormalities of disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) and DISC1 binding zinc finger (DBZ) might cause major psychiatric disorders such as SZ. Interestingly, both DISC and DBZ have been further detected in oligodendrocytes and implicated in regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation. DISC1 negatively regulates the differentiation of oligodendrocytes, whereas DBZ plays a positive regulatory role in oligodendrocyte differentiation. We have reported that repeated stressful events, one of the major risk factors of MDD, can induce sustained upregulation of plasma corticosterone levels and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1) mRNA expression in oligodendrocytes. Repeated stressful events can also activate the SGK1 cascade and cause excess arborization of oligodendrocyte processes, which is thought to be related to depressive-like symptoms. In this review, we discuss the expression of DISC1, DBZ, and SGK1 in oligodendrocytes, their roles in the regulation of oligodendrocyte function, possible interactions of DISC1 and DBZ in relation to SZ, and the activation of the SGK1 signaling cascade in relation to MDD. PMID:25705664

  14. Risk of CNS dissemination in extranodal lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2014-04-01

    Extranodal lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous group of malignancies, accounting for roughly 60% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The extranodal organ where lymphomas arise is an important determining factor of biological, molecular, and aetio-pathogenic features, and of presentation, dissemination pattern, and outcome. An increased risk of CNS involvement, an uncommon but lethal event, has been suggested in some extranodal lymphomas, but the absolute risk is still debatable for most of these malignancies. This debate is because of the presence of selection biases and other confounding factors in related literature, which inevitably has led to conflicting recommendations. The identification of extranodal lymphomas at increased risk of CNS dissemination is an important unmet clinical need; affected patients could benefit from early CNS assessment by neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis and adequate CNS prophylaxis, avoiding unnecessary prophylaxis and related toxicity in low-risk patients. This Review discusses relevant confounding factors and identifies high-risk extranodal lymphomas analysing histopathological category, involved organ, and other specific risk factors, which could be helpful for result interpretation and patient stratification in future clinical trials. Finally, a recommendation is provided for CNS-directed management of high-risk extranodal lymphoma patients in daily practice. PMID:24694639

  15. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  16. Wanna Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the importance of play in the lives of children and describes how games and imaginative play contribute to the development of children. From her decades-old collection of countless incidents demonstrating children's love for self-directed, informal, imaginative play, the author shares three incidents that…

  17. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  18. Nanotechnology for CNS Delivery of Bio-Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lipa; Yadav, Sunita; Amiji, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    The current therapeutic strategies are not efficient in treating disorders related to the central nervous system (CNS) and have only shown partial alleviation of symptoms, as opposed to, disease modifying effects. With change in population demographics, the incidence of CNS disorders, especially neurodegenerative diseases, is expected to rise dramatically. Current treatment regimens are associated with severe side-effects, especially given that most of these are chronic therapies and involve elderly population. In this review, we highlight the challenges and opportunities in delivering newer and more effective bio-therapeutic agents for the treatment of CNS disorders. Bio-therapeutics like proteins, peptides, monoclonal antibodies, growth factors, and nucleic acids are thought to have a profound effect on halting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and also provide a unique function of restoring damaged cells. We provide a review of the nano-sized formulation-based drug delivery systems and alternate modes of delivery, like the intranasal route, to carry bio-therapeutics effectively to the brain. PMID:23894728

  19. PPAR agonists as therapeutics for CNS trauma and neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mandrekar-Colucci, Shweta; Sauerbeck, Andrew; Popovich, Phillip G.; McTigue, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury or disease of the spinal cord and brain elicits multiple cellular and biochemical reactions that together cause or are associated with neuropathology. Specifically, injury or disease elicits acute infiltration and activation of immune cells, death of neurons and glia, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the secretion of substrates that inhibit axon regeneration. In some diseases, inflammation is chronic or non-resolving. Ligands that target PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), a group of ligand-activated transcription factors, are promising therapeutics for neurologic disease and CNS injury because their activation affects many, if not all, of these interrelated pathologic mechanisms. PPAR activation can simultaneously weaken or reprogram the immune response, stimulate metabolic and mitochondrial function, promote axon growth and induce progenitor cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PPAR activation has beneficial effects in many pre-clinical models of neurodegenerative diseases and CNS injury; however, the mechanisms through which PPARs exert these effects have yet to be fully elucidated. In this review we discuss current literature supporting the role of PPAR activation as a therapeutic target for treating traumatic injury and degenerative diseases of the CNS. PMID:24215544

  20. Nanotechnology for CNS delivery of bio-therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lipa; Yadav, Sunita; Amiji, Mansoor

    2013-08-01

    The current therapeutic strategies are not efficient in treating disorders related to the central nervous system (CNS) and have only shown partial alleviation of symptoms, as opposed to, disease modifying effects. With change in population demographics, the incidence of CNS disorders, especially neurodegenerative diseases, is expected to rise dramatically. Current treatment regimens are associated with severe side-effects, especially given that most of these are chronic therapies and involve elderly population. In this review, we highlight the challenges and opportunities in delivering newer and more effective bio-therapeutic agents for the treatment of CNS disorders. Bio-therapeutics like proteins, peptides, monoclonal antibodies, growth factors, and nucleic acids are thought to have a profound effect on halting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and also provide a unique function of restoring damaged cells. We provide a review of the nano-sized formulation-based drug delivery systems and alternate modes of delivery, like the intranasal route, to carry bio-therapeutics effectively to the brain. PMID:23894728

  1. Pannexin 2 protein expression is not restricted to the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Le Vasseur, Maxence; Lelowski, Jonathan; Bechberger, John F.; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

    2014-01-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins homologous to the invertebrate gap junction proteins called innexins (Inx) and are traditionally described as transmembrane channels connecting the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Three distinct Panx paralogs (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3) have been identified in vertebrates but previous reports on Panx expression and functionality focused primarily on Panx1 and Panx3 proteins. Several gene expression studies reported that Panx2 transcript is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) hence suggesting that Panx2 might serve an important role in the CNS. However, the lack of suitable antibodies prevented the creation of a comprehensive map of Panx2 protein expression and Panx2 protein localization profile is currently mostly inferred from the distribution of its transcript. In this study, we characterized novel commercial monoclonal antibodies and surveyed Panx2 expression and distribution at the mRNA and protein level by real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Panx2 protein levels were readily detected in every tissue examined, even when transcriptional analysis predicted very low Panx2 protein expression. Furthermore, our results indicate that Panx2 transcriptional activity is a poor predictor of Panx2 protein abundance and does not correlate with Panx2 protein levels. Despite showing disproportionately high transcript levels, the CNS expressed less Panx2 protein than any other tissues analyzed. Additionally, we showed that Panx2 protein does not localize at the plasma membrane like other gap junction proteins but remains confined within cytoplasmic compartments. Overall, our results demonstrate that the endogenous expression of Panx2 protein is not restricted to the CNS and is more ubiquitous than initially predicted. PMID:25505382

  2. Hyperactivated Stat3 boosts axon regeneration in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saloni T; Luo, Xueting; Park, Kevin K; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2016-06-01

    Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is intrinsically and extrinsically inhibited by multiple factors. One major factor contributing to intrinsic regeneration failure is the inability of mature neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) to activate regeneration-associated transcription factors (TFs) post-injury. A prior study identified TFs overexpressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compared to the CNS; some of these could be involved in the ability of PNS neurons to regenerate. Of these, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well its downstream regeneration-associated targets, showed a significant upregulation in PNS neurons relative to CNS neurons, and a constitutively active variant of Stat3 (Stat3CA) promoted neurite growth when expressed in cerebellar neurons (Lerch et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2011). To further enhance STAT3's neurite outgrowth enhancing activity, Stat3CA was fused with a viral activation domain (VP16). VP16 hyperactivates TFs by recruiting transcriptional co-factors to the DNA binding domain (Hirai et al., 2010). Overexpression of this VP16-Stat3CA chimera in primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth as well as Stat3 transcriptional activity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with AAV constructs expressing VP16-Stat3CA resulted in regeneration of optic nerve axons after injury, to a greater degree than for those expressing Stat3CA alone. These findings confirm and extend the concept that overexpression of hyperactivated transcription factors identified as functioning in PNS regeneration can promote axon regeneration in the CNS. PMID:27060489

  3. Immunosuppressive Mechanisms of Malignant Gliomas: Parallels at Non-CNS Sites

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Powell; Lim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) possesses powerful local and global immunosuppressive capabilities that modulate unwanted inflammatory reactions in nervous tissue. These same immune-modulatory mechanisms are also co-opted by malignant brain tumors and pose a formidable challenge to brain tumor immunotherapy. Routes by which malignant gliomas coordinate immunosuppression include the mechanical and functional barriers of the CNS; immunosuppressive cytokines and catabolites; immune checkpoint molecules; tumor-infiltrating immune cells; and suppressor immune cells. The challenges to overcoming tumor-induced immunosuppression, however, are not unique to the brain, and several analogous immunosuppressive mechanisms also exist for primary tumors outside of the CNS. Ultimately, the immune responses in the CNS are linked and complementary to immune processes in the periphery, and advances in tumor immunotherapy in peripheral sites may therefore illuminate novel approaches to brain tumor immunotherapy, and vice versa. PMID:26217588

  4. Dealing with Danger in the CNS: The Response of the Immune System to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gadani, Sachin P.; Walsh, James T.; Lukens, John R.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Fighting pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis are prerequisites for survival. Both of these functions are upheld by the immune system, though the latter is often overlooked in the context of the CNS. The mere presence of immune cells in the CNS was long considered a hallmark of pathology, but this view has been recently challenged by studies demonstrating that immunological signaling can confer pivotal neuroprotective effects on the injured CNS. In this review we describe the temporal sequence of immunological events that follow CNS injury. Beginning with immediate changes at the injury site including death of neural cells and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and progressing through innate and adaptive immune responses, we describe the cascade of inflammatory mediators and the implications of their post-injury effects. We conclude by proposing a revised interpretation of immune privilege in the brain, which takes beneficial neuro-immune communications into account. PMID:26139369

  5. MicroRNA (miRNA): sequence and stability, viroid-like properties, and disease association in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Aileen I; Hill, James M; Lukiw, Walter J

    2014-10-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a relatively recently-discovered class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that are gaining considerable attention in the molecular-genetic regulatory mechanisms that contribute to human health and disease. As highly soluble and mobile entities, emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs posess a highly selected ribonucleotide sequence structure, are part of an evolutionary ancient genetic signaling system, resemble the plant pathogens known as viroids in their structure, mode of generation and function, and are very abundant in the physiological fluids that surround cells and tissues. Persistence and altered abundance of miRNAs in the extracellular fluid (ECF) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may play a role in the intercellular spreading of disease systemically, and throughout functionally-linked cellular and tissue systems such as the central nervous system (CNS). This short communication will review some of the more fascinating features of these highly structured single stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) with emphasis on their presence and function in the human CNS, with particular reference to Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) wherever possible. PMID:24709119

  6. Competitive versus cooperative exergame play for African American adolescents' executive function skills: short-term effects in a long-term training intervention.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2012-03-01

    Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American adolescents were randomly assigned to a competitive exergame condition, a cooperative exergame condition, or a no-play control group. Youths in the competitive exergame condition improved in executive function skills more than did those in the cooperative exergame condition and the no-play control group. Weight loss during the intervention was also significantly positively correlated with improved executive function skills. The findings link competitive exergame play to beneficial cognitive outcomes for at-risk ethnic minority adolescents. PMID:22369339

  7. Competitive Versus Cooperative Exergame Play for African American Adolescents’ Executive Function Skills: Short-Term Effects in a Long-Term Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American adolescents were randomly assigned to a competitive exergame condition, a cooperative exergame condition, or a no-play control group. Youths in the competitive exergame condition improved in executive function skills more than did those in the cooperative exergame condition and the no-play control group. Weight loss during the intervention was also significantly positively correlated with improved executive function skills. The findings link competitive exergame play to beneficial cognitive outcomes for at-risk ethnic minority adolescents. PMID:22369339

  8. CNS involvement in small noncleaved-cell lymphoma: is CNS disease per se a poor prognostic sign?

    PubMed

    Haddy, T B; Adde, M A; Magrath, I T

    1991-11-01

    Of 120 patients with small noncleaved-cell lymphoma who were entered sequentially on four National Cancer Institute (NCI) protocols, 29 (24%) had CNS involvement at some time in their clinical course. Seventeen had initial CNS involvement, and 12 developed CNS involvement at the time of first relapse. All 29 patients had extensive disease at presentation. The median serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at presentation were 1,150 IU/L for patients with initial CNS involvement and 1,083 IU/L for patients with CNS involvement at relapse. CNS disease was significantly associated with serum LDH levels (P less than .0001), bone marrow involvement (P less than .0001), and jaw involvement (P = .018), but not involvement of the abdomen. There were nine long-term survivors among the 29 patients (31%). CNS disease did not appear to confer a worse prognosis on these patients than on patients without CNS involvement who had similar degrees of serum LDH elevation or who had bone marrow involvement, suggesting that extensive disease rather than CNS involvement was responsible for the poor prognosis. Event-free survival for patients with serum LDH levels above 500 IU/L was not different whether CNS disease was present or not (P = .29), nor was event-free survival different for patients with stage IV disease, whether CNS disease was present or not (P = .92). Although some patients had CNS radiation, there was no evidence that this was of therapeutic benefit. Intrathecal (IT) chemoprophylaxis effectively prevented spread to the CNS in patients without initial CNS involvement. Five of 18 patients (28%) who received no IT prophylaxis had CNS relapse (four isolated to the CNS), but only seven of the 85 patients (8%) who received IT prophylaxis had CNS relapse (two isolated to the CNS). The differences in overall and isolated CNS relapse rates were statistically significant (P = .034 and P = .008, respectively). PMID:1941056

  9. Immunohistological localization of 5-HT in the CNS and feeding system of the Stable Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-HT immunoreactive neurons were detected in the CNS of the stable fly. The finding of strong innervations of the cibarial pump muscles and the foregut by 5-HT IR neurons in the feeding-related systems suggests that 5-HT may play a crucial role in the control of the feeding behavior in both the larv...

  10. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. PMID:26263228

  11. Neurosteroid regulation of CNS development

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Synthia H.

    2007-01-01

    Neurosteroids are a relatively new class of neuroactive compounds, brought to prominence in the past two decades. Despite knowing of their presence in the nervous system of various species for over twenty years and knowing of their functions as GABAA and NMDA ligands, new and unexpected functions of these compounds are continuously being identified. Absence or reduced concentrations of neurosteroids during development and in adults may be associated with neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, or behavioral disorders. Treatment with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of these compounds may also promote neurogenesis, neuronal survival, myelination, increased memory, and reduced neurotoxicity. This review highlights what is currently known about the neurodevelopmental functions and mechanisms of action of four distinct neurosteroids – pregnenolone, progesterone, allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone. PMID:17651807

  12. Environmental Enrichment Stimulates Immune Cell Secretion of Exosomes that Promote CNS Myelination and May Regulate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Kae M; Pusic, Aya D; Kraig, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) consists of increased physical, intellectual, and social activity, and has wide-ranging effects, including enhancing cognition, learning and memory, and motor coordination. Animal studies have demonstrated that EE improves outcome of brain trauma and neurodegenerative disorders, including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis, making it a promising therapeutic option. However, the complexity of applying a robust EE paradigm makes clinical use difficult. A better understanding of the signaling involved in EE-based neuroprotection may allow for development of effective mimetics as an alternative. In prior work, we found that exosomes isolated from the serum of rats exposed to EE impact CNS myelination. Exosomes are naturally occurring nanovesicles containing mRNA, miRNA, and protein, which play important roles in cell function, disease, and immunomodulation. When applied to hippocampal slice cultures or nasally administered to naïve rats, EE-serum exosomes significantly increase myelin content, oligodendrocyte precursor (OPC) and neural stem cell levels, and reduce oxidative stress (OS). We found that rat EE exosomes were enriched in miR-219, which is necessary and sufficient for OPC differentiation into myelinating cells. Thus, peripherally produced exosomes may be a useful therapy for remyelination. Here, we aim to better characterize the impact of EE on CNS health and to determine the cellular source of nutritive exosomes found in serum. We found that exosomes isolated from various circulating immune cell types all increased slice culture myelin content, contained miR-219, and reduced OS, suggesting that EE globally alters immune function in a way that supports brain health. PMID:26993508

  13. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  14. MHCII-independent CD4+ T cells protect injured CNS neurons via IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James T.; Hendrix, Sven; Boato, Francesco; Smirnov, Igor; Zheng, Jingjing; Lukens, John R.; Gadani, Sachin; Hechler, Daniel; Gölz, Greta; Rosenberger, Karen; Kammertöns, Thomas; Vogt, Johannes; Vogelaar, Christina; Siffrin, Volker; Radjavi, Ali; Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Gaultier, Alban; Gold, Ralf; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Nitsch, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A body of experimental evidence suggests that T cells mediate neuroprotection following CNS injury; however, the antigen specificity of these T cells and how they mediate neuroprotection are unknown. Here, we have provided evidence that T cell–mediated neuroprotection after CNS injury can occur independently of major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) signaling to T cell receptors (TCRs). Using two murine models of CNS injury, we determined that damage-associated molecular mediators that originate from injured CNS tissue induce a population of neuroprotective, IL-4–producing T cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4–deficient animals had decreased functional recovery following CNS injury; however, transfer of CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not from IL-4–deficient mice, enhanced neuronal survival. Using a culture-based system, we determined that T cell–derived IL-4 protects and induces recovery of injured neurons by activation of neuronal IL-4 receptors, which potentiated neurotrophin signaling via the AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these findings demonstrate that damage-associated molecules from the injured CNS induce a neuroprotective T cell response that is independent of MHCII/TCR interactions and is MyD88 dependent. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-4 mediates neuroprotection and recovery of the injured CNS and suggest that strategies to enhance IL-4–producing CD4+ T cells have potential to attenuate axonal damage in the course of CNS injury in trauma, inflammation, or neurodegeneration. PMID:25607842

  15. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier exacerbates spreading depression in the locust CNS.

    PubMed

    Spong, Kristin E; Rochon-Terry, Geneviève; Money, Tomas G A; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2014-07-01

    In response to cellular stress in the nervous system of the locust (Locusta migratoria) neural function is interrupted in association with ionic disturbances propagating throughout nervous tissue (Spreading depression; SD). The insect blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in the regulation of ion levels within the CNS. We investigated how a disruption in barrier function by transient exposure to 3M urea affects locusts' vulnerability to disturbances in ion levels. Repetitive SD was induced by bath application of ouabain and the extracellular potassium concentration ([K(+)]o) within the metathoracic ganglion (MTG) was monitored. Urea treatment increased the susceptibility to ouabain and caused a progressive impairment in the ability to maintain baseline [K(+)]o levels during episodes of repetitive SD. Additionally, using a within animal protocol we demonstrate that waves of SD, induced by high K(+), propagate throughout the MTG faster following disruption of the BBB. Lastly, we show that targeting the BBB of intact animals reduces their ability to sustain neural function during anoxic conditions. Our findings indicate that locust's ability to withstand stress is diminished following a reduction in barrier function likely due to an impairment of the ability of neural tissue to maintain ionic gradients. PMID:24837786

  16. Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma B Cell Receptors Recognize CNS Proteins.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Rongen, Manuel; Purschke, Frauke G; Brunn, Anna; May, Caroline; Nordhoff, Eckhard; Marcus, Katrin; Deckert, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Primary lymphoma of the CNS (PCNSL) is a diffuse large B cell lymphoma confined to the CNS. To elucidate its peculiar organ tropism, we generated recombinant Abs (recAbs) identical to the BCR of 23 PCNSLs from immunocompetent patients. Although none of the recAbs showed self-reactivity upon testing with common autoantigens, they recognized 1547 proteins present on a large-scale protein microarray, indicating polyreactivity. Interestingly, proteins (GRINL1A, centaurin-α, BAIAP2) recognized by the recAbs are physiologically expressed by CNS neurons. Furthermore, 87% (20/23) of the recAbs, including all Abs derived from IGHV4-34 using PCNSL, recognized galectin-3, which was upregulated on microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells upon CNS invasion by PCNSL. Thus, PCNSL Ig may recognize CNS proteins as self-Ags. Their interaction may contribute to BCR signaling with sustained NF-κB activation and, ultimately, may foster tumor cell proliferation and survival. These data may also explain, at least in part, the affinity of PCNSL cells for the CNS. PMID:26116512

  17. The microglial ATP-gated ion channel P2X7 as a CNS drug target.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Biber, Knut

    2016-10-01

    Based on promising preclinical evidence, microglial P2X7 has increasingly being recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, despite this knowledge no P2X7-related drug has yet entered clinical trials with respect to CNS diseases. We here discuss the current literature on P2X7 being a drug target and identify unsolved issues and still open questions that have hampered the development of P2X7 dependent therapeutic approaches for CNS diseases. It is concluded here that the lack of brain penetrating P2X7 antagonists is a major obstacle in the field and that central P2X7 is a yet untested clinical drug target. In the CNS, microglial P2X7 activation causes neuroinflammation, which in turn plays a role in various CNS disorders. This has resulted in a surge of brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists. P2X7 is a viable, clinically untested CNS drug target. GLIA 2016;64:1772-1787. PMID:27219534

  18. N-Acetylaspartate in the CNS: From Neurodiagnostics to Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, John R.; Ross, Brian; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N.; Namboodiri, M. A. A.

    2007-01-01

    will be required to more fully understand the biochemical functions served by NAA in CNS development and activity, and additional functions are likely to be discovered. PMID:17275978

  19. Feeding, Fussing and Play: Parent-Infant Interaction in the First Year as a Function of Early Medical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Susan; And Others

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship of stress arising from medical problems of newborns to parent-infant interaction through the infant's first year. Significant interactive differences between full term and premature infants were found in feeding situations during the neonatal period and in floor play at eight months. The sample…

  20. Promotion of Pretend Play for Children with High-Functioning Autism through the Use of Circumscribed Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe effective methods of developing pretend play that is intrinsically motivating for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the topic of circumscribed interests. Children with ASD often develop very specialized interests, known as Circumscribed Interests (CI). However, their limited and…

  1. Experimental Study of Stellar Reactions at CNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Amadio, G.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Saito, A.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Fukunishi, N.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Kato, S.; Tanaka, M. H.; Fuchi, Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Lee, C. S.; Khiem, Le Hong; Chen, A.; Pearson, J.

    2006-11-01

    After a brief review on low-energy RI beam production technology, nuclear astrophysics programs at CNS are presented including a scope of the field in the Wako campus. The CRIB project involves a total development of the whole facility to maximize the low-energy RI beam intensities, including the ion source, the AVF cyclotron and the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, Some recent nuclear astrophysics experiments performed with the RI beams were discussed, including the measurement of the 14O(α,p)17F reaction, the key stellar reaction for the onset of the high-temperature rp-process. The first experiment performed with a newly installed high-resolution magnetic spectrograph PA of CNS was also presented. Collaboration possibilities for nuclear astrophysics in the RIKEN campus are also touched.

  2. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  3. Interneuron Progenitor Transplantation to Treat CNS Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Muhammad O.; Moore, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inadequacy of endogenous repair mechanisms diseases of the nervous system remain a major challenge to scientists and clinicians. Stem cell based therapy is an exciting and viable strategy that has been shown to ameliorate or even reverse symptoms of CNS dysfunction in preclinical animal models. Of particular importance has been the use of GABAergic interneuron progenitors as a therapeutic strategy. Born in the neurogenic niches of the ventral telencephalon, interneuron progenitors retain their unique capacity to disperse, integrate and induce plasticity in adult host circuitries following transplantation. Here we discuss the potential of interneuron based transplantation strategies as it relates to CNS disease therapeutics. We also discuss mechanisms underlying their therapeutic efficacy and some of the challenges that face the field. PMID:27582692

  4. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery.

  5. Experimental Study of Stellar Reactions at CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Amadio, G.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Saito, A.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Fukunishi, N.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Kato, S.; Tanaka, M. H.; Fuchi, Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Lee, C. S.; Khiem, Le Hong; Chen, A.

    2006-11-02

    After a brief review on low-energy RI beam production technology, nuclear astrophysics programs at CNS are presented including a scope of the field in the Wako campus. The CRIB project involves a total development of the whole facility to maximize the low-energy RI beam intensities, including the ion source, the AVF cyclotron and the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, Some recent nuclear astrophysics experiments performed with the RI beams were discussed, including the measurement of the 14O({alpha},p)17F reaction, the key stellar reaction for the onset of the high-temperature rp-process. The first experiment performed with a newly installed high-resolution magnetic spectrograph PA of CNS was also presented. Collaboration possibilities for nuclear astrophysics in the RIKEN campus are also touched.

  6. Antiretroviral therapy CNS penetration and HIV-1–associated CNS disease

    PubMed Central

    Winston, A.; Walsh, J.; Post, F.; Porter, K.; Gazzard, B.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Pillay, D.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Gilson, R.; Anderson, J.; Easterbrook, P.; Bansi, L.; Orkin, C.; Ainsworth, J.; Palfreeman, A.; Gompels, M.; Phillips, A.N.; Sabin, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The impact of different antiretroviral agents on the risk of developing or surviving CNS disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using antiretroviral regimens with higher CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) scores was associated with reduced incidence of CNS disease and improved survival in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study. Methods: Adults without previous CNS disease, who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between 1996 and 2008, were included (n = 22,356). Initial and most recent cART CPE scores were calculated. CNS diseases were HIV encephalopathy (HIVe), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cerebral toxoplasmosis (TOXO), and cryptococcal meningitis (CRYPTO). Incidence rates and overall survival were stratified by CPE score. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to identify independent associations. Results: The median (interquartile range) CPE score for initial cART regimen increased from 7 (5–8) in 1996–1997 to 9 (8–10) in 2000–2001 and subsequently declined to 6 (7–8) in 2006–2008. Differences in gender, HIV acquisition risk group, and ethnicity existed between CPE score strata. A total of 251 subjects were diagnosed with a CNS disease (HIVe 80; TOXO 59; CRYPTO 56; PML 54). CNS diseases occurred more frequently in subjects prescribed regimens with CPE scores ≤4, and less frequently in those with scores ≥10; however, these differences were nonsignificant. Initial and most recent cART CPE scores ≤4 were independently associated with increased risk of death. Conclusion: Clinical status at time of commencing cART influences antiretroviral selection and CPE score. This information should be considered when utilizing CPE scores for retrospective analyses. PMID:21339496

  7. Competitive versus Cooperative Exergame Play for African American Adolescents' Executive Function Skills: Short-Term Effects in a Long-Term Training Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American…

  8. Agile delivery of protein therapeutics to CNS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiang; Manickam, Devika S; Brynskikh, Anna; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2014-09-28

    A variety of therapeutic proteins have shown potential to treat central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Challenge to deliver these protein molecules to the brain is well known. Proteins administered through parenteral routes are often excluded from the brain because of their poor bioavailability and the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Barriers also exist to proteins administered through non-parenteral routes that bypass the BBB. Several strategies have shown promise in delivering proteins to the brain. This review, first, describes the physiology and pathology of the BBB that underscore the rationale and needs of each strategy to be applied. Second, major classes of protein therapeutics along with some key factors that affect their delivery outcomes are presented. Third, different routes of protein administration (parenteral, central intracerebroventricular and intraparenchymal, intranasal and intrathecal) are discussed along with key barriers to CNS delivery associated with each route. Finally, current delivery strategies involving chemical modification of proteins and use of particle-based carriers are overviewed using examples from literature and our own work. Whereas most of these studies are in the early stage, some provide proof of mechanism of increased protein delivery to the brain in relevant models of CNS diseases, while in few cases proof of concept had been attained in clinical studies. This review will be useful to broad audience of students, academicians and industry professionals who consider critical issues of protein delivery to the brain and aim developing and studying effective brain delivery systems for protein therapeutics. PMID:24956489

  9. Agile Delivery of Protein Therapeutics to CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiang; Manickam, Devika S.; Brynskikh, Anna; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of therapeutic proteins have shown potential to treat central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Challenge to deliver these protein molecules to the brain is well known. Proteins administered through parenteral routes are often excluded from the brain because of their poor bioavailability and the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Barriers also exist to proteins administered through non-parenteral routes that bypass the BBB. Several strategies have shown promise in delivering proteins to the brain. This review, first, describes the physiology and pathology of the BBB that underscore the rationale and needs of each strategy to be applied. Second, major classes of protein therapeutics along with some key factors that affect their delivery outcomes are presented. Third, different routes of protein administration (parenteral, central intracerebroventricular and intraparenchymal, intranasal and intrathecal) are discussed along with key barriers to CNS delivery associated with each route. Finally, current delivery strategies involving chemical modification of proteins and use of particle-based carriers are overviewed using examples from literature and our own work. Whereas most of these studies are in the early stage, some provide proof of mechanism of increased protein delivery to the brain in relevant models of CNS diseases, while in few cases proof of concept had been attained in clinical studies. This review will be useful to broad audience of students, academicians and industry professionals who consider critical issues of protein delivery to the brain and aim developing and studying effective brain delivery systems for protein therapeutics. PMID:24956489

  10. Nicotinic ACh receptors as therapeutic targets in CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2015-02-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. PMID:25639674

  11. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  12. Playing Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  13. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308

  14. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  15. New perspectives on using brain imaging to study CNS stimulants.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Scott E

    2014-12-01

    While the recent application of brain imaging to study CNS stimulants has offered new insights into the fundamental factors that contribute to their use and abuse, many gaps remain. Brain circuits that mediate pleasure, dependence, craving and relapse are anatomically, neurophysiologically and neurochemically distinct from one another, which has guided the search for correlates of stimulant-seeking and taking behavior. However, unlike other drugs of abuse, metrics for tolerance and physical dependence on stimulants are not obvious. The dopamine theory of stimulant abuse does not sufficiently explain this disorder as serotonergic, GABAergic and glutamagergic circuits are clearly involved in stimulant pharmacology and so tracking the source of the "addictive" processes must adopt a more multimodal, multidisciplinary approach. To this end, both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary and have equally contributed to our understanding of how stimulants affect the brain and behavior. New vistas in this area include nanotechnology approaches to deliver small molecules to receptors and use MRI to resolve receptor dynamics. Anatomical and blood flow imaging has yielded data showing that cognitive enhancers might be useful adjuncts in treating CNS stimulant dependence, while MRS has opened opportunities to examine the brain's readiness to accept treatment as GABA tone normalizes after detoxification. A desired outcome of the above approaches is being able to offer evidence-based rationales for treatment approaches that can be implemented in a more broad geographic area, where access to brain imaging facilities may be limited. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:25080072

  16. Inhibition of C5a receptor alleviates experimental CNS lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Bai, Tao; Brorson, James R.; Quigg, Richard J.; Alexander, Jessy J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the role of C5a generated on complement activation in brain, the lupus model, MRL/lpr mice were treated with C5a receptor(R) antagonist (ant). Neutrophil infiltration, ICAM, TNF-α and iNOS mRNA expression, neuronal apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, pSTAT1 and p-Erk were reduced and p-Akt increased on C5aR inhibition in MRL/lpr brains. MRL/lpr serum caused increased apoptosis in neurons showing that lupus had a direct effect on these cells. C5aRant pretreatment prevented the lupus serum induced loss of neuronal cells. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that C5a/C5aR signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CNS lupus. PMID:20207017

  17. Playing RNase P Evolution: Swapping the RNA Catalyst for a Protein Reveals Functional Uniformity of Highly Divergent Enzyme Forms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christoph; Hartig, Andreas; Hartmann, Roland K.; Rossmanith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The RNase P family is a diverse group of endonucleases responsible for the removal of 5′ extensions from tRNA precursors. The diversity of enzyme forms finds its extremes in the eukaryal nucleus where RNA-based catalysis by complex ribonucleoproteins in some organisms contrasts with single-polypeptide enzymes in others. Such structural contrast suggests associated functional differences, and the complexity of the ribonucleoprotein was indeed proposed to broaden the enzyme's functionality beyond tRNA processing. To explore functional overlap and differences between most divergent forms of RNase P, we replaced the nuclear RNase P of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a 10-subunit ribonucleoprotein, with Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP3, a single monomeric protein. Surprisingly, the RNase P-swapped yeast strains were viable, displayed essentially unimpaired growth under a wide variety of conditions, and, in a certain genetic background, their fitness even slightly exceeded that of the wild type. The molecular analysis of the RNase P-swapped strains showed a minor disturbance in tRNA metabolism, but did not point to any RNase P substrates or functions beyond that. Altogether, these results indicate the full functional exchangeability of the highly dissimilar enzymes. Our study thereby establishes the RNase P family, with its combination of structural diversity and functional uniformity, as an extreme case of convergent evolution. It moreover suggests that the apparently gratuitous complexity of some RNase P forms is the result of constructive neutral evolution rather than reflecting increased functional versatility. PMID:25101763

  18. Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Von Ohlen, Tonia L; Moses, Cade

    2009-07-01

    Specification of cell fates across the dorsoventral axis of the central nervous system in Drosophila involves the subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three domains that give rise to three columns of neural precursor cells called neuroblasts. Ventral nervous system defective (Vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (Ind) and muscle segment homeobox (Msh) are expressed in the three columns from ventral to dorsal, respectively. The products of these genes play multiple important roles in formation and specification of the embryonic nervous system. Ind, for example, is known to play roles in two important processes. First, Ind is essential for formation of neuroblasts conjunction with SoxB class transcription factors. Sox class transcription factors are known to specify neural stem cells in vertebrates. Second, Ind plays an important role in patterning the CNS in conjunction with, vnd and msh, which is also similar to how vertebrates pattern their neural tube. This work focuses two important aspects of Ind function. First, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize specific domains within the protein that confer repressor or activator ability. Currently, little is known about the presence of activation or repression domains within Ind. Here, we show that transcriptional repression by Ind requires multiple conserved domains within the protein, and that Ind has a transcriptional activation domain. Specifically, we have identified a novel domain, the Pst domain, that has transcriptional repression ability and appears to act independent of interaction with the co-repressor Groucho. This domain is highly conserved among insect species, but is not found in vertebrate Gsh class homeodomain proteins. Second, we show that Ind can and does repress vnd expression, but does so in a stage specific manner. We conclude from this that the function of Ind in regulating vnd expression is one of refinement and maintenance of the dorsal border. PMID:19348939

  19. Play Theories: A Contemporary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellou, Eleni

    1994-01-01

    Reviews two sets of play theories, classical and modern, noting that the reason and purpose for play are explained by classical theories; the role of play in child development, determined by modern theories. States that process of play has dual functions of personal expression and social adaptation. Examines the relationship between play and…

  20. Direct comparison of the functional roles played by different transmembrane regions in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ning; Muise, Chantal N; Gong, Xiandi; Linsdell, Paul

    2004-12-31

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel contains 12 transmembrane (TM) regions that are presumed to form the channel pore. However, little is known about the relative functional contribution of different TM regions to the pore. We have used patch clamp recording to investigate the functional consequences of point mutations throughout the six transmembrane regions in the N-terminal part of the CFTR protein (TM1-TM6). A range of specific functional assays compared the single channel conductance, anion binding, and anion selectivity properties of different channel variants. Overall, our results suggest that TM1 and -6 play dominant roles in forming the channel pore and determining its functional properties, with TM5 perhaps playing a lesser role. In contrast, TM2, -3, and -4 appear to play only minor supporting roles. These results define transmembrane regions 1 and 6 as major contributors to the CFTR channel pore and have strong implications for emerging structural models of CFTR and related ATP-binding cassette proteins. PMID:15504721

  1. Verruculogen: a new substance for decreasing of GABA levels in CNS.

    PubMed

    Hotujac, L; Muftić, R H; Filipović, N

    1976-01-01

    In our previous work we examined the mechanism of action of the new tremorogenic substance verruculogen isolated by Cole and coworkers. Examining the effect of various substances with known mechanisms of action on verruculogen-induced tremor, we concluded that this tremor was probably related to decrease of GABA levels in CNS. In order to further define the mechanisms of action of verruculogen, we determined brain GABA levels in animals in which tremor was produced by verruculogen administration. Verruculogen administration produced a decrease in GABA levels in mouse CNS. This finding substantiates our earlier suggestion that verruculogen-induced tremor is mediated by a loss of inhibitory GABA function. PMID:935244

  2. Stress-induced HSP70 from Musca domestica plays a functionally significant role in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Wu, Chen; Li, Jigang; Ren, Guodong; Huang, Dawei; Liu, Fengsong

    2012-09-01

    As important molecular chaperones, members of the 70kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family play essential roles in stress tolerance and innate immunity in organisms. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a novel inducible HSP70, named as MdHSP70, was isolated from Musca domestica. The cDNA clone consisted of 2411 bp with a 1956 bp open reading frame which encodes 651 amino acids. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we investigated the transcriptional profile of the gene under heat shock, cadmium stress and in response to bacteria. Increased expression of MdHSP70 was observed in response to both heat shock and Cd stress. The expression of MdHSP70 was significantly induced by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus stimulation. Larvae were fed bacteria expressing dsRNA targeting the MdHSP70 gene. Our results showed high mortality in larvae treated with dsRNA of MdHSP70 at heat shock, Cd stress and bacterial invasion, suggesting that MdHSP70 is potentially involved in the stress and immune responses of the house fly and perhaps contributes to protection against cellular injury. PMID:22750549

  3. Unique N-terminal Arm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP Protein Plays an Unusual Role in Its Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arijit Kumar; Kumar, Vijjamarri Anil; Sevalkar, Ritesh Rajesh; Bansal, Roohi; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP, a master regulator involved in complex lipid biosynthesis and expression of unknown virulence determinants, is composed of an N-terminal receiver domain and a C-terminal effector domain. The two experimentally characterized PhoP orthologs, from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, display vastly different regulatory capabilities. Here, we demonstrate that the 20-residue-long N-terminal arm unique to M. tuberculosis PhoP plays an essential role in the expanded regulatory capabilities of this important regulator. Although the arm is not required for overall structural stability and/or phosphorylation of the PhoP N-domain, strikingly it is essential for phosphorylation-coupled transcription regulation of target genes. Consistent with this view, arm truncation of PhoP is accompanied by a conformational change of the effector domain, presenting a block in activation subsequent to phosphorylation. These results suggest that presence of the arm, unique to this regulator that shares an otherwise highly conserved domain structure with members of the protein family, contributes to the mechanism of inter-domain interactions. Thus, we propose that the N-terminal arm is an adaptable structural feature of M. tuberculosis PhoP, which evolved to fine-tune regulatory capabilities of the transcription factor in response to the changing physiology of the bacilli within its host. PMID:23963455

  4. mTOR plays critical roles in pancreatic cancer stem cells through specific and stemness-related functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Shyuichiro; Ding, Qiang; Miyazaki, Yumi; Kuwahata, Taisaku; Tsukasa, Koichiro; Takao, Sonshin

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by near-universal mutations in KRAS. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which functions downstream of RAS, has divergent effects on stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the significance of the mTOR pathway in maintaining the properties of pancreatic cancer stem cells. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, reduced the viability of CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells and sphere formation which is an index of self-renewal of stem-like cells, indicating that the mTOR pathway functions to maintain cancer stem-like cells. Further, rapamycin had different effects on CD133+ cells compared to cyclopamine which is an inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway. Thus, the mTOR pathway has a distinct role although both pathways maintain pancreatic cancer stem cells. Therefore, mTOR might be a promising target to eliminate pancreatic cancer stem cells.

  5. Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed γ-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair. PMID:24589584

  6. To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9–12 and/or 15–18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9–12 and 15–18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3–7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

  7. Development of Novel In Vivo Chemical Probes to Address CNS Protein Kinase Involvement in Synaptic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, D. Martin; Grum-Tokars, Valerie L.; Roy, Saktimayee M.; Schavocky, James P.; Bradaric, Brinda Desai; Bachstetter, Adam D.; Xing, Bin; Dimayuga, Edgardo; Saeed, Faisal; Zhang, Hong; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Pelletier, Jeffrey C.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Arancio, Ottavio; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Serine-threonine protein kinases are critical to CNS function, yet there is a dearth of highly selective, CNS-active kinase inhibitors for in vivo investigations. Further, prevailing assumptions raise concerns about whether single kinase inhibitors can show in vivo efficacy for CNS pathologies, and debates over viable approaches to the development of safe and efficacious kinase inhibitors are unsettled. It is critical, therefore, that these scientific challenges be addressed in order to test hypotheses about protein kinases in neuropathology progression and the potential for in vivo modulation of their catalytic activity. Identification of molecular targets whose in vivo modulation can attenuate synaptic dysfunction would provide a foundation for future disease-modifying therapeutic development as well as insight into cellular mechanisms. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a critical link between synaptic dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and the activation of p38αMAPK mediated signaling cascades. Activation in both neurons and glia also offers the unusual potential to generate enhanced responses through targeting a single kinase in two distinct cell types involved in pathology progression. However, target validation has been limited by lack of highly selective inhibitors amenable to in vivo use in the CNS. Therefore, we employed high-resolution co-crystallography and pharmacoinformatics to design and develop a novel synthetic, active site targeted, CNS-active, p38αMAPK inhibitor (MW108). Selectivity was demonstrated by large-scale kinome screens, functional GPCR agonist and antagonist analyses of off-target potential, and evaluation of cellular target engagement. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that MW108 ameliorates beta-amyloid induced synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. A serendipitous discovery during co-crystallographic analyses revised prevailing models about active site targeting of inhibitors, providing insights that will

  8. Mesophyll conductance plays a central role in leaf functioning of Oleaceae species exposed to contrasting sunlight irradiance.

    PubMed

    Fini, Alessio; Loreto, Francesco; Tattini, Massimiliano; Giordano, Cristiana; Ferrini, Francesco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    The ability to modify mesophyll conductance (gm ) in response to changes in irradiance may be a component of the acclimation of plants to shade-sun transitions, thus influencing species-specific distributions along light-gradients, and the ecological niches for the different species. To test this hypothesis we grew three woody species of the Oleaceae family, the evergreen Phillyrea latifolia (sun-requiring), the deciduous Fraxinus ornus (facultative sun-requiring) and the hemi-deciduous Ligustrum vulgare (shade tolerant) at 30 or 100% sunlight irradiance. We show that neither mesophyll conductance calculated with combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques (gm ) nor CO2 assimilation significantly varied in F. ornus because of sunlight irradiance. This corroborates previous suggestions that species with high plasticity for light requirements, do not need to undertake extensive reorganization of leaf conductances to CO2 diffusion to adapt to different light environments. On the other hand, gm steeply declined in L. vulgare and increased in P. latifolia exposed to full-sun conditions. In these two species, leaf anatomical traits are in part responsible for light-driven changes in gm , as revealed by the correlation between gm and mesophyll conductance estimated by anatomical parameters (gmA ). Nonetheless, gm was greatly overestimated by gmA when leaf metabolism was impaired because of severe light stress. We show that gm is maximum at the light intensity at which plant species have evolved and we conclude that gm actually plays a key role in the sun and shade adaptation of Mediterranean species. The limits of gmA in predicting mesophyll conductance are also highlighted. PMID:26537749

  9. A PP1-binding motif present in BRCA1 plays a role in its DNA repair function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Mi; Pace, Serena M.; Allen, Susan R.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α) regulates phosphorylation of BRCA1, which contains a PP1-binding motif 898KVTF901. Mutation of this motif greatly reduces the interaction between BRCA1 and PP1α. Here we show that mutation of the PP1-binding motif abolishes the ability of BRCA1 to enhance survival of Brca1-deficient mouse mammary tumor cells after DNA damage. The Rad51 focus formation and comet assays revealed that the DNA repair function of BRCA1 was impaired when the PP1-binding motif was mutated. Analysis of subnuclear localization of GFP-tagged BRCA1 demonstrated that mutation of the PP1-binding motif affected BRCA1 redistribution in response to DNA damage. BRCA1 is required for the formation of Rad51 subnuclear foci after DNA damage. Mutation of the PP1-binding motif in BRCA1 also affected recruitment of Rad51 to sites of DNA damage. Consistent with these findings, knockdown of PP1α in BRCA1-proficient cells by small interfering RNA also significantly reduced Rad51 focus formation induced by DNA damage. Further analysis indicated that mutation of the PP1-binding motif compromised BRCA1 activities in homologous recombination. Altogether, our data implicate that interaction with PP1α is important for BRCA1 function in DNA repair. PMID:18953404

  10. Evolution of the CNS myelin gene regulatory program.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiliang; Richardson, William D

    2016-06-15

    Myelin is a specialized subcellular structure that evolved uniquely in vertebrates. A myelinated axon conducts action potentials many times faster than an unmyelinated axon of the same diameter; for the same conduction speed, the unmyelinated axon would need a much larger diameter and volume than its myelinated counterpart. Hence myelin speeds information transfer and saves space, allowing the evolution of a powerful yet portable brain. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is controlled by a gene regulatory program that features a number of master transcriptional regulators including Olig1, Olig2 and Myrf. Olig family genes evolved from a single ancestral gene in non-chordates. Olig2, which executes multiple functions with regard to oligodendrocyte identity and development in vertebrates, might have evolved functional versatility through post-translational modification, especially phosphorylation, as illustrated by its evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine phospho-acceptor sites and its accumulation of serine residues during more recent stages of vertebrate evolution. Olig1, derived from a duplicated copy of Olig2 in early bony fish, is involved in oligodendrocyte development and is critical to remyelination in bony vertebrates, but is lost in birds. The origin of Myrf orthologs might be the result of DNA integration between an invading phage or bacterium and an early protist, producing a fusion protein capable of self-cleavage and DNA binding. Myrf seems to have adopted new functions in early vertebrates - initiation of the CNS myelination program as well as the maintenance of mature oligodendrocyte identity and myelin structure - by developing new ways to interact with DNA motifs specific to myelin genes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26474911

  11. The Disequilibrium of Nucleosomes Distribution along Chromosomes Plays a Functional and Evolutionarily Role in Regulating Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingfang; Ding, Feng; Xin, Chengqi; Zhang, Daoyong; Sun, Fanglin; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    To further understand the relationship between nucleosome-space occupancy (NO) and global transcriptional activity in mammals, we acquired a set of genome-wide nucleosome distribution and transcriptome data from the mouse cerebrum and testis based on ChIP (H3)-seq and RNA-seq, respectively. We identified a nearly consistent NO patterns among three mouse tissues—cerebrum, testis, and ESCs—and found, through clustering analysis for transcriptional activation, that the NO variations among chromosomes are closely associated with distinct expression levels between house-keeping (HK) genes and tissue-specific (TS) genes. Both TS and HK genes form clusters albeit the obvious majority. This feature implies that NO patterns, i.e. nucleosome binding and clustering, are coupled with gene clustering that may be functionally and evolutionarily conserved in regulating gene expression among different cell types. PMID:21886783

  12. From L-dopa to dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: a toxic biochemical pathway plays a vital physiological function in insects.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Christopher; Han, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Erickson, Sara M; Harich, Kim; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2011-01-01

    One protein in Aedes aegypti, classified into the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) family based on extremely high sequence homology (∼70%) with dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), was biochemically investigated. Our data revealed that this predicted AAAD protein use L-dopa as a substrate, as does Ddc, but it catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetaldehyde (DHPAA) directly from L-dopa and apparently has nothing to do with the production of any aromatic amine. The protein is therefore named DHPAA synthase. This subsequently led to the identification of the same enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus by an initial prediction of putative DHPAA synthase based on sequence homology and subsequent verification of DHPAA synthase identity through protein expression and activity assays. DHPAA is highly toxic because its aldehyde group readily reacts with the primary amino groups of proteins, leading to protein crosslinking and inactivation. It has previously been demonstrated by several research groups that Drosophila DHPAA synthase was expressed in tissues that produce cuticle materials and apparent defects in regions of colorless, flexible cuticular structures have been observed in its gene mutants. The presence of free amino groups in proteins, the high reactivity of DHPAA with the free amino groups, and the genetically ascertained function of the Drosophila DHPAA synthase in the formation of colorless, flexible cuticle, when taken together, suggest that mosquito and Drosophila DHPAA synthases are involved in the formation of flexible cuticle through their reactive DHPAA-mediated protein crosslinking reactions. Our data illustrate how a seemingly highly toxic pathway can serve for an important physiological function in insects. PMID:21283636

  13. From L-Dopa to Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: A Toxic Biochemical Pathway Plays a Vital Physiological Function in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Vavricka, Christopher; Han, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Erickson, Sara M.; Harich, Kim; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2011-01-01

    One protein in Aedes aegypti, classified into the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) family based on extremely high sequence homology (∼70%) with dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), was biochemically investigated. Our data revealed that this predicted AAAD protein use L-dopa as a substrate, as does Ddc, but it catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetaldehyde (DHPAA) directly from L-dopa and apparently has nothing to do with the production of any aromatic amine. The protein is therefore named DHPAA synthase. This subsequently led to the identification of the same enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus by an initial prediction of putative DHPAA synthase based on sequence homology and subsequent verification of DHPAA synthase identity through protein expression and activity assays. DHPAA is highly toxic because its aldehyde group readily reacts with the primary amino groups of proteins, leading to protein crosslinking and inactivation. It has previously been demonstrated by several research groups that Drosophila DHPAA synthase was expressed in tissues that produce cuticle materials and apparent defects in regions of colorless, flexible cuticular structures have been observed in its gene mutants. The presence of free amino groups in proteins, the high reactivity of DHPAA with the free amino groups, and the genetically ascertained function of the Drosophila DHPAA synthase in the formation of colorless, flexible cuticle, when taken together, suggest that mosquito and Drosophila DHPAA synthases are involved in the formation of flexible cuticle through their reactive DHPAA-mediated protein crosslinking reactions. Our data illustrate how a seemingly highly toxic pathway can serve for an important physiological function in insects. PMID:21283636

  14. Members of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Complex Play Functionally Opposing Roles in the Regulation of Penicillin Biosynthesis and Conidiation

    PubMed Central

    Kopke, Katarina; Hoff, Birgit; Bloemendal, Sandra; Katschorowski, Alexandra; Kamerewerd, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A velvet multisubunit complex was recently detected in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, the major industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. Core components of this complex are P. chrysogenum VelA (PcVelA) and PcLaeA, which regulate secondary metabolite production, hyphal morphology, conidiation, and pellet formation. Here we describe the characterization of PcVelB, PcVelC, and PcVosA as novel subunits of this velvet complex. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), we demonstrate that all velvet proteins are part of an interaction network. Functional analyses using single- and double-knockout strains clearly indicate that velvet subunits have opposing roles in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis and light-dependent conidiation. PcVelC, together with PcVelA and PcLaeA, activates penicillin biosynthesis, while PcVelB represses this process. In contrast, PcVelB and PcVosA promote conidiation, while PcVelC has an inhibitory effect. Our genetic analyses further show that light-dependent spore formation depends not only on PcVelA but also on PcVelB and PcVosA. The results provided here contribute to our fundamental understanding of the function of velvet subunits as part of a regulatory network mediating signals responsible for morphology and secondary metabolism and will be instrumental in generating mutants with newly derived properties that are relevant to strain improvement programs. PMID:23264641

  15. The choroid plexus—a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Schwerk, Christian; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schroten, Horst

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and location of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), which is constituted by the epithelial cells of the CP. Several infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites cross the BCSFB to enter the central nervous system (CNS), ultimately leading to inflammatory infectious diseases like meningitis and meningoencephalitis. The CP responds to this challenge by the production of chemokines and cytokines as well as alterations of the barrier function of the BCSFB. During the course of CNS infectious disease host immune cells enter the CNS, eventually contributing to the cellular damage caused by the disease. Additional complications, which are in certain cases caused by choroid plexitis, can arise due to the response of the CP to the pathogens. In this review we will give an overview on the multiple functions of the CP during brain infections highlighting the CP as a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS. In this context the importance of tools for investigation of these CP functions and a possible suitability of the CP as therapeutic target will be discussed. PMID:25814932

  16. Flipping the transcriptional switch from myelin inhibition to axon growth in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Young, Wise; Hart, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Poor regeneration of severed axons in the central nervous system (CNS) limits functional recovery. Regeneration failure involves interplay of inhibitory environmental elements and the growth state of the neuron. To find internal changes in gene expression that might overcome inhibitory environmental cues, we compared several paradigms that allow growth in the inhibitory environment. Conditions that allow axon growth by axotomized and cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on CNS myelin include immaturity (the first few postnatal days), high levels of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP), and conditioning with a peripheral nerve lesion before explant. This shift from inhibition to growth depends on transcription. Seeking to understand the transcriptome changes that allow axon growth in the CNS, we collaborated with the Marie Filbin laboratory to identify several mRNAs that are functionally relevant, as determined by gain- and loss-of-function studies. In this Perspective, we review evidence from these experiments and discuss the merits of comparing multiple regenerative paradigms to identify a core transcriptional program for CNS axon regeneration. PMID:26236189

  17. The choroid plexus-a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Schwerk, Christian; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schroten, Horst

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and location of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), which is constituted by the epithelial cells of the CP. Several infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites cross the BCSFB to enter the central nervous system (CNS), ultimately leading to inflammatory infectious diseases like meningitis and meningoencephalitis. The CP responds to this challenge by the production of chemokines and cytokines as well as alterations of the barrier function of the BCSFB. During the course of CNS infectious disease host immune cells enter the CNS, eventually contributing to the cellular damage caused by the disease. Additional complications, which are in certain cases caused by choroid plexitis, can arise due to the response of the CP to the pathogens. In this review we will give an overview on the multiple functions of the CP during brain infections highlighting the CP as a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS. In this context the importance of tools for investigation of these CP functions and a possible suitability of the CP as therapeutic target will be discussed. PMID:25814932

  18. Autoinducer-2 Plays a Crucial Role in Gut Colonization and Probiotic Functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    PubMed Central

    Bottacini, Francesca; Lanigan, Noreen; Casey, Pat G.; Huys, Geert; Nelis, Hans J.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Coenye, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition. PMID:24871429

  19. Plant sterols: Friend or foe in CNS disorders?

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Bogie, Jeroen F J; Mailleux, Jo; Vanmol, Jasmine; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mulder, Monique; Hendriks, Jerome J A

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system (CNS) is the most cholesterol rich organ by weight. Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated in the CNS and all cholesterol available is synthesized in situ. Deficits in cholesterol homeostasis at the level of synthesis, transport, or catabolism result in severe disorders featured by neurological disability. Recent studies indicate that a disturbed cholesterol metabolism is involved in CNS disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In contrast to circulating cholesterol, dietary plant sterols, can cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the membranes of CNS cells. Plant sterols are well-known for their ability to lower circulating cholesterol levels. The finding that they gain access to the CNS has fueled research focusing on the physiological roles of plant sterols in the healthy and diseased CNS. To date, both beneficial and detrimental effects of plant sterols on CNS disorders are defined. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the impact of plant sterols on homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the CNS, and elaborate on the therapeutic potential of plant sterols in CNS disorders. PMID:25623279

  20. Moving beyond Rules: The Development of a Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization (CNS MPO) Approach To Enable Alignment of Druglike Properties

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The interplay among commonly used physicochemical properties in drug design was examined and utilized to create a prospective design tool focused on the alignment of key druglike attributes. Using a set of six physicochemical parameters ((a) lipophilicity, calculated partition coefficient (ClogP); (b) calculated distribution coefficient at pH = 7.4 (ClogD); (c) molecular weight (MW); (d) topological polar surface area (TPSA); (e) number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD); (f) most basic center (pKa)), a druglikeness central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) algorithm was built and applied to a set of marketed CNS drugs (N = 119) and Pfizer CNS candidates (N = 108), as well as to a large diversity set of Pfizer proprietary compounds (N = 11 303). The novel CNS MPO algorithm showed that 74% of marketed CNS drugs displayed a high CNS MPO score (MPO desirability score ≥ 4, using a scale of 0−6), in comparison to 60% of the Pfizer CNS candidates. This analysis suggests that this algorithm could potentially be used to identify compounds with a higher probability of successfully testing hypotheses in the clinic. In addition, a relationship between an increasing CNS MPO score and alignment of key in vitro attributes of drug discovery (favorable permeability, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, metabolic stability, and safety) was seen in the marketed CNS drug set, the Pfizer candidate set, and the Pfizer proprietary diversity set. The CNS MPO scoring function offers advantages over hard cutoffs or utilization of single parameters to optimize structure−activity relationships (SAR) by expanding medicinal chemistry design space through a holistic assessment approach. Based on six physicochemical properties commonly used by medicinal chemists, the CNS MPO function may be used prospectively at the design stage to accelerate the identification of compounds with increased probability of success. PMID:22778837

  1. Parsing the players: 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis and degradation in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Murataeva, N; Straiker, A; Mackie, K

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid signalling system, composed of endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endogenous cannabinoids, is much more complex than initially conceptualized. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is the most abundant endocannabinoid and plays a major role in CNS development and synaptic plasticity. Over the past decade, many key players in 2-AG synthesis and degradation have been identified and characterized. Most 2-AG is synthesized from membrane phospholipids via sequential activation of a phospholipase Cβ and a diacylglycerol lipase, although other pathways may contribute in specialized settings. 2-AG breakdown is more complicated with at least eight different enzymes participating. These enzymes can either degrade 2-AG into its components, arachidonic acid and glycerol, or transform 2-AG into highly bioactive signal molecules. The implications of the precise temporal and spatial control of the expression and function of these pleiotropic metabolizing enzymes have only recently come to be appreciated. In this review, we will focus on the primary organization of the synthetic and degradative pathways of 2-AG and then discuss more recent findings and their implications, with an eye towards the biological and therapeutic implications of manipulating 2-AG synthesis and metabolism. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24102242

  2. The Methyl-CpG Binding Proteins Mecp2, Mbd2 and Kaiso Are Dispensable for Mouse Embryogenesis, but Play a Redundant Function in Neural Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martín Caballero, Isabel; Hansen, Janne; Leaford, Donna; Pollard, Steven; Hendrich, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The precise molecular changes that occur when a neural stem (NS) cell switches from a programme of self-renewal to commit towards a specific lineage are not currently well understood. However it is clear that control of gene expression plays an important role in this process. DNA methylation, a mark of transcriptionally silent chromatin, has similarly been shown to play important roles in neural cell fate commitment in vivo. While DNA methylation is known to play important roles in neural specification during embryonic development, no such role has been shown for any of the methyl-CpG binding proteins (Mecps) in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the role of DNA methylation in neural cell fate decisions, we have investigated the function of Mecps in mouse development and in neural stem cell derivation, maintenance, and differentiation. In order to test whether the absence of phenotype in singly-mutant animals could be due to functional redundancy between Mecps, we created mice and neural stem cells simultaneously lacking Mecp2, Mbd2 and Zbtb33. No evidence for functional redundancy between these genes in embryonic development or in the derivation or maintenance of neural stem cells in culture was detectable. However evidence for a defect in neuronal commitment of triple knockout NS cells was found. Conclusions/Significance Although DNA methylation is indispensable for mammalian embryonic development, we show that simultaneous deficiency of three methyl-CpG binding proteins genes is compatible with apparently normal mouse embryogenesis. Nevertheless, we provide genetic evidence for redundancy of function between methyl-CpG binding proteins in postnatal mice. PMID:19177165

  3. Health-related quality of life of significant others of patients with malignant CNS versus non-CNS tumors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Boele, Florien W; Heimans, Jan J; Aaronson, Neil K; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Postma, Tjeerd J; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Klein, Martin

    2013-10-01

    It is often assumed that brain tumor patients' significant others (SOs: partners, other family members or close friends) may face greater stress than those of patients with malignancies not involving the central nervous system (CNS), due to progressive changes in neurological and cognitive functioning. We compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of SOs of patients with high-grade glioma (HGG) and low-grade glioma (LGG) with that of SOs of patients with non-CNS tumors with similar prognosis and at a similar phase in the disease trajectory (i.e. non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and low-grade hematological malignancies (NHL/CLL), respectively). HRQOL of SOs and patients was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. Patients' neurological functioning was indexed and they underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing. SOs of 213 LGG patients, 99 NHL/CLL patients, 55 HGG patients and 29 NSCLC patients participated. The SOs of LGG and NHL/CLL patients reported similar levels of HRQOL. SOs of HGG patients reported significantly lower mental health scores (MCS; p = 0.041) and social functioning (p = 0.028) than those of NSCLC patients. Mental health scores (MCS) of HGG and NSCLC patients were associated significantly with the mental health of their SOs (p = 0.013 and p < 0.001, respectively). Surprisingly, HGG patients' cognitive and neurological functioning were not predictive of SOs' mental health at the multivariate level. SOs of patients with highly malignant CNS tumors in the acute phase are at increased risk of compromised HRQOL compared to those of patients with systemic tumors without CNS involvement and a comparable life expectancy. PMID:23824535

  4. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  5. BBB-targeting, protein-based nanomedicines for drug and nucleic acid delivery to the CNS.

    PubMed

    Peluffo, Hugo; Unzueta, Ugutz; Negro-Demontel, María Luciana; Xu, Zhikun; Váquez, Esther; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) demands the urgent development of efficient drugs. While many of these medicines are already available, the Blood Brain Barrier and to a lesser extent, the Blood Spinal Cord Barrier pose physical and biological limitations to their diffusion to reach target tissues. Therefore, efforts are needed not only to address drug development but specially to design suitable vehicles for delivery into the CNS through systemic administration. In the context of the functional and structural versatility of proteins, recent advances in their biological fabrication and a better comprehension of the physiology of the CNS offer a plethora of opportunities for the construction and tailoring of plain nanoconjugates and of more complex nanosized vehicles able to cross these barriers. We revise here how the engineering of functional proteins offers drug delivery tools for specific CNS diseases and more transversally, how proteins can be engineered into smart nanoparticles or 'artificial viruses' to afford therapeutic requirements through alternative administration routes. PMID:25698504

  6. Blocking LINGO-1 as a therapy to promote CNS repair: from concept to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Mi, Sha; Pepinsky, R Blake; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-07-01

    LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor interacting protein, selectively expressed in the CNS on both oligodendrocytes and neurons. Its expression is developmentally regulated, and is upregulated in CNS diseases and injury. In animal models, LINGO-1 expression is upregulated in rat spinal cord injury, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxic lesions and glaucoma models. In humans, LINGO-1 expression is increased in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from demyelinated white matter of multiple sclerosis post-mortem samples, and in dopaminergic neurons from Parkinson's disease brains. LINGO-1 negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, neuronal survival and axonal regeneration by activating ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and inhibiting protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation signalling pathways. Across diverse animal CNS disease models, targeted LINGO-1 inhibition promotes neuron and oligodendrocyte survival, axon regeneration, oligodendrocyte differentiation, remyelination and functional recovery. The targeted inhibition of LINGO-1 function presents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:23681979

  7. Are Microglial Cells the Regulators of Lymphocyte Responses in the CNS?

    PubMed Central

    Almolda, Beatriz; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The infiltration of immune cells in the central nervous system is a common hallmark in different neuroinflammatory conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that resident glial cells can establish a cross-talk with infiltrated immune cells, including T-cells, regulating their recruitment, activation and function within the CNS. Although the healthy CNS has been thought to be devoid of professional dendritic cells (DCs), numerous studies have reported the presence of a population of DCs in specific locations such as the meninges, choroid plexuses and the perivascular space. Moreover, the infiltration of DC precursors during neuroinflammatory situations has been proposed, suggesting a putative role of these cells in the regulation of lymphocyte activity within the CNS. On the other hand, under specific circumstances, microglial cells are able to acquire a phenotype of DC expressing a wide range of molecules that equip these cells with all the necessary machinery for communication with T-cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the expression of molecules involved in the cross-talk with T-cells in both microglial cells and DCs and discuss the potential contribution of each of these cell populations on the control of lymphocyte function within the CNS. PMID:26635525

  8. Gene therapy for CNS diseases - Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    This is a brief report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy that took place from May 4th through May 7th, 2016 in Washington, DC, USA. While the meeting provided many symposiums, lectures, and scientific sessions this report mainly focuses on one of the sessions on the "Gene Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) Diseases" and specifically on the "Gene Therapy for the globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease. Two presentations focused on this subject utilizing two animal models of this disease: mice and dog models. Different serotypes of adeno-associate viral vectors (AAV) alone or in combination with bone marrow transplantations were used in these research projects. The Meeting of the ASGCT reflected continuous growth in the fields of gene and cell therapy and brighter forecast for efficient treatment options for variety of human diseases. PMID:27525222

  9. Uric acid as a CNS antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gene L; Shannon, Jackilen; Frei, Balz; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Quinn, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage is a consistent finding in a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Uric acid (UA) is a potent hydrophilic antioxidant that is modified by diet and drug. Several lines of evidence suggest that plasma UA may modulate outcomes in neurologic disease, but little attention has been paid to CNS levels of UA. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) UA is determined by plasma UA, modified by blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and associated with rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Also, since UA and ascorbic acid may act as antioxidants for one another, we also explored a potential interaction between them in the brain. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental Status Exam 19 +/- 5) participated in a longitudinal biomarker study for one year involving standardized clinical assessments. CSF and blood were collected at baseline for UA, ascorbic acid, and albumin. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and again one year later. CSF UA was independent of age, gender, and AD severity. CSF and plasma UA were positively correlated (r=0.669, p=0.001) and BBB impairment was associated with higher CSF levels of UA (p=0.028). Neither plasma nor CSF UA reached significant association with rates of cognitive decline over 1 year. CSF UA and CSF ascorbic acid were positively correlated (r=0.388, p=0.001). The hypothesis that CSF UA is determined by plasma UA and BBB integrity is supported, as is the hypothesis that UA and ascorbic acid are associated in CSF but not plasma. Adequately powered prospective studies would help assess any role for UA in primary and secondary prevention of AD. PMID:20061611

  10. Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Herbert H; Corsten, Luke A

    2005-01-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of primary CNS tumors varies widely by histologic subtype. In certain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, germ cell tumors, and primary CNS lymphoma, seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid space is a critical factor in determining stage, prognosis and appropriate therapy. Other tumor types, such as glioma, may have radiographic evidence of leptomeningeal metastases without clear impact on prognosis or therapy. PMID:16211884

  11. Mechanisms of Hypothermia, Delayed Hyperthermia and Fever Following CNS Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central nervous system (CNS) damage is often associated with robust body temperature changes, such as hypothermia and delayed hyperthermia. Hypothermia is one of the most common body temperature changes to CNS insults in rodents and is often associated with improved outcome. Alth...

  12. CNS Involvement in AML Patient Treated with 5-Azacytidine

    PubMed Central

    Vasilatou, Diamantina; Papageorgiou, Sotirios; Bazani, Efthymia; Prasouli, Athina; Economopoulou, Christina; Roumpakis, Christoforos; Karakitsos, Petros; Dimitriadis, George; Pappa, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare complication of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis. Sometimes the clinical presentation can be unspecific and the diagnosis can be very challenging. Here we report a case of CNS infiltration in a patient suffering from AML who presented with normal complete blood count and altered mental status. PMID:25197583

  13. CNS Involvement in AML Patient Treated with 5-Azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Vasilatou, Diamantina; Papageorgiou, Sotirios; Bazani, Efthymia; Prasouli, Athina; Economopoulou, Christina; Roumpakis, Christoforos; Karakitsos, Petros; Dimitriadis, George; Pappa, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare complication of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis. Sometimes the clinical presentation can be unspecific and the diagnosis can be very challenging. Here we report a case of CNS infiltration in a patient suffering from AML who presented with normal complete blood count and altered mental status. PMID:25197583

  14. Cognitive Impairment and Persistent CNS Injury in Treated HIV.

    PubMed

    Chan, Phillip; Hellmuth, Joanna; Spudich, Serena; Valcour, Victor

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has changed HIV infection into a chronic illness, conveying extensive benefits, including greater longevity and advantages for the central nervous system (CNS). However, studies increasingly confirm that the CNS gains are incomplete, with reports of persistent immune activation affecting the CNS despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. The rate of cognitive impairment is unchanged, although severity is generally milder than in the pre-cART era. In this review, we discuss cognitive outcomes from recently published clinical HIV studies, review observations on HIV biomarkers for cognitive change, and emphasize longitudinal imaging findings. Additionally, we summarize recent studies on CNS viral invasion, CD8 encephalitis, and how CNS involvement during the earliest stages of infection may set the stage for later cognitive manifestations. PMID:27188299

  15. PPAR Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in CNS Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bright, John J.; Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Chearwae, Wanida; Chakraborty, Sharmistha

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) is an immune privileged site, nevertheless inflammation associates with many CNS diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear hormone receptors that regulate immune and inflammatory responses. Specific ligands for PPARα, γ, and δ isoforms have proven effective in the animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and trauma/stroke, suggesting their use in the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. The activation of NF-κB and Jak-Stat signaling pathways and secretion of inflammatory cytokines are critical in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. Interestingly, PPAR agonists mitigate CNS disease by modulating inflammatory signaling network in immune cells. In this manuscript, we review the current knowledge on how PPARs regulate neuroinflammatory signaling networks in CNS diseases. PMID:18670616

  16. Study of curcumin immunomodulatory effects on reactive astrocyte cell function.

    PubMed

    Seyedzadeh, Mir Hadi; Safari, Zohreh; Zare, Ahad; Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Jamshid; Razavi, Seyed Alireza; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which most often presents as relapsing-remitting episodes. Recent evidence suggests that activated astrocytes play a dual functional role in CNS inflammatory disorders such as MS. In this study, we tried to induce anti-inflammatory functions of astrocytes by curcumin. The effects of curcumin were examined on human a astrocyte cell line (U373-MG) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. Cytokine levels were evaluated by quantitative ELISA method and mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. We found that curcumin decreased the release of IL-6 and reduced MMP-9 enzyme activity. It down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression too. However, curcumin did not have significant effects on the expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNAs. Results suggest that curcumin might beneficially affect astrocyte population in CNS neuroinflammatory environment lean to anti-inflammatory response and help to components in respects of CNS repair. Our findings offer curcumin as a new therapeutic agent with the potential of regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases in the CNS. PMID:24998635

  17. Transporters at CNS Barrier Sites: Obstacles or Opportunities for Drug Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M.; Thompson, Brandon J.; Davis, Thomas P.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (BCSF) barriers are critical determinants of CNS homeostasis. Additionally, the BBB and BCSF barriers are formidable obstacles to effective CNS drug delivery. These brain barrier sites express putative influx and efflux transporters that precisely control permeation of circulating solutes including drugs. The study of transporters has enabled a shift away from “brute force” approaches to delivering drugs by physically circumventing brain barriers towards chemical approaches that can target specific compounds of the BBB and/or BCSF barrier. However, our understanding of transporters at the BBB and BCSF barriers has primarily focused on understanding efflux transporters that efficiently prevent drugs from attaining therapeutic concentrations in the CNS. Recently, through the characterization of multiple endogenously expressed uptake transporters, this paradigm has shifted to the study of brain transporter targets that can facilitate drug delivery (i.e., influx transporters). Additionally, signaling pathways and trafficking mechanisms have been identified for several endogenous BBB/BCSF transporters, thereby offering even more opportunities to understand how transporters can be exploited for optimization of CNS drug delivery. This review presents an overview of the BBB and BCSF barrier as well as the many families of transporters functionally expressed at these barrier sites. Furthermore, we present an overview of various strategies that have been designed and utilized to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain with a particular emphasis on those approaches that directly target endogenous BBB/BCSF barrier transporters. PMID:23789948

  18. Chemokines in the balance: maintenance of homeostasis and protection at CNS barriers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica L.; Holman, David W.; Klein, Robyn S.

    2014-01-01

    In the adult central nervous system (CNS), chemokines and their receptors are involved in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Although most lines of investigation focus on their ability to induce the migration of cells, recent studies indicate that chemokines also promote cellular interactions and activate signaling pathways that maintain CNS homeostatic functions. Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21. While endothelial cell expression of these chemokines is known to regulate the entry of leukocytes into the CNS during immunosurveillance, new data indicate that CXCL12 is also involved in diverse cellular activities including adult neurogenesis and neuronal survival, having an opposing role to the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL14, which appears to regulate synaptic inputs to neural precursors. Neuronal expression of CX3CL1, yet another homeostatic chemokine that promotes neuronal survival and communication with microglia, is partly regulated by CXCL12. Regulation of CXCL12 is unique in that it may regulate its own expression levels via binding to its scavenger receptor CXCR7/ACKR3. In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the possible implications of their dysfunction as a cause of neurologic disease. PMID:24920943

  19. Specific elements of the glyoxylate pathway play a significant role in the functional transition of the soybean cotyledon during seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Delkin O; Vodkin, Lila O

    2007-01-01

    Background The soybean (Glycine max) cotyledon is a specialized tissue whose main function is to serve as a nutrient reserve that supplies the needs of the young plant throughout seedling development. During this process the cotyledons experience a functional transition to a mainly photosynthetic tissue. To identify at the genetic level the specific active elements that participate in the natural transition of the cotyledon from storage to photosynthetic activity, we studied the transcript abundance profile at different time points using a new soybean oligonucleotide chip containing 19,200 probes (70-mer long). Results After normalization and statistical analysis we determined that 3,594 genes presented a statistically significant altered expression in relation to the imbibed seed in at least one of the time points defined for the study. Detailed analysis of this data identified individual, specific elements of the glyoxylate pathway that play a fundamental role during the functional transition of the cotyledon from nutrient storage to photosynthesis. The dynamics between glyoxysomes and peroxisomes is evident during these series of events. We also identified several other genes whose products could participate co-ordinately throughout the functional transition and the associated mechanisms of control and regulation and we described multiple unknown genetic elements that by association have the potential to make a major contribution to this biological process. Conclusion We demonstrate that the global transcript profile of the soybean cotyledon during seedling development is extremely active, highly regulated and dynamic. We defined the expression profiles of individual gene family members, enzymatic isoforms and protein subunits and classified them accordingly to their involvement in different functional activities relevant to seedling development and the cotyledonary functional transition in soybean, especially the ones associated with the glyoxylate cycle. Our

  20. `Sex' – It's not only Women's Work: A Case for Refocusing on the Functional Role that Sex Plays in Work for both Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2014-01-01

    Mention of the term sex work often invokes images of marginalized women at risk for HIV infection. Such images, however, are counterintuitive to the functional role intended by the movement that spawned use of the terms `sex work' and `sex worker'. This article looks at the sexual practices of men in urban China to argue for a return to a functional definition of `sex work', which was originally meant to legitimize the role sex plays in work. The progenitors of this movement intended to use `sex work' as a means to legitimize sex as an income generating activity for women involved in prostitution. I show that sex can also serve a functional role in the work-related duties of men seeking economic and political success in contemporary urban China. Men in China utilize sex as one way for demonstrating the loyalty necessary to access state-owned and controlled resources in a market economy governed under a Leninist system. Overall the article demonstrates that reclaiming perception of sex work as a functional rather than behavioral category can expand its use for preventing HIV among the broad subset of people who engage in sex as part of their work. PMID:25642103

  1. Autoantibody-boosted T-cell reactivation in the target organ triggers manifestation of autoimmune CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Flach, Anne-Christine; Litke, Tanja; Strauss, Judith; Haberl, Michael; Gómez, César Cordero; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert; Fehling, Hans-Jörg; Wienands, Jürgen; Odoardi, Francesca; Lühder, Fred; Flügel, Alexander

    2016-03-22

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by T cells that are reactive for brain antigens. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for MS, myelin-reactive T cells initiate the autoimmune process when entering the nervous tissue and become reactivated upon local encounter of their cognate CNS antigen. Thereby, the strength of the T-cellular reactivation process within the CNS tissue is crucial for the manifestation and the severity of the clinical disease. Recently, B cells were found to participate in the pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, with several diverse underlying mechanisms being under discussion. We here report that B cells play an important role in promoting the initiation process of CNS autoimmunity. Myelin-specific antibodies produced by autoreactive B cells after activation in the periphery diffused into the CNS together with the first invading pathogenic T cells. The antibodies accumulated in resident antigen-presenting phagocytes and significantly enhanced the activation of the incoming effector T cells. The ensuing strong blood-brain barrier disruption and immune cell recruitment resulted in rapid manifestation of clinical disease. Therefore, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific autoantibodies can initiate disease bouts by cooperating with the autoreactive T cells in helping them to recognize their autoantigen and become efficiently reactivated within the immune-deprived nervous tissue. PMID:26957602

  2. Role of Hemichannels in CNS Inflammation and the Inflammasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuri; Davidson, Joanne O; Gunn, Katherine C; Phillips, Anthony R; Green, Colin R; Gunn, Alistair J

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, once triggered, share a number of common features, including sustained inflammatory cell activation and vascular disruption. These shared pathways are induced independently of any genetic predisposition to the disease or the precise external stimulus. Glial cells respond to injury with an innate immune response that includes release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells may also be affected, leading to opening of the blood-brain barrier that facilitates invasion by circulating inflammatory cells. Inflammation can trigger acute neural injury followed by chronic inflammation that plays a key role in neurodegenerative conditions. Gap junction channels normally allow direct cell-to-cell communication. They are formed by the docking of two hemichannels, one contributed by each of the neighboring cells. While the opening probability of these channels is tightly controlled under resting conditions, hemichannels can open in response to injury or inflammatory factors, forming a large, relatively nonselective membrane pore. In this review, we consider the CNS immune system from the perspective that modulating connexin hemichannel opening can prevent tissue damage arising from excessive and uncontrolled inflammation. We discuss connexin channel roles in microglia, astrocytes, and endothelial cells in both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, and in particular describe the role of connexin hemichannels in the inflammasome pathway where they contribute to both its activation and its spread to neighboring cells. Finally, we describe the benefits of hemichannel block in animal models of brain injury. PMID:27038371

  3. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  4. Therapeutic challenges in primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Morris, Patrick G; Abrey, Lauren E

    2009-06-01

    Optimum treatment for patients with primary CNS lymphoma remains challenging because there have not been any large randomised clinical trials of this rare tumour. Drugs used in treating systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma have mostly proven ineffective because of difficulties crossing the blood-brain barrier. The recognition of the efficacy of high-dose methotrexate was a substantial therapeutic breakthrough and further advances, such as the development of polychemotherapy regimens, have built on this. Whole-brain radiotherapy can consolidate response to chemotherapy, but the associated toxic effects of chemoradiation can be unacceptable. Other effective approaches include disruption of the blood-brain barrier and the use of high-dose chemotherapy. Recently, there have been attempts to optimise multi-drug chemotherapy regimens by focusing on improving survival and reducing toxic effects. A promising area of research is the incorporation of novel targeted drugs into standard treatment frameworks. In the future, greater cooperation between research groups should hopefully lead to further therapeutic advances. PMID:19446277

  5. Sentinel lesions of primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, L; Fetell, M R; Sisti, M; Hochberg, F; Cohen, M; Louis, D N

    1996-01-01

    Some patients ultimately diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) have transient symptomatic contrast enhancing lesions. These "sentinel lesions" of PCNSL recede spontaneously or with corticosteroid treatment and present an important diagnostic dilemma because they show variable, but non-diagnostic histopathological features. Four previously healthy, immunocompetent patients aged 49 to 58 years had contrast enhancing intraparenchymal brain lesions. Before biopsy, three of the four were treated with corticosteroids. Initial biopsies showed demyelination with axonal sparing in two, non-specific inflammation in one, and normal brain in one. Infiltrating lymphocytes predominantly expressed T cell markers with rare B cells. All four patients recovered within two to four weeks after the initial biopsy and imaging studies showed resolution of the lesions. The CSF was normal in three of the four patients tested; oligoclonal bands were absent in both of the two tested. After seven to 11 months, each patient developed new symptomatic lesions in a different region of the brain, biopsy of which showed a B cell PCNSL. The mechanism of spontaneous involution of sentinel lesions is not understood, but may represent host immunity against the tumour. Sentinel lesions of PCNSL should be considered in patients with contrast enhancing focal parenchymal lesions that show non-specific or demyelinative histopathological changes. Close clinical and radiographic follow up is essential if PCNSL is to be diagnosed early in such patients. Images PMID:8558135

  6. Target Identification for CNS Diseases by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Altar, C Anthony; Vawter, Marquis P; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression changes in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and gene responses to therapeutic drugs, provide new ways to identify central nervous system (CNS) targets for drug discovery. This review summarizes gene and pathway targets replicated in expression profiling of human postmortem brain, animal models, and cell culture studies. Analysis of isolated human neurons implicates targets for Alzheimer’s disease and the cognitive decline associated with normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. In addition to τ, amyloid-β precursor protein, and amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), these targets include all three high-affinity neurotrophin receptors and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system, synapse markers, glutamate receptors (GluRs) and transporters, and dopamine (DA) receptors, particularly the D2 subtype. Gene-based candidates for Parkinson’s disease (PD) include the ubiquitin–proteosome system, scavengers of reactive oxygen species, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its receptor, TrkB, and downstream target early growth response 1, Nurr-1, and signaling through protein kinase C and RAS pathways. Increasing variability and decreases in brain mRNA production from middle age to old age suggest that cognitive impairments during normal aging may be addressed by drugs that restore antioxidant, DNA repair, and synaptic functions including those of DA to levels of younger adults. Studies in schizophrenia identify robust decreases in genes for GABA function, including glutamic acid decarboxylase, HINT1, glutamate transport and GluRs, BDNF and TrkB, numerous 14-3-3 protein family members, and decreases in genes for CNS synaptic and metabolic functions, particularly glycolysis and ATP generation. Many of these metabolic genes are increased by insulin and muscarinic agonism, both of which are therapeutic in psychosis. Differential genomic signals are relatively sparse in bipolar disorder, but include deficiencies in the expression of 14

  7. CNS GLP-1 Regulation of Peripheral Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Darleen

    2008-01-01

    Current models hold that peripheral and CNS GLP-1 signaling operate as distinct systems whereby CNS GLP-1 regulates food intake and circulating GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis. There is accumulating evidence that the arcuate nucleus, an area of the CNS that regulates energy homeostasis, responds to hormones and nutrients to regulate glucose homeostasis as well. Recent data suggest that GLP-1 may be another signal acting on the arcuate to regulate glucose homeostasis challenging the conventional model of GLP-1 physiology. This review discusses the peripheral and central GLP-1 systems and presents a model whereby these systems are integrated in regulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:18508100

  8. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Dong Keun; Cho, Bon A; Kim, Hyong Bai . E-mail: hbkim5212@hotmail.com

    2005-06-03

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast.

  9. Neurocognitive Status in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood CNS Malignancies: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, Leah; Liu, Qi; Gioia, Gerard; Yasui, Yutaka; Packer, Roger J.; Mertens, Ann; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Armstrong, Gregory; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Among survivors of childhood cancer, those with Central Nervous System (CNS) malignancies have been found to be at greatest risk for neuropsychological dysfunction in the first few years following diagnosis and treatment. This study follows survivors to adulthood to assess the long term impact of childhood CNS malignancy and its treatment on neurocognitive functioning. Participants & Methods As part of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), 802 survivors of childhood CNS malignancy, 5937 survivors of non-CNS malignancy and 382 siblings without cancer completed a 25 item Neurocognitive Questionnaire (CCSS-NCQ) at least 16 years post cancer diagnosis assessing task efficiency, emotional regulation, organizational skills and memory. Neurocognitive functioning in survivors of CNS malignancy was compared to that of non-CNS malignancy survivors and a sibling cohort. Within the group of CNS malignancy survivors, multiple linear regression was used to assess the contribution of demographic, illness and treatment variables to reported neurocognitive functioning and the relationship of reported neurocognitive functioning to educational, employment and income status. Results Survivors of CNS malignancy reported significantly greater neurocognitive impairment on all factors assessed by the CCSS-NCQ than non-CNS cancer survivors or siblings (p<.01), with mean T scores of CNS malignancy survivors substantially more impaired that those of the sibling cohort (p<.001), with a large effect size for Task Efficiency (1.16) and a medium effect size for Memory (.68). Within the CNS malignancy group, medical complications, including hearing deficits, paralysis and cerebrovascular incidents resulted in a greater likelihood of reported deficits on all of the CCSS-NCQ factors, with generally small effect sizes (.22-.50). Total brain irradiation predicted greater impairment on Task Efficiency and Memory (Effect sizes: .65 and .63, respectively), as did partial brain

  10. Generalized CNS arousal: An elementary force within the vertebrate nervous system.

    PubMed

    Calderon, D P; Kilinc, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R; Pfaff, D

    2016-09-01

    Why do animals and humans do anything at all? Arousal is the most powerful and essential function of the brain, a continuous function that accounts for the ability of animals and humans to respond to stimuli in the environment by producing muscular responses. Following decades of psychological, neurophysiological and molecular investigations, generalized CNS arousal can now be analyzed using approaches usually applied to physical systems. The concept of "criticality" is a state that illustrates an advantage for arousal systems poised near a phase transition. This property provides speed and sensitivity and facilitates the transition of the system into different brain states, especially as the brain crosses a phase transition from less aroused to more aroused states. In summary, concepts derived from applied mathematics of physical systems will now find their application in this area of neuroscience, the neurobiology of CNS arousal. PMID:27216213

  11. Role of galectin-3 in prion infections of the CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Simon W.F.; Riemer, Constanze; Madela, Kazimierz; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Gueltner, Sandra; Heise, Ines; Baier, Michael . E-mail: baierm@rki.de

    2007-08-03

    Galectin-3 is a multi-functional protein and participates in mediating inflammatory reactions. The pronounced overexpression of galectin-3 in prion-infected brain tissue prompted us to study the role of this protein in a murine prion model. Immunofluorescence double-labelling identified microglia as the major cell type expressing galectin-3. Ablation of galectin-3 did not affect PrP{sup Sc}-deposition and development of gliosis. However, galectin-3{sup -/-}-mice showed prolonged survival times upon intracerebral and peripheral scrapie infections. Moreover, protein levels of the lysosomal activation marker LAMP-2 were markedly reduced in prion-infected galectin-3{sup -/-}-mice suggesting a role of galectin-3 in regulation of lysosomal functions. Lower mRNA levels of Beclin-1 and Atg5 in prion-infected wild-type and galectin-3{sup -/-}-mice indicated an impairment of autophagy although autophagosome formation was unchanged. The results point towards a detrimental role of galectin-3 in prion infections of the CNS and suggest that endo-/lysosomal dysfunction in combination with reduced autophagy may contribute to disease development.

  12. Nicotinic ACh Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dineley, Kelly T.; Pandya, Anshul A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor channels (nAChRs). These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in the mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer’s disease), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. PMID:25639674

  13. Early CNS neurodegeneration in radiologically isolated syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Eve; Khadka, Sankalpa; Buckley, Jessica; Liu, Shuang; Sampat, Mehul; Kantarci, Orhun; Lebrun Frenay, Christine; Siva, Aksel; Okuda, Darin T.; Pelletier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence indicates that the thalamus may be a location of early neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to identify the presence of gray matter volume loss and thinning in patients with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). Methods: Sixty-three participants were included in this case-control study. Twenty-one patients with RIS were age- and sex-matched to 42 healthy controls in a 1:2 ratio. All participants underwent brain MRIs on a single 3T scanner. After lesion segmentation and inpainting, 1 mm3-isometric T1-weighted images were submitted to FreeSurfer (v5.2). Normalized cortical and deep gray matter volumes were compared between patients with RIS and controls using t tests, and thalamic volumes were correlated with white matter lesion volumes using Pearson correlation. Exploratory cortical thickness maps were created. Results: Although traditional normalized total gray and white matter volumes were not statistically different between patients with RIS and controls, normalized left (0.0046 ± 0.0005 vs 0.0049 ± 0.0004, p = 0.006), right (0.0045 ± 0.0005 vs 0.0048 ± 0.0004, p = 0.008), and mean (0.0045 ± 0.0005 vs 0.0049 ± 0.0004, p = 0.004) thalamic volumes were significantly lower in patients with RIS (n = 21, mean age 41.9 ± 12.7 years) than in controls (n = 42, mean age 41.4 ± 11.2 years). Thalamic volumes correlated modestly with white matter lesion volumes (range: r = −0.35 to −0.47). Conclusion: Our data provide novel evidence of thalamic atrophy in RIS and are consistent with previous reports in early MS stages. Thalamic volume loss is present early in CNS demyelinating disease and should be further investigated as a metric associated with neurodegeneration. PMID:25884012

  14. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 and synaptic function in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Andrew D; Kurihara, Mai; Brandon, Nicholas J; Brown, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is found at the breakpoint of an inherited chromosomal translocation, and segregates with major mental illnesses. Its potential role in central nervous system (CNS) malfunction has triggered intensive investigation of the biological roles played by DISC1, with the hope that this may shed new light on the pathobiology of psychiatric disease. Such work has ranged from investigations of animal behavior to detailed molecular-level analysis of the assemblies that DISC1 forms with other proteins. Here, we discuss the evidence for a role of DISC1 in synaptic function in the mammalian CNS. PMID:24712987

  15. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 and synaptic function in the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Randall, Andrew D; Kurihara, Mai; Brandon, Nicholas J; Brown, Jon T

    2014-04-01

    The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is found at the breakpoint of an inherited chromosomal translocation, and segregates with major mental illnesses. Its potential role in central nervous system (CNS) malfunction has triggered intensive investigation of the biological roles played by DISC1, with the hope that this may shed new light on the pathobiology of psychiatric disease. Such work has ranged from investigations of animal behavior to detailed molecular-level analysis of the assemblies that DISC1 forms with other proteins. Here, we discuss the evidence for a role of DISC1 in synaptic function in the mammalian CNS. PMID:24712987

  16. Kif13b Regulates PNS and CNS Myelination through the Dlg1 Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Roberta; Guerrero-Valero, Marta; Alberizzi, Valeria; Previtali, Stefano C.; Sherman, Diane L.; Palmisano, Marilena; Huganir, Richard L.; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Cuenda, Ana; Feltri, Maria Laura; Brophy, Peter J.; Bolino, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-based kinesin motors have many cellular functions, including the transport of a variety of cargos. However, unconventional roles have recently emerged, and kinesins have also been reported to act as scaffolding proteins and signaling molecules. In this work, we further extend the notion of unconventional functions for kinesin motor proteins, and we propose that Kif13b kinesin acts as a signaling molecule regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) myelination. In this process, positive and negative signals must be tightly coordinated in time and space to orchestrate myelin biogenesis. Here, we report that in Schwann cells Kif13b positively regulates myelination by promoting p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Discs large 1 (Dlg1), a known brake on myelination, which downregulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) pathway. Interestingly, Kif13b also negatively regulates Dlg1 stability in oligodendrocytes, in which Dlg1, in contrast to Schwann cells, enhances AKT activation and promotes myelination. Thus, our data indicate that Kif13b is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. In summary, we propose a novel function for the Kif13b kinesin in glial cells as a key component of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which controls myelination in both PNS and CNS. PMID:27070899

  17. Kif13b Regulates PNS and CNS Myelination through the Dlg1 Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Roberta; Guerrero-Valero, Marta; Alberizzi, Valeria; Previtali, Stefano C; Sherman, Diane L; Palmisano, Marilena; Huganir, Richard L; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Cuenda, Ana; Feltri, Maria Laura; Brophy, Peter J; Bolino, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Microtubule-based kinesin motors have many cellular functions, including the transport of a variety of cargos. However, unconventional roles have recently emerged, and kinesins have also been reported to act as scaffolding proteins and signaling molecules. In this work, we further extend the notion of unconventional functions for kinesin motor proteins, and we propose that Kif13b kinesin acts as a signaling molecule regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) myelination. In this process, positive and negative signals must be tightly coordinated in time and space to orchestrate myelin biogenesis. Here, we report that in Schwann cells Kif13b positively regulates myelination by promoting p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Discs large 1 (Dlg1), a known brake on myelination, which downregulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) pathway. Interestingly, Kif13b also negatively regulates Dlg1 stability in oligodendrocytes, in which Dlg1, in contrast to Schwann cells, enhances AKT activation and promotes myelination. Thus, our data indicate that Kif13b is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. In summary, we propose a novel function for the Kif13b kinesin in glial cells as a key component of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which controls myelination in both PNS and CNS. PMID:27070899

  18. CD14 is a key organizer of microglial responses to CNS infection and injury.

    PubMed

    Janova, Hana; Böttcher, Chotima; Holtman, Inge R; Regen, Tommy; van Rossum, Denise; Götz, Alexander; Ernst, Anne-Sophie; Fritsche, Christin; Gertig, Ulla; Saiepour, Nasrin; Gronke, Konrad; Wrzos, Claudia; Ribes, Sandra; Rolfes, Simone; Weinstein, Jonathan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Pukrop, Tobias; Kopatz, Jens; Stadelmann, Christine; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Weber, Martin S; Prinz, Marco; Brück, Wolfgang; Eggen, Bart J L; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Priller, Josef; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in microglia. First, it confers an up to 100-fold higher LPS sensitivity compared to peripheral macrophages to enable efficient proinflammatory cytokine induction. Second, CD14 prevents excessive responses to massive LPS challenges via an interferon β-mediated feedback. Third, CD14 is mandatory for microglial reactions to tissue damage-associated signals. In mice, these functions are essential for balanced CNS responses to bacterial infection, traumatic and ischemic injuries, since CD14 deficiency causes either hypo- or hyperinflammation, insufficient or exaggerated immune cell recruitment or worsened stroke outcomes. While CD14 orchestrates functions of TLR4 and related immune receptors, it is itself regulated by TLR and non-TLR systems to thereby fine-tune microglial damage-sensing capacity upon infectious and non-infectious CNS challenges. PMID:26683584

  19. Human African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: current issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Peter G.E.

    2004-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapy with melarsoprol for CNS HAT has unacceptable side-effects with an overall mortality of 5%. This review discusses the issues of diagnosis and staging of CNS disease, its neuropathogenesis, and the possibility of new therapies for treating late-stage disease. PMID:14966556

  20. PGC-1α plays a functional role in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis but not fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tuoyu; Li, Ping; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yin, Xinhe; Kwek, Jyeyi; Zhang, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1α changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1α is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1α knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1α knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1α plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1α function. We conclude that PGC-1α is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice. PMID:20032509

  1. Delivery of proteins to CNS as seen and measured by positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Belov, V.; Fischman, A. J.; Belova, E.; Titus, J.; Gagne, M.; Gillooly, C.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, there are no effective treatments for several diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). While several novel molecular approaches are being developed, many of them require delivery of macromolecular or supramolecular agents to the CNS tissues protected by the blood–brain and blood–arachnoid barriers. A variety of approaches that are being developed for overcoming or bypassing the barriers are based on complex transfer processes. The delivery of biopharmaceuticals and other macromolecules and particulates to the CNS, especially through the leptomeningeal (intrathecal) route, includes a variety of stages, such as leptomeningeal propagation, drainage to the systemic circulation, and penetration into the CNS. The investigation of complex pharmacokinetics that includes convective, as well as diffusional and active transfer processes, greatly benefit from real-time non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the drug transport. Pharmacological positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, which enables such monitoring, plays an increasingly significant role in drug delivery and biopharmacology. PET is a powerful tool for quantitative in vivo tracking of molecules labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides. The high sensitivity, format, and accuracy of the data (similar to those of conventional tissue sampling biodistribution studies) make PET a readily adoptable pharmacological technique. In contrast to the conventional studies, PET also allows for longitudinal nonterminal same-animal studies. The latter may not only improve the data statistics, but also enable preclinical studies (especially in large and/or rare animals) not feasible under the conventional approach. This paper is intended to demonstrate the character of data that can be obtained by PET and to demonstrate how the main patterns of the leptomeningeal route pharmacokinetics can be investigated using this method. Examples of data processing are taken from our recent studies of five model

  2. CNS-related side-effects with metoprolol and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Cove-Smith, J R; Kirk, C A

    1985-01-01

    Vivid and bizarre dreams, hallucinations, sleep disturbance and psychosis have all been described following treatment with beta-blockers. It has been suggested that these central nervous system (CNS) side-effects are related to the degree of lipophilicity of the beta-blocker. A randomized double-blind crossover study was performed to compare the incidence of CNS side-effects with atenolol and metoprolol in hypertensive patients who had reported CNS side-effects with lipophilic beta-blockers. Eleven women and six men completed the study, in which a 30-item psychiatric questionnaire was used to detect changes in psychological status and possible CNS side-effects. Discontinuation of the original lipophilic beta-blocker produced a significant improvement in quality of sleep, dreams, concentration, memory, energy, and anxiety. No significant CNS side-effects were reported with atenolol, but introduction of metoprolol caused a significant increase in the incidence of sleep disturbance (p less than 0.01) and restless nights (p less than 0.05), as well as failure to achieve satisfactory sexual intercourse (p less than 0.05). When compared with atenolol, metoprolol was associated with a significantly higher incidence of restless disturbed nights (p less than 0.05). Blood pressure control was identical for both beta-blockers. This study appears to confirm the association between CNS-related side-effects and the lipophilicity of beta-blockers. PMID:4054193

  3. Region-specific radiotherapy and neuropsychological outcomes in adult survivors of childhood CNS malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Gregory T.; Jain, Neelam; Liu, Wei; Merchant, Thomas E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Gurney, James G.; Packer, Roger J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors exposed to CNS irradiation are at increased risk for neurocognitive deficits; however, limited data exist linking outcomes with region-specific exposure to CNS irradiation. We report associations between region-specific radiation dose and self-reported neurocognitive and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in 818 adult survivors of childhood central nervous system (CNS) malignancies from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Survivors were compared with a sibling group and national normative samples to calculate standardized scores. Cumulative radiation dose was calculated for 4 specific brain regions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between radiation dose to specific brain regions and outcome measures of functional impairment adjusted for clinical and demographic factors, including sex and age at diagnosis. High radiation dose levels to temporal regions were associated with a higher risk for memory impairment (radiation doses ≥30 to <50 Gy: OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.01–3.78; dose ≥50 Gy: OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.25–4.39) compared with those with no radiation exposure. No such association was seen with radiation exposure to other regions. Exposure to temporal regions was associated with more social and general health problems, whereas exposure to frontal regions was associated with general health problems and physical performance limitations. Adult survivors of childhood CNS malignancies report higher rates of neuropsychological and HRQOL outcomes, which vary as a function of dose to specific neuroanatomical regions. Survivors with a history of radiation exposure to temporal brain regions are at increased risk for impairment in memory and social functioning. PMID:20716593

  4. B Cells in the Multiple Sclerosis Central Nervous System: Trafficking and Contribution to CNS-Compartmentalized Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Laure; Touil, Hanane; Pikor, Natalia B; Gommerman, Jennifer L; Prat, Alexandre; Bar-Or, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial results of peripheral B cell depletion indicate abnormal proinflammatory B cell properties, and particularly antibody-independent functions, contribute to relapsing MS disease activity. However, potential roles of B cells in progressive forms of disease continue to be debated. Prior work indicates that presence of B cells is fostered within the inflamed MS central nervous system (CNS) environment, and that B cell-rich immune cell collections may be present within the meninges of patients. A potential association is reported between such meningeal immune cell collections and the subpial pattern of cortical injury that is now considered important in progressive disease. Elucidating the characteristics of B cells that populate the MS CNS, how they traffic into the CNS and how they may contribute to progressive forms of the disease has become of considerable interest. Here, we will review characteristics of human B cells identified within distinct CNS subcompartments of patients with MS, including the cerebrospinal fluid, parenchymal lesions, and meninges, as well as the relationship between B cell populations identified in these subcompartments and the periphery. We will further describe the different barriers of the CNS and the possible mechanisms of migration of B cells across these barriers. Finally, we will consider the range of human B cell responses (including potential for antibody production, cytokine secretion, and antigen presentation) that may contribute to propagating inflammation and injury cascades thought to underlie MS progression. PMID:26732544

  5. B Cells in the Multiple Sclerosis Central Nervous System: Trafficking and Contribution to CNS-Compartmentalized Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Laure; Touil, Hanane; Pikor, Natalia B.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Prat, Alexandre; Bar-Or, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial results of peripheral B cell depletion indicate abnormal proinflammatory B cell properties, and particularly antibody-independent functions, contribute to relapsing MS disease activity. However, potential roles of B cells in progressive forms of disease continue to be debated. Prior work indicates that presence of B cells is fostered within the inflamed MS central nervous system (CNS) environment, and that B cell-rich immune cell collections may be present within the meninges of patients. A potential association is reported between such meningeal immune cell collections and the subpial pattern of cortical injury that is now considered important in progressive disease. Elucidating the characteristics of B cells that populate the MS CNS, how they traffic into the CNS and how they may contribute to progressive forms of the disease has become of considerable interest. Here, we will review characteristics of human B cells identified within distinct CNS subcompartments of patients with MS, including the cerebrospinal fluid, parenchymal lesions, and meninges, as well as the relationship between B cell populations identified in these subcompartments and the periphery. We will further describe the different barriers of the CNS and the possible mechanisms of migration of B cells across these barriers. Finally, we will consider the range of human B cell responses (including potential for antibody production, cytokine secretion, and antigen presentation) that may contribute to propagating inflammation and injury cascades thought to underlie MS progression. PMID:26732544

  6. Molecular MRI approaches to the detection of CNS inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sibson, Nicola R; Anthony, Daniel C; van Kasteren, Sander; Dickens, Alex; Perez-Balderas, Francisco; McAteer, Martina A; Choudhury, Robin P; Davis, Benjamin G

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many neurological diseases, yet our understanding of the contribution of these processes to tissue damage remains poor. For many such diseases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the method of choice for clinical diagnosis. However, many of the MRI parameters that enable disease detection, such as passive contrast enhancement across a compromised blood-brain barrier, are weighted towards late-stage disease. Moreover, whilst these methods may report on disease severity, they are not able to provide information on either disease activity or the underlying molecular processes. There is a need, therefore, to develop methods that enable earlier disease detection, potentially long before clinical symptoms become apparent, together with identification of specific molecular processes that may guide specific therapy. This chapter describes the methodology for the synthesis and validation of two novel, functional MRI-detectable probes, based on microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO), which target endothelial adhesion molecules. These contrast agents enable the detection of acute brain inflammation in vivo, at a time when pathology is undetectable by conventional MRI. Such molecular MRI methods are opening new vistas for the acute diagnosis of CNS disease, together with the possibility for individually tailored therapy and earlier, more sensitive assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies. PMID:21279613

  7. Daam2-PIP5K is a regulatory pathway for Wnt signaling and therapeutic target for remyelination in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Chaboub, Lesley S; Zhu, Wenyi; Zollinger, Daniel; Rasband, Matthew N; Fancy, Stephen P J; Deneen, Benjamin

    2015-03-18

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in developmental and regenerative myelination of the CNS; however, contributions of proximal regulators of the Wnt receptor complex to these processes remain undefined. To identify components of the Wnt pathway that regulate these processes, we applied a multifaceted discovery platform and found that Daam2-PIP5K comprise a novel pathway regulating Wnt signaling and myelination. Using dorsal patterning of the chick spinal cord we found that Daam2 promotes Wnt signaling and receptor complex formation through PIP5K-PIP2. Analysis of Daam2 function in oligodendrocytes (OLs) revealed that it suppresses OL differentiation during development, after white matter injury (WMI), and is expressed in human white matter lesions. These findings suggest a pharmacological strategy to inhibit Daam2-PIP5K function, application of which stimulates remyelination after WMI. Put together, our studies integrate information from multiple systems to identify a novel regulatory pathway for Wnt signaling and potential therapeutic target for WMI. PMID:25754822

  8. Daam2-PIP5K Is a Regulatory Pathway for Wnt Signaling and Therapeutic Target for Remyelination in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Chaboub, Lesley S.; Zhu, Wenyi; Zollinger, Daniel; Rasband, Matthew N.; Fancy, Stephen P.J.; Deneen, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt signaling plays an essential role in developmental and regenerative myelination of the CNS; however, contributions of proximal regulators of the Wnt receptor complex to these processes remain undefined. To identify components of the Wnt pathway that regulate these processes, we applied a multifaceted discovery platform and found that Daam2-PIP5K comprise a novel pathway regulating Wnt signaling and myelination. Using dorsal patterning of the chick spinal cord we found that Daam2 promotes Wnt signaling and receptor complex formation through PIP5K-PIP2. Analysis of Daam2 function in oligodendrocytes (OLs) revealed that it suppresses OL differentiation during development, after white matter injury (WMI), and is expressed in human white matter lesions. These findings suggest a pharmacological strategy to inhibit Daam2-PIP5K function, application of which stimulates remyelination after WMI. Put together, our studies integrate information from multiple systems to identify a novel regulatory pathway for Wnt signaling and potential therapeutic target for WMI. PMID:25754822

  9. Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don

    2006-01-01

    Project Objectives include: a) CNS Model Development; b Design/Integration of baseline set of CNS Models into ACES; c) Implement Enhanced Simulation Capabilities in ACES; d) Design and Integration of Enhanced (2nd set) CNS Models; and e) Continue with CNS Model Integration/Concept evaluations.

  10. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  11. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. PMID:26422988

  12. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A.; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. PMID:26422988

  13. In-depth characterization of the secretome of mouse CNS cell lines by LC-MS/MS without prefractionation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jongmin; Han, Dohyun; Park, Joonho; Kim, Sang Jeong; Kim, Youngsoo

    2015-11-01

    Microglia, astrocytes, and neurons, which have important functions in the central nervous system (CNS), communicate mutually to generate a signal through secreted proteins or small molecules, but many of which have not been identified. Because establishing a reference for the secreted proteins from CNS cells could be invaluable in examining cell-to-cell communication in the brain, we analyzed the secretome of three murine CNS cell lines without prefractionation by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In this study, 2795 proteins were identified from conditioned media of the three cell lines, and 2125 proteins were annotated as secreted proteins by bioinformatics analysis. Further, approximately 500 secreted proteins were quantifiable as differentially expressed proteins by label-free quantitation. As a result, our secretome references are useful datasets for the future study of neuronal diseases. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001597 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001597). PMID:26227174

  14. LRP1 expression in microglia is protective during CNS autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tzu-Ying; Guo, Yong; Seki, Scott M; Rosen, Abagail M; Johanson, David M; Mandell, James W; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Gaultier, Alban

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a devastating neurological disorder characterized by the autoimmune destruction of the central nervous system myelin. While T cells are known orchestrators of the immune response leading to MS pathology, the precise contribution of CNS resident and peripheral infiltrating myeloid cells is less well described. Here, we explore the myeloid cell function of Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), a scavenger receptor involved in myelin clearance and the inflammatory response, in the context of Multiple sclerosis. Supporting its central role in Multiple sclerosis pathology, we find that LRP1 expression is increased in Multiple sclerosis lesions in comparison to the surrounding healthy tissue. Using two genetic mouse models, we show that deletion of LRP1 in microglia, but not in peripheral macrophages, negatively impacts the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of Multiple sclerosis. We further show that the increased disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is not due to haplodeficiency of the Cx3cr1 locus. At the cellular level, microglia lacking LRP1 adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by amoeboid morphology and increased production of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α. We also show that LRP1 functions as a robust inhibitor of NF-kB activation in myeloid cells via a MyD88 dependent pathway, potentially explaining the increase in disease severity observed in mice lacking LRP1 expression in microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that the function of LRP1 in microglia is to keep these cells in an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective status during inflammatory insult, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and potentially in Multiple sclerosis. PMID:27400748

  15. mRNA distribution analysis of human TRPC family in CNS and peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Antonio; Medhurst, Andrew D; Mattei, Cesar; Kelsell, Rosemary E; Calver, Andrew R; Randall, Andrew D; Benham, Christopher D; Pangalos, Menelas N

    2002-12-30

    The mammalian homologues of the Drosophila transient receptor potential (TRP) channel are plasma membrane proteins involved in the regulation of cellular Ca(2+) influx. These ion channels can be activated subsequent to either depletion of Ca(2+) from internal stores or through receptor-mediated processes. The mRNA expression patterns of several individual mammalian short transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) have been described. Cross-comparisons between these data, however, are at best difficult predominantly due to the non-quantitative methods used. Furthermore there is limited data on the expression of TRPC family members in human tissues. In the present study we used a single technique, namely TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR, to investigate the mRNA distribution of human TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPC7 (hTRPCs) in discrete human brain areas, peripheral tissues as well as a panel of cell-lines. All hTRPCs studied were widely expressed within CNS and significant peripheral expression was often observed. Despite this, each channel exhibited a distinctive hallmark distribution profile. hTRPC1 was widely expressed in CNS and peripheral tissues, whereas hTRPC3 and hTRPC5 were predominantly expressed in tissues of CNS. hTRPC4 mRNA was detected in CNS and certain peripheral tissues such as bone, heart and prostate. hTRPC6 was homogeneously expressed throughout the CNS and peripheral tissues with the highest levels in placenta and lung. hTRPC7 mRNA was also broadly expressed in CNS as well as some peripheral tissues. The pattern of expression of the TRPCs was quite different in the various cell lines examined. TRPC3 and TRPC6 were selectively present in HEK-293 cells whilst TRPC1 was broadly distributed in the cell lines analyzed. In contrast TRPC4 and TRPC5 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in HK-2 and HEK-293 cell lines respectively. TRPC7 was selectively expressed in COS-1, COS-7 and HK-2 cell lines. These results show tissue- and cell

  16. CNS accumulation of regulatory B cells is VLA-4-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Sagan, Sharon A.; Winger, Ryan C.; Spencer, Collin M.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) on regulatory B cells (Breg) in CNS autoimmune disease. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in mice selectively deficient for VLA-4 on B cells (CD19cre/α4f/f) by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide (p)35–55 or recombinant human (rh) MOG protein. B-cell and T-cell populations were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Breg were evaluated by intracellular IL-10 staining of B cells and, secondly, by coexpression of CD1d and CD5. Results: As previously reported, EAE was less severe in B-cell VLA-4-deficient vs control CD19cre mice when induced by rhMOG, a model that is B-cell-dependent and leads to efficient B-cell activation and antibody production. Paradoxically, B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice developed more severe clinical disease than control mice when EAE was induced with MOG p35-55, a B-cell-independent encephalitogen that does not efficiently activate B cells. Peripheral T-cell and humoral immune responses were not altered in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice. In MOG p35-55-induced EAE, B-cell VLA-4 deficiency reduced CNS accumulation of B but not T cells. Breg were detected in the CNS of control mice with MOG p35-55-induced EAE. However, more severe EAE in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice was associated with virtual absence of CNS Breg. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that CNS accumulation of Breg is VLA-4-dependent and suggest that Breg may contribute to regulation of CNS autoimmunity in situ. These observations underscore the need to choose the appropriate encephalitogen when studying how B cells contribute to pathogenesis or regulation of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27027096

  17. Actuarial risk of isolated CNS involvement in Ewing's sarcoma following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Trigg, M.E.; Makuch, R.; Glaubiger, D.

    1985-04-01

    Records of 154 patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated at the National Cancer Institute were reviewed to assess the incidence and risk of developing isolated central nervous system (CNS) Ewing's sarcoma. Sixty-two of the 154 patients had received CNS irradiation and intrathecal (i.t.) methotrexate as part of their initial therapy to prevent the occurrence of isolated CNS Ewing's sarcoma. The risk of developing isolate CNS Ewing's sarcoma was greatest within the first two years after diagnosis and was approximately 10%. The overall risk of CNS recurrence in the group of patients receiving DNS treatment was similar to the group receiving no therapy directed to the CNS. The occurrence of isolated CNS involvement was not prevented by the use of CNS irradiation and i.t. methotrexate. Because of a lack of efficacy to the CNS irradiation regimen, current treatment regimens do not include therapy directed to CNS.

  18. Fingolimod: direct CNS effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulation and implications in multiple sclerosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Aran; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying therapy approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Following phosphorylation in vivo, the active agent, fingolimod phosphate (fingolimod-P), acts as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, binding with high affinity to four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4 and S1P5). The mechanism of action of fingolimod in MS has primarily been considered as immunomodulatory, whereby fingolimod-P modulates S1P1 on lymphocytes, selectively retaining autoreactive lymphocytes in lymph nodes to reduce damaging infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence indicates that fingolimod has direct effects in the CNS in MS. For example, in the MS animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), fingolimod is highly efficacious in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting, yet becomes ineffective in animals selectively deficient for S1P1 on astrocytes, despite maintained normal immunologic receptor expression and functions, and S1P-mediated immune activities. Here, we review S1P signalling effects relevant to MS in neural cell types expressing S1P receptors, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia and dendritic cells. The direct effects of fingolimod on these CNS cells observed in preclinical studies are discussed in view of the functional consequences of reducing neurodegenerative processes and promoting myelin preservation and repair. The therapeutic implications of S1P modulation in the CNS are considered in terms of the clinical outcomes of MS, such as reducing MS-related brain atrophy, and other CNS disorders. Additionally, we briefly outline other existing and investigational MS therapies that may also have effects in the CNS. PMID:23518370

  19. CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference White Paper.

    PubMed

    Levin, Victor A; Tonge, Peter J; Gallo, James M; Birtwistle, Marc R; Dar, Arvin C; Iavarone, Antonio; Paddison, Patrick J; Heffron, Timothy P; Elmquist, William F; Lachowicz, Jean E; Johnson, Ted W; White, Forest M; Sul, Joohee; Smith, Quentin R; Shen, Wang; Sarkaria, Jann N; Samala, Ramakrishna; Wen, Patrick Y; Berry, Donald A; Petter, Russell C

    2015-11-01

    Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session areas critical to new drug development: pharmacological challenges, recent drug approaches, drug targets and discovery, and clinical paths. Following this concise review of the science and clinical aspects of new CNS anticancer drug discovery and development, we discuss, under the rubric "Accelerating Drug Discovery and Development for Brain Tumors," further reasons why the pharmaceutical industry and academia have failed to develop new anticancer drugs for CNS malignancies and what it will take to change the current status quo and develop the drugs so desperately needed by our patients with malignant CNS tumors. While this White Paper is not a formal roadmap to that end, it should be an educational guide to clinicians and scientists to help move a stagnant field forward. PMID:26403167

  20. Nanotechnological advances for the delivery of CNS therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho Lun; Wu, Xiao Yu; Bendayan, Reina

    2012-05-15

    Effective non-invasive treatment of neurological diseases is often limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). The majority of drugs and biotechnological agents do not readily permeate into brain parenchyma due to the presence of two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers: the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Therefore, one of the most significant challenges facing CNS drug development is the availability of effective brain targeting technology. Recent advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. Several nanocarriers ranging from the more established systems, e.g. polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles to the newer systems, e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions have been studied for the delivery of CNS therapeutics. Many of these nanomedicines can be effectively transported across various in vitro and in vivo BBB models by endocytosis and/or transcytosis, and demonstrated early preclinical success for the management of CNS conditions such as brain tumors, HIV encephalopathy, Alzheimer's disease and acute ischemic stroke. Future development of CNS nanomedicines need to focus on increasing their drug-trafficking performance and specificity for brain tissue using novel targeting moieties, improving their BBB permeability and reducing their neurotoxicity. PMID:22100125

  1. Amyloid-β efflux from the CNS into the plasma

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kaleigh Filisa; Elbert, Donald L.; Kasten, Tom P.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Sigurdson, Wendy C.; Connors, Rose E.; Ovod, Vitaliy; Munsell, Ling Y.; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Miller-Thomas, Michelle M.; Moran, Christopher J.; Cross, Dewitte T.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to measure the flux of amyloid-β (Aβ) across the human cerebral capillary bed in order to determine if transport into the blood is a significant mechanism of clearance for Aβ produced in the central nervous system (CNS). Methods Time-matched blood samples were simultaneously collected from a cerebral vein (including the sigmoid sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, and the internal jugular vein), femoral vein, and radial artery of patients undergoing Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling (IPSS). For each plasma sample, Aβ concentration was assessed by three assays and the venous to arterial Aβ concentration ratios were determined. Results Aβ concentration was increased by ~7.5% in venous blood leaving the CNS capillary bed compared to arterial blood, indicating efflux from the CNS into the peripheral blood (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in peripheral venous Aβ concentration compared to arterial blood concentration. Interpretation Our results are consistent with clearance of CNS-derived Aβ into the venous blood supply with no increase from a peripheral capillary bed. Modeling these results suggests that direct transport of Aβ across the blood-brain barrier accounts for ~25% of Aβ clearance, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ accounts for ~25% of the total CNS Aβ clearance in humans. PMID:25205593

  2. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior. PMID:23565223

  3. Dosimetric Comparison and Potential for Improved Clinical Outcomes of Paediatric CNS Patients Treated with Protons or IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Armoogum, Kris S.; Thorp, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but also contributes to late side effects in long term survivors. Radiation dose inevitably deposited in healthy tissues outside the clinical target has been linked to detrimental late effects such as neurocognitive, behavioural and vascular effects in addition to endocrine abnormalities and second tumours. Methods: A literature search was performed using keywords: protons, IMRT, CNS and paediatric. Of 189 papers retrieved, 10 were deemed relevant based on title and abstract screening. All papers directly compared outcomes from protons with photons, five papers included medulloblastoma, four papers each included craniopharyngioma and low grade gliomas and three papers included ependymoma. Results: This review found that while proton beam therapy offered similar clinical target coverage, there was a demonstrable reduction in integral dose to normal structures. Conclusions: This in turn suggests the potential for superior long term outcomes for paediatric patients with CNS tumours both in terms of radiogenic second cancers and out-of-field adverse effects. PMID:25927402

  4. Impact of Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6, CCL2 or CXCL10 in Transgenic Mice on Hippocampal Synaptic Function

    PubMed Central

    Gruol, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of CNS disease and injury is the elevated expression of neuroimmune factors. These factors are thought to contribute to processes ranging from recovery and repair to pathology. The complexity of the CNS and the multitude of neuroimmune factors that are expressed in the CNS during disease and injury is a challenge to an understanding of the consequences of the elevated expression relative to CNS function. One approach to address this issue is the use of transgenic mice that express elevated levels of a specific neuroimmune factor in the CNS by a cell type that normally produces it. This approach can provide basic information about the actions of specific neuroimmune factors and can contribute to an understanding of more complex conditions when multiple neuroimmune factors are expressed. This review summarizes studies using transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6, CCL2 or CXCL10 through increased astrocyte expression. The studies focus on the effects of these neuroimmune factors on synaptic function at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapse of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays a key role in cognitive function. PMID:27322336

  5. Insect GDNF:TTC fusion protein improves delivery of GDNF to mouse CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Kashi, Brenda B.; Celia, Samuel A.; Tamrazian, Eric; Pepinsky, R. Blake; Fishman, Paul S.; Brown, Robert H.; Francis, Jonathan W.

    2009-12-18

    With a view toward improving delivery of exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacological activity of a recombinant GDNF:tetanus toxin C-fragment fusion protein in mouse CNS. Following intramuscular injection, GDNF:TTC but not recombinant GDNF (rGDNF) produced strong GDNF immunostaining within ventral horn cells of the spinal cord. Intrathecal infusion of GDNF:TTC resulted in tissue concentrations of GDNF in lumbar spinal cord that were at least 150-fold higher than those in mice treated with rGDNF. While levels of immunoreactive choline acetyltransferase and GFR{alpha}-1 in lumbar cord were not altered significantly by intrathecal infusion of rGNDF, GDNF:TTC, or TTC, only rGDNF and GDNF:TTC caused significant weight loss following intracerebroventricular infusion. These studies indicate that insect cell-derived GDNF:TTC retains its bi-functional activity in mammalian CNS in vivo and improves delivery of GDNF to spinal cord following intramuscular- or intrathecal administration.

  6. Blood-CNS Barrier Impairment in ALS patients versus an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with a complicated and poorly understood pathogenesis. Recently, alterations in the blood–Central Nervous System barrier (B-CNS-B) have been recognized as a key factor possibly aggravating motor neuron damage. The majority of findings on ALS microvascular pathology have been determined in mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1) rodent models, identifying barrier damage during disease development which might similarly occur in familial ALS patients carrying the SOD1 mutation. However, our knowledge of B-CNS-B competence in sporadic ALS (SALS) has been limited. We recently showed structural and functional impairment in postmortem gray and white matter microvessels of medulla and spinal cord tissue from SALS patients, suggesting pervasive barrier damage. Although numerous signs of barrier impairment (endothelial cell degeneration, capillary leakage, perivascular edema, downregulation of tight junction proteins, and microhemorrhages) are indicated in both mutant SOD1 animal models of ALS and SALS patients, other pathogenic barrier alterations have as yet only been identified in SALS patients. Pericyte degeneration, perivascular collagen IV expansion, and white matter capillary abnormalities in SALS patients are significant barrier related pathologies yet to be noted in ALS SOD1 animal models. In the current review, these important differences in blood–CNS barrier damage between ALS patients and animal models, which may signify altered barrier transport mechanisms, are discussed. Understanding discrepancies in barrier condition between ALS patients and animal models may be crucial for developing effective therapies. PMID:24550780

  7. Lipid oxidation and peroxidation in CNS health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at low levels in mammalian cells by various metabolic processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain, NAD(P)H oxidases, and arachidonic acid oxidative metabolism. To maintain physiological redox balance, cells have endogenous antioxidant defenses regulated at the transcriptional level by Nrf2/ARE. Oxidative stress results when ROS production exceeds the cell's ability to detoxify ROS. Overproduction of ROS damages cellular components, including lipids, leading to decline in physiological function and cell death. Reaction of ROS with lipids produces oxidized phospholipids, which give rise to 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal, and acrolein. The brain is susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high lipid content and oxygen consumption. Neurodegenerative diseases (AD, ALS, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, Friedreich's ataxia, HD, MS, NBIA, NPC, PD, peroxisomal disorders, schizophrenia, Wallerian degeneration, Zellweger syndrome) and CNS traumas (stroke, TBI, SCI) are problems of vast clinical importance. Free iron can react with H(2)O(2) via the Fenton reaction, a primary cause of lipid peroxidation, and may be of particular importance for these CNS injuries and disorders. Cholesterol is an important regulator of lipid organization and the precursor for neurosteroid biosynthesis. Atherosclerosis, the major risk factor for ischemic stroke, involves accumulation of oxidized LDL in the arteries, leading to foam cell formation and plaque development. This review will discuss the role of lipid oxidation/peroxidation in various CNS injuries/disorders. PMID:19624272

  8. Role of CSPG receptor LAR phosphatase in restricting axon regeneration after CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Park, Dongsun; Ohtake, Yosuke; Li, Hui; Hayat, Umar; Li, Junjun; Selzer, Michael E.; Longo, Frank M.; Li, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecule chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are highly upregulated in scar tissues and form a potent chemical barrier for CNS axon regeneration. Recent studies support that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) and its subfamily member leukocyte common antigen related phosphatase (LAR) act as transmembrane receptors to mediate CSPG inhibition. PTPσ deficiency increased regrowth of ascending axons into scar tissues and descending corticospinal tract (CST) axons into the caudal spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological LAR inhibition enhanced serotonergic axon growth in SCI mice. However, transgenic LAR deletion on axon growth in vivo and role of LAR in regulating regrowth of other fiber tracts have not been studied. Here, we studied role of LAR in restricting regrowth of injured descending CNS axons in deficient mice. LAR deletion increased regrowth of serotonergic axons into scar tissues and caudal spinal cord after dorsal overhemitransection. LAR deletion also stimulated regrowth of CST fibers into the caudal spinal cord. LAR protein was upregulated days to weeks after injury and co-localized to serotonergic and CST axons. Moreover, LAR deletion improved functional recovery by increasing BMS locomotor scores and stride length and reducing grid walk errors. This is the first transgenic study that demonstrates crucial role of LAR in restricting regrowth of injured CNS axons. PMID:25220840

  9. CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

  10. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  11. Role played by paxillin and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in hepatocyte growth factor/sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated reactive oxygen species generation, lamellipodia formation, and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Usatyuk, Peter V.; Jacobson, Jeffrey; Cress, Anne E.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Salgia, Ravi; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paxillin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adaptor protein. It serves as an important scaffolding protein at focal adhesions by recruiting and binding to structural and signaling molecules. Paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation at Y31 and Y118 is important for paxillin redistribution to focal adhesions and angiogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are potent stimulators of lamellipodia formation, a prerequisite for endothelial cell migration. The role played by paxillin and its tyrosine phosphorylated forms in HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation and barrier function is unclear. HGF or S1P stimulated lamellipodia formation, tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118, and c-Abl in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). Knockdown of paxillin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or transfection with paxillin mutants (Y31F or Y118F) mitigated HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HLMVECs. Furthermore, exposure of HLMVECs to HGF or S1P stimulated c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 in a time-dependent fashion, and down-regulation of c-Abl with siRNA attenuated HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and endothelial barrier enhancement. In vivo, knockdown of paxillin with siRNA in mouse lungs attenuated ventilator-induced lung injury. Together, these results suggest that c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 regulates HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, ROS generation in lamellipodia, and endothelial permeability. PMID:26697169

  12. Haemophilus ducreyi RpoE and CpxRA Appear To Play Distinct yet Complementary Roles in Regulation of Envelope-Related Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R.; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid and a chronic limb ulceration syndrome in children. In humans, H. ducreyi is found in an abscess and overcomes a hostile environment to establish infection. To sense and respond to membrane stress, bacteria utilize two-component systems (TCSs) and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. We previously showed that activation of CpxRA, the only intact TCS in H. ducreyi, does not regulate homologues of envelope protein folding factors but does downregulate genes encoding envelope-localized proteins, including many virulence determinants. H. ducreyi also harbors a homologue of RpoE, which is the only ECF sigma factor in the organism. To potentially understand how H. ducreyi responds to membrane stress, here we defined RpoE-dependent genes using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified 180 RpoE-dependent genes, of which 98% were upregulated; a major set of these genes encodes homologues of envelope maintenance and repair factors. We also identified and validated a putative RpoE promoter consensus sequence, which was enriched in the majority of RpoE-dependent targets. Comparison of RpoE-dependent genes to those controlled by CpxR showed that each transcription factor regulated a distinct set of genes. Given that RpoE activated a large number of genes encoding envelope maintenance and repair factors and that CpxRA represses genes encoding envelope-localized proteins, these data suggest that RpoE and CpxRA appear to play distinct yet complementary roles in regulating envelope homeostasis in H. ducreyi. PMID:25201944

  13. Disruption of Microtubule Integrity Initiates Mitosis during CNS Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bossing, Torsten; Barros, Claudia S.; Fischer, Bettina; Russell, Steven; Shepherd, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mechanisms of CNS repair have vital medical implications. We show that traumatic injury to the ventral midline of the embryonic Drosophila CNS activates cell divisions to replace lost cells. A pilot screen analyzing transcriptomes of single cells during repair pointed to downregulation of the microtubule-stabilizing GTPase mitochondrial Rho (Miro) and upregulation of the Jun transcription factor Jun-related antigen (Jra). Ectopic Miro expression can prevent midline divisions after damage, whereas Miro depletion destabilizes cortical β-tubulin and increases divisions. Disruption of cortical microtubules, either by chemical depolymerization or by overexpression of monomeric tubulin, triggers ectopic mitosis in the midline and induces Jra expression. Conversely, loss of Jra renders midline cells unable to replace damaged siblings. Our data indicate that upon injury, the integrity of the microtubule cytoskeleton controls cell division in the CNS midline, triggering extra mitosis to replace lost cells. The conservation of the identified molecules suggests that similar mechanisms may operate in vertebrates. PMID:22841498

  14. NanoART, neuroAIDS and CNS drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nowacek, Ari; Gendelman, Howard E

    2009-01-01

    A broad range of nanomedicines is being developed to improve drug delivery for CNS disorders. The structure of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), the presence of efflux pumps and the expression of metabolic enzymes pose hurdles for drug-brain entry. Nanoformulations can circumvent the BBB to improve CNS-directed drug delivery by affecting such pumps and enzymes. Alternatively, they can be optimized to affect their size, shape, and protein and lipid coatings to facilitate drug uptake, release and ingress across the barrier. This is important as the brain is a sanctuary for a broad range of pathogens including HIV-1. Improved drug delivery to the CNS would affect pharmacokinetic and drug biodistribution properties. This article focuses on how nanotechnology can serve to improve the delivery of antiretroviral medicines, termed nanoART, across the BBB and affect the biodistribution and clinical benefit for HIV-1 disease. PMID:19572821

  15. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. PMID:27460561

  16. Therapeutic immune clearance of rabies virus from the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, D Craig; Roy, Anirban; Kean, Rhonda B; Phares, Timothy W; Barkhouse, Darryll A

    2011-01-01

    The long-held concept that rabies infection is lethal in humans once the causative rabies virus has reached the CNS has been called into question by the recent survival of a number of patients with clinical rabies. Studies in animal models provide insight into why survival from a rabies virus infection that has spread to the CNS is possible and the immune mechanisms involved. In the CNS, both innate mechanisms capable of inhibiting virus replication and the activity of infiltrating rabies virus-specific T and B cells with the capacity to clear the virus are required. Deficiencies in the induction of either aspect of rabies immunity can lead to lethal consequences but may be overcome by novel approaches to active and passive immunization. PMID:21686076

  17. AAV-mediated gene transfer to the mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Lorelei; Ahmed, Seemin S.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno associated virus (rAAV) vectors are great tools for gene transfer due to their ability to mediate long-term gene expression. Recombinant AAVs have been used at various ages of development with no apparent toxicity. There are multiple ways of delivering AAV vectors to the CNS, depending on the stage of development of the mouse. In neonates, intravascular injections into the facial vein are often used. In adults, direct injections into target regions of the brain are achieved with great spatiotemporal control through stereotaxic surgeries. Recently, discoveries of new AAV vectors with the ability to cross the blood brain barrier have made it possible to also target the adult CNS by intravascular injections. rAAVs have been successfully used as gene transfer vehicles in multiple animal models of CNS disorders, and several clinical trials are currently underway. PMID:23686825

  18. Human C-reactive protein impedes entry of leptin into the CNS and attenuates its physiological actions in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Wei, Dong; McCrory, Mark A; Szalai, Alexander J; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Allan Z

    2016-05-01

    Defective central leptin signalling and impaired leptin entry into the CNS (central nervous system) represent two important aspects of leptin resistance in obesity. In the present study, we tested whether circulating human CRP (C-reactive protein) not only diminishes signalling of leptin within the CNS, but also impedes this adipokine's access to the CNS. Peripheral infusion of human CRP together with co-infused human leptin was associated with significantly decreased leptin content in the CSF of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, following peripheral infusion of human leptin, the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) concentration of leptin in transgenic mice overexpressing human CRP was sharply lower than that achieved in similarly infused wild-type mice. Administration of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) to human CRP-transgenic mice dramatically elevated the concentrations of human CRP in the CSF. The i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) delivery of human CRP into the lateral ventricles of ob/ob mice blocked the satiety and weight-reducing actions of human leptin, but not those of mouse leptin. I.c.v. injection of human CRP abolished hypothalamic signalling by human leptin, and ameliorated the effects of leptin on the expression of NPY (neuropeptide Y), AgRP (Agouti-related protein), POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) and SOCS-3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3). Human CRP can impede the access of leptin to the CNS, and elevation of human CRP within the CNS can have a negative impact on the physiological actions of leptin. PMID:26933237

  19. ICAM-1 induction in the mouse CNS following irradiation.

    PubMed

    Olschowka, J A; Kyrkanides, S; Harvey, B K; O'Banion, M K; Williams, J P; Rubin, P; Hansen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) results in inflammation, increased trafficking of leukocytes into the CNS, induction of cytokines, and exacerbation of the primary injury. The increased trafficking of neutrophils into the CNS has been described following a number of injury models including stab, stroke, and excitotoxin-induced injury. This enhanced trafficking has largely been ascribed to the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54). In the current study, we wished to determine if the inflammation caused by irradiation of the CNS resulted in a similar induction of ICAM-1. C3H/HeJ mice were irradiated using gamma irradiation aimed over the right cerebral hemisphere. The relative induction of ICAM-1 mRNA levels was determined using quantitative RT-PCR 6 hours following irradiation with either 0, 5, 15, 25 or 35 Gy. ICAM-1 message was seen to exhibit a normal dose response curve with increasing mRNA levels seen at 15 Gy and higher. To determine the cellular distribution of the ICAM-1 protein following irradiation, mice were sacrificed at 4 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 7 days following 25 Gy irradiation and the tissue was processed for ICAM-1 immunocytochemistry. ICAM-1 staining was seen to increase in both endothelial cells and astrocytes beginning as early as 4 hrs. The staining intensity continued to increase throughout the 7 day period observed. Together, these results suggest that irradiation of the CNS causes a rapid induction of both ICAM-1 mRNA and protein. This suggests that increased leukocyte trafficking into the CNS may exacerbate the inflammation induced by radiation injury. PMID:9512815

  20. Compartmental Intrathecal Radioimmunotherapy: Results for Treatment for Metastatic CNS Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Kim; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John L.; Xu, Hong; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Souweidane, Mark M.; Larson, Steven M.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the management of brain metastases is needed. We evaluated the addition of compartmental intrathecal antibody-based radioimmunotherapy (cRIT) in patients with recurrent metastatic central nervous system (CNS) neuroblastoma following surgery, craniospinal irradiation, and chemotherapy. 21 patients treated for recurrent neuroblastoma metastatic to the CNS received a cRIT-containing salvage regimen incorporating intrathecal 131I-monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) targeting GD2 or B7H3 following surgery and radiation. Most patients also received outpatient craniospinal irradiation, 3F8/GMCSF immunotherapy, 13-cis-retinoic acid and oral temozolomide for systemic control. Seventeen of 21 cRIT-salvage patients are alive 7-74 months (median 33) since CNS relapse, with all 17 remaining free of CNS neuroblastoma. One patient died of infection at 22 months with no evidence of disease at autopsy, and one of lung and bone marrow metastases at 15 months, and one of progressive bone marrow disease at 30 months. The cRIT-salvage regimen was well tolerated, notable for myelosuppression minimized by stem cell support (n=5), and biochemical hypothyroidism (n=5). One patient with a 7-year history of metastatic neuroblastoma is in remission from MLL-associated secondary leukemia. This is significantly improved to published results with non-cRIT based where relapsed CNS NB has a median time to death of approximately 6 months. The cRIT-salvage regimen for CNS metastases was well tolerated by young patients, despite their prior history of intensive cytotoxic therapies. It has the potential to increase survival with better than expected quality of life. PMID:19890606

  1. BRAIN-SPECIFIC CARNITINE PALMITOYLTRANSFERASE-1C: ROLE IN CNS FATTY ACID METABOLISM, FOOD INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Michael J.; Cha, Seung Hun; Millington, David S.; Cline, Gary; Shulman, Gerald I; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Kurama, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While the brain does not utilize fatty acids as a primary energy source, recent evidence shows that intermediates of fatty acid metabolism serve as hypothalamic sensors of energy status. Increased hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis, is indicative of energy surplus and leads to the suppression of food intake and increased energy expenditure. Malonyl-CoA functions as an inhibitor of CPT1, a mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme that initiates translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. The mammalian brain expresses a unique homologous CPT1, CPT1c, that binds malonyl-CoA tightly but does not support fatty acid oxidation in vivo, in hypothalamic explants or in heterologous cell culture systems. CPT1c KO mice under fasted or refed conditions do not exhibit an altered CNS transcriptome of genes known to be involved in fatty acid metabolism. CPT1c KO mice exhibit normal levels of metabolites and of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and fatty acyl-CoA levels either in the fasted or refed states. However, CPT1c KO mice exhibit decreased food intake and lower body weight than WT littermates. In contrast, CPT1c KO mice gain excessive body weight and body fat when fed a high-fat diet while maintaining lower or equivalent food intake. Heterozygous mice display an intermediate phenotype. These findings provide further evidence that CPT1c plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis, but not through altered fatty acid oxidation. PMID:18248603

  2. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  3. The Fractal Self at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  4. Toll-like Receptor 4 in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Madison M.; Hutchinson, Mark; Watkins, Linda R.; Yin, Hang

    2010-01-01

    The responses of the brain to infection, ischemia and trauma share remarkable similarities. These and other conditions of the CNS coordinate an innate immune response marked by activation of microglia, the macrophage-like cells of the nervous system. An important contributor to microglial activation is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor known to initiate an inflammatory cascade in response to various CNS stimuli. The present review traces new efforts to characterize and control the contribution of TLR4 to inflammatory etiologies of the nervous system. PMID:20402965

  5. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A; Toprak, Umut H; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C; Pajtler, Kristian W; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, André O; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S; Taylor, Michael D; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Ellison, David W; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-02-25

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable from those of various other well-defined CNS tumor entities, facilitating diagnosis and appropriate therapy for patients with these tumors. From the remaining fraction of CNS-PNETs, we identify four new CNS tumor entities, each associated with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features. These new molecular entities, designated "CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation (CNS NB-FOXR2)," "CNS Ewing sarcoma family tumor with CIC alteration (CNS EFT-CIC)," "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (CNS HGNET-MN1)," and "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR)," will enable meaningful clinical trials and the development of therapeutic strategies for patients affected by poorly differentiated CNS tumors. PMID:26919435

  6. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  7. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  8. Playing the Play: What the Children Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Jo Anne

    2006-01-01

    Playing the Play describes the experiences of a storyteller and teacher of literature who created a literature-based literacy program at Concourse House, a homeless shelter in Bronx, New York, for women and their young children. This program is based on the belief that pleasure is the primary reason children want to learn to read, and that where…

  9. Bibliography on Play Therapy and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary Brown; L'Abate, Luciano

    The references listed are: (1) journals, (2) dissertation abstracts, (3) books, (4) reports, and (5) monographs. The main subjects covered are: (1) children's play, (2) psychotherapy with disturbed children through the medium of play therapy, and (3) various aspects of child development, both normal and abnormal. The materials listed date from…

  10. ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CNS MICROGLIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can create oxidative stress (OS)-mediated inflammatory changes upon impact. The oxidative burst signals the activation of phage-lineage cells such as peripheral macrophages, Kupffer cells and CNS microgl...

  11. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  12. The Uses of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  13. Nitric oxide-mediated central sympathetic excitation promotes CNS and pulmonary O₂ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Ivan T; Moskvin, Alexander N; Krivchenko, Alexander I; Piantadosi, Claude A; Allen, Barry W

    2012-06-01

    In hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA), autonomic pathways link central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity to pulmonary damage, possibly through a paradoxical and poorly characterized relationship between central nitric oxide production and sympathetic outflow. To investigate this possibility, we assessed sympathetic discharges, catecholamine release, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and lung damage in rats exposed to oxygen at 5 or 6 ATA. Before HBO(2) exposure, either a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or a nonselective NOS inhibitor was injected directly into the cerebral ventricles to minimize effects on the lung, heart, and peripheral circulation. Experiments were performed on both anesthetized and conscious rats to differentiate responses to HBO(2) from the effects of anesthesia. EEG spikes, markers of CNS toxicity in anesthetized animals, were approximately four times as likely to develop in control rats than in animals with central NOS inhibition. In inhibitor-treated animals, autonomic discharges, cardiovascular pressures, catecholamine release, and cerebral blood flow all remained below baseline throughout exposure to HBO(2). In control animals, however, initial declines in these parameters were followed by significant increases above their baselines. In awake animals, central NOS inhibition significantly decreased the incidence of clonic-tonic convulsions or delayed their onset, compared with controls. The novel findings of this study are that NO produced by nNOS in the periventricular regions of the brain plays a critical role in the events leading to both CNS toxicity in HBO(2) and to the associated sympathetic hyperactivation involved in pulmonary injury. PMID:22442027

  14. Mammalian CNS barosensitivity: studied by brain-stem auditory-evoked potential in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiyong; Xiao, Weibing; Li, Jun; He, Jia; Chen, Haiting

    2012-01-01

    High pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS) is an instinctive response of mammalian high-class nervous functions to increased hydrostatic pressure. Electrophysiological activity of mammalian central nervous system (CNS), including brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), has characteristic changes under pressure. Here we recorded BAEP of 63 mice exposed to 0-4.0 MPa. The results showed that interpeak latencies between wave I and wave IV (IPL1-4) and their changes under pressures (deltaIPL1-4) responded to increasing pressure in a biphase pattern, shortened under pressure from 0 to 0.7MPa, then prolonged later. There were significantly negative correlations between base IPL1-4s and deltaIPL1-4s (p < 0.01). Individual IPL1-4s were supposed to respond to increasing pressure in a relative steady pattern in accordance with its base IPL1-4s. Those with shorter-base IPL1-4 presented direct increases in IPL1-4. However, those with longer-base IPL1-4 had a decreased IPL1-4 under small to moderate pressure then rebounded later. Our results suggested that mammalian CNS functions were susceptible to small to moderate pressure, as well as a higher pressure than 1.0MPa. Mice, as a statistical mass, had an "optimum" pressure about 0.7MPa, rather than atmospheric pressure, referred as shortest IPL1-4s. An individual's response to high pressure might be relied on his base biological condition. Our results highlighted a new approach to investigate a practical strategy to medical selecting barotolerant candidates for deep divers. Diversity of individual susceptibility to hydrostatic pressure was under discussed. Underlying mechanisms of the "optimum" pressure for CNS function and its significance to neurophysiology remain open to further exploration. PMID:22400446

  15. Applications of Genomic Sequencing in Pediatric CNS Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Abhishek A; Lin, Frank Y; Parsons, D Williams

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in genome-scale sequencing methods have resulted in a significant increase in our understanding of the biology of human cancers. When applied to pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, these remarkable technological breakthroughs have facilitated the molecular characterization of multiple tumor types, provided new insights into the genetic basis of these cancers, and prompted innovative strategies that are changing the management paradigm in pediatric neuro-oncology. Genomic tests have begun to affect medical decision making in a number of ways, from delineating histopathologically similar tumor types into distinct molecular subgroups that correlate with clinical characteristics, to guiding the addition of novel therapeutic agents for patients with high-risk or poor-prognosis tumors, or alternatively, reducing treatment intensity for those with a favorable prognosis. Genomic sequencing has also had a significant impact on translational research strategies in pediatric CNS tumors, resulting in wide-ranging applications that have the potential to direct the rational preclinical screening of novel therapeutic agents, shed light on tumor heterogeneity and evolution, and highlight differences (or similarities) between pediatric and adult CNS tumors. Finally, in addition to allowing the identification of somatic (tumor-specific) mutations, the analysis of patient-matched constitutional (germline) DNA has facilitated the detection of pathogenic germline alterations in cancer genes in patients with CNS tumors, with critical implications for genetic counseling and tumor surveillance strategies for children with familial predisposition syndromes. As our understanding of the molecular landscape of pediatric CNS tumors continues to advance, innovative applications of genomic sequencing hold significant promise for further improving the care of children with these cancers. PMID:27188671

  16. Calreticulin contributes to C1q-dependent recruitment of microglia in the leech Hirudo medicinalis following a CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Bocquet-Garcon, Annelise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Vancamp, Christelle; Drago, Francesco; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal leech is considered as a complementary and appropriate model to study immune functions in the central nervous system (CNS). In a context in which an injured leech’s CNS can naturally restore normal synaptic connections, the accumulation of microglia (immune cells of the CNS that are exclusively resident in leeches) has been shown to be essential at the lesion to engage the axonal sprouting. HmC1q (Hm for Hirudo medicinalis) possesses chemotactic properties that are important in the microglial cell recruitment by recognizing at least a C1q binding protein (HmC1qBP alias gC1qR). Material/Methods Recombinant forms of C1q were used in affinity purification and in vitro chemotaxis assays. Anti-calreticulin antibodies were used to neutralize C1q-mediated chemotaxis and locate the production of calreticulin in leech CNS. Results A newly characterized leech calreticulin (HmCalR) has been shown to interact with C1q and participate to the HmC1q-dependent microglia accumulation. HmCalR, which has been detected in only some microglial cells, is consequently a second binding protein for HmC1q, allowing the chemoattraction of resident microglia in the nerve repair process. Conclusions These data give new insight into calreticulin/C1q interaction in an immune function of neuroprotection, suggesting another molecular target to use in investigation of microglia reactivity in a model of CNS injury. PMID:24747831

  17. To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

  18. pDC therapy induces recovery from EAE by recruiting endogenous pDC to sites of CNS inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Duraes, Fernanda V.; Lippens, Carla; Steinbach, Karin; Dubrot, Juan; Brighouse, Dale; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Merkler, Doron; Hugues, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) exhibit both innate and adaptive functions. In particular they are the main source of type I IFNs and directly impact T cell responses through antigen presentation. We have previously demonstrated that during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) initiation, myelin-antigen presentation by pDCs is associated with suppressive Treg development and results in attenuated EAE. Here, we show that pDCs transferred during acute disease phase confer recovery from EAE. Clinical improvement is associated with migration of injected pDCs into inflamed CNS and is dependent on the subsequent and selective chemerin-mediated recruitment of endogenous pDCs to the CNS. The protective effect requires pDC pre-loading with myelin antigen, and is associated with the modulation of CNS-infiltrating pDC phenotype and inhibition of CNS encephalitogenic T cells. This study may pave the way for novel pDC-based cell therapies in autoimmune diseases, aiming at specifically modulating pathogenic cells that induce and sustain autoimmune inflammation. PMID:26341385

  19. Advances in Drug Design Based on the Amino Acid Approach: Taurine Analogues for the Treatment of CNS Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Man Chin; Malatesta, Pedro; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Yamasaki, Paulo Renato; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Vizioli, Ednir Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are well known to be an important class of compounds for the maintenance of body homeostasis and their deficit, even for the polar neuroactive aminoacids, can be controlled by supplementation. However, for the amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) this is not true. Due its special physicochemical properties, taurine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In addition of injured taurine transport systems under pathological conditions, CNS supplementation of taurine is almost null. Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. Taurine deficits have been implicated in several CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy and in the damage of retinal neurons. This review describes the CNS physiological functions of taurine and the development of new derivatives based on its structure useful in CNS disease treatment. PMID:24281261

  20. Amyloidosis, Synucleinopathy, and Prion Encephalopathy in a Neuropathic Lysosomal Storage Disease: The CNS-Biomarker Potential of Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Bartholomew J.; Duncan, F. Jason; Murrey, Darren; Ware, Tierra; Meadows, Aaron; McCarty, Douglas M.; Fu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp) deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases. PMID:24278249

  1. Le developpement des fonctions de l'ecrit a la maternelle (The Role Played by the Environment in the Development of the Functions of Writing in Kindergarten Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giasson, Jocelyne; Girard, Nicole

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effect of the environment on kindergarten children's development of the seven functions of writing (as described by M. A. K. Halliday). Concludes that children in an environment that emphasizes the functions of writing gain better knowledge of writing functions than do children whose environment lacks such emphasis. (ARH)

  2. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  3. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis protects against central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity and increases CXCL12 expression in the inflamed CNS.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Andre Michael; Yoon, Bo Hyung; Sadiq, Saud Ahmed

    2014-08-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) may have proinflammatory roles in the context of CNS autoimmunity. It accumulates in demyelinated multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, promotes antigen presentation, and enhances T-cell activation and proliferation. HA facilitates lymphocyte binding to vessels and CNS infiltration at the CNS vascular endothelium. Furthermore, HA signals through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 to stimulate inflammatory gene expression. We assessed the role of HA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS by administration of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), a well established inhibitor of HA synthesis. 4MU decreased hyaluronan synthesis in vitro and in vivo. It was protective in active EAE of C57Bl/6 mice, decreased spinal inflammatory infiltrates and spinal infiltration of Th1 cells, and increased differentiation of regulatory T-cells. In adoptive transfer EAE, feeding of 4MU to donor mice significantly decreased the encephalitogenicity of lymph node cells. The transfer of proteolipid protein (PLP)-stimulated lymph node cells to 4MU-fed mice resulted in a delayed EAE onset and delayed spinal T-cell infiltration. Expression of CXCL12, an anti-inflammatory chemokine, is reduced in MS patients in CSF cells and in spinal cord tissue during EAE. Hyaluronan suppressed production of CXCL12, whereas 4MU increased spinal CXCL12 in naive animals and during neuroinflammation. Neutralization of CXCR4, the most prominent receptor of CXCL12, by administration of AMD3100 diminished the protective impact of 4MU in adoptive transfer EAE. In conclusion, hyaluronan exacerbates CNS autoimmunity, enhances encephalitogenic T-cell responses, and suppresses the protective chemokine CXCL12 in CNS tissue. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis with 4MU protects against an animal model of MS and may represent an important therapeutic option in MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:24973214

  4. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  5. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas. PMID:20578437

  6. The role of astrocytes in CNS tumors: pre-clinical models and novel imaging approaches

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emma R.; Howarth, Clare; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a significant clinical problem, yet the mechanisms governing tumor cell extravasation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and CNS colonization are unclear. Astrocytes are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of brain metastasis but in vitro work suggests both tumoricidal and tumor-promoting roles for astrocyte-derived molecules. Also, the involvement of astrogliosis in primary brain tumor progression is under much investigation. However, translation of in vitro findings into in vivo and clinical settings has not been realized. Increasingly sophisticated resources, such as transgenic models and imaging technologies aimed at astrocyte-specific markers, will enable better characterization of astrocyte function in CNS tumors. Techniques such as bioluminescence and in vivo fluorescent cell labeling have potential for understanding the real-time responses of astrocytes to tumor burden. Transgenic models targeting signaling pathways involved in the astrocytic response also hold great promise, allowing translation of in vitro mechanistic findings into pre-clinical models. The challenging nature of in vivo CNS work has slowed progress in this area. Nonetheless, there has been a surge of interest in generating pre-clinical models, yielding insights into cell extravasation across the BBB, as well as immune cell recruitment to the parenchyma. While the function of astrocytes in the tumor microenvironment is still unknown, the relationship between astrogliosis and tumor growth is evident. Here, we review the role of astrogliosis in both primary and secondary brain tumors and outline the potential for the use of novel imaging modalities in research and clinical settings. These imaging approaches have the potential to enhance our understanding of the local host response to tumor progression in the brain, as well as providing new, more sensitive diagnostic imaging methods. PMID:23596394

  7. The role of astrocytes in CNS tumors: pre-clinical models and novel imaging approaches.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Emma R; Howarth, Clare; Sibson, Nicola R

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a significant clinical problem, yet the mechanisms governing tumor cell extravasation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and CNS colonization are unclear. Astrocytes are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of brain metastasis but in vitro work suggests both tumoricidal and tumor-promoting roles for astrocyte-derived molecules. Also, the involvement of astrogliosis in primary brain tumor progression is under much investigation. However, translation of in vitro findings into in vivo and clinical settings has not been realized. Increasingly sophisticated resources, such as transgenic models and imaging technologies aimed at astrocyte-specific markers, will enable better characterization of astrocyte function in CNS tumors. Techniques such as bioluminescence and in vivo fluorescent cell labeling have potential for understanding the real-time responses of astrocytes to tumor burden. Transgenic models targeting signaling pathways involved in the astrocytic response also hold great promise, allowing translation of in vitro mechanistic findings into pre-clinical models. The challenging nature of in vivo CNS work has slowed progress in this area. Nonetheless, there has been a surge of interest in generating pre-clinical models, yielding insights into cell extravasation across the BBB, as well as immune cell recruitment to the parenchyma. While the function of astrocytes in the tumor microenvironment is still unknown, the relationship between astrogliosis and tumor growth is evident. Here, we review the role of astrogliosis in both primary and secondary brain tumors and outline the potential for the use of novel imaging modalities in research and clinical settings. These imaging approaches have the potential to enhance our understanding of the local host response to tumor progression in the brain, as well as providing new, more sensitive diagnostic imaging methods. PMID:23596394

  8. Individual Neuronal Subtypes Exhibit Diversity in CNS Myelination Mediated by Synaptic Vesicle Release.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Sigrid; Voas, Matthew G; Almeida, Rafael G; Baraban, Marion; Soetaert, Jan; Meyer, Martin P; Talbot, William S; Lyons, David A

    2016-06-01

    Regulation of myelination by oligodendrocytes in the CNS has important consequences for higher-order nervous system function (e.g., [1-4]), and there is growing consensus that neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination (e.g., [5-9]) through local axon-oligodendrocyte synaptic-vesicle-release-mediated signaling [10-12]. Recent analyses have indicated that myelination along axons of distinct neuronal subtypes can differ [13, 14], but it is not known whether regulation of myelination by activity is common to all neuronal subtypes or only some. This limits insight into how specific neurons regulate their own conduction. Here, we use a novel fluorescent fusion protein reporter to study myelination along the axons of distinct neuronal subtypes over time in zebrafish. We find that the axons of reticulospinal and commissural primary ascending (CoPA) neurons are among the first myelinated in the zebrafish CNS. To investigate how activity regulates myelination by different neuronal subtypes, we express tetanus toxin (TeNT) in individual reticulospinal or CoPA neurons to prevent synaptic vesicle release. We find that the axons of individual tetanus toxin expressing reticulospinal neurons have fewer myelin sheaths than controls and that their myelin sheaths are 50% shorter than controls. In stark contrast, myelination along tetanus-toxin-expressing CoPA neuron axons is entirely normal. These results indicate that while some neuronal subtypes modulate myelination by synaptic vesicle release to a striking degree in vivo, others do not. These data have implications for our understanding of how different neurons regulate myelination and thus their own function within specific neuronal circuits. PMID:27161502

  9. Glial response during cuprizone-induced de- and remyelination in the CNS: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Gudi, Viktoria; Gingele, Stefan; Skripuletz, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although astrogliosis and microglia activation are characteristic features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other central nervous system (CNS) lesions the exact functions of these events are not fully understood. Animal models help to understand the complex interplay between the different cell types of the CNS and uncover general mechanisms of damage and repair of myelin sheaths. The so called cuprizone model is a toxic model of demyelination in the CNS white and gray matter, which lacks an autoimmune component. Cuprizone induces apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes that leads to a robust demyelination and profound activation of both astrocytes and microglia with regional heterogeneity between different white and gray matter regions. Although not suitable to study autoimmune mediated demyelination, this model is extremely helpful to elucidate basic cellular and molecular mechanisms during de- and particularly remyelination independently of interactions with peripheral immune cells. Phagocytosis and removal of damaged myelin seems to be one of the major roles of microglia in this model and it is well known that removal of myelin debris is a prerequisite of successful remyelination. Furthermore, microglia provide several signals that support remyelination. The role of astrocytes during de- and remyelination is not well defined. Both supportive and destructive functions have been suggested. Using the cuprizone model we could demonstrate that there is an important crosstalk between astrocytes and microglia. In this review we focus on the role of glial reactions and interaction in the cuprizone model. Advantages and limitations of as well as its potential therapeutic relevance for the human disease MS are critically discussed in comparison to other animal models. PMID:24659953

  10. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  11. CNS Injury, Glial Scars, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Michael T.; Silver, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Spinal cord and brain injuries lead to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system in an attempt to repair the initial tissue damage. Many studies have illustrated the importance of the glial cell response to injury, and the influences of inflammation and wound healing processes on the overall morbidity and permanent disability that result. The abortive attempts of neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury are influenced by inflammatory cell activation, reactive astrogliosis and the production of both growth promoting and inhibitory extracellular molecules. Despite the historical perspective that the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Unlike myelin associated inhibitory molecules, which remain at largely static levels before and after central nervous system trauma, inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules are dramatically upregulated during the inflammatory stages after injury providing a window of opportunity for the delivery of candidate therapeutic interventions. While high dose methylprednisolone steroid therapy alone has not proved to be the solution to this difficult clinical problem, other strategies for modulating inflammation and changing the make up of inhibitory molecules in the extracellular matrix are providing robust evidence that rehabilitation after spinal cord and brain injury has the potential to significantly change the outcome for what was once thought to be permanent disability. PMID:17617407

  12. Strategies for Family Facilitation of Play Dates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Cynthia R.; Horn, Eva M.

    2010-01-01

    Play dates can serve several functions for young children, including children with social difficulties, such as developmental delays, behavioral disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and shyness. Play dates provide children with additional opportunities to be around peers and to practice skills associated with peer play interactions. Play dates…

  13. Play: early and eternal.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, C E; Harlow, H F

    1975-01-01

    A systematic 12-week investigation of development of play behavior was conducted with eight socially reared rhesus monkey infants. A new, basic and primary play form termed self-motion play or peragration was identified and examined. This behavior follows a human model which includes a wide range of pleasurable activities involving motion of the body through space, e.g., rocking, swinging, running, leaping, and water or snow skiing. It can be argued that self-motion play is the initial primate play form and because of its persistence constitutes a reinforcing agent for maintaining many complex patterns and even pastimes. Monkey self-motion play in the present study was divided into five separate patterns in order to compare the relative importance of social and individual peragration play, the role of apparatus and the overall developmental relationships between the different individual and social self-motion play patterns. The data showed that from 90 to 180 days of age self-motion play was independent of other forms of play, that individual self-motion play appeared earlier and with significantly greater increases in frequency than did social self-motion play, and that apparatus was a necessary component for significant increases in social self-motion play. Other findings were that self-motion play existed independent of locomotion and, though initiated by exploration, was separate from it. Therapeutic implications of self-motion play were discussed. Images PMID:1057178

  14. Cranial radiation necessary for CNS prophylaxis in pediatric NHL

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, L.R.; Wollner, N.; Fuks, Z.

    1987-03-01

    The records of 95 consecutive children less than or equal to 21 years of age with previously untreated diffuse histology NHL registered in our protocols from 1978 to 1983 were reviewed. Seventy-nine patients were considered eligible for analysis. The histologic subtypes represented included lymphoblastic (LB) 37%; histiocytic (DHL) 29%; undifferentiated (DU) 19%; poorly differentiated (DPDL) 9%; and unclassified (UNHL) 6%. Distribution of the patients according to stage showed Stage I, 0%; Stage II, 11%; Stage III, 53%; Stage IV, 36%. Four different Memorial Hospital protocols for systemic chemotherapy were used (LSA2L2 73%; L10 9%; L17 10%; L17M 8%); however, the IT (intrathecal) chemotherapy was uniform (Methotrexate: 6.0-6.25 mg/M2 per treatment course) and was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was not included in the CNS prophylaxis program. The overall median time of follow-up was 43 months. The overall CNS relapse rate was 6.3%; however, the incidence of CNS lymphoma presenting as the first isolated site of relapse in patients in otherwise complete remission (minimum follow-up of 19 months with 97% of patients off treatment) was only 1/58 (1.7%). Our data suggest that IT chemotherapy when given in combination with modern aggressive systemic combination chemotherapy, and without cranial radiation appears to be a highly effective modality for CNS prophylaxis regardless of stage, histology, or bone marrow or mediastinal involvement. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's biomarker profiles in CNS infections.

    PubMed

    Krut, Jan Jessen; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Cinque, Paola; Hagberg, Lars; Price, Richard W; Studahl, Marie; Gisslén, Magnus

    2013-02-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased beta amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), increased total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau, respectively), which is a useful diagnostic tool and gives insight in the pathogenesis of AD. It is of importance to study how these biomarkers react in other CNS diseases; therefore, we decided to analyse amyloid and tau biomarkers in different CNS infections. We also included analysis of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and -β). CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β, t-tau and p-tau were analysed in bacterial meningitis (n = 12), Lyme neuroborreliosis (n = 13), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (n = 10), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 21), AD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 42). Concurrent with AD, Aβ(1-42) was decreased in all groups except neuroborreliosis compared to controls. HSV-1 encephalitis, bacterial meningitis and HAD showed lower concentrations of sAPPα and -β compared to AD. T-tau was increased in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to all other groups. P-tau was higher in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to bacterial meningitis, HAD and control. Decreased CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β in various CNS infections imply an effect of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism which is similar in regard to AD concerning Aβ(1-42), but differs concerning sAPPα and -β. These results clearly indicate different pathologic pathways in AD and infectious CNS disease and may provide help in the differential biomarker diagnostics. Increased p-tau in HSV-1 encephalitis probably reflect acute neuronal damage and necrosis. PMID:23052602

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protects rats against CNS oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Yehuda; Kotler, Doron; Eynan, Mirit; Hochman, Ayala

    2014-06-15

    We examined the hypothesis that repeated exposure to non-convulsive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as preconditioning provides protection against central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). Four groups of rats were used in the study. Rats in the control and the negative control (Ctl-) groups were kept in normobaric air. Two groups of rats were preconditioned to non-convulsive HBO at 202 kPa for 1h once every other day for a total of three sessions. Twenty-four hours after preconditioning, one of the preconditioned groups and the control rats were exposed to convulsive HBO at 608 kPa, and latency to CNS-OT was measured. Ctl- rats and the second preconditioned group (PrC-) were not subjected to convulsive HBO exposure. Tissues harvested from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were evaluated for enzymatic activity and nitrotyrosine levels. In the group exposed to convulsive oxygen at 608 kPa, latency to CNS-OT increased from 12.8 to 22.4 min following preconditioning. A significant decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, was observed in the hippocampus of preconditioned rats. Nitrotyrosine levels were significantly lower in the preconditioned animals, the highest level being observed in the control rats. In the cortex of the preconditioned rats, a significant increase was observed in glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Repeated exposure to non-convulsive HBO provides protection against CNS-OT. The protective mechanism involves alterations in the enzymatic activity of the antioxidant system and lower levels of peroxynitrite, mainly in the hippocampus. PMID:24675062

  17. Viral sensing at the blood-brain barrier: new roles for innate immunity at the CNS vasculature.

    PubMed

    Daniels, B P; Klein, R S

    2015-04-01

    Neurotropic viral infections are a major source of disease worldwide and represent a growing burden to public health. While the central nervous system (CNS) is normally protected from viral infection by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), many viruses are able to cross the BBB and establish CNS infection through processes that largely remain poorly understood. A growing body of recent research has begun to shed light on the viral and host factors that modulate BBB function, contributing to both protective and pathological disease processes. Central to these studies have been the actions of host cytokines and chemokines, which have increasingly been shown to be key regulators of BBB physiology. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding how BBB function governs both viral pathogenesis and host immune responses during neurotropic viral infections. PMID:25670037

  18. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Genevieve M.; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E.; Burger, Peter C.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) data file. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011–2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  19. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E; Burger, Peter C; Ambinder, Richard F; Swinnen, Lode J; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2015-10-20

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) datafile. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011-2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  20. Origin, fate and dynamics of macrophages at CNS interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Tobias; Jordão, Marta Joana Costa; Wieghofer, Peter; Prutek, Fabiola; Hagemeyer, Nora; Frenzel, Kathrin; Staszewski, Ori; Kierdorf, Katrin; Amann, Lukas; Krueger, Martin; Locatelli, Giuseppe; Hochgarner, Hannah; Zeiser, Robert; Epelman, Slava; Geissmann, Frederic; Priller, Josef; Rossi, Fabio; Bechmann, Ingo; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Linnarsson, Sten; Jung, Steffen; Prinz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular, meningeal and choroid plexus macrophages are non-parenchymal macrophages that mediate immune responses at brain boundaries. Although the origin of parenchymal microglia has recently been elucidated, much less is known about the precursors, the underlying transcriptional program and the dynamics of the other macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been assumed that they have a high turnover with blood-borne monocytes. However, large scale single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals a striking molecular overlap between perivascular macrophages and microglia but not monocytes. Using several fate mapping approaches and parabiosis we demonstrate that CNS macrophages arise from yolk sac precursors during embryonic development and remain a stable population. Notably, the generation of CNS macrophages relies on the transcription factor Pu.1 whereas myb, Batf3 and Nr4a1 are not required. Upon autoimmune inflammation, macrophages undergo extensive self-renewal by local proliferation. Our data provide challenging new insights into brains innate immune system. PMID:27135602

  1. Cell Therapy From Bench to Bedside Translation in CNS Neurorestoratology Era

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongyun; Chen, Lin; Sanberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in cell biology, neural injury and repair, and the progress towards development of neurorestorative interventions are the basis for increased optimism. Based on the complexity of the processes of demyelination and remyelination, degeneration and regeneration, damage and repair, functional loss and recovery, it would be expected that effective therapeutic approaches will require a combination of strategies encompassing neuroplasticity, immunomodulation, neuroprotection, neurorepair, neuroreplacement, and neuromodulation. Cell-based restorative treatment has become a new trend, and increasing data worldwide have strongly proven that it has a pivotal therapeutic value in CNS disease. Moreover, functional neurorestoration has been achieved to a certain extent in the CNS clinically. Up to now, the cells successfully used in preclinical experiments and/or clinical trial/treatment include fetal/embryonic brain and spinal cord tissue, stem cells (embryonic stem cells, neural stem/progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells, adipose-derived adult stem/precursor cells, skin-derived precursor, induced pluripotent stem cells), glial cells (Schwann cells, oligodendrocyte, olfactory ensheathing cells, astrocytes, microglia, tanycytes), neuronal cells (various phenotypic neurons and Purkinje cells), mesenchymal stromal cells originating from bone marrow, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood, epithelial cells derived from the layer of retina and amnion, menstrual blood-derived stem cells, Sertoli cells, and active macrophages, etc. Proof-of-concept indicates that we have now entered a new era in neurorestoratology. PMID:21359168

  2. Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in mediating the Effect of Hypergravity on the Developing CNS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Lipinski, B.

    The present studies will explore the mechanisms through which altered gravity affects the developing CNS We have previously shown that exposure to hypergravity during the perinatal period adversely impacts cerebellar structure and function Pregnant rat dams were exposed to 1 65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge at NASA-ARC from gestational day G 5 through giving birth Both dams and their offspring remained at 1 65 G until pups reached postnatal day P 21 Control rats were raised under identical conditions in stationary cages On P21 motor behavior as determined by performance on a rotorod was more negatively impacted in hypergravity-exposed HG male 39 5 than in HG female pups 29 1 The total number of Purkinje cells determined stereologically in cerebella isolated from a subset of P21 rats was decreased in both HG males and HG female pups but the correlation between Purkinje cell number and rotorod performance was more consistent in male pups The level of 3-nitrosotyrosine 3-NT an index of oxidative damage to proteins was determined by ELISA in cerebellar tissue derived from a separate subset of P21 rats The level of 3-NT was increased by 127 in HG males but only 42 in HG females These results suggest that the effect of altered gravity on the developing brain may be mediated by oxidative stress These results also suggest that the developing male CNS may be more sensitive to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress than the developing female CNS Supported by NIEHS grant ES11946-01

  3. Expression of planar cell polarity genes during development of the mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Tissir, Fadel; Goffinet, André M

    2006-02-01

    Atypical cadherin (Celsr3) and the receptor Frizzled3 (Fzd3) are crucial for the development of axonal tracts in the mouse CNS. Celsr3 and Fzd3 are orthologues of the Drosophila'planar cell polarity' (PCP) genes flamingo/starry night (fmi/stan) and frizzled, respectively. Reasoning that Celsr3 and Fzd3 might interact with PCP orthologues in mammals like they do in flies, we used mRNA in situ hybridization to compare the expression of Celsr3 and Fzd3 with that of dishevelled 1, 2 and 3 (Dvl1-3), van gogh-like 1 and 2 (Vangl1, 2), and prickle-like 1 and 2 (Prickle1, 2), during mouse CNS development, from embryonic day 10.5 to postnatal day 21. With the relative exception of Vangl1, all genes were expressed in the developing CNS. Although Celsr3- and Fzd3-deficient mice have similar phenotypes, Fzd3 expression was more widespread than that of Celsr3. Vangl2 and Dvl2 were preferentially expressed in ventricular zones, in keeping with their role during neural tube closure, where they could be partners of Celsr1. Dvl1 had a broad expression, reminiscent of that of Celsr2, and may be involved in neural maintenance. A large overlap in the expression territories of Dvl genes suggested redundancy. Vangl1 and Prickle1 had expression canvases different from each other and from other candidates, indicating unrelated function. Like Celsr3, Dvl3 and Prickle2 were expressed more strongly in postmitotic neurons than in precursors. Thus, the analogy between the PCP and Celsr3-Fzd3 genetic networks is limited, but may include Dvl3 and/or Prickle2. PMID:16487141

  4. A Dramatic Increase of C1q Protein in the CNS during Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Daniel V.; Mateos, José María; Fraser, Deborah A.; Lovelett, Emilie A.; Coutellier, Laurence; Kim, Leo; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Eric J.; Rowitch, David H.; Berns, Dominic S.; Tenner, Andrea J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Barres, Ben A.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age. Age-related cognitive decline is caused by an impacted neuronal circuitry, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade and powerful effector of the peripheral immune response, mediates synapse elimination in the developing CNS. Here we show that C1q protein levels dramatically increase in the normal aging mouse and human brain, by as much as 300-fold. This increase was predominantly localized in close proximity to synapses and occurred earliest and most dramatically in certain regions of the brain, including some but not all regions known to be selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and piriform cortex. C1q-deficient mice exhibited enhanced synaptic plasticity in the adult and reorganization of the circuitry in the aging hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, aged C1q-deficient mice exhibited significantly less cognitive and memory decline in certain hippocampus-dependent behavior tests compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the developing CNS, the complement cascade effector C3 was only present at very low levels in the adult and aging brain. In addition, the aging-dependent effect of C1q on the hippocampal circuitry was independent of C3 and unaccompanied by detectable synapse loss, providing evidence for a novel, complement- and synapse elimination-independent role for C1q in CNS aging. PMID:23946404

  5. Endogenous GLP1 and GLP1 analogue alter CNS responses to palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Groot, Paul F C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Ijzerman, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of endogenous GLP1 and treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide on CNS activation to chocolate milk receipt. Study 1 included 20 healthy lean individuals and 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Scans were performed on two occasions: during infusion of the GLP1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (blocking actions of endogenous GLP1) and during placebo infusion. Study 2 was a randomised, cross-over intervention study carried out in 20 T2DM patients, comparing treatment with liraglutide to insulin, after 10 days and 12 weeks. Compared with lean individuals, T2DM patients showed reduced activation to chocolate milk in right insula (P = 0.04). In lean individuals, blockade of endogenous GLP1 effects inhibited activation in bilateral insula (P ≤ 0.03). Treatment in T2DM with liraglutide, vs insulin, increased activation to chocolate milk in right insula and caudate nucleus after 10 days (P ≤ 0.03); however, these effects ceased to be significant after 12 weeks. Our findings in healthy lean individuals indicate that endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. In obese T2DM, treatment with liraglutide may improve the observed deficit in responsiveness to palatable food, which may contribute to the induction of weight loss observed during treatment. However, no long-term effects of liraglutide were observed. PMID:26769912

  6. Graft/host relationships in the developing and regenerating CNS of mammals.

    PubMed

    Ourednik, Václav; Ourednik, Jitka

    2005-05-01

    A new light was shed on the utility of neural grafts when it was recognized that donor tissues and cells offer more than a source of immature progenitors potentially capable of cell replacement: First, they have the inherent capacity to produce multiple trophic and tropic factors promoting cell survival and tissue plasticity often characteristic of the immature central nervous system (CNS). Second, by their interaction with the host microenvironment via cell/cell and cell/ECM interactions, these grafts are capable of re-establishing homeostasis, which can be, for example, reflected in rescue and protection of host elements from harmful influences. This second capacity of donor cells relies, in part, also on a "dormant" but still present regenerative capacity of mature or even aged CNS and on the possibility of its mobilization in the damaged nervous system by neural grafts. For this to occur efficiently after transplantation, a bi-directional dialogue between donor and host cells must gradually be established, in which both "partners" transmit signals (cell/cell contact, molecular messengers), "listen to" and "understand" each other and are able to react by modifying their own plasticity- and development-related programs. Thus, for the best possible recovery of functionality in the injured adult and aged nervous system, neurotransplantation must always try to find optimal conditions for all three of the mentioned qualities of neural grafts, especially for the protection and/or reactivation of neural circuitry embedded in non-neurogenic CNS areas. Once fully understood, this newly recognized aspect of neurotransplantation (and topic of this review) might, someday, even allow the recovery of systems that would otherwise be doomed, such as cognition- and experience-related circuitry. PMID:15965116

  7. RGS6 as a Novel Therapeutic Target in CNS Diseases and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Katelin E; Chakravarti, Bandana; Fisher, Rory A

    2016-05-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are gatekeepers regulating the cellular responses induced by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Specifically, RGS proteins determine the magnitude and duration of GPCR signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein for Gα subunits, an activity facilitated by their semiconserved RGS domain. The R7 subfamily of RGS proteins is distinguished by two unique domains, DEP/DHEX and GGL, which mediate membrane targeting and stability of these proteins. RGS6, a member of the R7 subfamily, has been shown to specifically modulate Gαi/o protein activity which is critically important in the central nervous system (CNS) for neuronal responses to a wide array of neurotransmitters. As such, RGS6 has been implicated in several CNS pathologies associated with altered neurotransmission, including the following: alcoholism, anxiety/depression, and Parkinson's disease. In addition, unlike other members of the R7 subfamily, RGS6 has been shown to regulate G protein-independent signaling mechanisms which appear to promote both apoptotic and growth-suppressive pathways that are important in its tumor suppressor function in breast and possibly other tissues. Further highlighting the importance of RGS6 as a target in cancer, RGS6 mediates the chemotherapeutic actions of doxorubicin and blocks reticular activating system (Ras)-induced cellular transformation by promoting degradation of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) to prevent its silencing of pro-apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes. Together, these findings demonstrate the critical role of RGS6 in regulating both G protein-dependent CNS pathology and G protein-independent cancer pathology implicating RGS6 as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27002730

  8. Learning through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Explains how role playing can provide enriching experiences that develop children's literacy and numeracy skills. Lists key ingredients of good role playing and suggests ways to plan them and prepare space for them. (SK)

  9. Adlerian Play Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry; Warlick, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Describes Adlerian method of play therapy. Claims Adlerian therapy represents an integration of the concepts and techniques of individual psychology into a method of using play to help troubled children. (Author/ABL)

  10. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. Tracking CNS and systemic sources of oxidative stress during the course of chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Agata A; Pohlan, Julian; Bremer, Daniel; Lindquist, Randall; Millward, Jason M; Bock, Markus; Pollok, Karolin; Mothes, Ronja; Viohl, Leonard; Radbruch, Moritz; Gerhard, Jenny; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Behrens, Janina; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Füchtemeier, Martina; Herz, Josephine; Pache, Florence C; Bardua, Markus; Priller, Josef; Hauser, Anja E; Paul, Friedemann; Niesner, Raluca; Radbruch, Helena

    2015-12-01

    The functional dynamics and cellular sources of oxidative stress are central to understanding MS pathogenesis but remain elusive, due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here we employ NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX enzymes) in vivo to identify inflammatory monocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes expressing NOX1 as major cellular sources of oxidative stress in the central nervous system of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, indicated by sustained elevated neuronal calcium. The systemic involvement of oxidative stress is mirrored by overactivation of NOX enzymes in peripheral CD11b(+) cells in later phases of both MS and EAE. This effect is antagonized by systemic intake of the NOX inhibitor and anti-oxidant epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Together, this persistent hyper-activation of oxidative enzymes suggests an "oxidative stress memory" both in the periphery and CNS compartments, in chronic neuroinflammation. PMID:26521072

  12. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play that, taken…

  13. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  14. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth…

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in serum, but not in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV associated CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Sporer, B; Koedel, U; Paul, R; Eberle, J; Arendt, G; Pfister, H-W

    2004-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic and mitogenic peptide, which also induces several mediators that may play a role in HIV induced CNS damage. VEGF levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 19) directly HIV associated CNS disorders and HIV negative control patients (n = 18). VEGF serum but not CSF levels were significantly increased in HIV infected patients with (381.1 (78.9) pg/ml) HIV associated CNS diseases compared with those without (120.8 (13.1) pg/ml) and HIV negative control patients (133.1(14.8) pg/ml). Serum samples from patients with untreated HIV associated encephalopathy (HIVE, n = 3) contained the highest VEGF levels (583.9 (71.5) pg/ml). In two patients VEGF serum levels were reduced during antiretroviral therapy. However, regardless of effective viral suppression, patients with HIVE still had higher levels compared with HIV infected patients without HIVE. A relevant increase of serum VEGF was not observed in patients without HIVE though high HI viral load. We conclude that HIVE is associated with increased serum VEGF levels. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of VEGF in HIVE. PMID:14742610

  16. Genes Related to Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Play a Role in the Functional Decline of the Drosophila Brain with Age

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, António; Schulz, Joachim; Dotti, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    In living organisms, ageing is widely considered to be the result of a multifaceted process consisting of the progressive accumulation of damage over time, having implications both in terms of function and survival. The study of ageing presents several challenges, from the different mechanisms implicated to the great diversity of systems affected over time. In the current study, we set out to identify genes involved in the functional decline of the brain with age and study its relevance in a tissue dependent manner using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Here we report the age-dependent upregulation of genes involved in the metabolic process of fatty acid β-oxidation in the nervous tissue of female wild-type flies. Downregulation of CG10814, dHNF4 and lipid mobilizing genes bmm and dAkh rescues the functional decline of the brain with age, both at the cellular and behaviour level, while over-expression worsens performance. Our data proposes the occurrence of a metabolic alteration in the fly brain with age, whereby the process of β-oxidation of fatty acids experiences a genetic gain-of-function. This event proved to be one of the main causes contributing to the functional decline of the brain with age. PMID:27518101

  17. Differentiation of ionic currents in CNS progenitor cells: dependence upon substrate attachment and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D H; Thinschmidt, J S; Peel, A L; Papke, R L; Reier, P J

    1996-08-01

    Multipotential progenitor cells grown from central nervous system (CNS) tissues in defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), when attached to a suitable substratum, differentiate to express neural and glial histochemical markers and morphologies. To assess the functional characteristics of such cells, expression of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents (INa, IK) was studied by whole-cell patch clamp methods in progenitors raised from postnatal rat forebrain. Undifferentiated cells were acutely dissociated from proliferative "spheres," and differentiated cells were studied 1-25 days after plating spheres onto polylysine/laminin-treated coverslips. INa and IK were detected together in 58%, INa alone in 11%, and IK alone in 19% of differentiated cells recorded with K(+)-containing pipettes. With internal Cs+ (to isolate INa), INa up to 45 pA/pF was observed in some cells within 1 day after plating. I Na ranged up to 150 pA/pF subsequently. Overall, 84% of cells expressed I Na, with an average of 38 pA/pF. INa had fast kinetics, as in neurons, but steadystate inactivation curves were strongly negative, resembling those of glial INa. Inward tail currents sensitive to [K+]out were observed upon repolarization after the 10-ms test pulse with internal Cs+, indicating the expression of K+ channels in 82% of cells. In contrast to the substantial currents observed in differentiating cells, little or no INa or Ik-tail currents were detected in recordings from cells acutely dissociated from spheres. Thus, in the presence of EGF, ionic currents develop early during differentiation induced by attachment to an appropriate substratum. Cells switched from EGF to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) when plated onto coverslips showed greatly reduced proliferation and developed less neuron-like morphologies than cells plated in the presence of EGF. INa was observed in only 53% of bFGF-treated cells, with an average of 9 pA/pF. Thus, in contrast to reports that b

  18. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  19. Can Symbolic Play Prepare Children for Their Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrytkowski, Krystyna

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings concerning the role of symbolic play. Assumes that symbolic play has seven functions in the child's development: cognitive, creative, ordering, stimulative, social, expressive, and substitutive. Considers play as a phenomenon that prepares children's abilities through symbolic play. (BAC)

  20. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  1. Evidence that multiple genetic variants of MC4R play a functional role in the regulation of energy expenditure and appetite in Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) haploinsufficiency is the most common form of monogenic obesity; however, the frequency of MC4R variants and their functional effects in general populations remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the effects of MC4R variants in Hispani...

  2. Glycemic Control among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with Diabetes from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Do Structural and Functional Social Support Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Fortmann, Addie L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Corsino, Leonor; Schneiderman, Neil; Daviglus, Martha L.; Teng, Yanping; Giachello, Aida; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Gallo, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Social support is one potential source of health-related resiliency in Hispanics with diabetes. Purpose This study examined relationships of structural (i.e., social integration) and functional (i.e., perceived) social support with glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1c) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Hispanics (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Methods This study included 766 men and women representing multiple Hispanic ethnic backgrounds, aged 18-74 years, with diagnosed diabetes who completed fasting blood draw, medication review, and measures of sociodemographic factors, medical history, structural support (Cohen Social Network Index), and functional support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12). Results After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and medication, a one standard deviation increase in functional support was related to an 0.18 % higher HbA1c (p = 0.04). A similar trend was observed for structural support; however, this effect was non-significant in adjusted models. Conclusion Greater functional support was associated with poorer glycemic control in Hispanics. PMID:25107503

  3. CD11chi Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6Chi Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11chiPDCA-1int/lo DCs without alteration in CD11cintPDCA-1hi plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11chi DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11chi DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes generated in CD11chi DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11chi DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes. PMID:26626303

  4. Expression patterns suggest that despite considerable functional redundancy, galectin-4 and -6 play distinct roles in normal and damaged mouse digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Houzelstein, Denis; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

  5. Chd7 Cooperates with Sox10 and Regulates the Onset of CNS Myelination and Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    He, Danyang; Marie, Corentine; Zhao, Chuntao; Kim, Bongwoo; Wang, Jincheng; Deng, Yaqi; Clavairoly, Adrien; Frah, Magali; Wang, Haibo; He, Xuelian; Hmidan, Hatem; Jones, Blaise V.; Witte, David; Zalc, Bernard; Zhou, Xin; Choo, Daniel I.; Martin, Donna M.; Parras, Carlos; Lu, Q. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in CHD7, encoding ATP-dependent chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7, in CHARGE syndrome leads to multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial malformations, neurological dysfunction and growth delay. Currently, mechanisms underlying the CNS phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Chd7 is a direct transcriptional target of oligodendrogenesis-promoting factors Olig2 and Smarca4/Brg1, and is required for proper onset of CNS myelination and remyelination. Genome-occupancy analyses, coupled with transcriptome profiling, reveal that Chd7 interacts with Sox10 and targets the enhancers of key myelinogenic genes, and identify novel Chd7 targets including bone formation regulators Osterix/Sp7 and Creb3l2, which are also critical for oligodendrocyte maturation. Thus, Chd7 coordinates with Sox10 to regulate the initiation of myelinogenesis and acts as a molecular nexus of regulatory networks that account for the development of a seemingly diverse array of lineages including oligodendrocytes and osteoblasts, pointing to the hitherto previously uncharacterized Chd7 functions in white matter pathogenesis in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26928066

  6. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in neuroscience has provided tremendous insights into disturbed human brain function. Among all of the molecular imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have occupied a particular position that visualize and measure the physiological processes using high-affinity and high-specificity molecular radioactive tracers as imaging probes in intact living brain. In this review, we will put emphasis on the PET/SPECT applications in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) as major CNS disorders. We will first give an overview of the main classical molecular neuroimaging modalities. Then, the major clinical applications of PET and SPECT along with molecular probes in the fields of psychiatry and neurology will be discussed. PMID:26029646

  7. Viscoelastic properties of individual glial cells and neurons in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun-Bi; Franze, Kristian; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Wolburg, Hartwig; Guck, Jochen; Janmey, Paul; Wei, Er-Qing; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2006-11-21

    One hundred fifty years ago glial cells were discovered as a second, non-neuronal, cell type in the central nervous system. To ascribe a function to these new, enigmatic cells, it was suggested that they either glue the neurons together (the Greek word "gammalambdaiotaalpha" means "glue") or provide a robust scaffold for them ("support cells"). Although both speculations are still widely accepted, they would actually require quite different mechanical cell properties, and neither one has ever been confirmed experimentally. We investigated the biomechanics of CNS tissue and acutely isolated individual neurons and glial cells from mammalian brain (hippocampus) and retina. Scanning force microscopy, bulk rheology, and optically induced deformation were used to determine their viscoelastic characteristics. We found that (i) in all CNS cells the elastic behavior dominates over the viscous behavior, (ii) in distinct cell compartments, such as soma and cell processes, the mechanical properties differ, most likely because of the unequal local distribution of cell organelles, (iii) in comparison to most other eukaryotic cells, both neurons and glial cells are very soft ("rubber elastic"), and (iv) intriguingly, glial cells are even softer than their neighboring neurons. Our results indicate that glial cells can neither serve as structural support cells (as they are too soft) nor as glue (because restoring forces are dominant) for neurons. Nevertheless, from a structural perspective they might act as soft, compliant embedding for neurons, protecting them in case of mechanical trauma, and also as a soft substrate required for neurite growth and facilitating neuronal plasticity. PMID:17093050

  8. PGJ2 Provides Prolonged CNS Stroke Protection by Reducing White Matter Edema

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, James D.; Puche, Adam C.; Guo, Yan; Weinreich, Daniel; Slater, Bernard J.; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Few clinically effective approaches reduce CNS-white matter injury. After early in-vivo white matter infarct, NFκB-driven pro-inflammatory signals can amplify a relatively small amount of vascular damage, resulting in progressive endothelial dysfunction to create a severe ischemic lesion. This process can be minimized by 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), an analog of the metabolically active PGD2 metabolite. We evaluated PGJ2's effects and mechanisms using rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION); an in vivo white matter ischemia model. PGJ2 administration systemically administered either acutely or 5 hours post-insult results in significant neuroprotection, with stereologic evaluation showing improved neuronal survival 30 days post-infarct. Quantitative capillary vascular analysis reveals that PGJ2 improves perfusion at 1 day post-infarct by reducing tissue edema. Our results suggest that PGJ2 acts by reducing NFκB signaling through preventing p65 nuclear localization and inhibiting inflammatory gene expression. Importantly, PGJ2 showed no in vivo toxicity structurally as measured by optic nerve (ON) myelin thickness, functionally by ON-compound action potentials, on a cellular basis by oligodendrocyte precursor survival or changes in ON-myelin gene expression. PGJ2 may be a clinically useful neuroprotective agent for ON and other CNS infarcts involving white matter, with mechanisms of action enabling effective treatment beyond the currently considered maximal time for intervention. PMID:23284631

  9. Synaptogenesis in the CNS: An Odyssey from Wiring Together to Firing Together

    PubMed Central

    Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-01-01

    To acquire a better comprehension of nervous system function, it is imperative to understand how synapses are assembled during development and subsequently altered throughout life. Despite recent advances in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that guide synapse formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although many structural components of the synaptic machinery are pre-assembled prior to the arrival of growth cones at the site of their potential targets, innumerable changes, central to the proper wiring of the brain, must subsequently take place through contact-mediated cell-cell communications. Identification of such signalling molecules and a characterization of various events underlying synaptogenesis are pivotal to our understanding of how a brain cell completes its odyssey from ‘wiring together to firing together’. Here we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview that pertains directly to the cellular and molecular mechanisms of selection, formation and refinement of synapses during the development of the CNS in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:12897180

  10. Development of allosteric modulators of GPCRs for treatment of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a promising new strategy with potential for developing novel treatments for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Traditional drug discovery efforts targeting GPCRs have focused on developing ligands for orthosteric sites which bind endogenous ligands. Allosteric modulators target a site separate from the orthosteric site to modulate receptor function. These allosteric agents can either potentiate (positive allosteric modulator, PAM) or inhibit (negative allosteric modulator, NAM) the receptor response and often provide much greater subtype selectivity than do orthosteric ligands for the same receptors. Experimental evidence has revealed more nuanced pharmacological modes of action of allosteric modulators, with some PAMs showing allosteric agonism in combination with positive allosteric modulation in response to endogenous ligand (ago-potentiators) as well as “bitopic” ligands that interact with both the allosteric and orthosteric sites. Drugs targeting the allosteric site allow for increased drug selectivity and potentially decreased adverse side effects. Promising evidence has demonstrated potential utility of a number of allosteric modulators of GPCRs in multiple CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, as well as psychiatric or neurobehavioral diseases such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. PMID:24076101

  11. Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the melanopsin/GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songshan; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuejie; Liu, Wen; Wang, Yuqi; Jiang, Songshan; Wong, Yung Hou; Zhang, Yifeng; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Cell-type–specific G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates distinct neuronal responses to various stimuli and is essential for axon guidance and targeting during development. However, its function in axonal regeneration in the mature CNS remains elusive. We found that subtypes of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in mice maintained high mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) levels after axotomy and that the light-sensitive GPCR melanopsin mediated this sustained expression. Melanopsin overexpression in the RGCs stimulated axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush by up-regulating mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The extent of the regeneration was comparable to that observed after phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) knockdown. Both the axon regeneration and mTOR activity that were enhanced by melanopsin required light stimulation and Gq/11 signaling. Specifically, activating Gq in RGCs elevated mTOR activation and promoted axonal regeneration. Melanopsin overexpression in RGCs enhanced the amplitude and duration of their light response, and silencing them with Kir2.1 significantly suppressed the increased mTOR signaling and axon regeneration that were induced by melanopsin. Thus, our results provide a strategy to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury by modulating neuronal activity through GPCR signaling. PMID:26831088

  12. Chd7 cooperates with Sox10 and regulates the onset of CNS myelination and remyelination.

    PubMed

    He, Danyang; Marie, Corentine; Zhao, Chuntao; Kim, Bongwoo; Wang, Jincheng; Deng, Yaqi; Clavairoly, Adrien; Frah, Magali; Wang, Haibo; He, Xuelian; Hmidan, Hatem; Jones, Blaise V; Witte, David; Zalc, Bernard; Zhou, Xin; Choo, Daniel I; Martin, Donna M; Parras, Carlos; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in CHD7, encoding ATP-dependent chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7, in CHARGE syndrome lead to multiple congenital anomalies, including craniofacial malformations, neurological dysfunction and growth delay. Mechanisms underlying the CNS phenotypes remain poorly understood. We found that Chd7 is a direct transcriptional target of oligodendrogenesis-promoting factors Olig2 and Smarca4/Brg1 and is required for proper onset of CNS myelination and remyelination. Genome-occupancy analyses in mice, coupled with transcriptome profiling, revealed that Chd7 interacted with Sox10 and targeted the enhancers of key myelinogenic genes. These analyses identified previously unknown Chd7 targets, including bone formation regulators Osterix (also known as Sp7) and Creb3l2, which are also critical for oligodendrocyte maturation. Thus, Chd7 coordinates with Sox10 to regulate the initiation of myelinogenesis and acts as a molecular nexus of regulatory networks that account for the development of a seemingly diverse array of lineages, including oligodendrocytes and osteoblasts, pointing to previously uncharacterized Chd7 functions in white matter pathogenesis in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26928066

  13. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  14. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks. PMID:23881231

  15. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s “therapeutic window” – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1–3 days) protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances post-ischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious but also practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease. PMID:25784897

  16. Extending injury- and disease-resistant CNS phenotypes by repetitive epigenetic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gidday, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist - in effect, expanding conditioning's "therapeutic window" - would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days) protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances post-ischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious but also practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease. PMID:25784897

  17. Pathophysiological Function of ADAMTS Enzymes on Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Murat Serdar; Ural, Mustafa Numan; Gulec, Mehmet Akif; Akyol, Omer; Akyol, Sumeyya

    2016-08-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an environment that has various enzymes attended in regeneration and restoration processes which is very important to sustain physiological and biological functions of central nervous system (CNS). One of the participating enzyme systems in ECM turnover is matrix metalloproteinases. A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs (ADAMTS) is a unique family of ECM proteases found in mammals. Components of this family may be distinguished from the ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase) family based on the multiple copies of thrombospondin 1-like repeats. The considerable role of the ADAMTS in the CNS continues to develop. Evidences indicate that ADAMTS play an important role in neuroplasticity as well as nervous system pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hopeful and possible that ADAMTS family members may be utilized to develop therapies for CNS pathologies, ischemic injuries, neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. To understand and provide definitive data on ADAMTS to improve structural and functional recovery in CNS injury and diseases, this review aimed to enlighten the subject extensively to reach certain information on metalloproteinases and related molecules/enzymes. It will be interesting to examine how ADAMTS expression and action would affect the initiation/progression of above-mentioned clinical situations, especially AD. PMID:27493839

  18. Pathophysiological Function of ADAMTS Enzymes on Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gurses, Murat Serdar; Ural, Mustafa Numan; Gulec, Mehmet Akif; Akyol, Omer; Akyol, Sumeyya

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an environment that has various enzymes attended in regeneration and restoration processes which is very important to sustain physiological and biological functions of central nervous system (CNS). One of the participating enzyme systems in ECM turnover is matrix metalloproteinases. A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs (ADAMTS) is a unique family of ECM proteases found in mammals. Components of this family may be distinguished from the ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase) family based on the multiple copies of thrombospondin 1-like repeats. The considerable role of the ADAMTS in the CNS continues to develop. Evidences indicate that ADAMTS play an important role in neuroplasticity as well as nervous system pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is hopeful and possible that ADAMTS family members may be utilized to develop therapies for CNS pathologies, ischemic injuries, neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. To understand and provide definitive data on ADAMTS to improve structural and functional recovery in CNS injury and diseases, this review aimed to enlighten the subject extensively to reach certain information on metalloproteinases and related molecules/enzymes. It will be interesting to examine how ADAMTS expression and action would affect the initiation/progression of above-mentioned clinical situations, especially AD. PMID:27493839

  19. Neuronal-glial networks as substrate for CNS integration.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, A; Toescu, E C

    2006-01-01

    Astrocytes have been considered, for a long time, as the support and house-keeping cells of the nervous system. Indeed, the astrocytes play very important metabolic roles in the brain, but the catalogue of nervous system functions or activities that involve directly glial participation has extended dramatically in the last decade. In addition to the further refining of the signalling capacity of the neuroglial networks and the detailed reassessment of the interactions between glia and vascular bed in the brain, one of the important salient features of the increased glioscience activity in the last few years was the morphological and functional demonstration that protoplasmic astrocytes occupy well defined spatial territories, with only limited areas of morphological overlapping, but still able to communicate with adjacent neighbours through intercellular junctions. All these features form the basis for a possible reassessment of the nature of integration of activity in the central nervous system that could raise glia to a role of central integrator. PMID:17125587

  20. Neuronal-glial networks as substrate for CNS integration

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, A; Toescu, E C

    2006-01-01

    Astrocytes have been considered, for a long time, as the support and house-keeping cells of the nervous system. Indeed, the astrocytes play very important metabolic roles in the brain, but the catalogue of nervous system functions or activities that involve directly glial participation has extended dramatically in the last decade. In addition to the further refining of the signalling capacity of the neuroglial networks and the detailed reassessment of the interactions between glia and vascular bed in the brain, one of the important salient features of the increased glioscience activity in the last few years was the morphological and functional demonstration that protoplasmic astrocytes occupy well defined spatial territories, with only limited areas of morphological overlapping, but still able to communicate with adjacent neighbours through intercellular junctions. All these features form the basis for a possible reassessment of the nature of integration of activity in the central nervous system that could raise glia to a role of central integrator.

  1. Discovery and SAR of a novel series of potent, CNS penetrant M4 PAMs based on a non-enolizable ketone core: Challenges in disposition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Tarr, James C; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-09-01

    This Letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M4 PAMs based on a non-enolizable ketone core, identified from an MLPCN functional high-throughput screen. The HTS hit was potent, selective and CNS penetrant; however, the compound was highly cleared in vitro and in vivo. SAR provided analogs for which M4 PAM potency and CNS exposure were maintained; yet, clearance remained high. Metabolite identification studies demonstrated that this series was subject to rapid, and near quantitative, reductive metabolism to the corresponding secondary alcohol metabolite that was devoid of M4 PAM activity. PMID:27476142

  2. Retinal Degeneration Slow (RDS) Glycosylation Plays a Role in Cone Function and in the Regulation of RDS·ROM-1 Protein Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Michael W; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2015-11-13

    The photoreceptor-specific glycoprotein retinal degeneration slow (RDS, also called PRPH2) is necessary for the formation of rod and cone outer segments. Mutations in RDS cause rod and cone-dominant retinal disease, and it is well established that both cell types have different requirements for RDS. However, the molecular mechanisms for this difference remain unclear. Although RDS glycosylation is highly conserved, previous studies have revealed no apparent function for the glycan in rods. In light of the highly conserved nature of RDS glycosylation, we hypothesized that it is important for RDS function in cones and could underlie part of the differential requirement for RDS in the two photoreceptor subtypes. We generated a knockin mouse expressing RDS without the N-glycosylation site (N229S). Normal levels of RDS and the unglycosylated RDS binding partner rod outer segment membrane protein 1 (ROM-1) were found in N229S retinas. However, cone electroretinogram responses were decreased by 40% at 6 months of age. Because cones make up only 3-5% of photoreceptors in the wild-type background, N229S mice were crossed into the nrl(-/-) background (in which all rods are converted to cone-like cells) for biochemical analysis. In N229S/nrl(-/-) retinas, RDS and ROM-1 levels were decreased by ~60% each. These data suggest that glycosylation of RDS is required for RDS function or stability in cones, a difference that may be due to extracellular versus intradiscal localization of the RDS glycan in cones versus rods. PMID:26420485

  3. A holistic view of cancer bioenergetics: mitochondrial function and respiration play fundamental roles in the development and progression of diverse tumors.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Lal, Sneha; FitzGerald, Keely E; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Since Otto Warburg made the first observation that tumor cells exhibit altered metabolism and bioenergetics in the 1920s, many scientists have tried to further the understanding of tumor bioenergetics. Particularly, in the past decade, the application of the state-of the-art metabolomics and genomics technologies has revealed the remarkable plasticity of tumor metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, a wide array of tumor cells have been shown to be able to use not only glucose, but also glutamine for generating cellular energy, reducing power, and metabolic building blocks for biosynthesis. Secondly, many types of cancer cells generate most of their cellular energy via mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Glutamine is the preferred substrate for oxidative phosphorylation in tumor cells. Thirdly, tumor cells exhibit remarkable versatility in using bioenergetics substrates. Notably, tumor cells can use metabolic substrates donated by stromal cells for cellular energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Further, it has been shown that mitochondrial transfer is a critical mechanism for tumor cells with defective mitochondria to restore oxidative phosphorylation. The restoration is necessary for tumor cells to gain tumorigenic and metastatic potential. It is also worth noting that heme is essential for the biogenesis and proper functioning of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Hence, it is not surprising that recent experimental data showed that heme flux and function are elevated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and that elevated heme function promotes intensified oxygen consumption, thereby fueling tumor cell proliferation and function. Finally, emerging evidence increasingly suggests that clonal evolution and tumor genetic heterogeneity contribute to bioenergetic versatility of tumor cells, as well as tumor recurrence and drug resistance. Although mutations are found only in several metabolic enzymes in tumors, diverse

  4. AUTOLOGOUS HAEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA WITH SECONDARY CNS INVOLVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Richard T.; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Bolwell, Brian J.; Chen, Andy I.; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, Cesar O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Gibson, John; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon M.; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David J.; Isola, Luis M.; Khoury, H. Jean; Lewis, Victor A.; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Munker, Reinhold; Phillips, Gordon L.; Rizzieri, David A.; Rowlings, Philip A.; Saber, Wael; Satwani, Prakash; Waller, Edmund K.; Maloney, David G.; Montoto, Silvia; Laport, Ginna G.; Vose, Julie M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Hari, Parameswaran N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS+) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS−). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS+ patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS+ group with a subset of CNS− patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n=55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n=96) at the time of AHCT. CNS+ patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis. PMID:23829536

  5. Colletotrichum higginsianum extracellular LysM proteins play dual roles in appressorial function and suppression of chitin-triggered plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kombrink, Anja; Hughes, H Bleddyn; Halder, Vivek; Robin, Guillaume P; Hiruma, Kei; Neumann, Ulla; Shinya, Tomonori; Kombrink, Erich; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P H J; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum, encodes a large repertoire of candidate-secreted effectors containing LysM domains, but the role of such proteins in the pathogenicity of any Colletotrichum species is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of two effectors, ChELP1 and ChELP2, which are transcriptionally activated during the initial intracellular biotrophic phase of infection. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that ChELP2 is concentrated on the surface of bulbous biotrophic hyphae at the interface with living host cells but is absent from filamentous necrotrophic hyphae. We show that recombinant ChELP1 and ChELP2 bind chitin and chitin oligomers in vitro with high affinity and specificity and that both proteins suppress the chitin-triggered activation of two immune-related plant mitogen-activated protein kinases in the host Arabidopsis. Using RNAi-mediated gene silencing, we found that ChELP1 and ChELP2 are essential for fungal virulence and appressorium-mediated penetration of both Arabidopsis epidermal cells and cellophane membranes in vitro. The findings suggest a dual role for these LysM proteins as effectors for suppressing chitin-triggered immunity and as proteins required for appressorium function. PMID:27174033

  6. Electroporation of cDNA/Morpholinos to targeted areas of embryonic CNS in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Julien; Drinjakovic, Jovana; Leung, Kin Mei; Dwivedy, Asha; Regan, Aoife G; Piper, Michael; Holt, Christine E

    2007-01-01

    Background Blastomere injection of mRNA or antisense oligonucleotides has proven effective in analyzing early gene function in Xenopus. However, functional analysis of genes involved in neuronal differentiation and axon pathfinding by this method is often hampered by earlier function of these genes during development. Therefore, fine spatio-temporal control of over-expression or knock-down approaches is required to specifically address the role of a given gene in these processes. Results We describe here an electroporation procedure that can be used with high efficiency and low toxicity for targeting DNA and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into spatially restricted regions of the Xenopus CNS at a critical time-window of development (22–50 hour post-fertilization) when axonal tracts are first forming. The approach relies on the design of "electroporation chambers" that enable reproducible positioning of fixed-spaced electrodes coupled with accurate DNA/MO injection. Simple adjustments can be made to the electroporation chamber to suit the shape of different aged embryos and to alter the size and location of the targeted region. This procedure can be used to electroporate separate regions of the CNS in the same embryo allowing separate manipulation of growing axons and their intermediate and final targets in the brain. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that electroporation can be used as a versatile tool to investigate molecular pathways involved in axon extension during Xenopus embryogenesis. Electroporation enables gain or loss of function studies to be performed with easy monitoring of electroporated cells. Double-targeted transfection provides a unique opportunity to monitor axon-target interaction in vivo. Finally, electroporated embryos represent a valuable source of MO-loaded or DNA transfected cells for in vitro analysis. The technique has broad applications as it can be tailored easily to other developing organ systems and to other organisms by

  7. CNS intraoperative consultation: a survival guide for non-neuropathologists.

    PubMed

    Kresak, Jesse Lee; Rivera-Zengotita, Marie; Foss, Robin M; Yachnis, Anthony T

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative consultations for central nervous system disease may be challenging due to limitations of sample size, lack of familiarity with neurosurgical procedures, or poor access to neuroimaging studies. Despite these challenges, the surgical pathologist is charged with determining if the tissue sample is representative of the pathologic process while ensuring that enough diagnostic tissue has been retained for routine histology, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, molecular testing, and in some cases, tissue banking. Here, we present basic methods and a practical approach for CNS intraoperative consultation including critical pre-analytic considerations that promote optimal tissue management. PMID:25015160

  8. Kynurenines in CNS disease: regulation by inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brian M; Charych, Erik; Lee, Anna W; Möller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolizes the essential amino acid tryptophan and generates a number of neuroactive metabolites collectively called the kynurenines. Segregated into at least two distinct branches, often termed the "neurotoxic" and "neuroprotective" arms of the KP, they are regulated by the two enzymes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and kynurenine aminotransferase, respectively. Interestingly, several enzymes in the pathway are under tight control of inflammatory mediators. Recent years have seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of neuroinflammation in CNS disease. This review will focus on the regulation of the KP by inflammatory mediators as it pertains to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24567701

  9. CNS depressant activities of roots of Coccos nucifera in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Gain, Sumanta; Jana, Sandip; Mandal, Soumit

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Coccos nucifera (EECN) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECN significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbital sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECN showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECN caused significant protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. nucifera. PMID:21485298

  10. Play and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James E.; Christie, James F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how play is affected by computers and digital toys. Research indicates that when computer software targeted at children is problem-solving oriented and open-ended, children tend to engage in creative play and interact with peers in a positive manner. On the other hand, drill-and-practice programs can be quite boring and limit…

  11. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  12. Family Play Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  13. Clinical Intuition at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2014-01-01

    A clinical psychologist and consulting psychotherapist discusses how elements of play, inherent in the intuition required in analysis, can provide a cornerstone for serious therapeutic work. She argues that many aspects of play--its key roles in human development, individual growth, and personal creativity, among others--can help therapists and…

  14. Intergenerational Learning through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lindsay; Larkin, Elizabeth; Graves, Stephen B.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that shared play experiences are a good way to build mutually beneficial relationships among older and younger generations. Outlines why intergenerational play is important, focusing on its cognitive, social, physical, and emotional benefits for both older adults and young children. Describes toys, materials, and games conducive to positive…

  15. Poetry and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Richard A.

    Philosophers and poets from classical times to the present have argued that playful and amiable discourse are conducive to teaching and learning. The play principle enhances reading and study and should be applied by teachers to benefit their students. Teachers should help their students see that it is fun to enliven the imagination with good…

  16. The Fear of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Real play--play that is initiated and directed by children and that bubbles up from within the child rather than being imposed by adults--has largely disappeared from the landscape of childhood in the United States. There are many reasons for this, such as the long hours spent in front of screens each day or in activities organized by adults. In…

  17. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  18. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  19. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  20. Playing with Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casner, Mary W.; Marks, Susan F.

    The paper looks at the development of a play group for autistic children with descriptions of the autistic population, the daily program, the program's philosophy, the play group model, and actual lessons. Children, who ranged in age from 5 to 9 years, often chose activities which were self-stimulating and/or repetitive. The daily program included…

  1. Television at Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses children as television viewers capable of manipulating the co-viewing setting by interpreting, constructing, and carrying out planned lines of play in relation to television and its content. Examples illustrate program-oriented and free-form improvisational play situations. (JMF)

  2. Functions of noncoding RNAs in neural development and neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Shan; Sun, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The development of the central nervous system (CNS) relies on precisely orchestrated gene expression regulation. Dysregualtion of both genetic and environmental factors can affect proper CNS development and results in neurological diseases. Recent studies have shown that similar to protein coding genes, noncoding RNA molecules have a significant impact on normal CNS development and on causes and progression of human neurological disorders. In this review, we have highlighted discoveries of functions of noncoding RNAs, in particular microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in neural development and neurological diseases. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs play an essential role in many aspects of neural development, such as proliferation of neural stem cells and progenitors, neuronal differentiation, maturation and synaptogenesis. Misregulation of microRNAs is associated with some mental disorders and neurodegeneration diseases. In addition, long noncoding RNAs are found to play a role in neural development by regulating expression of protein coding genes. Therefore, examining noncoding RNA-mediated gene regulations has revealed novel mechanisms of neural development and provided new insights into the etiology of human neurological diseases. PMID:21969146

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apl2p, a homologue of the mammalian clathrin AP beta subunit, plays a role in clathrin-dependent Golgi functions.

    PubMed

    Rad, M R; Phan, H L; Kirchrath, L; Tan, P K; Kirchhausen, T; Hollenberg, C P; Payne, G S

    1995-04-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles mediate selective intracellular protein traffic from the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. At these sites, clathrin-associated protein (AP) complexes have been implicated in both clathrin coat assembly and collection of cargo into nascent vesicles. We have found a gene on yeast chromosome XI that encodes a homologue of the mammalian AP beta subunits. Disruptions of this gene, APl2, and a previously identified beta homologue, APl1, have been engineered in cells expressing wild-type (CHC1) or temperature sensitive (chc1-ts) alleles of the clathrin heavy chain gene. APl1 or APl2 disruptions (apl1 delta or apl2 delta) yield no discernable phenotypes in CHC1 strains, indicating that the Apl proteins are not essential for clathrin function. However, the apl2 delta, but not the apl1 delta, allele enhances the growth and alpha-factor pheromone maturation defects of chc1-ts cells. Disruption of APl2 also partially suppresses the vacuolar sorting defect that occurs in chc1-ts cells immediately after imposition of the non-permissive temperature. These Golgi-specific effects of apl2 delta in chc1-ts cells provide evidence that Apl2p is a component of an AP complex that interacts with clathrin at the Golgi apparatus. PMID:7615679

  4. CNS stimulants and the look-alike drugs.

    PubMed

    Lake, C R; Quirk, R S

    1984-12-01

    Abuse of amphetamine and especially the stimulant look-alikes represent a serious problem in the United States. The danger of amphetamine lies in its ability to produce tolerance, psychological addiction, psychosis, hypertensive crisis, and major depression following withdrawal after long-term use. The danger of the look-alikes is of a psychosocial nature and has less to do with the physical properties of the drugs. Easy availability and a casual attitude toward these drugs may introduce children and young adults to the concept of recreational use of drugs at an early age. Look-alikes also divert the efforts of law enforcement officials whose time is better spent on efforts to control illegal distribution of controlled substances. However, look-alikes do produce severe to life-threatening effects including seizures, hypertensive crises, and psychoses. Unfortunately, there are no fast and easy solutions to the stimulant drug abuse problem. Abuse of CNS stimulants has a long history. Effective approaches must involve greater education about the dangers of these drugs and improved recognition among medical professionals of trends in CNS stimulant abuse in order to better diagnose and treat resulting problems. It is unlikely that federal controls on amphetamine production can be increased. The OTC drugs, such as PPA, caffeine, and ephedrine could be moved to prescription-only status to emphasize their potential for abuse and for producing adverse reactions, but this approach is counter to society's current trend toward self-medication. PMID:6151645

  5. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods. PMID:25136634

  6. CNS effects of sumatriptan and rizatriptan in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    van der Post, J; Schram, M T; Schoemaker, R C; Pieters, M S M; Fuseau, E; Pereira, A; Baggen, S; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A

    2002-05-01

    This study investigates the CNS effects of sumatriptan and rizatriptan, with temazepam as an active comparator, in healthy female volunteers. Sixteen volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind, crossover study and on four separate occasions received either 100 mg sumatriptan, 20 mg rizatriptan or 20 mg temazepam. The main parameters were eye movements, EEG, body sway, visual analogue scales and a cognitive test battery. Rizatriptan and sumatriptan decreased saccadic peak velocity by 18.3 (95% CI: 5.7, 30.8) and 15.0 (2.2, 27.9) degrees/sec, respectively, about half the decrease induced by temazepam (35.0 (22.1, 47.8) degrees/sec). Body sway increased (30% for rizatriptan (16%, 45%) and 14% for sumatriptan (1%, 27%), respectively). Temazepam caused larger, similar effects. In contrast to temazepam, sumatriptan and rizatriptan decreased reaction times of recognition tasks and increased EEG alpha power (significant for sumatriptan, 0.477 (0.02, 0.935). Therapeutic doses of sumatriptan and rizatriptan caused CNS effects indicative of mild sedation. For EEG and recognition reaction times the effects were opposite to temazepam, indicating central stimulation. PMID:12100089

  7. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for CNS disease

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pooja; Benito, Eva; Fischer, André

    2013-01-01

    For many neurological diseases, the efficacy and outcome of treatment depend on early detection. Diagnosis is currently based on the detection of symptoms and neuroimaging abnormalities, which appear at relatively late stages in the pathogenesis. However, the underlying molecular responses to genetic and environmental insults begin much earlier and non-coding RNA networks are critically involved in these cellular regulatory mechanisms. Profiling RNA expression patterns could thus facilitate presymptomatic disease detection. Obtaining indirect readouts of pathological processes is particularly important for brain disorders because of the lack of direct access to tissue for molecular analyses. Living neurons and other CNS cells secrete microRNA and other small non-coding RNA into the extracellular space packaged in exosomes, microvesicles, or lipoprotein complexes. This discovery, together with the rapidly evolving massive sequencing technologies that allow detection of virtually all RNA species from small amounts of biological material, has allowed significant progress in the use of extracellular RNA as a biomarker for CNS malignancies, neurological, and psychiatric diseases. There is also recent evidence that the interactions between external stimuli and brain pathological processes may be reflected in peripheral tissues, facilitating their use as potential diagnostic markers. In this review, we explore the possibilities and challenges of using microRNA and other small RNAs as a signature for neurodegenerative and other neuropsychatric conditions. PMID:24324397

  8. Oligodendrocyte death results in immune-mediated CNS demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Traka, Maria; Podojil, Joseph R; McCarthy, Derrick P; Miller, Stephen D; Popko, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disorder, the origin of the autoimmune response against myelin, which is the characteristic feature of the disease, remains unclear. To investigate whether oligodendrocyte death could cause this autoimmune response, we examined the oligodendrocyte ablation Plp1-CreERT;ROSA26-eGFP-DTA (DTA) mouse model. Approximately 30 weeks after recovering from oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, DTA mice develop a fatal secondary disease characterized by extensive myelin and axonal loss. Strikingly, late-onset disease was associated with increased numbers of T lymphocytes in the CNS and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T cells in lymphoid organs. Transfer of T cells derived from DTA mice to naive recipients resulted in neurological defects that correlated with CNS white matter inflammation. Furthermore, immune tolerization against MOG ameliorated symptoms. Overall, these data indicate that oligodendrocyte death is sufficient to trigger an adaptive autoimmune response against myelin, suggesting that a similar process can occur in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26656646

  9. The CNS glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xinfu

    2014-09-15

    The gut-brain axis plays a key role in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. In response to luminal stimulation of macronutrients and microbiota-derived metabolites (secondary bile acids and short chain fatty acids), glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and -2) are cosecreted from endocrine L cells in the gut and coreleased from preproglucagonergic neurons in the brain stem. Glucagon-like peptides are proposed as key mediators for bariatric surgery-improved glycemic control and energy balance. Little is known about the GLP-2 receptor (Glp2r)-mediated physiological roles in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet Glp1r has been studied extensively. This review will highlight the physiological relevance of the central nervous system (CNS) Glp2r in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis and focuses on cellular mechanisms underlying the CNS Glp2r-mediated neural circuitry and intracellular PI3K signaling pathway. New evidence (obtained from Glp2r tissue-specific KO mice) indicates that the Glp2r in POMC neurons is essential for suppressing feeding behavior, gastrointestinal motility, and hepatic glucose production. Mice with Glp2r deletion selectively in POMC neurons exhibit hyperphagic behavior, accelerated gastric emptying, glucose intolerance, and hepatic insulin resistance. GLP-2 differentially modulates postsynaptic membrane excitability of hypothalamic POMC neurons in Glp2r- and PI3K-dependent manners. GLP-2 activates the PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 signaling pathway in POMC neurons by Glp2r-p85α interaction. Intracerebroventricular GLP-2 augments glucose tolerance, suppresses glucose production, and enhances insulin sensitivity, which require PI3K (p110α) activation in POMC neurons. Thus, the CNS Glp2r plays a physiological role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis. This review will also discuss key questions for future studies. PMID:24990862

  10. Overview of Transgenic Glioblastoma and Oligoastrocytoma CNS Models and Their Utility in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuyi; Becker, Albert; LoTurco, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many animal models have been developed to investigate the sources of central nervous system (CNS) tumor heterogeneity. Reviewed in this unit is a recently developed CNS tumor model using the piggyBac transposon system delivered by in utero electroporation, in which sources of tumor heterogeneity can be conveniently studied. Their applications for studying CNS tumors and drug discovery are also reviewed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26995546

  11. Advances in microRNA experimental approaches to study physiological regulation of gene products implicated in CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Long, Justin M.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkably complex organ system, requiring an equally complex network of molecular pathways controlling the multitude of diverse, cellular activities. Gene expression is a critical node at which regulatory control of molecular networks is implemented. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms employed in the physiological regulation of gene expression in the CNS is important both for establishing a reference for comparison to the diseased state and for expanding the set of validated drug targets available for disease intervention. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small RNA that mediates potent inhibitory effects on global gene expression. Recent advances have been made in methods employed to study the contribution of these miRNAs to gene expression. Here we review these latest advances and present a methodological workflow from the perspective of an investigator studying the physiological regulation of a gene of interest. We discuss methods for identifying putative miRNA target sites in a transcript of interest, strategies for validating predicted target sites, assays for detecting miRNA expression, and approaches for disrupting endogenous miRNA function. We consider both advantages and limitations, highlighting certain caveats that inform the suitability of a given method for a specific application. Through careful implementation of the appropriate methodologies discussed herein, we are optimistic that important discoveries related to miRNA participation in CNS physiology and dysfunction are on the horizon. PMID:22245616

  12. Systemic AAV9 gene transfer in adult GM1 gangliosidosis mice reduces lysosomal storage in CNS and extends lifespan.

    PubMed

    Weismann, Cara M; Ferreira, Jennifer; Keeler, Allison M; Su, Qin; Qui, Linghua; Shaffer, Scott A; Xu, Zuoshang; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease where GLB1 gene mutations result in a reduction or absence of lysosomal acid β-galactosidase (βgal) activity. βgal deficiency leads to accumulation of GM1-ganglioside in the central nervous system (CNS). GM1 is characterized by progressive neurological decline resulting in generalized paralysis, extreme emaciation and death. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9-mβgal vector infused systemically in adult GM1 mice (βGal(-/-)) at 1 × 10(11) or 3 × 10(11) vector genomes (vg). Biochemical analysis of AAV9-treated GM1 mice showed high βGal activity in liver and serum. Moderate βGal levels throughout CNS resulted in a 36-76% reduction in GM1-ganglioside content in the brain and 75-86% in the spinal cord. Histological analyses of the CNS of animals treated with 3 × 10(11) vg dose revealed increased presence of βgal and clearance of lysosomal storage throughout cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord. Storage reduction in these regions was accompanied by a marked decrease in astrogliosis. AAV9 treatment resulted in improved performance in multiple tests of motor function and behavior. Also the majority of GM1 mice in the 3 × 10(11) vg cohort retained ambulation and rearing despite reaching the humane endpoint due to weight loss. Importantly, the median survival of AAV9 treatment groups (316-576 days) was significantly increased over controls (250-264 days). This study shows that moderate widespread expression of βgal in the CNS of GM1 gangliosidosis mice is sufficient to achieve significant biochemical impact with phenotypic amelioration and extension in lifespan. PMID:25964428

  13. Gene expression profiles uncover individual identities of gnathal neuroblasts and serial homologies in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Rolf; Jussen, David; Technau, Gerhard M.

    2016-01-01

    The numbers and types of progeny cells generated by neural stem cells in the developing CNS are adapted to its region-specific functional requirements. In Drosophila, segmental units of the CNS develop from well-defined patterns of neuroblasts. Here we constructed comprehensive neuroblast maps for the three gnathal head segments. Based on the spatiotemporal pattern of neuroblast formation and the expression profiles of 46 marker genes (41 transcription factors), each neuroblast can be uniquely identified. Compared with the thoracic ground state, neuroblast numbers are progressively reduced in labial, maxillary and mandibular segments due to smaller sizes of neuroectodermal anlagen and, partially, to suppression of neuroblast formation and induction of programmed cell death by the Hox gene Deformed. Neuroblast patterns are further influenced by segmental modifications in dorsoventral and proneural gene expression. With the previously published neuroblast maps and those presented here for the gnathal region, all neuroectodermal neuroblasts building the CNS of the fly (ventral nerve cord and brain, except optic lobes) are now individually identified (in total 2×567 neuroblasts). This allows, for the first time, a comparison of the characteristics of segmental populations of stem cells and to screen for serially homologous neuroblasts throughout the CNS. We show that approximately half of the deutocerebral and all of the tritocerebral (posterior brain) and gnathal neuroblasts, but none of the protocerebral (anterior brain) neuroblasts, display serial homology to neuroblasts in thoracic/abdominal neuromeres. Modifications in the molecular signature of serially homologous neuroblasts are likely to determine the segment-specific characteristics of their lineages. PMID:27095493

  14. Systemic AAV9 gene transfer in adult GM1 gangliosidosis mice reduces lysosomal storage in CNS and extends lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Weismann, Cara M.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Keeler, Allison M.; Su, Qin; Qui, Linghua; Shaffer, Scott A.; Xu, Zuoshang; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease where GLB1 gene mutations result in a reduction or absence of lysosomal acid β-galactosidase (βgal) activity. βgal deficiency leads to accumulation of GM1-ganglioside in the central nervous system (CNS). GM1 is characterized by progressive neurological decline resulting in generalized paralysis, extreme emaciation and death. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9-mβgal vector infused systemically in adult GM1 mice (βGal−/−) at 1 × 1011 or 3 × 1011 vector genomes (vg). Biochemical analysis of AAV9-treated GM1 mice showed high βGal activity in liver and serum. Moderate βGal levels throughout CNS resulted in a 36–76% reduction in GM1-ganglioside content in the brain and 75–86% in the spinal cord. Histological analyses of the CNS of animals treated with 3 × 1011 vg dose revealed increased presence of βgal and clearance of lysosomal storage throughout cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord. Storage reduction in these regions was accompanied by a marked decrease in astrogliosis. AAV9 treatment resulted in improved performance in multiple tests of motor function and behavior. Also the majority of GM1 mice in the 3 × 1011 vg cohort retained ambulation and rearing despite reaching the humane endpoint due to weight loss. Importantly, the median survival of AAV9 treatment groups (316–576 days) was significantly increased over controls (250–264 days). This study shows that moderate widespread expression of βgal in the CNS of GM1 gangliosidosis mice is sufficient to achieve significant biochemical impact with phenotypic amelioration and extension in lifespan. PMID:25964428

  15. Discovery and optimization of a novel series of highly CNS penetrant M4 PAMs based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Engers, Julie L; Bollinger, Katrina A; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Han, Changho; West, Mary; Gregro, Alison R; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Ajmera, Sonia; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Hopkins, Corey R; Emmitte, Kyle A; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-07-01

    This Letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, identified from an MLPCN functional high-throughput screen. The HTS hit was potent and selective, but not CNS penetrant. Potency was maintained, while CNS penetration was improved (rat brain:plasma Kp=0.74), within the original core after several rounds of optimization; however, the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core was subject to extensive oxidative metabolism. Ultimately, we identified a 6-fluoroquinazoline core replacement that afforded good M4 PAM potency, muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity and CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma Kp>10). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M4 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this exciting CNS target. PMID:27185330

  16. The Scottish Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Recounts an episode when, as young schoolboys, Prince Charles and classmates presented "Macbeth" as an end-of-term-play. Traces the events at school that took on different meanings when viewed from maturity. (NH)

  17. The School Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathan, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Offers a defense of the school play as a vastly underrated educational tool. Available from: Speech and Drama, Elizabeth Gradwell, Distribution Manager, The White Cottage, Allington, Chippenham, Wilts. (MH)

  18. Play Spaces in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Edna; Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the variety of play spaces found in urban areas in Denmark: in banks, stores and individual businesses, neighborhood parks and small pocket playgrounds, specialized adventure and traffic playgrounds with supervised activities, and commercial amusement parks. (CM)

  19. A Synaptotagmin Isoform Switch during the Development of an Identified CNS Synapse.

    PubMed

    Kochubey, Olexiy; Babai, Norbert; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Various Synaptotagmin (Syt) isoform genes are found in mammals, but it is unknown whether Syts can function redundantly in a given nerve terminal, or whether isoforms can be switched during the development of a nerve terminal. Here, we investigated the possibility of a developmental Syt isoform switch using the calyx of Held as a model synapse. At mature calyx synapses, fast Ca(2+)-driven transmitter release depended entirely on Syt2, but the release phenotype of Syt2 knockout (KO) mice was weaker at immature calyces, and absent at pre-calyceal synapses early postnatally. Instead, conditional genetic inactivation shows that Syt1 mediates fast release at pre-calyceal synapses, as well as a fast release component resistant to Syt2 deletion in immature calyces. This demonstrates a developmental Syt1-Syt2 isoform switch at an identified synapse, a mechanism that could fine-tune the speed, reliability, and plasticity of transmitter release at fast releasing CNS synapses. PMID:27210552

  20. Neuromodulation by extracellular ATP and P2X receptors in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Khakh, Baljit S.; North, R. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5’ triphosphate (ATP) is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors define a protein family unlike other neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in terms of sequence, subunit topology, assembly and architecture. Within milliseconds of binding ATP, they catalyze the opening of a cation-selective pore. However, recent data show that P2X receptors often underlie neuromodulatory responses on slower time scales of seconds or longer. Herein, we review these findings at molecular, cellular and systems levels. We propose that, while P2X receptors are fast ligand-gated cation channels, they are most adept at mediating slow neuromodulatory functions that are more widespread and more physiologically utilized than fast ATP synaptic transmission in the CNS. PMID:23040806

  1. Maintaining stable memory engrams: new roles for Nogo-A in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Zagrebelsky, M; Korte, M

    2014-12-26

    Nogo-A interaction with its different receptors (Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1), S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB)) restricts plasticity and growth-dependent processes leading, via the activation of different signaling pathway to the stabilization of the neuronal networks (either developmentally or during processes of memory consolation in the mature nervous system). Taking away these molecular brakes might allow for the induction of extensive structural and functional rearrangements and might promote compensatory growth processes after an injury of the CNS, in cortical structures as well as in the spinal cord. However, it is important to keep in mind that this could as well be a dangerous endeavor, since it might facilitate unwanted and unnecessary (and probably even maladaptive) neuronal connections. PMID:25168730

  2. Role of ERK1/2 MAPK Signaling in the Maintenance of Myelin and Axonal Integrity in the Adult CNS

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Furusho, Miki; Dupree, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes form myelin during postnatal development and then maintain a functional myelin sheath throughout adult life. While many regulators of developmental myelination have been identified, the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate oligodendrocyte functions in adulthood are not well understood. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), downstream mediators of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), have emerged as prominent regulators of myelin formation. Here, we investigated whether these signaling molecules are also required for myelin maintenance in the adult CNS. Inducible conditional ablation of Erk1/2 in oligodendrocytes of the adult CNS resulted in a downregulation of myelin gene expression. Although myelin thickness was reduced and some axons were demyelinated, the majority of axons were wrapped by intact myelin sheaths that appeared structurally normal. However, late onset of progressive axonal degeneration, accompanied by astrogliosis, microglial activation, partial loss of oligodendrocytes, and functional impairment, occurred in the adult mice lacking ERK1/2 activity. Conditional ablation of Fibroblast Growth Factor receptors-1 and -2 (FGFR1/2) in oligodendrocytes also resulted in downregulation of myelin gene expression and development of axonal degeneration as the mice aged. Further, the level of the key transcription factor myelin gene regulatory factor (Myrf) was downregulated or upregulated in mice with genetic loss or gain of ERK1/2 function, respectively. Together, our studies demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK signaling is required for the long-term maintenance of myelin and axonal integrity in the adult CNS and suggest that FGFR1/2 and Myrf may, in part, contribute to signaling upstream and downstream of ERK1/2 in maintaining these oligodendrocyte functions during adulthood. PMID:25429144

  3. Role of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in the maintenance of myelin and axonal integrity in the adult CNS.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Furusho, Miki; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Bansal, Rashmi

    2014-11-26

    Oligodendrocytes form myelin during postnatal development and then maintain a functional myelin sheath throughout adult life. While many regulators of developmental myelination have been identified, the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate oligodendrocyte functions in adulthood are not well understood. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), downstream mediators of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), have emerged as prominent regulators of myelin formation. Here, we investigated whether these signaling molecules are also required for myelin maintenance in the adult CNS. Inducible conditional ablation of Erk1/2 in oligodendrocytes of the adult CNS resulted in a downregulation of myelin gene expression. Although myelin thickness was reduced and some axons were demyelinated, the majority of axons were wrapped by intact myelin sheaths that appeared structurally normal. However, late onset of progressive axonal degeneration, accompanied by astrogliosis, microglial activation, partial loss of oligodendrocytes, and functional impairment, occurred in the adult mice lacking ERK1/2 activity. Conditional ablation of Fibroblast Growth Factor receptors-1 and -2 (FGFR1/2) in oligodendrocytes also resulted in downregulation of myelin gene expression and development of axonal degeneration as the mice aged. Further, the level of the key transcription factor myelin gene regulatory factor (Myrf) was downregulated or upregulated in mice with genetic loss or gain of ERK1/2 function, respectively. Together, our studies demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK signaling is required for the long-term maintenance of myelin and axonal integrity in the adult CNS and suggest that FGFR1/2 and Myrf may, in part, contribute to signaling upstream and downstream of ERK1/2 in maintaining these oligodendrocyte functions during adulthood. PMID:25429144

  4. Role for proton beam irradiation in treatment of pediatric CNS malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, J.O.; Slater, J.D.; Slater, J.M.; Tangeman, R. )

    1992-01-01

    The ability to vary the proton energy (depth of beam penetration) and modulate the dose distribution at the end of range permits delivery of an increased dose to the designated cancer-containing volume with a reduced dose to overlying normal brain tissue. The evolution of childhood CNS malignancy following therapy is reviewed to identify radiation response variables indicating where the proton dose distribution will improve the therapeutic ratio. The review documents that of the 1262 children expected to develop CNS malignancy in 1989, only 43% will survive 5 years. About 75% of those with medulloblastoma and over 90% with astrocytoma die from persistent (in-field) disease. When the patient has been treated with radiation, it is accepted that disease persistence indicates the cancer dose was insufficient. Potentially 536 children could show an improved incidence of local control and improved survival from an increased cancer dose available from proton irradiation. As the total dose and volume of brain irradiated is increased about 1800 cGy, brain dysfunction increases, producing a spectrum of functional and intellectual deficits which are age and volume related. About 900 irradiated patients would have fewer in-field histologic and functional changes if the dose to normal brain, or the volume of brain irradiated, is reduced by an improved dose distribution. A proton beam treatment plan, delivering a cancer dose of 7400 cGy, is simulated for a thalamic astrocytoma. The dose distribution of this plan is compared with an x-ray plan used to treat a patient, in which a dose of 5400 cGy was delivered to the astrocytoma. Comparative isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms indicate a decreased integral dose to normal brain and a decreased volume of normal brain irradiated, even as the cancer dose is boosted 2000 cGy with protons.

  5. Late effects in survivors of childhood CNS tumors treated on Head Start I and II protocols

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Aniket; Salley, Christina G.; Saigal, Preeti; Rolnitzky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith; Scott, Suzanne; Olshefski, Randal; Hukin, Juliette; Sands, Stephen A.; Finlay, Jonathan; Gardner, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the devastating late effects associated with cranial irradiation in young children with CNS tumors, treatment for these patients has evolved to include the use of intensive chemotherapy to either avoid or postpone irradiation. While survival outcomes have improved, late effects data in survivors treated on such regimens are needed. Objective This multi-institutional study comprehensively describes late effects in survivors treated on the Head Start I/II protocols. Methods Survivors of CNS tumors treated on Head Start I/II protocols were enrolled. Late effects data were collected using a validated parent-report questionnaire. Social, emotional, and behavioral functioning and quality of life were assessed using parent-report on the BASC-2 and CHQ-PF50 questionnaires. Results Twenty one survivors (medulloblastoma=13, sPNET=4, ATRT=1, ependymoma=3) were enrolled. Ten (48%) were irradiation-free. Late effects (frequency; median time of onset since diagnosis) included ≥ grade III hearing loss (67%; 3.9 years), vision (67%; 4.1 years), hypothyroidism (33%; 4 years), growth hormone (GH) deficiency (48%; 4.7 years) and dental (52%; 7.1 years) and no cases of secondary leukemia. Irradiation-free (versus irradiated) survivors reported low rates of hypothyroidism (0/10 vs 7/11; p=0.004) and GH deficiency (2/10 vs 8/11; p=0.03). The BASC-2 and CHQPF-50 mean composite scores were within average ranges relative to healthy comparison norms. Neither age at diagnosis nor irradiation were associated with these scores. Conclusions Irradiation-free Head Start survivors have lower risk of hypothyroidism and GH deficiency. Secondary leukemias are not reported. With extended follow up, survivors demonstrate quality of life, social, emotional, and behavioral functioning within average ranges. PMID:24789527

  6. mGluR5 protect astrocytes from ischemic damage in postnatal CNS white matter

    PubMed Central

    Vanzulli, Ilaria; Butt, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes perform essential neuron-supporting functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and their disruption has devastating effects on neuronal integrity in multiple neuropathologies. Although astrocytes are considered resistant to most pathological insults, ischemia can result in astrocyte injury and astrocytes in postnatal white matter are particularly vulnerable. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are neuroprotective in ischemia and are widely expressed by astrocytes throughout CNS grey matter, but their potential cytoprotective role in astrocytes had not been determined. Here, we identify functional expression of group I mGluR in white matter astrocytes and demonstrate their activation protects astrocytes from ischemic damage in the postnatal mouse optic nerve. Optic nerve astrocytes are shown to express mGluR5 using immunolabelling of sections and explant cultures from transgenic reporter mice in which GFAP drives expression of EGFP. In addition, using Fluo-4 calcium imaging in isolated intact optic nerves, we show that the group I/II mGluR agonist ACPD and the specific group I mGluR agonist DHPG evoke glial Ca2+ signals that were significantly inhibited by the group I mGluR antagonist AIDA. A key finding is that activation of group I mGluR protects astrocytes against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in situ, in isolated intact optic nerves from GFAP-EGFP mice. This study identifies a role for group I mGluR in protecting astrocytes against ischemia in postnatal white matter and suggests this may be a strategy for limiting damage in neuropathologies involving excitotoxity. PMID:26189008

  7. Bortezomib-related neuropathy may mask CNS relapse in multiple myeloma: A call for diligence

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Muhammad Bilal; De Mel, Sanjay; Abid, Muhammad Abbas; Tan, Kong Bing; Chng, Wee Joo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Neuropathy is a common adverse effect of bortezomib. Isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse in MM remains exceedingly rare and carries a dismal prognosis. We present an unusual case of bortezomib related neuropathy masking a CNS relapse of MM. Case presentation: A 57-year-old female was diagnosed with standard-risk MM with clinical and cytogenetic features not typically associated with CNS involvement. She was treated with 4 cycles of bortezomib/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone (VCD) and achieved a VGPR, after which she underwent an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) followed by bortezomib maintenance. Six months after ASCT she developed symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy which was attributed to bortezomib. However the symptoms persisted despite discontinuation of bortezomib. Imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis subsequently confirmed a CNS relapse. Discussion: CNS involvement in MM (CNS-MM) is uncommon and is considered an aggressive disease. Recently published literature has reported biomarkers with prognostic potential. However, isolated CNS relapse is even less common; an event which carries a very poor prognosis. Given the heterogeneous neurologic manifestations associated with MM, clinical suspicion may be masked by confounding factors such as bortezomib-based therapy. The disease may further remain incognito if the patient does not exhibit any of the high risk features and biomarkers associated with CNS involvement. Conclusion: In the era of proteasome inhibitor (PtdIns)/immunomodulator (IMID)-based therapy for MM which carries neurologic adverse effects, it is prudent to consider CNS relapse early. This case further highlights the need for more robust biomarkers to predict CNS relapse and use of newer novel agents which demonstrate potential for CNS penetration. PMID:27105248

  8. Autoimmune control of lesion growth in CNS with minimal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathankumar, R.; Mohan, T. R. Krishna

    2013-07-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier [1, 2] which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. We compared some of the dynamical patterns in the model with different facets of MS. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist in the model which minimizes system damage while, at once, achieving control of lesion growth.

  9. Preparation of embryonic retinal explants to study CNS neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Hanea, Sonia T; Shanmugalingam, Ushananthini; Fournier, Alyson E; Smith, Patrice D

    2016-05-01

    This protocol outlines the preparation of embryonic mouse retinal explants, which provides an effective technique to analyze neurite outgrowth in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. This validated ex vivo system, which displays limited neuronal death, is highly reproducible and particularly amenable to manipulation. Our previously published studies involving embryonic chick or adult mouse retinal explants were instrumental in the preparation of this protocol; aspects of these previous techniques were combined, adopted and optimized. This protocol thus permits more efficient analysis of neurite growth. Briefly, the retina is dissected from the embryonic mouse eye using precise techniques that take into account the small size of the embryonic eye. The approach applied ensures that the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer faces the adhesion substrate on coated cover slips. Neurite growth is clear, well-delineated and readily quantifiable. These retinal explants can therefore be used to examine the neurite growth effects elicited by potential therapeutic agents. PMID:27072342

  10. CNS myelin wrapping is driven by actin disassembly.

    PubMed

    Zuchero, J Bradley; Fu, Meng-Meng; Sloan, Steven A; Ibrahim, Adiljan; Olson, Andrew; Zaremba, Anita; Dugas, Jason C; Wienbar, Sophia; Caprariello, Andrew V; Kantor, Christopher; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Leonoudakus, Dmitri; Lariosa-Willingham, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Soderling, Scott H; Miller, Robert H; Barres, Ben A

    2015-07-27

    Myelin is essential in vertebrates for the rapid propagation of action potentials, but the molecular mechanisms driving its formation remain largely unknown. Here we show that the initial stage of process extension and axon ensheathment by oligodendrocytes requires dynamic actin filament assembly by the Arp2/3 complex. Unexpectedly, subsequent myelin wrapping coincides with the upregulation of actin disassembly proteins and rapid disassembly of the oligodendrocyte actin cytoskeleton and does not require Arp2/3. Inducing loss of actin filaments drives oligodendrocyte membrane spreading and myelin wrapping in vivo, and the actin disassembly factor gelsolin is required for normal wrapping. We show that myelin basic protein, a protein essential for CNS myelin wrapping whose role has been unclear, is required for actin disassembly, and its loss phenocopies loss of actin disassembly proteins. Together, these findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of myelin wrapping and identify it as an actin-independent form of mammalian cell motility. PMID:26166300

  11. Gene therapy for CNS diseases – Krabbe disease

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary This is a brief report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy that took place from May 4th through May 7th, 2016 in Washington, DC, USA. While the meeting provided many symposiums, lectures, and scientific sessions this report mainly focuses on one of the sessions on the "Gene Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) Diseases" and specifically on the "Gene Therapy for the globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease. Two presentations focused on this subject utilizing two animal models of this disease: mice and dog models. Different serotypes of adeno-associate viral vectors (AAV) alone or in combination with bone marrow transplantations were used in these research projects. The Meeting of the ASGCT reflected continuous growth in the fields of gene and cell therapy and brighter forecast for efficient treatment options for variety of human diseases. PMID:27525222

  12. Viral vectors and delivery strategies for CNS gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Steven J; Woodard, Kenton T; Samulski, R Jude

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to provide a broad overview of the targets, challenges and potential for gene therapy in the CNS, citing specific examples. There are a broad range of therapeutic targets, with very different requirements for a suitable viral vector. By utilizing different vector tropisms, novel routes of administration and engineered promoter control, transgenes can be targeted to specific therapeutic applications. Viral vectors have proven efficacious in preclinical models for several disease applications, spurring several clinical trials. While the field has pushed the limits of existing adeno-associated virus-based vectors, a next generation of vectors based on rational engineering of viral capsids should expand the application of gene therapy to be more effective in specific therapeutic applications. PMID:22833965

  13. CNS Myelin Sheath Lengths Are an Intrinsic Property of Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bechler, Marie E.; Byrne, Lauren; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since Río-Hortega’s description of oligodendrocyte morphologies nearly a century ago, many studies have observed myelin sheath-length diversity between CNS regions [1–3]. Myelin sheath length directly impacts axonal conduction velocity by influencing the spacing between nodes of Ranvier. Such differences likely affect neural signal coordination and synchronization [4]. What accounts for regional differences in myelin sheath lengths is unknown; are myelin sheath lengths determined solely by axons or do intrinsic properties of different oligodendrocyte precursor cell populations affect length? The prevailing view is that axons provide molecular cues necessary for oligodendrocyte myelination and appropriate sheath lengths. This view is based upon the observation that axon diameters correlate with myelin sheath length [1, 5, 6], as well as reports that PNS axonal neuregulin-1 type III regulates the initiation and properties of Schwann cell myelin sheaths [7, 8]. However, in the CNS, no such instructive molecules have been shown to be required, and increasing in vitro evidence supports an oligodendrocyte-driven, neuron-independent ability to differentiate and form initial sheaths [9–12]. We test this alternative signal-independent hypothesis—that variation in internode lengths reflects regional oligodendrocyte-intrinsic properties. Using microfibers, we find that oligodendrocytes have a remarkable ability to self-regulate the formation of compact, multilamellar myelin and generate sheaths of physiological length. Our results show that oligodendrocytes respond to fiber diameters and that spinal cord oligodendrocytes generate longer sheaths than cortical oligodendrocytes on fibers, co-cultures, and explants, revealing that oligodendrocytes have regional identity and generate different sheath lengths that mirror internodes in vivo. PMID:26320951

  14. Novel approaches and challenges to treatment of CNS viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Avindra; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Existing and emerging viral CNS infections are major sources of human morbidity and mortality. Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited predominantly to herpesviruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Development of new therapies has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal model systems for some important viruses and by the difficulty in conducting human clinical trials for diseases that may be rare, or in the case of arboviral infections, often have variable seasonal and geographic incidence. Nonetheless, many novel approaches to antiviral therapy are available including candidate thiazolide and purazinecarboxamide derivatives with potential broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy. New herpesvirus drugs include viral helicase-primase and terminase inhibitors. The use of antisense oligonucleotides and other strategies to interfere with viral RNA translation has shown efficacy in experimental models of CNS viral disease. Identifying specific molecular targets within viral replication cycles has led to many existing antivirals and will undoubtedly continue to be the basis of future drug design. A promising new area of research involves therapies based on enhanced understanding of host antiviral immune responses. Toll-like receptor agonists, and drugs that inhibit specific cytokines as well as interferon preparations have all shown potential therapeutic efficacy. Passive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes have been used in humans and may provide an effective therapies for some herpesvirus infections and potentially for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Humanized monoclonal antibodies directed against specific viral proteins have been developed and in several cases evaluated in humans in settings including West Nile virus and HIV infection and in pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. PMID:23913580

  15. Regulation of brain endothelial barrier function by microRNAs in health and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Reijerkerk, Arie; de Vries, Helga E; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2016-08-01

    Brain endothelial cells constitute the major cellular element of the highly specialized blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thereby contribute to CNS homeostasis by restricting entry of circulating leukocytes and blood-borne molecules into the CNS. Therefore, compromised function of brain endothelial cells has serious consequences for BBB integrity. This has been associated with early events in the pathogenesis of several disorders that affect the CNS, such as multiple sclerosis, HIV-associated neurologic disorder, and stroke. Recent studies demonstrate that brain endothelial microRNAs play critical roles in the regulation of BBB function under normal and neuroinflammatory conditions. This review will focus on emerging evidence that indicates that brain endothelial microRNAs regulate barrier function and orchestrate various phases of the neuroinflammatory response, including endothelial activation in response to cytokines as well as restoration of inflamed endothelium into a quiescent state. In particular, we discuss novel microRNA regulatory mechanisms and their contribution to cellular interactions at the neurovascular unit that influence the overall function of the BBB in health and during neuroinflammation.-Lopez-Ramirez, M. A., Reijerkerk, A., de Vries, H. E., Romero, I. A. Regulation of brain endothelial barrier function by microRNAs in health and neuroinflammation. PMID:27118674

  16. Tellurium compound AS101 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by VLA-4 inhibition and suppression of monocyte and T cell infiltration into the CNS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Halperin-Sheinfeld, Meital; Baatar, Dolgar; Mughal, Mohamed R; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jie-Wan; Carter, Arnell; Lustig, Ana; Snir, Omri; Lavie, Gad; Okun, Eitan; Mattson, Mark P; Sredni, Benjamin; Taub, Dennis D

    2014-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) involving demyelinating and neurodegenerative processes. Several of the major pathological CNS alterations and behavioral deficits of MS are recapitulated in the experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model in which the disease process is induced by administration of myelin peptides. Development of EAE requires infiltration of inflammatory cytokine-generating monocytes and macrophages, and auto-reactive T cells, into the CNS. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1) is an integrin molecule that plays a role in inflammatory responses by facilitating the migration of leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier during inflammatory disease, and antibodies against VLA-4 exhibit therapeutic efficacy in mouse and monkey MS models. Here, we report that the tellurium compound AS101 (ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o') tellurate) ameliorates EAE by inhibiting monocyte and T cell infiltration into the CNS. CD49d is an alpha subunit of the VLA-4 (α4β1) integrin. During the peak stage of EAE, AS101 treatment effectively ameliorated the disease process by reducing the number of CD49d(+) inflammatory monocyte/macrophage cells in the spinal cord. AS101 treatment markedly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. In contrast, AS101 treatment did not affect the peripheral populations of CD11b(+) monocytes and macrophages. AS101 treatment reduced the infiltration of CD4(+) and CD49(+)/VLA4 T cells. In addition, treatment of T cells from MS patients with AS101 resulted in apoptosis, while such treatment did not affect T cells from healthy donors. These results suggest that AS101 reduces accumulation of leukocytes in the CNS by inhibiting the activity of the VLA-4 integrin and provide a rationale for the potential use of Tellurium IV compounds for the treatment of MS. PMID:24272426

  17. New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNS

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, F. Chris; Liddelow, Shane A.; Ajami, Bahareh; Zamanian, Jennifer L.; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B.; Mulinyawe, Sara B.; Bohlen, Christopher J.; Adil, Aykezar; Tucker, Andrew; Weissman, Irving L.; Chang, Edward F.; Li, Gordon; Grant, Gerald A.; Hayden Gephart, Melanie G.; Barres, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    The specific function of microglia, the tissue resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, has been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of tools to distinguish microglia from other immune cells, thereby limiting specific immunostaining, purification, and manipulation. Because of their unique developmental origins and predicted functions, the distinction of microglia from other myeloid cells is critically important for understanding brain development and disease; better tools would greatly facilitate studies of microglia function in the developing, adult, and injured CNS. Here, we identify transmembrane protein 119 (Tmem119), a cell-surface protein of unknown function, as a highly expressed microglia-specific marker in both mouse and human. We developed monoclonal antibodies to its intracellular and extracellular domains that enable the immunostaining of microglia in histological sections in healthy and diseased brains, as well as isolation of pure nonactivated microglia by FACS. Using our antibodies, we provide, to our knowledge, the first RNAseq profiles of highly pure mouse microglia during development and after an immune challenge. We used these to demonstrate that mouse microglia mature by the second postnatal week and to predict novel microglial functions. Together, we anticipate these resources will be valuable for the future study and understanding of microglia in health and disease. PMID:26884166

  18. Playing It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips on how to avoid accidents and injuries on school playgrounds. Tips include removing of old, dangerous equipment; relocating play areas to safer ground; choosing the right surface; factoring in long-term costs for replenishing and redistributing loose materials; and considering Americans with Disabilities Act issues. (GR)

  19. Predicting elections: child's play!

    PubMed

    Antonakis, John; Dalgas, Olaf

    2009-02-27

    In two experiments, children and adults rated pairs of faces from election races. Naïve adults judged a pair on competence; after playing a game, children chose who they would prefer to be captain of their boat. Children's (as well as adults') preferences accurately predicted actual election outcomes. PMID:19251621

  20. Want to Play Geometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Matthew L.; Bomer, Megan A.; Powell, Nancy Norem

    2009-01-01

    Students enter the geometry classroom with a strong concept of fairness and a sense of what it means to "play by the rules," yet many students have difficulty understanding the postulates, or rules, of geometry and their implications. Although they may never have articulated the properties of an axiomatic system, they have gained a practical…

  1. Statistics at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    2014-01-01

    An exciting event had occurred for the grade 3 classes at Woodlands State School. A new play space designated for the older grades had now been opened to the third graders. In sharing their excitement over this "real treat, real privilege," the teachers invited the children to find out more about playgrounds and, in particular, their new…

  2. "Playing" with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dave

    2012-01-01

    When faced with a multitude of tasks, any opportunity to "kill two birds with one stone" is welcome. Drama has always excited the author: as a child performing in plays, later as a student and now as a teacher directing performances and improvising within lessons. The author was lucky enough to have inspirational teachers during his primary and…

  3. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  4. Who's Calling the Plays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    1990-01-01

    Without an enforceable policy, school athletics programs are beset by politics, high finance, and public sentiment. The most nettlesome problems include loss of instructional time to sports and extracurricular activities; the appropriateness and effectiveness of no-pass/no-play rules; lack of sportsmanship; proliferation of interstate competition;…

  5. Playing with danger.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    Young people who sit still for hours playing computer games can double their risk of potentially fatal blood clots. The charity Lifeblood is alerting nurses to 'e-thrombosis'. It is calling on them to ensure young people are aware of the risks of prolonged immobility and the need to take regular breaks from gaming or using a computer. PMID:23061127

  6. The Games Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The games that children play are not just for fun-they often lead to important skill development. Likewise, word games are fun opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and for children to learn a lot about sounds and words. In this Family Involvement column, the authors describe 12 easy-to-implement word games that parents and…

  7. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  8. Playing It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Offers tips for avoiding sports-related injuries: (1) expect more of coaches; (2) develop an athletic-safety plan; (3) consider hiring an athletic trainer; (4) check facilities and equipment regularly; (5) recognize athletes' limitations; (6) take precautions beyond the playing field; and (7) check liability coverage and obtain informed consent.…

  9. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  10. Expression of α5 integrin rescues fibronectin responsiveness in NT2N CNS neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Marit N.; Herndon, Mary E.; Stipp, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin is implicated in neuronal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. In the central nervous system (CNS), fibronectin is upregulated at sites of penetrating injuries and stroke; however, CNS neurons downregulate the fibronectin receptor, α5β1 integrin, during differentiation and generally respond poorly to fibronectin. NT2N CNS neuron-like cells (derived from NT2 precursor cells) have been used in pre-clinical and clinical studies for treatment of stroke and a variety of CNS injury and disease models. Here we show that, like primary CNS neurons, NT2N cells downregulate α5β1 integrin during differentiation and respond poorly to fibronectin. The poor neurite outgrowth by NT2N cells on fibronectin can be rescued by transducing NT2 precursors with a retroviral vector expressing α5 integrin under the control of the Murine Stem Cell Virus 5′ long terminal repeat. Sustained α5 integrin expression is compatible with the CNS-like neuronal differentiation of NT2N cells and does not prevent robust neurite outgrowth on other integrin ligands. Thus, α5 integrin expression in CNS neuronal precursor cells may provide a strategy for enhancing the outgrowth and survival of implanted cells in cell replacement therapies for CNS injury and disease. PMID:19598247

  11. CNS species and antimicrobial resistance in clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Waller, K Persson; Aspán, A; Nyman, A; Persson, Y; Andersson, U Grönlund

    2011-08-26

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are often associated with bovine mastitis. Knowledge about the relative importance of specific CNS species in different types of mastitis, and differences in antimicrobial resistance among CNS species is, however, scarce. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of CNS species in clinical and subclinical mastitis using material from two national surveys. Overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most common CNS species found followed by Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. S. epidermidis was significantly more prevalent in subclinical than in clinical mastitis, and a similar trend was observed for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, while Staphylococcus hyicus was significantly more common in clinical mastitis. The prevalence of β-lactamase producing isolates varied markedly between CNS species, and was significantly higher in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus (∼ 40%), than in S. simulans and S. chromogenes where none or a few of the isolates produced β-lactamase. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial substance occurred in 9% and 7% of the clinical and subclinical isolates, respectively. In conclusion, the distribution of CNS species differed between clinical and subclinical mastitis indicating inter-species variation of pathogenicity and epidemiology. Overall, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was low, but some variation between CNS species was observed. PMID:21561725

  12. Distinct roles of T-cell lymphopenia and the microbial flora for gastrointestinal and CNS autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Henrike J; Witte, Ann-Kathrin; Walter, Lutz; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; van den Brandt, Jens; Reichardt, Holger M

    2016-05-01

    T-cell lymphopenia is a major risk factor for autoimmunity. Here we describe congenic Lewis (LEW) rats with a loss-of-function mutation in the Gimap5 gene, leading to a 92% reduction in peripheral T-cell numbers. Gimap5-deficient LEW rats developed eosinophilic autoimmune gastroenteritis accompanied by a 40-fold increase in IgE serum levels. This phenotype was ameliorated by antibiotic treatment, indicating a critical role of the microbial flora in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Interestingly, Gimap5-deficient LEW rats showed strongly aggravated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) after immunization with guinea pig myelin basic protein. This phenotype, however, persisted after antibiosis, confirming that the enhanced CNS autoimmune response in T-cell lymphopenic Gimap5-deficient LEW rats was unrelated to the composition of the microbial flora. Rather, it seems that it was caused by the 7-fold increase in the percentage of activated T cells producing IL-17 and IFN-γ, and the skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, both of which were the result of T-cell lymphopenia and not affected by antibiosis. This notion was supported by the observation that adoptive T-cell transfer corrected the TCR repertoire and improved EAE. Collectively, our findings confirm a critical albeit differential role of T-cell lymphopenia in the susceptibility to organ-specific autoimmune responses.-Fischer, H. J., Witte, A.-K., Walter, L., Gröne, H.-J., van den Brandt, J., Reichardt, H. M. Distinct roles of T-cell lymphopenia and the microbial flora for gastrointestinal and CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26740263

  13. Rescue of peripheral and CNS axon defects in mice lacking NMNAT2.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Jonathan; Adalbert, Robert; Yu, Gang; Coleman, Michael P

    2013-08-14

    NMNAT2 is an NAD(+)-synthesizing enzyme with an essential axon maintenance role in primary culture neurons. We have generated an Nmnat2 gene trap mouse to examine the role of NMNAT2 in vivo. Homozygotes die perinatally with a severe peripheral nerve/axon defect and truncated axons in the optic nerve and other CNS regions. The cause appears to be limited axon extension, rather than dying-back degeneration of existing axons, which was previously proposed for the NMNAT2-deficient Blad mutant mouse. Neurite outgrowth in both PNS and CNS neuronal cultures consistently stalls at 1-2 mm, similar to the length of truncated axons in the embryos. Crucially, this suggests an essential role for NMNAT2 during axon growth. In addition, we show that the Wallerian degeneration slow protein (Wld(S)), a more stable, aberrant NMNAT that can substitute the axon maintenance function of NMNAT2 in primary cultures, can also correct developmental defects associated with NMNAT2 deficiency. This is dose-dependent, with extension of life span to at least 3 months by homozygous levels of Wld(S) the most obvious manifestation. Finally, we propose that endogenous mechanisms also compensate for otherwise limiting levels of NMNAT2. This could explain our finding that conditional silencing of a single Nmnat2 allele triggers substantial degeneration of established neurites, whereas similar, or greater, reduction of NMNAT2 in constitutively depleted neurons is compatible with normal axon growth and survival. A requirement for NMNAT2 for both axon growth and maintenance suggests that reduced levels could impair axon regeneration as well as axon survival in aging and disease. PMID:23946398

  14. Viscoelastic properties of individual glial cells and neurons in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yun-Bi; Franze, Kristian; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Wolburg, Hartwig; Guck, Jochen; Janmey, Paul; Wei, Er-Qing; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago glial cells were discovered as a second, non-neuronal, cell type in the central nervous system. To ascribe a function to these new, enigmatic cells, it was suggested that they either glue the neurons together (the Greek word “γλια” means “glue”) or provide a robust scaffold for them (“support cells”). Although both speculations are still widely accepted, they would actually require quite different mechanical cell properties, and neither one has ever been confirmed experimentally. We investigated the biomechanics of CNS tissue and acutely isolated individual neurons and glial cells from mammalian brain (hippocampus) and retina. Scanning force microscopy, bulk rheology, and optically induced deformation were used to determine their viscoelastic characteristics. We found that (i) in all CNS cells the elastic behavior dominates over the viscous behavior, (ii) in distinct cell compartments, such as soma and cell processes, the mechanical properties differ, most likely because of the unequal local distribution of cell organelles, (iii) in comparison to most other eukaryotic cells, both neurons and glial cells are very soft (“rubber elastic”), and (iv) intriguingly, glial cells are even softer than their neighboring neurons. Our results indicate that glial cells can neither serve as structural support cells (as they are too soft) nor as glue (because restoring forces are dominant) for neurons. Nevertheless, from a structural perspective they might act as soft, compliant embedding for neurons, protecting them in case of mechanical trauma, and also as a soft substrate required for neurite growth and facilitating neuronal plasticity. PMID:17093050

  15. A Potent and Selective C-11 Labeled PET Tracer for Imaging Sphingosine-1-phosphate Receptor 2 in the CNS Demonstrates Sexually Dimorphic Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xuyi; Jin, Hongjun; Liu, Hui; Rosenberg, Adam J.; Klein, Robyn S.; Tu, Zhude

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) plays an essential role in regulating blood-brain barrier (BBB) function during demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Increased expression of S1PR2 occurs in disease-susceptible CNS regions of female versus male SJL mice and in female multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Here we reported a novel sensitive and noninvasive method to quantitatively assess S1PR2 expression using a C-1l labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]5a for in vivo imaging of S1PR2. Compounds 5a exhibited promising binding potency with IC50 value of 9.52 ± 0.70 nM for S1PR2 and high selectivity over S1PR1 and S1PR3 (both IC50 > 1000 nM). [11C]5a was synthesized in ~40 min withradiochemistry yield of 20 ± 5% (decayed to the end of bombardment (EOB), n > 10), specific activity of 6 – 10 Ci/μmol (decayed to EOB). The biodistribution study in female SJL mice showed the cerebellar uptake of radioactivity at 30 min of post-injection of [11C]5a was increased by Cyclosporin A (CsA) pretreatment (from 0.84 ± 0.04 ID%/g to 2.21 ± 0.21 ID%/g, n = 4, p < 0.01). MicroPET data revealed that naive female SJL mice exhibited higher cerebellar uptake compared with males following CsA pretreatment (standardized uptake values (SUV) 0.58 ± 0.16 vs 0.48 ± 0.12 at 30 min of post-injection, n = 4, p < 0.05), which was consistent with the autoradiographic results. These data suggested that [11C]5a has the capability in assessing the sexual dimorphism of S1PR2 expression in the cerebellum of the SJL mice. The development of radioligands for S1PR2 to identify a clinical suitable S1PR2 PET radiotracer, may greatly contribute to investigating sex differences in S1PR2 expression that contribute to MS subtype and disease progression and it will be very useful for detecting MS in early state and differentiating MS with other patients with neuroinflammatory diseases, and monitoring the efficacy of treating diseases using S1PR2 antagonism. PMID

  16. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  17. Discrimination of mode of action of anxiolytics using an integrated computer data bank and Dynamic Brain Mapping (CNS effects of diazepam and lorazepam).

    PubMed

    Itil, T; Shapiro, D; Itil, K Z; Eralp, E; Bergamo, M; Mucci, A

    1989-10-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, the CNS effects of intravenously administered diazepam and lorazepam were investigated in anxious subjects through the quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG) method. For up to 4 1/2 hours following administration the effects of each substance on brain function were measured using computer analyzed EEG recordings (CEEG) and a new technique called Dynamic Brain Mapping. The following observations were made: 1. Both active drugs produce statistically significant CNS effects as measured by CEEG changes. These changes were observed earlier with diazepam than with lorazepam. 2. Although both compounds are classified as anxiolytic by the routine computer EEG data base, the detailed brain mapping technology indicated that the CNS effects of diazepam and lorazepam were quantitatively and qualitatively different. 3. Clinical CNS side-effects (sedation) were seen more frequently with lorazepam than with diazepam. This was consistent with the EEG slowing producing properties of lorazepam. The EEG fast activity which is characteristic for all anxiolytics was established more with diazepam than lorazepam. PMID:2607126

  18. Altered energy production, lowered antioxidant potential, and inflammatory processes mediate CNS damage associated with abuse of the psychostimulants MDMA and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Downey, Luke A; Loftis, Jennifer M

    2014-03-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) damage associated with psychostimulant dependence may be an ongoing, degenerative process with adverse effects on neuropsychiatric function. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding how altered energy regulation affects immune response in the context of substance use disorders are not fully understood. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of psychostimulant [particularly 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine] exposure on brain energy regulation, immune response, and neuropsychiatric function. Importantly, the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, depression, and anxiety) that persist following abstinence are associated with poorer treatment outcomes - increased relapse rates, lower treatment retention rates, and reduced daily functioning. Qualifying the molecular changes within the CNS according to the exposure and use patterns of specifically abused substances should inform the development of new therapeutic approaches for addiction treatment. PMID:24485894

  19. Zebrafish as a model to investigate CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Preston, Marnie A; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-02-01

    Myelin plays a critical role in proper neuronal function by providing trophic and metabolic support to axons and facilitating energy-efficient saltatory conduction. Myelination is influenced by numerous molecules including growth factors, hormones, transmembrane receptors and extracellular molecules, which activate signaling cascades that drive cellular maturation. Key signaling molecules and downstream signaling cascades controlling myelination have been identified in cell culture systems. However, in vitro systems are not able to faithfully replicate the complex in vivo signaling environment that occurs during development or following injury. Currently, it remains time-consuming and expensive to investigate myelination in vivo in rodents, the most widely used model for studying mammalian myelination. As such, there is a need for alternative in vivo myelination models, particularly ones that can test molecular mechanisms without removing oligodendrocyte lineage cells from their native signaling environment or disrupting intercellular interactions with other cell types present during myelination. Here, we review the ever-increasing role of zebrafish in studies uncovering novel mechanisms controlling vertebrate myelination. These innovative studies range from observations of the behavior of single cells during in vivo myelination as well as mutagenesis- and pharmacology-based screens in whole animals. Additionally, we discuss recent efforts to develop novel models of demyelination and oligodendrocyte cell death in adult zebrafish for the study of cellular behavior in real time during repair and regeneration of damaged nervous systems. PMID:25263121

  20. Social Dominance and Play Patterns among Preschoolers: Gender Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Murray, Ann D.

    1997-01-01

    Examined gender differences in dominance and play among 48 preschoolers linked in girl-girl and girl-boy dyads. Findings reveal girl-girl dyads had more cooperative play, boys had higher functional play, and girls engaged in more dramatic play during feminine activities whereas boys displayed more dramatic play during masculine activities,…